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Sample records for san pedro basin

  1. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  2. Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Relative-gravity data and absolute-gravity data were collected in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, in May–June 2014 and 2015. Data from 2014 and a description of the survey network were published in USGS Open-File Report 2015–1086. Data presented in the shapefile here are the following:(1) Network-adjusted values from 2015,(2) Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, and(3) Survey-grade coordinates obtained from a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey in 2015. 2015 data and network adjustment results are presented in Kennedy, J.R., 2016, Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open–File Report 2016–1155, 15 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr201611552014 data and network adjustment results are presented inKennedy, J.R., 2015, Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open–File Report 2015–1086, 26 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151086

  3. Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungle, Bruce; Callegary, James B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Turner, Dale S.; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Levick, Lainie R.; Sugg, Zachary P.

    2016-08-18

    This study assessed progress toward achieving sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, through evaluation of 14 indicators of sustainable use. Sustainable use of groundwater in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed requires, at a minimum, a stable rate of groundwater discharge to, and thus base flow in, the San Pedro River. Many of the 14 indicators are therefore related to long-term or short-term effects on base flow and provide us with a means to evaluate groundwater discharge to and base flow in the San Pedro River. The indicators were based primarily on 10 to 20 years of data monitoring in the subwatershed, ending in 2012, and included subwatershedwide indicators, riparian-system indicators, San Pedro River indicators, and springs indicators.

  4. Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2016-09-13

    Relative-gravity data and absolute-gravity data were collected at 68 stations in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, in May–June 2015 for the purpose of estimating aquifer-storage change. Similar data from 2014 and a description of the survey network were published in U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1086. Data collection and network adjustment results are presented in this report, which is accompanied by a supporting Web Data Release (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7SQ8XHX). Station positions are presented from a Global Positioning System campaign to determine station elevation.

  5. Assessment of Goods and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (AGAVES), San Pedro River Basin, U.S./Mexico

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    A consortium of federal, academic, and non-government organizations (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of e...

  6. Assessment of Goods and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (AGAVES), San Pedro River Basin, U.S./Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of federal, academic, and non-government organizations (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of e...

  7. Gravity data from the San Pedro River Basin, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Winester, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona Water Science Center in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geodetic Survey has collected relative and absolute gravity data at 321 stations in the San Pedro River Basin of southeastern Arizona since 2000. Data are of three types: observed gravity values and associated free-air, simple Bouguer, and complete Bouguer anomaly values, useful for subsurface-density modeling; high-precision relative-gravity surveys repeated over time, useful for aquifer-storage-change monitoring; and absolute-gravity values, useful as base stations for relative-gravity surveys and for monitoring gravity change over time. The data are compiled, without interpretation, in three spreadsheet files. Gravity values, GPS locations, and driving directions for absolute-gravity base stations are presented as National Geodetic Survey site descriptions.

  8. Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A.; Goodrich, D.; Varady, R.; Richter, H.

    2007-12-01

    The San Pedro Basin sits within an intermountain ecotone with the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to the west and east and the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Madre Mountain habitats to the north and south. The headwaters of the basin originate in northern Sonora and flow north into southeast Arizona. As the region's only remaining perennial stream, the San Pedro River serves as an international flyway for over 400 bird species. It is one of the western hemisphere's most ecologically diverse areas with some 20 different biotic communities, and "possesses one of the richest assemblages of land mammal species in the world." Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennial flow in the San Pedro. This presentation describes empirical evidence of the positive impacts on watershed management of scientists and policy researchers working closely with water managers and elected officials in a functioning HELP basin. We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management. Finally, we describe how the accomplishments of the San Pedro collaborative process, including the use of environmental-conflict-resolution tools, have contributed to the UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) agenda.

  9. The San Pedro Basin: A Case Study of US and Mexican Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs

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    Scott, R. L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora near the town of Cananea and spans the U.S. - Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro Basin and perennial portions of its river support one of the most ecological diverse regions in the world. The regional groundwater aquifer which largely supports perennial flow and the associated riparian ecosystem is the primary water source for a number of communities, and for the Cananea copper mine in Sonora, which produces roughly two to three percent of the world's copper, and Ft. Huachuca, a major military installation in Arizona and the largest employer of southern Arizona. This presentation will discuss strategies and efforts over the past decade on both sides of the border to link hydrological, ecological and social sciences to aid elected officials and decision-makers in managing the basin, its growing population, and the water it so vitally depends upon. The disparate legal, cultural, economic and scientific environments, as well as the unequal degrees of decentralization and regional autonomy on the two sides of the border have resulted in distinct concerns and approaches to water resource management and varying rates of success. In the Sonoran portion of the basin water quality is the primary concern and in Arizona, water quantity is the major concern. The paper will report on sustained binational efforts and constraints encountered by researchers at the University of Arizona's NSF-funded SAHRA project and several NOAA-supported efforts in the basin region.

  10. Residencia San Pedro, California

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    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta vivienda representa una aproximación más hacia la típica casa grande española, con techos de teca de 7 cm, que los señores Rados han edificado y en la que albergan a su gran familia de hijos, los cuales tienen ya sus propios vástagos. Ambos, el señor y la señora Rados, descienden de familias navieras italianas de Trieste, y el propio señor Rados tiene una compañía constructora de barcos en el puerto de San Pedro, que puede verse desde su propia casa. Los dos son verdaderamente unos abuelos muy sociables, cariñosos y atentos. Por añadidura, la señora Rados se entretiene frecuentemente y le agrada el cuidado de la casa. Por ello ha sido proyectada para facilitar sensiblemente toda esta serie de actividades.

  11. Quantifying and valuing ecosystem services: An application of ARIES to the San Pedro River basin, USA

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    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius J.; Villa, Ferdinando; Johnson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research exists that identifies and values ecosystem services - the benefits that ecosystems provide to humans (MA, 2005) - and their underlying ecological processes. However, the development of software decision support tools that integrate ecology, economics and geography that can be independently used within the public, private, academic and NGO sectors is a more recent phenomenon (Ruhl et al., 2007; Daily et al., 2009). Spurred by growing demand for more sophisticated analysis of the social and economic consequences of land management decisions, the US Department of Interior - Bureau of Land Management (BLM) launched a pilot project with the US Geological Survey (USGS) to assess the usefulness and feasibility of ecosystem service assessment and valuation tools to provide inputs to decision-making. The project analysed ecosystem services in the US portion of the San Pedro River watershed, which includes the BLM-managed San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA), to improve the understanding of complex social and ecological relationships that transcend administrative divisions. The BLM manages some 99 million hectares, primarily in the western United States, and 283 million hectares of sub-surface mineral estate. BLM's multiple-use mission requires that it appropriately balance non-extractive uses such as habitat conservation, recreation and archaeological heritage protection and the extractive use of resources such as timber, oil and gas, coal, uranium, and other minerals.

  12. A Climate, water management, and policy in the San Pedro Basin: Results of a survey of Mexican stakeholders near the U.S.–Mexico border 1936

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    This paper reviews regional climate knowledge and vulnerability in the northern Mexico San Pedro River Basin, with a focus on water quality, quantity, and management issues on the Mexican side of the border. A discussion based on the available literature is supplemented by a survey assessing concern...

  13. Assessment of goods and valuation of ecosystem services (AGAVES) San Pedro River Basin, United States and Mexico

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    Semmens, Darius; Kepner, William; Goodrich, David

    2010-01-01

    A consortium of federal, academic, and nongovernment organization (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of ecosystem services research is that human condition is intrinsically linked to the environment. Human health and well-being (including economic prosperity) depend on important supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural services that we derive from our surrounding ecosystems. The AGAVES project is intended as a demonstration study for incorporating ecosystem services information into resource management policy and decisionmaking. Accordingly, a nested, multiscale project design has been adopted to address a range of stakeholder information requirements. This design will further facilitate an evaluation of how well methods developed in this project can be transferred to other areas.

  14. Minisparker seismic-reflection data of field activity S-5-09-SC: San Pedro Basin, offshore southern California from 2009-07-06 to 2009-07-10

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    Sliter, Ray W.; Conrad, James E.; Ryan, Holly F; Triezenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes raw and processed, high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected in 2009 to explore a possible connection between the San Diego Trough Fault and the San Pedro Basin Fault. The survey is in the San Pedro Basin between Santa Catalina Island and San Pedro, California. The data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey R/V Parke Snavely. The seismic-reflection data were acquired using a SIG 2mille minisparker. Subbottom acoustic penetration spanned tens to several hundreds of meters, variable by location.

  15. Chirp seismic-reflection data of field activity S-5-09-SC: San Pedro Basin, offshore southern California from 2009-07-06 to 2009-07-10

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    Sliter, Ray W.; Conrad, James E.; Ryan, Holly F.; Triezenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes raw and processed, high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected in 2009 to explore a possible connection between the San Diego Trough Fault and the San Pedro Basin Fault. The survey is in the San Pedro Basin between Catalina Island and San Pedro, California. The data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey R/V Parke Snavely. The seismic-reflection data were acquired using an Edgetech 512 Chirp subbottom profiling system. Subbottom acoustic penetration spanned tens to hundreds of meters, variable by location.

  16. Diversity and biogeography of bacterial assemblages in surface sediments across the San Pedro Basin, Southern California Borderlands.

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    Hewson, Ian; Jacobson Meyers, Myrna E; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2007-04-01

    Sediment bacteria play important roles in the biogeochemistry of ocean sediments; however, factors influencing assemblage composition have not been extensively studied. We examined extractable sediment bacterial abundance, the composition of bacterial assemblages using a high-throughput molecular fingerprinting approach, and several sediment biogeochemical parameters (organic matter content and alkaline phosphatase activity), along a 35 km transect from Point Fermin, Southern California, to Santa Catalina Island, across the approximately 900-m-deep San Pedro Basin. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) demonstrated that in two spatially isolated shallow (approximately < 60 m, on opposite sides of the channel) sediment environments, assemblages were more similar to each other than to deeper communities. Distinct communities existed in deeper and shallower sediments, and stations within the deep basin over 2 km apart contained remarkably similar assemblage fingerprints. The relative contribution to total amplified DNA fluorescence of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly correlated to that of other OTUs in few comparisons (2.7% of total), i.e. few bacterial types were found together or apart consistently. The relative proportions within assemblages of only a few OTU were significantly correlated to measured physicochemical parameters (organic matter content and wet/dry weight ratio of sediments) or enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) activities. A low percentage of shared OTU between shallow and deep sediments, and the presence of similar, but spatially isolated assemblages suggests that bacterial OTU may be widely dispersed over scales of a few kilometres, but that environmental conditions select for particular assemblages.

  17. Fine-Resolution Modeling of the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins for Climate Change and Riparian System Studies

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    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Volo, T. J.; Rivera, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2011-12-01

    This project is part of a multidisciplinary effort aimed at understanding the impacts of climate variability and change on the ecological services provided by riparian ecosystems in semiarid watersheds of the southwestern United States. Valuing the environmental and recreational services provided by these ecosystems in the future requires a numerical simulation approach to estimate streamflow in ungauged tributaries as well as diffuse and direct recharge to groundwater basins. In this work, we utilize a distributed hydrologic model known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) in the upper Santa Cruz and San Pedro basins with the goal of generating simulated hydrological fields that will be coupled to a riparian groundwater model. With the distributed model, we will evaluate a set of climate change and population scenarios to quantify future conditions in these two river systems and their impacts on flood peaks, recharge events and low flows. Here, we present a model confidence building exercise based on high performance computing (HPC) runs of the tRIBS model in both basins during the period of 1990-2000. Distributed model simulations utilize best-available data across the US-Mexico border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely-sensed imagery and government databases. Meteorological forcing over the historical period is obtained from a combination of sparse ground networks and weather radar rainfall estimates. We then focus on a comparison between simulation runs using ground-based forcing to cases where the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model is used to specify the historical conditions. Two spatial resolutions are considered from the WRF model fields - a coarse (35-km) and a downscaled (10- km) forcing. Comparisons will focus on the distribution of precipitation, soil moisture, runoff generation and recharge and assess the value of the WRF coarse and downscaled products. These results provide confidence in

  18. Recent deformation on the San Diego Trough and San Pedro Basin fault systems, offshore Southern California: Assessing evidence for fault system connectivity.

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    Bormann, J. M.; Kent, G. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The seismic hazard posed by offshore faults for coastal communities in Southern California is poorly understood and may be considerable, especially when these communities are located near long faults that have the ability to produce large earthquakes. The San Diego Trough fault (SDTF) and San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) systems are active northwest striking, right-lateral faults in the Inner California Borderland that extend offshore between San Diego and Los Angeles. Recent work shows that the SDTF slip rate accounts for 25% of the 6-8 mm/yr of deformation accommodated by the offshore fault network, and seismic reflection data suggest that these two fault zones may be one continuous structure. Here, we use recently acquired CHIRP, high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection, and multibeam bathymetric data in combination with USGS and industry MCS profiles to characterize recent deformation on the SDTF and SPBF zones and to evaluate the potential for an end-to-end rupture that spans both fault systems. The SDTF offsets young sediments at the seafloor for 130 km between the US/Mexico border and Avalon Knoll. The northern SPBF has robust geomorphic expression and offsets the seafloor in the Santa Monica Basin. The southern SPBF lies within a 25-km gap between high-resolution MCS surveys. Although there does appear to be a through-going fault at depth in industry MCS profiles, the low vertical resolution of these data inhibits our ability to confirm recent slip on the southern SPBF. Empirical scaling relationships indicate that a 200-km-long rupture of the SDTF and its southern extension, the Bahia Soledad fault, could produce a M7.7 earthquake. If the SDTF and the SPBF are linked, the length of the combined fault increases to >270 km. This may allow ruptures initiating on the SDTF to propagate within 25 km of the Los Angeles Basin. At present, the paleoseismic histories of the faults are unknown. We present new observations from CHIRP and coring surveys at

  19. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

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    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  20. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  1. Increasing Social–Ecological Resilience by Placing Science at the Decision Table: the Role of the San Pedro Basin (Arizona Decision-Support System Model

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    Tim Finan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed how the collaborative development process of a decision-support system (DSS model can effectively contribute to increasing the resilience of regional social–ecological systems. In particular, we have focused on the case study of the transboundary San Pedro Basin, in the Arizona-Sonora desert region. This is a semi-arid watershed where water is a scarce resource used to cover competing human and environmental needs. We have outlined the essential traits in the development of the decision-support process that contributed to an improvement of water-resources management capabilities while increasing the potential for consensual problem solving. Comments and feedback from the stakeholders benefiting from the DSS in the San Pedro Basin are presented and analyzed within the regional (United States–Mexico boundary, social, and institutional context. We have indicated how multidisciplinary collaboration between academia and stakeholders can be an effective step toward collaborative management. Such technology transfer and capacity building provides a common arena for testing water-management policies and evaluating future scenarios. Putting science at the service of a participatory decision-making process can provide adaptive capacity to accommodate future change (i.e., building resilience in the management system.

  2. A ground-water model of the upper San Pedro Basin from the Mexico-United States International Boundary to Fairbank, Arizona

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    Freethey, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A definition of the hydrologic system of the upper San Pedro basin was obtained by developing a numerical ground-water model to evaluate a conceptual model of the system. Information on hydraulic properties of the basin fill, recharge from bordering mountain ranges, discharge by evapotranspiration, and exchange of water between aquifer and stream was available from previous measurements or estimates. The steady-state calibration procedure and subsequent transient simulations demonstrated that the original conceptualization can be reasonably simulated. An analysis of model sensitivity to increases and decreases in certain hydraulic properties indicated a low sensitivity to aquifer anisotropy and a low to moderate sensitivity to stream leakance and evapotranspiration rate. An analysis to investigate the effects of generalizing aquifer conductivity and recharge showed that flow components and water-level response to stress could be simulated adequately but that steady-state water-level conditions could not. During equilibrium conditions, recharge to and discharge from the basin was about 16,500 acre-feet per year. Modeling results indicated that by 1978 the storage depletion rate had reached 5,600 acre-feet per year resulting from a ground-water withdrawal rate of 10,500 acre-feet per year. (USGS)

  3. High Performance Computing-based Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basin at Very High Resolution

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    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on large river basins in the southwestern United States is important given the natural water scarcity in the region. The bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on the hydrological consequences of climate change in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). These river systems support rich ecological communities along riparian corridors that provide habitat to migratory birds and support recreational and economic activities. Determining the climate impacts on riparian communities involves assessing how river flows and groundwater recharge will change with altered temperature and precipitation regimes. In this study, we use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios from WRF at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization using sub-basin partitioning with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely

  4. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

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    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  5. Using High Resolution Satellite Precipitation fields to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins

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    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrologic modeling using high spatiotemporal resolution satellite precipitation products in the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico is important given the sparse nature of available rain gauges. In addition, the bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on hydrological comparisons using rainfall forcing from a satellite-based product, downscaled GCM precipitation estimates and available ground observations. The simulations are being conducted in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). We use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. We compare the model outputs and rainfall fields of the WRF products against the forcing from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and available ground observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Arizona Meteorological Network (AZMET). For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on

  6. Evaluation of the importance of clay confining units on groundwaterflow in alluvial basins using solute and isotope tracers: the case of Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Eastoe, Chris; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Meixner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As groundwater becomes an increasingly important water resource worldwide, it is essential to understand how local geology affects groundwater quality, flowpaths and residence times. This study utilized multiple tracers to improve conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA) by determining recharge areas, compartmentalization of water sources, flowpaths and residence times. Ninety-five groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for major ion chemistry (water type and Ca/Sr ratios) and stable (18O, 2H, 13C) and radiogenic (3H, 14C) isotopes, and resulting data were used in conjunction with hydrogeologic information (e.g. hydraulic head and hydrostratigraphy). Results show that recent recharge (recharged at high elevation in the fractured bedrock and has been extensively modified by water-rock reactions (increasing F and Sr, decreasing 14C) over long timescales (up to 35,000 years BP). Distinct solute and isotope geochemistries between the lower and upper basin fill aquifers show the importance of a clay confining unit on groundwater flow in the basin, which minimizes vertical groundwater movement.

  7. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  8. Simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals and artificial recharge on discharge to streams, springs, and riparian vegetation in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.; Leenhouts, James M.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of ground-water resources, “capture” or “streamflow depletion” refers to withdrawal-induced changes in inflow to or outflow from an aquifer. These concepts are helpful in understanding the effects of long-term development of ground-water resources. For the Upper San Pedro Basin in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, a recently developed ground-water flow model is available to help quantify capture of water from the river and riparian system. A common method of analysis is to compute curves of capture and aquifer-storage change for a range of time at select points of interest. This study, however, presents results of a method to show spatial distributions of total change in inflow and outflow from withdrawal or injection for select times of interest. The mapped areal distributions show the effect of a single well in terms of the ratio of the change in boundary flow rate to rate of withdrawal or injection by the well. To the extent that the system responds linearly to ground-water withdrawal or injection, fractional responses in the mapped distributions can be used to quantify response for any withdrawal or injection rate. Capture distributions calculated using the Upper San Pedro model include response to (1) withdrawal in the lower basin-fill aquifer for times of 10 and 50 years following the initiation of pumping from predevelopment conditions and (2) artificial recharge to the water table in the area underlain by the lower basin-fill aquifer after 10 and 50 years. The mapped distributions show that response to withdrawals and injections is greatest near the river/riparian system. Presence of clay layers in the vertical interval between withdrawal locations and the river/riparian system, however, can delay the response.

  9. Site testing at San Pedro Mártir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Echeverría

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este art culo revisamos el trabajo realizado para medir la turbulencia atmosf erica al nivel del suelo en el Observatorio Astron omico Nacional en San Pedro M artir. Arguimos, basados en resultados m as modernos obtenidos a lo largo de m as de una d ecada, que la mediana de la calidad de imagen es de 0.55 segundos de arco a una altura de 15m. Este an alisis comprueba que San Pedro M artir es uno de los mejores sitios del mundo en cuanto a calidad de imagen y probablemente el mejor.

  10. The Telescopio San Pedro Mártir project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Michael G.; Lee, William H.; González, Jesús; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Sánchez, Beatriz; Rosales Ortega, Fabián.; Alcock, Charles; Carramiñana Alonso, Alberto; García Díaz, Ma. Teresa; Gutiérrez, Leonel; Herrera, Joel; Hill, Derek; Norton, Timothy J.; Pedrayes, Maria H.; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Reyes-Ruíz, Mauricio; Serrano Guerrero, Hazael; Sierra, Gerardo; Teran, Jose; Urdaibay, David; Uribe, Jorge A.; Watson, Alan M.; Zaritsky, Dennis; García Vargas, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Mártir project intends to construct a 6.5m telescope to be installed at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir in northern Baja California, Mexico. The project is an association of Mexican institutions, lead by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica and the Instituto de Astronomía at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, in partnership with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona's Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory. The project is currently in the planning and design stage. Once completed, the partners plan to operate the MMT and TSPM as a binational astrophysical observatory.

  11. Ecological Impact of LAN: San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    The San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona is home to nearly 45% of the 900 total species of birds in the United States; millions of songbirds migrate though this unique flyway every year. As the last undammed river in the Southwest, it has been called one of the “last great places” in the US. Human activity has had striking and highly visible impacts on the San Pedro River. As a result, and to help preserve and conserve the area, much of the region has been designated the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA). Attention has been directed to impacts of population, water depletion, and border fence barriers on the riparian environment. To date, there has been little recognition that light at night (LAN), evolving with the increased local population, could have moderating influences on the area. STEM Laboratory has pioneered techniques of coordinated airborne and ground based measurements of light at night, and has undertaken a program of characterizing LAN in this region. We conducted the first aerial baseline surveys of sky brightness in 2012. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) shapefiles allow comparison and correlation of various biological databases with the LAN data. The goal is to better understand how increased dissemination of night time lighting impacts the distributions, behavior, and life cycles of biota on this ecosystem. We discuss the baseline measurements, current data collection programs, and some of the implications for specific biological systems.

  12. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  13. Fossil proboscidea and edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, James Williams

    1926-01-01

    A preliminary report on the fossil vertebrates of the San Pedro Valley, Ariz., collected by Kirk Bryan and me in the winter of 1920 and 1921 was published in 1922. This report includes a brief statement regarding the geology of the locality and a preliminary list of fossil vertebrates obtained by the expedition of 1921, with descriptions of the rodents and rabbits. Two additional papers on this interesting fauna have also appeared, one on the turtles by C.W. Gilmore and one on the birds by Alexander Wetmore. The present contribution deals with the proboscideans and edentates and gives a somewhat fuller discussion of the geology of the fossil-bearing beds.

  14. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  15. Site testing at san Pedro Mártir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Tapia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Observatorio Astronómico Nacional esta localizado en la Sierra San Pedro Mártir, en la península de Baja California, México, a una elevación de 2800 m sobre el nivel del mar. Sus coordenadas son 31_0204000 N y 115_2800000 W. Aquí se presentan los resultados resumidos de mas de tres décadas de recabar información sobre la caracterización astronómica del sitio. Se cubren los siguientes aspectos: estabilidad atmosférica, calidad de imagen, opacidad atmosférica en el visible, infrarrojo y milimétrico, brillo del cielo nocturno y nubosidad. La Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y otras instituciones internacionales están llevando a cabo estudios de muy largo plazo para establecer mejor los resultados

  16. Geologic and bathymetric reconnaissance overview of the San Pedro shelf region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This report presents a series of maps that describe the bathymetry and late Quaternary geology of the San Pedro shelf area as interpreted from seismic-reflection...

  17. Geologic and bathymetric reconnaissance overview of the San Pedro shelf region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This report presents a series of maps that describe the bathymetry and late Quaternary geology of the San Pedro shelf area as interpreted from seismic-reflection...

  18. High altitude wind velocity at San Pedro Martir and Mauna Kea

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Esperanza; Sarazin, Marc

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the monthly average wind velocity at about 12 km above sea level, between 1980 to 1995, for San Pedro Martir, Mauna Kea, another existing observatorie and some sites of interest. We compare the results obtained from two different data sets, the GGUAS and NCEP. Our results show that San Pedro Martir and Mauna Kea are comparable and are amongst the most suitable sites to apply slow wavefront corrugation correction techniques

  19. Surface layer seeing at san Pedro Mártir revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos medidas de la contribución de la capa superficial (2.3 a 15 m al seeing óptico en el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional de San Pedro M_artir (OAN-SPM. Utilizamos un mástil con sensores de temperatura microdiferenciales localizados a 7 diferentes alturas, para medir la constante de estructura del índice de refracción C2 n en los primeros 15 m. El parámetro de distorsión de la imagen (llamado comúnmente seeing integrado se determinó utilizando un Monitor Diferencial de Movimiento de Imagen (DIMM durante 23 noches, encontrándose una estadística log-normal con una mediana de 0:0084. El seeing promedio debido a la capa superficial fue de 0:0016. La turbulencia óptica de esta capa tiene una contribución promedio de 5.2% del C2 n total, lo cual corresponde a una degradación promedio de 3.2% del seeing total. Estos valores son similares a los encontrados en otros observatorios en el mundo, lo que sugiere que la presencia de árboles en el sitio del OAN-SPM no influye de manera considerable en el seeing debido a la capa superficial

  20. Night Sky Brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Richer, M. G.; Colorado, E.; Herrera, J.; Córdova, A.; Ceseña, U.; Ávila, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on 18 nights during 2013 to 2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over 20 months during 2014 to 2016 at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM) in México. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84 m and 2.12 m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 {mag} {{arcsec}}-2, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend implies that the sky has become darker by Δ U = 0.7, Δ B = 0.5, Δ V = 0.3, Δ R=0.5 mag arcsec‑2 since early 2014 due to the present solar cycle.

  1. Site prospection at san pedro mártir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bohigas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos mediciones climatológicas y de seeing, en 5 sitios dentro del área reservada para uso astronómico en el Parque Nacional Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (SPM, durante al menos 15 noches en cada uno de ellos. Las variables climáticas se midieron con una estación meteorológica Davis y un anemómetro ultrasónico Metek. El seeing fue medido con un RoboDIMM fabricado por NOAO. Las mediciones climatológicas y de seeing fueron comparadas con las obtenidas simultáneamente con la instrumentación del Thirty Meter Telescope Project en el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN en SPM. Las diferencias de seeing son pequeñas en la mayor parte de los casos. Recomendamos que se realice una campaña de larga duración en Llano Alto 1, ya que es un sitio de fácil acceso y el seeing parece ser ligeramente mejor.

  2. Recalibrated turbulence profiles at San Pedro Mártir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Avila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La calibración de perfiles de turbulencia óptica (C2N medidos con el método SCIDAR generalizado ha sido recientemente revisada y corregida por Avila & Cuevas (2009. Basándonos en ese trabajo, aquí presentamos la corrección de todos los perfiles de C2N medidos con el SCIDAR generalizado en el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional de San Pedro Mártir. El perfil de C2N mediano corregido conserva su estructura vertical general. El cociente promediado en altura de la mediana de los valores de C2N corregidos sobre la mediana de los valores no corregidos es igual a 0.87. La mediana del seeing corregido en el sitio es 0. ′′ 68 ± 0. ′′ 03, 4.2% menor que la mediana no corregida. Las medianas del seeing producido por turbulencia en los dos primeros kilómetros de altura sobre los telescopios de 1.5 m y 2.1 m de diámetro decrecen en un 15.8% y 13.6%, respectivamente. El ángulo isoplan ático corregido tiene una mediana de 1. ′′ 96 ± 0. ′′ 04.

  3. Las hermanas de los pobres de San Pedro Claver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Méndez Buendía

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available "El ser humano actúa, siente y se desenvuelve siempre de acuerdo con lo que él imagina ser verdad acerca de sí mismo y del ambiente que le rodea". Esta es la ley básica del pensamiento humano y este es el modo de que estamos hechos ya que la imaginación desempeña en nuestras vidas un papel mucho más importante de lo que nos podemos imaginar. Extraña al parecer la manera de iniciar este ensayo monográfico de una ilustre congregación religiosa que nace en Barranquilla, "la puerta de oro de Colombia" y "la sultana de los pies desnudos", allá por febrero de 1912, bajo el título de "Hermanas de los Pobres de San Pedro Claver", nombre sugerido a la fundadora por el obispo de Cartagena, monseñor Brioschi, para honrar en forma tal, según sus palabras, al "modelo de virtudes religiosas y al gran apóstol de la caridad cristiana".

  4. Night sky brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Plauchu-Frayn, I; Colorado, E; Herrera, J; Cordova, A; Cesena, U; Avila, F

    2016-01-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on eighteen nights during 2013--2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over twenty months during 2014--2016 at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) in Mexico. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84m and 2.12m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 mag/square arcsec, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend im...

  5. San Pedro Mártir mid-infrared photometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Salas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de definir el Sistema Fotométrico para el Mediano-Infrarrojo de San Pedro Mártir, se realizaron observaciones de estrellas de calibración bien estudiadas con la cámara del mediano-infrarrojo CID-BIB (2 - 28 m del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, durante 9 temporadas de observación en 2000 a 2005. Se utilizó un conjunto de 9 filtros, los de la serie de “silicatos" SiN, SiO, SiP, SiQ, SiR, SiS, el filtro de banda ancha N (10.8 m, y los filtros angostos QH2 (17.15 m y Q2 (18.7 m, para determinar los coeficientes de extinción y los puntos cero en magnitud. Las correcciones por extinción atmosférica se llevaron a cabo mediante el uso de aproximantes de Padé, y los coeficientes involucrados se obtuvieron mediante una relacion lineal con el coeficiente de extinción a baja masa de aire. Se presentan y comparan las curvas de transmisión atmosférica de SPM y los coeficientes de extinción con los del sitio astronómico Mauna Kea. Utilizando un conjunto de fuentes IRAS LSR observadas con el CID-BIB se encuentran terminos de color.

  6. Determination of toxicity levels in the San Pedro River Watershed, Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Medrano, Gustavo Emilio; Ramírez-López, Elsa Marcela; Hernández-Flores, Saraí; Azuara-Medina, Paulina Margarita; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2007-08-01

    A quantitative study of toxicity levels of the San Pedro River and its main tributaries around the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico was conducted. Our study determined individual CL(50) values for each sampling point at 3 different times of the year corresponding to the main seasons of the year in terms of the hydrological cycle (dry, low rain and high rain season). Those LC(50) values were used to calculate the acute. Toxicity Units (aTU) that allowed us to compare levels of toxicity along the San Pedro River and two of its main tributaries. The sample that showed highest toxicity was IPIVA. This is due to the large quantity of industrial discharges that receives. Its effluent was responsible for the largest contribution of toxicity to the San Pedro River over the three rounds of sampling of this study. Our study classified an important portion of the San Pedro River and two of its main tributaries in toxic, moderately toxic and lightly toxic. No portion of the river studied was free of toxicity, either acute or sublethal. This study demonstrated that in spite of the operation of several water treatment plants along the San Pedro River, for the most part, the water quality of the river is still unacceptable.

  7. Matters of life and death: the hospital of San Pedro in Puebla, 1790-1802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sáenz, Luz María

    2002-01-01

    The last decade of the eighteenth century may be described as a "golden age" in the history of the Hospital of San Pedro of Puebla. Under the stewardship of its director, Father Ignacio Domenech, San Pedro underwent an extensive renovation of its physical plant and a thorough administrative reorganization that turned it into one of the best medical care and research institutions in New Spain. The article draws a profile of the patients who filled the hospital's wards and adds a human dimension to the many names and ailments listed in the registries. It also describes the valiant efforts of the medical staff who daily shared the patients' struggle against illness. Fighting immense odds, the practitioners sought to provide good-quality care and to further their limited understanding of disease. A detailed analysis of San Pedro's everyday life reveals a portrait of human suffering, professional dedication, and humanity's pursuit of knowledge.

  8. 78 FR 53477 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) San Pedro Project Office (SPPO...

  9. High altitude wind velocity at San Pedro Mártir and Mauna kea

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Carrasco; Marc Sarazin

    2003-01-01

    Analizamos el promedio mensual de la velocidad del viento a una altitud aproximada de 12 km sobre el nivel del mar, en el periodo comprendido entre 1980 y 1995 en San Pedro M artir, Mauna Kea y en otros observatorios y sitios de inter es. Comparamos los resultados obtenidos de dos bases de datos, GGUAS y NCEP. Los resultados muestran que San Pedro M artir y Mauna Kea son comparables y se encuentran entre los lugares mas adecuados para aplicar t ecnicas que compensan las deformacio...

  10. High altitude wind velocity at San Pedro Mártir and Mauna kea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Carrasco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el promedio mensual de la velocidad del viento a una altitud aproximada de 12 km sobre el nivel del mar, en el periodo comprendido entre 1980 y 1995 en San Pedro M artir, Mauna Kea y en otros observatorios y sitios de inter es. Comparamos los resultados obtenidos de dos bases de datos, GGUAS y NCEP. Los resultados muestran que San Pedro M artir y Mauna Kea son comparables y se encuentran entre los lugares mas adecuados para aplicar t ecnicas que compensan las deformaciones del frente de onda que cambian lentamente.

  11. Variabilidad temporal y espacial de nutrientes entre San Pedro y manglaralto

    OpenAIRE

    Villalba, F. P.

    1989-01-01

    Variabilidad Temporal y Espacial de Nutrientes entre San Pedro y Manglaralto En la presente tesis se estudiaron nutrientes inorgánicos de nitrito, amonio, fosfato y silicato del agua de mar de la zona costera comprendida entre las poblaciones de Manglaralto y San Pedrode Manglaralto, desde el veril de 15 metros de profundidad, durante un periodo de cinco meses (Nov. 88 - Mar. 89) correspondiente a la estación húmeda.

  12. 33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anchored at a designated anchorage either inside the Federal breakwaters bounding San Pedro Bay or outside... instructions of the Captain of the Port or his or her designated representative. (3) When any LHG tank vessels approach within 500 yards of a vessel that is moored or anchored, the stationary vessel must stay moored...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anchored at a designated anchorage either inside the Federal breakwaters bounding San Pedro Bay or outside... instructions of the Captain of the Port or his or her designated representative. (3) When a cruise ship approaches within 100 yards of a vessel that is moored, or anchored, the stationary vessel must stay...

  14. 76 FR 50710 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... radius around any cruise ship that is located within the San Pedro Bay port area landward of the sea... the safety of the cruise ship, vessels, and users of the waterway. Entry into these security zones... the sea floor, within a 100-yard radius around any cruise ship in the following locations is...

  15. 77 FR 1025 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... zones to encompass only navigable waters within a 100-yard radius around any cruise ship that is located... necessary to provide for the safety of the cruise ship, vessels, and users of the waterway. Entry into these..., within a 100 yard radius around any cruise ship that is within the San Pedro Bay port area inside the...

  16. Application of Hydrologic Tools and Monitoring to Support Managed Aquifer Recharge Decision Making in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Lacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The San Pedro River originates in Sonora, Mexico, and flows north through Arizona, USA, to its confluence with the Gila River. The 92-km Upper San Pedro River is characterized by interrupted perennial flow, and serves as a vital wildlife corridor through this semiarid to arid region. Over the past century, groundwater pumping in this bi-national basin has depleted baseflows in the river. In 2007, the United States Geological Survey published the most recent groundwater model of the basin. This model served as the basis for predictive simulations, including maps of stream flow capture due to pumping and of stream flow restoration due to managed aquifer recharge. Simulation results show that ramping up near-stream recharge, as needed, to compensate for downward pumping-related stress on the water table, could sustain baseflows in the Upper San Pedro River at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100 with less than 4.7 million cubic meters per year (MCM/yr. Wet-dry mapping of the river over a period of 15 years developed a body of empirical evidence which, when combined with the simulation tools, provided powerful technical support to decision makers struggling to manage aquifer recharge to support baseflows in the river while also accommodating the economic needs of the basin.

  17. La iglesia de San Pedro de la Nave (Zamora. Arqueología y arquitectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Zoreda, Luis

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available We release here new planimetrie documents and the analysis of the construction stages of the church of San Pedro de la Nave (province of Zamora, concluding among others that the original building was based on one single project, very likely to be entirely vaulted.Se publica una nueva documentación planimétrica y el análisis de las etapas constructivas de la iglesia de S. Pedro de la Nave (prov. Zamora, llegando, entre otras, a la conclusión de que el edificio primitivo pertenece a un solo proyecto, probablemente abovedado en su totalidad.

  18. Elaboración y consumo de tortillas como patrimonio cultural de San Pedro del Rosal, México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Cristina Chávez Mejía; Teresita de Jesús Rodríguez Calderón; Humberto Thomé Ortiz; Guillermo Miranda Román

    2017-01-01

    .... Based on qualitative collection of information from producers and consumers of hand-made maize tortillas in San Pedro del Rosal, Atlacomulco, Estado de Mexico, an ethnographic study was conducted...

  19. Consecuencias del divorcio en niños y adolescentes en San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedronel González Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación cuantitativa con enfoque descriptivo, detalla las consecuencias del divorcio en niños y adolescentes desde la perspectiva de los adultos, en la ciudad de San Pedro Sula, Cortes, Honduras. La investigación es parte de una encuesta respondida por 423 personas que residen en San Pedro Sula, quienes conocían el caso de un niño o joven cuyos padres se habían divorciado. Los encuestados refirieron que las consecuencias observadas en los niños o los adolescentes después del divorcio se manifestaron a nivel conductual, afectivo/sentimental, somático, interpersonal, cognitivo, nuevo estilo de vida, académico, económico, uso de servicios de salud mental y desarrollo de síndromes post divorcio.

  20. High altitude wind velocity at Sierra Negra and San Pedro M\\'artir

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, E; Carramiñana, A; Carrasco, Esperanza; Avila, Remy; Carrami\\~nana, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    It has been proposed that the global circulation of the atmosphere winds at 200 mb can be used as a criteria to establish the suitability of a site for the development of adaptive optics techniques such as slow wavefront corrugation correction. By using the NOAA NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data base we analyze the monthly average wind velocity at 200 mb for a 16 year period, for two sites in Mexico: Sierra Negra and San Pedro M\\'artir. We compare the results with those obtained for Mauna Kea, Paranal and La Silla, with Maidanak in Uzbekistan, and with Gamsberg in Namibia. We show that for all the sites under study there is a yearly wind speed modulation and we model that modulation. Our results show that Sierra Negra and San Pedro M\\'artir are comparable with the best observatory sites as Mauna Kea and are amongst the most advantageous sites to apply adaptive optics techniques.

  1. San Pedro Mártir: Characteristics of the site for optical and infrared Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Tapia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Observatorio Astron mico Nacional est localizado en la Sierra San Pedro M rtir, en la pen nsula de Baja California, M xico, a una elevaci n de 2800 m. sobre el nivel del mar. Sus coordenadas son 31◦02 40 N y 115◦28 00 W. Aqu se presentan los resultados resumidos de casi tres d cadas de recabar informaci n sobre la caracterizaci n astron mica del sitio. Se cubren los siguientes aspectos: tiempo, nubosidad, meteorolg a local, opacidad atmosf rica en el optico y milim etrico, calidad de imagen, perfiles de turbulencia y de viento, y simulaciones 3D de turbulencia atmosf rica. Se concluye que San Pedro M rtir es uno de los sitios accesibles del planeta con mejores condiciones para las observaciones astron micas y en particular para instalar grandes telescopios. La UNAM y otras instituciones internacionales est n llevando a cabo estudios de muy largo plazo para establecer mejor estos resultados

  2. San Pedro de la Mata (Sonseca, Toledo. Building and decorating an early medieval stone church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª de los Ángeles Utrero Agudo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to offer those results obtained by means of the archaeological, stylistic and geological analysis of the church of San Pedro de La Mata, of its building and decorative materials and of its quarries. Combining these studies (and methodologies has made possible to identify the original form of the church, to pinpoint the origin of the materials and to characterize thus the skills of the workshops responsible for its construction and decoration.

  3. Sociedades agrícolas en resistencia. Los pueblos de San Miguel, Santa Cruz y San Pedro, 1878-1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Neri Guarneros

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies in the state of Mexico involved a form of legal resistance used by indigenous communities in the face of liberal individualization policies of communal property, particularly the federal seizure law of June 25, 1956. In this context, some residents of the towns of Santa Cruz and San Miguel created an agricultural association, as did residents from the town of San Pedro, to retain the collective use of their communal goods and acquire some legal capacity. This condition thus allowed indigenous peoples to present writs of amparo to defend "private" rights.

  4. Telescopio San Pedro Mártir Observatory preliminary design and project approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Jose; Lee, William H.; Richer, Michael G.; Sánchez, Beatriz S.; Urdaibay, David; Hill, Derek; Adriaanse, David; Hernandez-Limonchi, Regina

    2016-07-01

    The Instituto de Astronomia of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) along with Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are developing the Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM) project, a 6.5m diameter optical telescope. M3 Engineering and Technology Corp. (M3) is the design and construction management firm responsible for all site infrastructure, enclosure and support facilities. The Telescopio San Pedro Mártir project (TSPM) will be located within the San Pedro Mártir National Park in Baja California, Mexico at 2,830 m. above sea level, approximately 65 km. east of the Pacific Ocean, 55km west of the Sea of Cortes (Gulf of California) and 180km south of the United States and México border. The aim of the paper is to present the preliminary design of the site infrastructure, enclosure and support facilities to date and share the design and construction approach.

  5. Oral health in prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama oases, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R E; Neves, W A

    2015-12-01

    After almost 2000 years of local development, including limited trading with neighboring ethnic groups, the societies that occupied the oases of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile, became part of the trade web of the Tiwanaku empire, between 500 and 1000 CE. Archaeological evidence tends to support the idea that the period under the influence of the altiplano (high plane) empire was very affluent. Here we investigate the possibility that this affluence had a positive impact on the health status of the Atacameneans, using the oral health as an indirect indicator of quality of life. Dental decay, dental abscess, dental wear, linear enamel hypoplasia, periodontal disease and dental calculus were analyzed on 371 skeletons from 12 sites from San Pedro de Atacama oases. We believe that if, indeed, there were better biological conditions during the altiplano influence, this could have been caused by the access to a more diversified food intake promoted by the intensification of the trading network established by Tiwanaku in the central-south Andes, of which San Pedro de Atacama became an important node.

  6. Minería, conflicto y mediadores locales: Minera San Xavier en Cerro de San Pedro, México Mineira, conflito e mediadores locais: Minera San Xavier em Cerro de San Pedro Mining, conflict and local brokers: Minera San Xavier in Cerro de San Pedro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Horacio Schiaffini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga en las instancias de mediación que intervienen en la articulación de procesos económicos de gran escala y su puesta en práctica local. Basándonos en el conflicto que se produjo en el Municipio de Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México entre la empresa Minera San Xavier y el Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO a la misma, aplicamos el método etnográfico con el objetivo de describir las estructuras locales de mediación política y analizar sus prácticas y racionalidad. Intentamos demostrar así la importancia de los factores políticos locales en las vinculaciones entre estado, empresa y población.Este trabalho indaga nas instâncias de mediação que intervêm em processos econômicos de grande escala e sua posta em prática local. Baseando-nos no conflito no Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México entre a empresa Minera San Xavier e a Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO aplicamos o método etnográfico pra descrever as estruturas de mediação política locais e analisar suas práticas e racionalidade. Tenta-se demonstrar assim a importância dos fatores políticos locais nas vinculações entre estado, empresa e população.This paper investigates in instances of mediation involved in large-scale economic processes and local implementation. Analyzing the conflict in Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México among San Xavier mining company and the Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO, it applies an ethnographic approach to describe the local structures of political mediation and its practices and rationality. The work shows the relevance of local factors in the relationships between State, company and people.

  7. Minería, conflicto y mediadores locales: Minera San Xavier en Cerro de San Pedro, México Mineira, conflito e mediadores locais: Minera San Xavier em Cerro de San Pedro Mining, conflict and local brokers: Minera San Xavier in Cerro de San Pedro

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Horacio Schiaffini

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo indaga en las instancias de mediación que intervienen en la articulación de procesos económicos de gran escala y su puesta en práctica local. Basándonos en el conflicto que se produjo en el Municipio de Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México) entre la empresa Minera San Xavier y el Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO) a la misma, aplicamos el método etnográfico con el objetivo de describir las estructuras locales de mediación política y analizar sus prácticas y racionalidad. Intenta...

  8. Minisparker seismic-reflection data of field activity S-5-09-SC: San Pedro Basin, offshore southern California from 2009-07-06 to 2009-07-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes raw and processed, high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected in 2009 to explore a possible connection between the San Diego Trough...

  9. Doubling the width of the platform of the San Pedro bridge in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Torroja, José A.; Simón-Talero, José M.; Hernández, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The San Pedro Bridge has six spans and is 750 m (2460 ft) long, 88 m (290 ft) high, 12 m (39 ft) wide, and curved with a radius of 700 m (2300 ft). It was built in 1993 using the cantilever method. Its super - structure is a prestressed concrete box girder with main spans of 150 m (490 ft). In 2008 and 2009, the width of the platform was enlarged to 23 m (75 ft) using five movable sets of scaffolding. The bridge remained open to traffic during construction. The original platform was widened 6...

  10. OSTEOFITOSIS VERTEBRAL EN POBLACIONES PREHISPÁNICAS DE SAN PEDRO DE ATACAMA, NORTE DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió la osteofitosis vertebral como indicador de estrés físico en grupos humanos prehistóricos de San Pedro de Atacama, durante los períodos Medio (400 DC - 1000 DC) e Intermedio Tardío (1000 DC - 1450 DC). Se registró el grado promedio de osteofitosis vertebral de cada segmento vertebral en 154 individuos adultos de cuatro sitios: Solcor 3, Coyo 3, Quitor 6 y Toconao Oriente. Se comprobó el carácter degenerativo de la osteofitosis vertebral, ya que el grado promedio de osteofitosis fue...

  11. MUSEO SANTUARIO DE SAN PEDRO CLAVER: UN ESPACIO EN MEMORIA DEL ESCLAVO DE LOS ESCLAVOS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El Museo Santuario San Pedro Claver funciona desde el año 1950 en el claustro de los jesuitas de Cartagena. Este espacio está dedicado a honrar la memoria de este santo, que en la colonia se dedicó a la protección de los miles de esclavos que llegaban a Cartagena de Indias. Este museo cuenta con una colección arqueológica de material precolombino y de la colonia, una de arte religioso de diferentes épocas, así como una colección donada por la familia Zapata Olivella. El objeto del presente ar...

  12. THE BOOTES-5 TELESCOPE AT SAN PEDRO MARTIR NATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    David Hiriart; Jorge Valdez; Benjamín Martínez; Benjamín García; Antolín Cordova; Enrique Colorado; Gerardo Guisa; José Luís Ochoa; Juan Manuel Nuñez; Urania Ceseña; Ronan Cunniffe; David Murphy; William Lee; Park, Il H.; Alberto J. Castro\\u2013Tirado

    2016-01-01

    BOOTES-5 es el quinto observatorio rob ́otico de la red internacional de telescopios r ob ́oticos BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System). Se encuentra ubicado en el Observatorio As tron ́omico Nacional en la sierra de San Pedro M ́artir, Baja California, M ́exico. Fue i naugurado el 26 de noviembre de 2015 y se encuentra en proceso de prueba. Su principal objetivo cient ́ıfico es la observaci ́on y seguimiento a la brevedad posible de las contrapartes ́opticas de los...

  13. The BOOTES-5 telescope at San Pedro Martir National Astronomical Observatory, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, D.; Valdez, J.; Martínez, B.; García, B.; Cordova, A.; Colorado, E.; Guisa, G.; Ochoa, J. L.; Nuñez, J. M.; Ceseña, U.; Cunniffe, R.; Murphy, D.; Lee, W.; Park, Il H.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    BOOTES-5 is the fifth robotic observatory of the international network of robotic telescopes BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring Optical System). It is located at the National Astronomical Observatory at Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. It was dedicated on November 26, 2015 and it is in the process of testing. Its main scientific objective is the observation and monitoring of the optic counterparts of gamma-ray bursts as quickly as possible once they have been detected from space or other ground-based observatories. BOOTES-5 fue nombrado Telescopio Javier Gorosabel en memoria del astrónomo español Javier Gorosabel Urkia.

  14. Numerical Wind Modeling for the San Pedro Mártir Sierra in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vogiatzis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos la simulación numérica del viento en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir para realizar una evaluación preliminar de los posibles sitios donde instalar nuevos telescopios. Como criterio inicial, se eligieron los puntos más altos de la sierra, pero a la vez de fácil acceso. Se presentan la altura de la capa límite y el efecto de la turbulencia en los diferentes sitios para velocidades y direcciones del viento típicas.

  15. La fiesta xita: patrimonio biocultural mazahua de San Pedro el Alto, México

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Y. Vásquez González

    2016-01-01

    Ante la crisis ambiental y de la modernidad, se propone conservar la riqueza cultural y biológica de la humanidad como patrimonio. Así, se valora y revalora el patrimonio vivo, como es la relación entre culturas y biodiversidad, que se manifiestan en paisajes y territorios de los pueblos originarios. Se propone la fiesta xita (viejos) como patrimonio biocultural de la milpa mazahua. El estudio etnográfico se realizó en San Pedro el Alto, México. La fiesta xita es parte del patrimonio biocultu...

  16. El Observatorio de San Pedro Mártir: A World-Class Site for Large Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Wehinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las características de San Pedro Mártir como un sitio superior para telescopios astronómicos de gran tamaño. El cielo extremadamente oscuro, el alto porcentaje de noches despejadas durante todo el a˜no, el seeing excelente, el bajo contenido de vapor de agua y los aspectos logísticos relacionados hacen a SPM el sitio número uno para nuevos proyectos de grandes telescopios. Ciertamente, SPM es un sitio muy atractivo, al cual se puede llegar fácilmente por tierra, mar y aire con rutas de abastecimiento significativamente cortas y que permite acceder en un solo d´ıa desde Santa Cruz, Pasadena, Tucson, San Diego, la Cd. de México y otros centros astronómicos

  17. La participación del sector privado en los servicios de agua y saneamiento en San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Díaz

    2003-01-01

    Este estudio analiza el proceso de reforma de los sistemas de agua y alcantarillado del término municipal de San Pedro Sula iniciado en el año 1998. San Pedro Sula ilustra un caso en que la concesión de los servicios atrajo la atención de los inversores, el primer caso de participación del sector privado en los servicios de agua y saneamiento de Honduras. También ilustra una concesión otorgada por las autoridades municipales sin garantía del Gobierno de Honduras. El análisis se estructura en ...

  18. An estimate of the temporal fraction of cloud cover at San Pedro M\\'artir Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, E; Sánchez, L J; Avila, R; Cruz-González, I

    2011-01-01

    San Pedro M\\'artir in the Northwest of Mexico is the site of the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional. It was one of the five candidates sites for the Thirty Meter Telescope, whose site-testing team spent four years measuring the atmospheric properties on site with a very complete array of instrumentation. Using the public database created by this team, we apply a novel method to solar radiation data to estimate the daytime fraction of time when the sky is clear of clouds. We analyse the diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles of cloud cover. We find that 82.4 per cent of the time the sky is clear of clouds. Our results are consistent with those obtained by other authors, using different methods, adding support to this value and proving the potential of the applied method. The clear conditions at the site are particularly good showing that San Pedro M\\'artir is an excellent site for optical and infrared observations.

  19. Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, L. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)]. E-mail: lchirin@pucp.edu.pe; Rose, N.L. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London WG1HOAP (United Kingdom); Urrutia, R. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Munoz, P. [Departamento de Biologia Marina, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Torrejon, F. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Torres, L. [Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Cruces, F. [Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araneda, A. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Zaror, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2006-05-15

    This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36{sup o} 51' S, 73{sup o} 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38{sup o} 41' S, 71{sup o} 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the {sup 21}Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile.

  20. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL VARIABILITY OVER THE REGION OF SAN PEDRO MÁRTIR FROM MODIS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R. Araiza Quijano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio del espesoróptico del aerosol atmosférico (AOT por sus siglas en inglés en el sitio astronómico de San Pedro Mártir, B. C., México durante el periodo 2000-2008. Las mediciones del AOT se realizaron con el instrumento Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, a bordo de los satélites Aqua y Terra de la NASA. Se han identificado valores característicos estacionales que muestran un comportamiento de mayor transparencia atmosférica durante el otoño. Las mejores condiciones de transparencia atmosférica ocurren durante octubre y noviembre. El comportamiento anual durante 2000-2008 del AOT de MODIS da valores promedio de 0.147±0.103, 0.128±0.090, 0.115±0.081, 0.087 ± 0.066 en 4700, 5500, 6600 and 21300 A, respectivamente. Utilizando estos valores promedio se analizó la dependencia del AOT con la longitud de onda, y se encontró que OIR 0.31 ± 0.06 y la relación 0.00610.31 para dispersión por aerosoles en el sitio de San Pedro Mártir.

  1. An estimate of the temporal fraction of cloud cover at San Pedro Mártir Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, E.; Carramiñana, A.; Sánchez, L. J.; Avila, R.; Cruz-González, I.

    2012-02-01

    San Pedro Mártir in the north-west of Mexico is the site of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional. It was one of the five candidate sites for the Thirty Meter Telescope, whose site-testing team spent four years measuring the atmospheric properties on site with a very complete array of instrumentation. Using the public data base created by this team, we apply a novel method to solar radiation data to estimate the daytime fraction of time when the sky is clear of clouds. We analyse the diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles of cloud cover. We find that 82.4 per cent of the time the sky is clear of clouds. Our results are consistent with those obtained by other authors, using different methods, adding support to this value and proving the potential of the applied method. The clear conditions at the site are particularly good showing that San Pedro Mártir is an excellent site for optical and infrared observations.

  2. STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOR AT SAN PEDRO MARTIR SIERRA IN BAJA CALIFORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Otárola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos datos del vapor de agua precipitable durante 2006 para la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir obtenidos de mediciones de la emisión atmosférica como función del ángulo de elevación por un radiómetro operando a la frecuencia de 210 GHz. Las mediciones de este radiómetro se combinan con valores de temperatura y presión atmosférica a nivel del suelo en el sitio para determinar una relación matemática para la conversión de la opacidad atmosférica al cenit a 210 GHz y la columna de vapor de agua precipitable para San Pedro Mártir. Los datos del vapor de agua precipitable se analizan estadísticamente para conocer su función de densidad de probabilidad y su distribución acumulativa, así como para determinar el número de horas continuas al año en que el vapor de agua precipitable permanece por debajo de los umbrales de 1 mm, 2 mm y 3 mm. Esta información es de interés para evaluar el desempeño de telescopios operando desde la región del óptico hasta longitudes de onda milimétricas en este sitio.

  3. Upgraded control, acquisition program and user interface for the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer at San Pedro Martir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Leonel; Murillo, J.; Quiroz, Fernando; Pedrayes, Maria H.; Meaburn, John; López, Jose A.

    2002-12-01

    We describe the recent upgrade of the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer, currently in use at San Pedro Mártir. This upgrade has included a user interface and a new CCD acquisition software. The spectrometer control is now done by a microcontroller, whose inputs are new sensors and encoders installed inside the spectrometer. The instrument control is now fully carried out from a graphical user interface running in a personal computer. The acquisition computer sends the images to the GUI through an ethernet link. In this paper, we present the general scheme and the programs developed for Linux (in C++ and Tcl/Tk) that permits an easy integral operation of the instrument, as well as the creation of scripts intended to the optimization of the observing run and the future interaction with the telescope and the guider. This upgraded system has been operated successfully during several campaigns in the 2.1-meter telescope at Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir.

  4. Geología y fracturas en la estructura San Pedro, sierra del Alto Río Seco, Sierras Subandinas, provincia de Salta Geology and fractures in the San Pedro Structure, Sierra Alto del Río Seco, Sierras Subandinas, Province of Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Di Marco

    2005-12-01

    stratigraphic column is characterized by a complex geologic history and a over position of a different origins sedimentary basins , with a total backfill of more than 10,000 m developed at different geological ages and under different environments. The San Pedrito reservoir (Devonian levels located at the Acambuco Block of the Tarija Basin can be studied like a naturally fractured reservoir due to the fracturing and faulting features present in the the anticline core. A fracture study has been done, focused on Las Peñas and San Telmo Formations outcrops to analyze the links with subsurface units (Carboniferous basal levels which compose the reservoir rocks of the San Pedro field. The overlap of major zones of intense fractures on surface with high accumulated production values permit to postulate that the deformation affected all Carboniferous deposits like a single package developed in a consistent way. The Carboniferous deposits may show minor discontinuities but the tectonic stress does not decouple the upper and lower Carboniferous deposits. The orthogonal fractures (type I have their major intensity values at the ridge sections and the parallel fractures (type II have their mayor intensity values at the forelimb sections. This last set keeps a close relationship with the bend fold model and to the accumulated production of the San Pedro Oil field.

  5. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force, Space Division Housing Project, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-24

    only did it seem quite odd to have willingly come to help with painting see all those blue coats at the out grafitti on an old San Pedro church or...Services. 7. Rand McNally and Company. 1984. Road Atlas--United States/Canada/ Mexico . Rand McNally, Chicago, IL. 8. U.S. Army Chemical Systems Laboratory

  6. La inscripción funeraria de época romana de la ermita de San Pedro. (Zegama, Gipuzkoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Echevarria

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available El descubrimiento de una nueva inscripción de época romana, funeraria, realizada sobre una lápida de arenisca supone una nueva fuente de conocimiento en el estudio de nuestro pasado, máxime cuando ésta se ha conservado dispuesta a los pies del altar de la ermita de San Pedro en Zegama.

  7. Multi-criteria approach to the infrastructural problems of San Pedro de la Paz - From an urbanistic and hydraulic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, R.; Keulers, B.; Koudstaal, K.; Kox, S.; Veerman, M.; Vila Santamaria, R.

    2015-01-01

    Part I concerns the analysis of the infrastructural problems at hand in San Pedro de la Paz. To get insight into the problems first an analysis of the location is made. This analysis involves the geographical characteristics of the city, historical development, land use, infrastructure etc. Based

  8. 77 FR 55268 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-San Pedro Railroad Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... on Mack H. Shumate, Jr., Union Pacific Railroad Company, Law Department, 101 North Wacker Drive, Room... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--San Pedro Railroad Operating Company, LLC Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of...

  9. Multi-criteria approach to the infrastructural problems of San Pedro de la Paz - From an urbanistic and hydraulic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, R.; Keulers, B.; Koudstaal, K.; Kox, S.; Veerman, M.; Vila Santamaria, R.

    2015-01-01

    Part I concerns the analysis of the infrastructural problems at hand in San Pedro de la Paz. To get insight into the problems first an analysis of the location is made. This analysis involves the geographical characteristics of the city, historical development, land use, infrastructure etc. Based o

  10. Violencia rural intercomunitaria no sueste de Galicia. Un caso concreto: Moialde contra San Pedro de Pousada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Gayoso, Emilio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is make an approximation to the research about the rural violence across the analysis of the conflict between two villages in the southeast of Galicia (Santa Maria de Moialde and San Pedro de Pousada, by economic and social causes, means of a cualitative research and the interview of several witness, with the design to determinate the most probable causes of the conflict between the communities, in economic and social nature. With the obtained dates, we reach to the conclusion that the most part of the rural conflict in the studied ambit begin in the competition to access to the single women and to the comunal goods, needful to the daily survival.El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una aproximación al estudio de la violencia rural a través del análisis de los conflictos entre dos aldeas del sudeste de Galicia (Santa María de Moialde y San Pedro de Pousada, tanto por motivos económicos como sociales, mediante una investigación cualitativa y la entrevista de varios testigos, con la intención de determinar las causas más probables de los conflictos entre comunidades, tanto de naturaleza social como económica. A partir de los datos obtenidos se llega a la conclusión de que la mayoría de los conflictos rurales en el ámbito estudiado se originan en la competencia por las mujeres solteras y por el acceso a los bienes comunales, necesarios para la supervivencia cotidiana. [gl] O obxectivo deste traballo é facer unha aproximación ao estudo da violencia rural a través da análise dos conflitos entre dúas aldeas do sueste de Galicia (Santa María de Moialde e San Pedro de Pousada, tanto por motivos económicos como sociais, mediante unha investigación cualitativa e a entrevista de varias testemuñas, coa intención de determinar as causas máis probables dos conflitos entre comunidades, tanto de natureza social como económica. A partir dos datos obtidos chégase á conclusión de que a maioría dos conflitos

  11. La «villa» de San Pedro de Valdanzo (Soria

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    Alfredo JIMENO MARTÍNEZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la «villa» romana de San Pedro de Valdanzo (Soria en su marco ambiental y económico. La excavación permitió detectar un asentamiento rural anterior (S. II-III y descubrir parte de la construcción señorial —dos tramos del corredor, el «oecus» y una segunda estancia—, de los s. IV-V, con mosaicos, en parte quemados y escasos objetos. El estudio integral de las estructuras arquitectónicas y la cultura material se enfoca hacia la interpretación funcional de la zona excavada y a establecer el marco cronológico de este asentamiento. Finalmente se exponen algunas consideraciones sobre las características del poblamiento de los S. IV-V en la zona del Alto Duero.

  12. The San Pedro M\\'artir Kinematic Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    López, J A; García-Díaz, M T; Clark, D M; Meaburn, J; Riesgo, H; Steffen, W; Lloyd, M

    2011-01-01

    The San Pedro M\\'artir kinematic catalogue of galactic planetary nebulae provides spatially resolved, long-slit Echelle spectra for about 600 planetary nebulae. The data are presented wavelength calibrated and corrected for heliocentric motion. For most objects multiple spectra have been acquired and images with accurate slit positions on the nebulae are also presented for each object. This is the most extensive and homogeneous single source of data concerning the internal kinematics of the ionized nebular material in planetary nebulae. Data can be retrieved for individual objects or selected by groups that share some common characteristics, such as by morphological classes, galactic population, binary cores, presence of fast outflows, etc. The catalogue is available through the world wide web at http://kincatpn.astrosen.unam.mx .

  13. Astroclimatic Characterization of Vallecitos: A candidate site for the Cherenkov Telescope Array at San Pedro Martir

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Ochoa, Jose Luis; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Mandat, Dusan; Pech, Miroslav; Frayn, Ilse Plauchu; Colorado, Enrique; Murillo, Jose Manuel; Cesena, Urania; Garcia, Benjamin; Lee, William H; Bulik, Tomasz; Garczarczyk, Markus; Fruck, Christian; Costantini, Heide; Cieslar, Marek; Aune, Taylor; Vincent, Stephane; Carr, John; Serre, Natalia; Janecek, Petr; Haefner, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an 18 month long study of the weather conditions of the Vallecitos, a proposed site in Mexico to harbor the northern array of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). It is located in Sierra de San Pedro Martir (SPM) a few kilometers away from Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional. The study is based on data collected by the ATMOSCOPE, a multi-sensor instrument measuring the weather and sky conditions, which was commissioned and built by the CTA Consortium. Additionally, we compare the weather conditions of the optical observatory at SPM to the Vallecitos regarding temperature, humidity, and wind distributions. It appears that the excellent conditions at the optical observatory benefit from the presence of microclimate established in the Vallecitos.

  14. La fiesta xita: patrimonio biocultural mazahua de San Pedro el Alto, México

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    Alicia Y. Vásquez González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante la crisis ambiental y de la modernidad, se propone conservar la riqueza cultural y biológica de la humanidad como patrimonio. Así, se valora y revalora el patrimonio vivo, como es la relación entre culturas y biodiversidad, que se manifiestan en paisajes y territorios de los pueblos originarios. Se propone la fiesta xita (viejos como patrimonio biocultural de la milpa mazahua. El estudio etnográfico se realizó en San Pedro el Alto, México. La fiesta xita es parte del patrimonio biocultural mazahua, mediante la cual se entretejen agrobiodiversidad y cultura, lo que permite que los mazahuas mantengan y desarrollen sus actividades sociales y culturales que han sido heredadas de generación en generación.

  15. MUSEO SANTUARIO DE SAN PEDRO CLAVER: UN ESPACIO EN MEMORIA DEL ESCLAVO DE LOS ESCLAVOS

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    Sandra E. Mendoza Lafaurie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Museo Santuario San Pedro Claver funciona desde el año 1950 en el claustro de los jesuitas de Cartagena. Este espacio está dedicado a honrar la memoria de este santo, que en la colonia se dedicó a la protección de los miles de esclavos que llegaban a Cartagena de Indias. Este museo cuenta con una colección arqueológica de material precolombino y de la colonia, una de arte religioso de diferentes épocas, así como una colección donada por la familia Zapata Olivella. El objeto del presente artículo es ver la manera en que este museo es un espacio de memoria, así como analizar su funcionamiento y organización.

  16. Eruptive Productivity of the Ceboruco-San Pedro Volcanic Field, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.; Hall, C. M.; Delgado-Granados, H.

    2002-12-01

    High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology coupled with GIS spatial analysis provides constraints on magma eruption rates over the past 1 Myr of the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field (1870 km2), located in the Tepic-Zacoalco rift in western Mexico. The volcanic field is part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic arc and is dominated by the andesitic-dacitic stratocone of Volcan Ceboruco and includes peripheral fissure-fed flows, domes, and monogenetic cinder cones. The ages of these volcanic features were determined using 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating techniques on groundmass or mineral separates, with 78% of the 52 analyses yielding plateau ages with a 2 sigma error < 50 kyrs. The volumes were determined using high resolution (1:50,000) digital elevation models, orthophotos, and GIS software, which allowed for the delineation of individual volcanic features, reconstruction of the pre-eruptive topography, and volume calculations by linear interpolation. The relative proportions of the 80 km3 erupted over the past 1 Myr are 14.5% basaltic andesite, 64.5% andesite, 20% dacite, and 1% rhyolite, demonstrating the dominance of intermediate magma types (in terms of silica content). Overall, there appears to be no systematic progression in the eruption of different magma types (e.g., basalt, andesite, dacite, etc.) with time. However, more than 75% of the total volume of lava within the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field erupted in the last 100 kyrs. This reflects the youthfulness of Volcan Ceboruco, which was constructed during the last 50 kyrs and has a present day volume of 50 +/- 2.5 km3, accounting for 81% of the andesite and 50% of the dacite within the volcanic field. Eleven cinder cones, ranging from the Holocene to 0.37 Ma, display a narrow compositional range, with 52-58 wt% SiO2, 3-5.5 wt% MgO, and relatively high TiO2 concentrations (0.9-1.8 wt%). The total volume of the cinder cones is 0.83 km3. No lavas with < 51 wt% SiO2 have erupted in the past 1 Myr. Peripheral

  17. Empresarialidad femenina y redes sociales en San Pedro Tultepec de Quiroga, estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Antonia Macho Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el papel de la empresarialidad femenina en la organización del sistema productivo local de San Pedro Tultepec. Esta localidad se caracteriza por su producción mueblera y por el papel que la familia juega en el ámbito económico y social. A pesar de que la confianza es un elemento fundamental en la organización económica local, desafortunadamente se limita a las relaciones familiares. Por lo tanto, es paradójico encontrar un enorme potencial de empresarialidad entre los habitantes y, al mismo tiempo, una gran dificultad para extender la confianza más allá de la estructura familiar.

  18. Empresarialidad femenina y redes sociales en San Pedro Tultepec de Quiroga, estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macho Morales Elisa Antonia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el papel de la empresarialidad femenina en la organización del sistema productivo local de San Pedro Tultepec. Esta localidad se caracteriza por su producción mueblera y por el papel que la familia juega en el ámbito económico y social. A pesar de que la confianza es un elemento fundamental en la organización económica local, desafortunadamente se limita a las relaciones familiares. Por lo tanto, es paradójico encontrar un enorme potencial de empresarialidad entre los habitantes y, al mismo tiempo, una gran dificultad para extender la confianza más allá de la estructura familiar.

  19. Study of plaster finishes on San Pedro de los Francos church at Calatayud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, Mª I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study of the plaster finishes on San Pedro de los Francos Church at Calatayud revealed, firstly, the stratigraphic sequence based on the interpretation of the bonding interfaces; and secondly, the evolution of placement techniques from mudéjar style textured and painted false stonework (15th century to the smooth plastering and paint typical of later phases. Finally, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD studies showed that gypsum and anhydrite are the main components of both binder and aggregate in these mortars. In other words, they constitute traditional multiphase plasters whose coarser particles or aggregate were a byproduct of the artisanal manufacturing process.El estudio de los enlucidos de la iglesia de San Pedro de los Francos de Calatayud ha permitido demostrar, en primer lugar, la secuencia estratigráfica mediante la lectura de la interfase de adherencia; en segundo lugar, la evolución de las técnicas de aplicación, desde el enlucido mudéjar, un fingido de piedra agramilado y pintado (siglo XV, hasta los enlucidos lisos y pinturas aplicados posteriormente. Y, finalmente, a través de los estudios de microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, microanálisis por energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX y de difracción de rayos X (DRX, se ha determinado que son morteros en los que tanto el conglomerante como el árido son yeso y anhidrita, que correspondería a un yeso tradicional multifase, cuyos granos más gruesos analizados como áridos proceden del producto obtenido artesanalmente.

  20. Assessing hydrologic impacts of future Land Change scenarios in the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, W. G.; Burns, S.; Sidman, G.; Levick, L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Guertin, P.; Yee, W.; Scianni, M.

    2012-12-01

    An approach was developed to characterize the hydrologic impacts of urban expansion through time for the San Pedro River, a watershed of immense international importance that straddles the U.S./Mexico border. Future urban growth is a key driving force altering local and regional hydrology and is represented by decadal changes in housing density maps from 2010 to 2100 derived from the Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) database. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize the hydrologic impacts of future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The presentation will report 1) the methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate basin-wide impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) initial results of the application of the methodology, and 3) discuss implications of the analysis.

  1. Vegetation history along the eastern, desert escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate A.

    2011-05-01

    Plant macrofossils from 38 packrat middens spanning the last ~ 33,000 cal yr BP record vegetation between ~ 650 and 900 m elevation along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, northern Baja California. The middens span most of the Holocene, with a gap between ~ 4600 and 1800 cal yr BP, but coverage in the Pleistocene is uneven with a larger hiatus between 23,100 and 14,400 cal yr BP. The midden flora is relatively stable from the Pleistocene to Holocene. Exceptions include Pinus californiarum, Juniperus californica and other chaparral elements that were most abundant > 23,100 cal yr BP and declined after 14,400 cal yr BP. Despite being near the chaparral/woodland-desertscrub ecotone during glacial times, the midden assemblages reflect none of the climatic reversals evident in the glacial or marine record, and this is corroborated by a nearby semi-continuous pollen stratigraphy from lake sediments. Regular appearance of C 4 grasses and summer-flowering annuals since 13,600 cal yr BP indicates occurrence of summer rainfall equivalent to modern (JAS average of ~ 80-90 mm). This casts doubt on the claim, based on temperature proxies from marine sediments in the Guaymas Basin, that monsoonal development in the northern Gulf and Arizona was delayed until after 6200 cal yr BP.

  2. Thermal Performance of Traditional and New Concept Houses in the Ancient Village of San Pedro De Atacama and Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Palme

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Earth, wood and others traditional materials are still used in house constructions in many regions of the world, especially in the Andes. San Pedro de Atacama, for example, is a small town where earth blocks (adobes and rammed earth (tapial are important ways to construct, an art passed on through generations. Energy properties of earth are very interesting: thermal conductivity is low; heat storage capacity is high; color is variable and can be used to absorb or to reject solar radiation. However, nowadays the government social dwelling service is proposing a different type of construction, which does not maintain any relation with the tradition. This paper presents simulation studies and monitoring of four different San Pedro houses, constructed by using different techniques and materials. Results can be used to discuss the thermal performance needed in desert climate and the reliability of social dwelling service houses, under construction at this time in the town.

  3. Off-axis point spread function and efficiency for adaptive optics at San Pedro Mártir and other sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Orlov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimamos la e ciencia de correci on para sistemas astron omicos de optica adaptativa fuera de eje a partir de cuatro per les de C2 n obtenidos en cuatro sitios astron omicos: Observatorio Europeo Austral en Paranal, Chile; Observatorio de Roque de los Muchachos, Islas Canarias, Observatorio Astron omico Nacional en San Pedro M artir, M exico y Observatorio de Haute Provence, Francia. Esta e ciencia se calcula a trav es del cociente de Strehl de la imagen corregida en las bandas V, J y K y para telescopios de la clase de 8-m. Tambi en realizamos un an alisis detallado de la anisotrop a de la funci on de distribuci on de punto en posiciones fuera del eje de correcci on de sistemas de optica adaptativa para el caso del sitio de San Pedro M artir. Los per les de C2 n usados en este trabajo fueron obtenidos con globos instrumentados y con un Scidar Generalizado.

  4. Mechanical conceptual design of 6.5 meter telescope: Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Jorge; Bringas, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Tovar, Carlos; López, Aldo; Caballero, Xóchitl; Martínez, César; Toledo, Gengis; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; González, Jesús; Richer, Michael; Sánchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Rubio, Saúl; González, Germán.; Hernández, Obed; Segura, José; Macias, Eduardo; García, Mary; Lazaro, José; Rosales, Fabián.; del Llano, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM) project intends to build a 6.5 meters telescope with alt-azimuth design, currently at the conceptual design. The project is an association between Instituto de Astronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM) and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica Electrónica (INAOE) in partnership with department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory of University of Arizona and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory of Harvard University. Conceptual design of the telescope is lead and developed by the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI). An overview of the feasibility study and the structural conceptual design are summarized in this paper. The telescope concept is based on telescopes already commissioned such as MMT and the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, building up on these proven concepts. The main differences relative to the Magellan pair are; the elevation axis is located 1 meter above the primary mirror vertex, allowing for a similar field of view at the Cassegrain and both Nasmyth focal stations; instead of using a vane ends to position the secondary mirror TSPM considers an Steward platform like MMT; finally TSPM has a larger floor distance to m1 cell than Magellans and MMT. Initially TSPM will operate with an f/5 Cassegrain station, but the design considers further Nasmyth configurations from a Cassegrain f/5 up to a Gregorian f/11. The telescope design includes 7 focal stations: 1 Cassegrain; 2 Nasmyth; and 4 folded-Cassegrain. The telescope will be designed and manufactured in Mexico, will be design in Queretaro by CIDESI and built between Queretaro and Michoacán manufacturing facilities; it will be preassembled in these facilities and disassembled to send it to the San Pedro Mártir Observatory for final integration. The azimuth and altitude structure is planned to be constructed in modules and transported by truck and shipped to Ensenada and finally to the OAN where is going

  5. Optical-turbulence and wind profiles at San Pedro Mártir with g-scidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Avila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados del monitoreo de perfiles de turbulencia óptica en San Pedro Mártir, México, durante 11 noches en abril {mayo 1997 y 16 noches en mayo 2000. La velocidad de las capas turbulentas también se monitoreo, pero sólo durante la temporada del 2000. 6414 perfiles de turbulencia y 3016 perfiles de velocidad fueron medidos y analizados estadísticamente. Los resultados referentes a los perfiles de turbulencia son: (i el seeing producido en los primeros 1.2 km, sin incluir la turbulencia de cúpula, en los telescopios de 1.5 y 2.1 m tiene medianas de 0.0063 y 0.0044. (ii La turbulencia por encima de 1.2 km y en la atmósfera completa produce seeing con valores medianos de 0.0038 y 0.0071. (iii El ángulo de isoplanatismo para corrección total en óptica adaptativa tiene una valor mediano de 1.0087. (iv La correlación temporal de la intensidad de la turbulencia cae a 50% en peródos de tiempo de 2 y 0.5 horas, aproximadamente, para alturas mayores y menores que 16 km sobre el nivel del mar, respectivamente. (v El tiempo de decorrelación del ángulo de isoplanatismo tiene un valor estimado de 2 horas. Los resultados referentes a los perfiles de viento son: (vi No se encuentra correlación significativa entre la intensidad de turbulencia (C2 N y la velocidad de las capas turbulentas. (vii Las capas por debajo de 5 km y por arriba de 16 km, sobre el nivel del mar, son similarmente lentas, con velocidades medianas de 8.6 y 9.6 m s_1. (viii Entre 9 y 16 km, donde algunas noches tiene lugar la corriente de chorro, la velocidad del viento mediana es de 26.0 m s_1. (ix De las medidas simultáneas de C2 N(h y V (h, calculamos el tiempo de coherencia de la turbulencia, capa por capa. Los resultados obtenidos sitúan a San Pedro Mártir entre los sitios mas adecuados para la instalación de telescopios ópticos de la próxima generación

  6. Citizen participation overplanned: the case of a health project in the Guatemalan community of San Pedro la Laguna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B D; Demarest, W J

    1984-01-01

    Citizen involvement is a widely endorsed but often elusive goal in community betterment projects. An initiative by the major of San Pedro attracted funds to build a clinic and hire a doctor and attracted an American health educator to direct the project. Contrary to plan, the director's insistence on creating a representative community committee discouraged rather than increased participation. The case chronicles the interplay of interests and strategies and points toward potentially more productive approaches to issues of leadership, factionalism and public participation.

  7. Équidos y Gonfoterios del Pleistoceno tardío de San Pedro, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammal fossil remains from San Pedro (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina are very poorly known. In this paper, best preserved specimens of Equidae and Gomphotheriidae are described. They come from “Campo Spósito” quarry near San Pedro city. The quarry was referred to Lujanian Age, Biozone of Equus (Amerhippus neogeus. We conducted a comparative study with other South American horse and gomphothere remains, mainly from Argentina and Brazil, allow their identification as Equus (Amerhippus neogeus, Hippidion principale and Stegomastodon cf. S. platensis. Two absolute dates were obtained by the method of OSL: 37626±4198 y 41554±3756 years BP. Based on this data and correlation with other localities we referred this bed to oxygen isotopic stage 3.

    Los mamíferos fósiles de la localidad de San Pedro (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina son escasamente conocidos. En este artículo se describen ejemplares mejor conservados de Equidae y Gomphotheriidae. Estos restos provienen del yacimiento “Campo Spósito”, ubicado en las proximidades de la ciudad de San Pedro. Los sedimentos portadores son referibles al Piso/Edad Lujanense, Biozona de Equus (Amerhippus neogeus. Se realizó un estudio comparativo con caballos y gonfoterios de Argentina y Brasil para identificar los siguientes taxa: Hippidion principale, Equus (Amerhippus neogeus y Stegomastodon cf. S. platensis. Se obtuvieron dos dataciones por Luminiscencia Ópticamente Estimulada para la secuencias estratigráfica de: 37626±4198 y 41554±3756 años AP, respectivamente. Estos datos sitúan el yacimiento en el Pleistoceno Superior (estadio 3 del oxígeno isotópico.

  8. Cross-shelf subtidal variability in San Pedro Bay during summer, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P.; Noble, M.A.; Largier, J.; Rosenfeld, L.K.; Robertson, G.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 16 moorings were deployed across the San Pedro shelf, one of the two wider embayments in the Southern California Bight, from near the surfzone to the upper-slope. On the middle and outer shelf in the summer of 2001, the currents flowed strongly equatorward at the surface and had large vertical shears through the well-stratified water column. This equatorward flow differs from predominantly poleward flow found in previous studies of the coastal margin further west. In deeper water, near the shelf break, the shears were such that near-bottom flows were poleward and incorporated into the upper parts of the Southern California Undercurrent over the slope. Mid-shelf current fluctuations, with periods of 10-25 days, along with upwelling over the shelf, were not related to local winds, but were significantly correlated with the large-scale alongshore pressure gradient. Shorter period (???7-10 days) inner shelf alongshore currents, however, were significantly correlated with the alongshore wind at the shelf break. A CEOF analysis gives two significant modes, with the first mode dominant over the outer and middle shelf. The wind-forced second mode connects the inner shelf to the poleward undercurrent over the slope such that increases in the poleward flow over the slope are correlated with increases in the equatorward current inshore of the 15 m isobath.

  9. The San Pedro M\\'artir Planetary Nebula Kinematic Catalogue: Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G; Díaz-Méndez, E; Riesgo, H; Báez, S -H; García-Díaz, Ma -T; Meaburn, J; Clark, D M; Olvera, R M Calderón; Soto, G López; Rebolo, O Toledano

    2010-01-01

    We present kinematic data for 211 bright planetary nebulae in eleven Local Group galaxies: M31 (137 PNe), M32 (13), M33 (33), Fornax (1), Sagittarius (3), NGC 147 (2), NGC 185 (5), NGC 205 (9), NGC 6822 (5), Leo A (1), and Sextans A (1). The data were acquired at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in the Sierra de San Pedro M\\'artir using the 2.1m telescope and the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer in the light of [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda$5007 at a resolution of 11 km/s. A few objects were observed in H$\\alpha$. The internal kinematics of bright planetary nebulae do not depend strongly upon the metallicity or age of their progenitor stellar populations, though small systematic differences exist. The nebular kinematics and H$\\beta$ luminosity require that the nebular shells be accelerated during the early evolution of their central stars. Thus, kinematics provides an additional argument favoring similar stellar progenitors for bright planetary nebulae in all galaxies.

  10. LONG-TERM OPTICAL PHOTOPOLARIMETRIC MONITORING OF BLAZARS AT SAN PEDRO MÁRTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benítez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad de luz polarizada en el óptico ha resultado ser una herramienta poderosa para estudiar a los Blázares debido a que permite determinar la intensidad y orientación del campo magnético asociado al jet relativista. También la luz polarizada es útil para estimar el sitio donde se origina la emisión de rayos-gama, aun cuando el mecanismo físico responsable de su producción sigue sin aclararse. Más importante aún, dado que las campañas en multifrecuencias típicamente se concentran en fuentes que están en estados de alta actividad, las características de las propiedades polarimétricas de Blázares en las fases pre- y post-estallido son menos conocidas. Por tanto, hemos iniciado un programa de monitoreo dedicado de Blázares de la muestra GASP en San Pedro Mártir para estudiar sus propiedades de variabilidad. En este trabajo queremos mostrar el estado en el que se encuentra el programa presentando algunos resultados preliminares sobre la variabilidad polarim´etrica en el óptico y de rayos observada con Fermi-LAT en el blázar PKS 1510-089.

  11. Evaluation of NDVI to assess avian abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, T.M.; van Riper, Charles; Johnson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Remote-sensing models have become increasingly popular for identifying, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting avian habitat but have largely focused on single bird species. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been shown to positively correlate with avian abundance and richness and has been successfully applied to southwestern riparian systems which are uniquely composed of narrow bands of vegetation in an otherwise dry landscape. Desert riparian ecosystems are important breeding and stopover sites for many bird species but have been degraded due to altered hydrology and land management practices. Here we investigated the use of NDVI, coupled with vegetation, to model the avian community structure along the San Pedro River, Arizona. We also investigated how vegetation and physical features measured locally compared to those data that can be gathered through remote-sensing. We found that NDVI has statistically significant relationships with both avian abundance and species richness, although is better applied at the individual species level. However, the amount of variation explained by even our best models was quite low, suggesting that NDVI habitat models may not presently be an accurate tool for extensive modeling of avian communities. We suggest additional studies in other watersheds to increase our understanding of these bird/NDVI relationships.

  12. THE SAN PEDRO MÁRTIR PLANETARY NEBULA KINEMATIC CATALOGUE: EXTRAGALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Richer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos datos cinemáticos para 211 nebulosas planetarias brillantes en once galaxias del Grupo Local: M31 (137 NPs, M32 (13, M33 (33, Fornax (1,Sagittarius (3, NGC 147 (2, NGC 185 (5, NGC 205 (9, NGC 6822 (6, Leo A (1, y Sextans A (1. Adquirimos los datos en el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir con el telescopio de 2.1 m y el espectrómetro Manchester Echelle en la línea de [O III]l 5007 con una resolución de 11 km s¿1. Observamos algunos objetos en H¿. La cinemática de nebulosas planetarias brillantes no depende fuertemente de la metalicidad o la edad de la población estelar progenitora en sus galaxias huéspedes, aunque existen pequeñas diferencias sistemáticas. La cinemática y la luminosidad en Hb de las cáscaras nebulares requieren la aceleraci ón de las cáscaras durante la evolución temprana de las estrellas centrales. Así, la cinemática representa otro argumento a favor de estrellas progenitoras similares para las nebulosas planetarias brillantes en todas galaxias.

  13. "Take my water": liberation through prohibition in San Pedro Chenalhó, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, C

    2001-07-01

    This article explores changing views of alcohol in San Pedro Chenalhó, a township in highland Chiapas, Mexico that has been profoundly transformed by the Zapatista democracy movement. The first part of the article provides an overview of drinking in Chenalhó in the 1970s and 1980s when alcohol was still a strong symbol of community solidarity and an important part of healing ceremonies. The second part describes the period since the Zapatista uprising, a period in which indigenous women have begun to intensify their involvement in the political affairs of their communities. In their search for autonomy and to recover pride and dignity, both women and men supporters of the Zapatista movement reject alcohol as a symbol of political and economic domination. A commentary examines the relationship between the critiques of alcohol that have developed in Chenalhó since the 1970s and political economy perspectives in alcohol studies. Both explanatory frameworks focus on the power structures in which alcohol sales and use are embedded.

  14. Análisis de marcadores de herencia uniparental en 'La Esperanza' (San Pedro, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altuna, María Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó una muestra de pobladores “criollos” obtenida en el Ingenio La Esperanza (San Pedro, Jujuy constituída por 92 individuos (38 varones, 54 mujeres en los polimorfismos que definen los 4 linajes maternos amerindios, y en 11 microsatélites (STRs del cromosoma Y. El ADN fue extraído a partir de hisopados bucales. Los polimorfismos mitocondriales fueron determinados a través de protocolos ya publicados. Los STRs del cromosoma Y fueron tipificados empleando el kit Powerplex Y-system (Promega y el analizador genético ABI 3130xl. El 91% de los individuos analizados posee uno de los 4 linajes maternos amerindios, distribuidos según las siguientes proporciones: Linaje A 11%, B 49%, C 18% y D 23%. Esta distribución de frecuencias resulta similar a la observada en poblaciones de la región chaqueña. En cuanto a los linajes paternos, se encontraron 34 haplotipos diferentes, de los cuales sólo 3 se repitieron, lo que sugiere gran heterogeneidad en la población. De la búsqueda en el Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database se infiere que 11 de los haplotipos encontrados serían amerindios, 14 europeos, 2 árabes y 2 africanos Los restantes individuos requerirán el análisis de marcadores bialélicos para poder ser asignados de manera inequívoca.

  15. The Atmospheric Extinction of San Pedro Mártir W. J. Schuster & L. Parrao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Schuster

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la extinción atmosférica de San Pedro Mártir (SPM utilizando determinaciones en 13 colores de 294 noches de observación durante los años de 1973{1983, además de mediciones de extinción para 272 noches de observación en uvby durante los años 1984{1999. Se obtiene el comportamiento general de la extinción normal en SPM, y se analiza éste como función de la longitud de onda y del tiempo; se aportan valores promedio y mínimos para esta extinción. La extinción atmosférica promedio en SPM, excluyendo erupciones volcánicas, no cambió apreciablemente durante el período 1973{1999. Se presenta un modelo sencillo, de tres componentes, para la extinción en SPM. Los aerosoles normales, promedio, no volcánicos sobre SPM se ajustan bien por kp = 0:0254 0:87. Se presentan las determinaciones de la extinción para los períodos que siguieron a las erupciones de los volcanes de El Chichón y el Pinatubo: los datos en 13 colores muestran los efectos de El Chichón, y los datos uvby los del Pinatubo. Se analizan las curvas de extinción y sus variaciones para estudiar los aerosoles volcánicos y su evolución en el tiempo. Se estudia también la temporada de observación de abril y mayo de 1998, en la cual ocurrieron grandes variaciones no volcánicas en la extinción, y se presentan deducciones sobre estos aerosoles inusuales.

  16. Optical-turbulence and wind profiles at San Pedro Mártin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Avila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados del monitoreo de per les de turbulencia optica y velocidad de las capas turbulentas en San Pedro M artir, M exico. Los datos fueron colectados durante 11 noches en abril{mayo 1997 y 16 noches en mayo 2000 utilizando el Scidar Generalizado de la Universidad de Niza instalado en los telescopios de 1.5-m y 2.1-m. El an alisis estad stico de los 6414 per les de turbulencia obtenidos muestra que la distorsi on de la imagen (llamada com unmente seeing producida por la turbulencia en los primeros 1.2 km, sin incluir la turbulencia de c upula, en los telescopios de 1.5-m y 2.1-m tiene valores medianos de 0.0063 y 0.0044, respectivamente. El seeing de c upula en dichos telescopios tiene valores medianos de 0.0064 y 0.0031. La turbulencia por encima de 1.2 km y en la atm osfera completa produce seeing con valores medianos de 0.0038 y 0.0071. La correlaci on temporal de la intensidad de la turbulencia cae a 50% en per odos de tiempo de 2 y 0.5 horas, aproximadamente, para alturas mayores y menores que 16 km sobre el nivel del mar, respectivamente. La turbulencia arriba de 9 km permaneci o notablemente d ebil durante 9 noches consecutivas, lo cual es alentador para realizar observaciones de alta resoluci on angular en el sitio. Los 3016 per les de la velocidad de las capas turbulentas que son analizados muestran que las capas m as veloces se encuentran entre 10 y 17 km, donde se localizan la tropopausa y la corriente de chorro, con velocidad mediana de 24.4 m s

  17. Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Gutierrez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2005 to August 2006 in triplicate, totaling 165 water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. Madero dam (LP; between Rosales and Delicias (RD; Meoqui (M; El Torreon (ET, and Julimes (LJ. The levels of As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Ta, V and Zn were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES Perkin Elmer 2100. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed. The results indicated that some samples exceeded Mexican standards for As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn. The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level (0.10 mg L-1 and location (0.10 mg L-1 exceeded the Mexican and International norms. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li. At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem.

  18. Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Roberto L; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Quintana, Ray; Ortega, Juan Angel; Gutierrez, Melida

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2005 to August 2006 in triplicate, totaling 165 water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. Madero dam (LP); between Rosales and Delicias (RD); Meoqui (M); El Torreon (ET), and Julimes (LJ). The levels of As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Ta, V and Zn were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) Perkin Elmer 2100. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed. The results indicated that some samples exceeded Mexican standards for As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn. The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level (0.10 mg L-1) and location (0.10 mg L-1) exceeded the Mexican and International norms. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li. At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem.

  19. Cambio tecnológico y agricultura en San Pedro Tlaltizapán, Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ortiz Solorio; Hermilio Navarro Garza; David Pájaro Huertas

    2001-01-01

    San Pedro Tlaltizapán pertenece a los pueblos del Alto Lerma. Lo que en un tiempo fue considerado un ecosistema complejo con una diversidad importante de especies, hoy en día presenta una fauna y vegetación que se ha reducido de manera notable junto con los mantos freáticos. La consecuencia de la toma de decisiones del Estado de entubar el agua hacia la ciudad de México, influyó de manera directa en la diversificación del sistema ecológico y cultural.

  20. CONOCIMIENTO TRADICIONAL SOBRE LOS HONGOS SILVESTRES EN LA COMUNIDAD OTOMÍ DE SAN PEDRO ARRIBA; TEMOAYA, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Fidel Lara-Vázquez; Alejandro T. Romero-Contreras; Cristina Burrola-Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Los hongos silvestres hoy en día constituyen, en diferentes comunidades campesinas, un recurso forestal no maderable en temporada de lluvias, debido a su gran importancia cultural, alimenticia y económica. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de identificar el conocimiento tradicional y manejo familiar de las principales especies de hongos silvestres en la comunidad de San Pedro Arriba, Temoaya, Estado de México. En el tianguis de la cabecera municipal se aplicaron entrevistas...

  1. Evaluación del uso turístico y recreativo del mirador de San Pedro

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre P., Denisse; Benavides M., Angélica; Cynthia Jara B., Cynthia; Osorio, Victor

    2013-01-01

    El presente documento tiene la finalidad de realizar una evaluación sobre el uso turístico y recreativo del Mirador de San Pedro, donde se realiza la actividad del parapente. Este atractivo se encuentra localizado en la parroquia Manglaralto del Cantón Santa Elena, en la provincia del mismo nombre, a 130 kilómetros de la ciudad de Guayaquil. Se recopiló información general del atractivo a través de fichas de inventario turístico; donde se define que la extensión del área del Mirador es de ...

  2. El ordenamiento territorial de los barrios indígenas en la parroquia de San Pedro Cholula, Puebla

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abordaremos el análisis de la Parroquia de San Pedro Cholula, dentro de su diseño urbano, para que nos lleve a explicar cómo dentro de este contexto, se tienen las expresiones arquitectónicas y un diseño territorial que con el paso del tiempo y las relaciones sociales que se realizan, van creando relaciones de identidad. Para este análisis solo es posible lograr una explicación, si se expone la estructura social religiosa de los barrios de Cholula. Sobre esta base de la información es posible...

  3. La penetración capitalista en una comunidad campesina: el caso de san pedro de casta, Huarochiri.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Villacorta, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo presentamos únicamente los resultados de la investigación en lo que se refiere al análisis del rol que han cumplido y cumplen Empresas Eléctricas Asociadas (hoy Electrolima) y CooperaciónTemica Suiza con el desarrollo de su Proyecto de Queserías Nacionales,en los cambios producidos en San Pedro de Casta y en la incorporaciónde dicha Comunidad Campesina al sistema capitalista, presentando los mecanismos a través de los cuales se arcula la economía campesina con la economía cap...

  4. Desarrollo endógeno local sustentable y propiedad común: San Pedro El Alto, México

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En México se están gestando dinámicas socioeconómicas en algunas comunidades rurales, a partir de la recuperación de la gestión de sus recursos naturales y de la creación de Empresas Forestales Comunitarias, que propician un tipo de progreso incluyente y participativo. El objetivo del documento es analizar el caso de San Pedro El Alto en México, con la perspectiva del desarrollo endógeno local, la propuesta de Víctor Toledo (1996) sobre comunidades sustentables y el modo de apropiación poscam...

  5. Procesos históricos y ambientales en Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí, México, 1948-1997

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Andrea Martínez Chaves; Alexander Betancourt Mendieta; Miguel Nicolás Caretta; Miguel Aguilar Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Los estudios sobre el municipio Cerro de San Pedro enfatizan la continuidad ambiental aparente que estimula la minería; sin embargo, esta lectura subvalora otras dinámicas que ocurren en la zona. Con base en observaciones directas de trabajo en campo, para realizar análisis de coberturas vegetales, entrevistas con los habitantes de la zona, revisión de cartografía e investigación de archivo, el presente trabajo muestra procesos como la explotación de recursos vegetales y el pastoreo, como act...

  6. Paleohydrogeology of the San Joaquin basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.M.; Garven, G.; Boles, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transport can have a significant effect on chemical diagenetic processes in sedimentary basins. This paper presents results from the first part of a study that was designed to explore the role of an evolving hydrodynamic system in driving mass transport and chemical diagenesis, using the San Joaquin basin of California as a field area. We use coupled hydrogeologic models to establish the paleohydrogeology, thermal history, and behavior of nonreactive solutes in the basin. These models rely on extensive geological information and account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, tectonic uplift, sediment compaction, and clay dehydration. In our numerical simulations, tectonic uplift and ocean regression led to large-scale changes in fluid flow and composition by strengthening topography-driven fluid flow and allowing deep influx of fresh ground water in the San Joaquin basin. Sediment compaction due to rapid deposition created moderate overpressures, leading to upward flow from depth. The unusual distribution of salinity in the basin reflects influx of fresh ground water to depths of as much as 2 km and dilution of saline fluids by dehydration reactions at depths greater than ???2.5 km. Simulations projecting the future salinity of the basin show marine salinities persisting for more than 10 m.y. after ocean regression. Results also show a change from topography-to compaction-driven flow in the Stevens Sandstone at ca. 5 Ma that coincides with an observed change in the diagenetic sequence. Results of this investigation provide a framework for future hydrologic research exploring the link between fluid flow and diagenesis.

  7. Inorganic pigment study of the San Pedro Gonzalez Telmo Sibyls using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Cristina, E-mail: vazquez@cnea.gov.a [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850. C1063ACU, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia Quimica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina); Custo, Graciela, E-mail: custo@cnea.gov.a [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia Quimica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina); Barrio, Nestor, E-mail: nbarrio@unsam.edu.a [CEIRCAB-TAREA, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), Escuela de Humanidades, Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina); Burucua, Jose, E-mail: gburucua@unsam.edu.a [CEIRCAB-TAREA, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), Escuela de Humanidades, Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina); Boeykens, Susana [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850. C1063ACU, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marte, Fernando, E-mail: fmarte@unsam.edu.a [CEIRCAB-TAREA, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), Escuela de Humanidades, Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina)

    2010-09-15

    This article describes the study carried out on a series of oil paintings on canvas from the eighteenth century that were restored at Centro de Produccion e Investigacion en Restauracion y Conservacion Artistica y Bibliografica - Tarea (CEIRCAB-Tarea), Buenos Aires, Argentina: the San Pedro Gonzalez Telmo Sibyls. Experimental study was undertaken to identify inorganic pigments and the technique used in their confection; and, in this way, try to add information about their local origin. Therefore special emphasis was put to infer technologies used in the manufacturing of these paintings. Elemental analysis was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) and complemented by optical and polarized light microscopy. Microsampling was carefully done over areas of the paintings which were damaged and where a small additional loss will not be noticed. This investigation has shown that a variety of pigments were used, namely earth pigments (red and yellow ochres), white lead, vermilion, etc., and they were used either pure or in mixtures. This characterization helped conservators in their decisions regarding a better understanding of the deterioration processes. In addition, this research about the material composition allowed the art historians and restorers the possibility to obtain information about where, when or by whom The San Pedro Gonzalez Telmo Sibyls may have been painted.

  8. Hydrologic requirements of and consumptive ground-water use by riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River, Arizona. Chapters A-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, James M.; Stromberg, Juliet C.; Scott, Russell L.; authors include Leenhouts, James M.; Lite, Sharon J.; Dixon, Mark; Rychener, Tyler; Makings, Elizabeth; Williams, David G.; Goodrich, David C.; Cable, William L.; Levick, Lainie R.; McGuire, Roberta; Gazal, Rico M.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Ellsworth, Patrick; Huxman, Travis E.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a coordinated effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS), and Arizona State University, with assistance from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the University of Wyoming, and the University of Arizona. The specific objectives of the study were: to determine the water needs of riparian vegetation through the riparian growing season and throughout the SPRNCA to ensure its long-term ecological integrity; to quantify the total water use of riparian vegetation within the SPRNCA; and to determine the source of water used by key riparian plant species within the SPRNCA. To meet these objectives, the study was divided into three elements: (1) a characterization of the status and variability of hydrologic factors within the riparian system (USGS), (2) a riparian biohydrology study to relate spatial and temporal aspects of riparian changes and condition to the hydrologic variables (Arizona State University), and (3) a water-use evapotranspiration (ET) study to quantify annual consumptive ground-water use by riparian transpiration and direct evaporation from the stream channel (USDA ARS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the University of Wyoming, and the University of Arizona. Twenty-six sites within the SPRNCA were selected for collection of vegetation data from three primary streamflow regimes (perennial, intermittent-wet, intermittent-dry), which include the principal vegetation communities. Detailed hydrologic-condition data were collected at a subset of 16 of these sites, called the SPRNCA biohydrology sites. Water-use and water-source data were collected at a subset of 5 of the 16 biohydrology sites. Vegetation data also were collected at supplemental sites within the SPRNCA boundary in the Upper San Pedro Basin and in the Lower San Pedro Basin. In addition to information about vegetation and geomorphic conditions, hydrologic data collected at the 16

  9. Liver lesions in demersal fishes near a large ocean outfall on the San Pedro Shelf, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmadjian, Edward; Perkins, Edwin M; Phillips, Charles R; Heilprin, Daniel J; Watts, Susan D; Diener, Douglas R; Myers, Mark S; Koerner, Kelly A; Mengel, Michael J; Robertson, George; Armstrong, Jeffrey L; Lissner, Andrew L; Frank, Victoria L

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of toxicopathic liver lesions in demersal fish on the San Pedro Shelf, California was determined for a 15-year period (1988-2003). Fish livers were sampled at fixed locations as part of the Orange County Sanitation Districts (OCSD) ocean monitoring program. Histopathological examination of selected fish liver tissues was studied to determine whether the wastewater discharge had affected fish health. The prevalence of toxicopathic lesion classes neoplasms (NEO), preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration (FCA), and hydropic vacuolation (HYDVAC) varied among species and locations. For all species sampled, severe lesions occurred in 6.2% of the fish examined (n=7,694). HYDVAC (4.1%) was the most common toxicopathic lesion type followed by FCA (1.4%) and NEO (0.7%). HYDVAC occurred only in white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), accounting for 84.8% of the toxicopathic lesions for this species. Prevalence of HYDVAC, NEO, and FCA in white croaker was 15.2, 2.0, and 0.7%, respectively. The prevalence of HYDVAC and NEO in white croaker increased with age and size but there was no sexual difference. A linear regression model was used for hypothesis testing to account for significant differences in fish size (and age for croakers) at the different sampling locations. This analysis showed that for HYDVAC there was no spatial or location effect for lesion rate or size/age of onset. For NEO, the model predicted that white croaker near the wastewater outfall may acquire these lesions at a smaller size/younger age, and at a higher rate, than at other sites. However, this result may be biased due to the unequal size frequency distributions and the low prevalence of NEO in white croaker at the different sampling sites. Bigmouth sole (Hippoglossina stomata) had a prevalence of FCA and NEO of 1.3 and 0.35%, respectively, but the prevalence and distribution of lesions was too few for statistical testing. There was no sexual difference for lesion prevalence in hornyhead

  10. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

  11. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

  12. INTERVENCIÓN ARQUEOMAGNÉTICA DEL HORNO DE LA HACIENDA SAN PEDRO CHOLUL (MÉRIDA, YUCATÁN (Archaeomagnetic Dating of a Kiln from the San Pedro Cholul Hacienda (Merida, Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Hernández Álvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se reportan los resultados de un estudio arqueomagnético realizado en un horno para la quema de cal encontrado en la hacienda henequenera de San Pedro Cholul, localizada al noroeste de la ciudad de Mérida en el estado de Yucatán, México. La finalidad del estudio es establecer una cronología confiable y analizar las posibles consecuencias sociales, económicas y ambientales de este asentamiento, el cual existió posiblemente desde mediados del siglo XIX hasta los años sesenta del siglo pasado. Para la determinación de la cronología, se utilizó el método de datación arqueomagnética a estructuras pirotecnológicas de estas características. Las muestras estudiadas provienen de rocas y ladrillos del horno y arrojan una edad entre 1835 y 1896, la cual concuerda con la información histórica disponible y se interpreta como el periodo de producción más importante de la región. ENGLISH: This paper presents the results of an archaeomagnetic study carried out on a lime burning kiln at the henequen hacienda of San Pedro Cholul (northwest of the city of Merida in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The purpose of the study is to establish a reliable chronology and to estimate the possible social, economic and environmental implications of this settlement, which may have existed from the middle of the nineteenth century until the 1960s. Archaeomagnetic dating was carried out on samples obtained from rocks and bricks from the kiln and give an age between 1835 and 1896. This date range agrees with available historical information and is interpreted as the most important production period of the region.

  13. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  14. Una inusual iconografía de San Pedro Mártir en una tabla de Juan Correa de Vivar

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    Mateo Gómez, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This small panel is here attributed to Juan Correa de Vivar, and added to his catalogue of works. Given its dimensions, the painting could have been made for the private devotion of a Dominican friar, who most likely would have suggested to the artist the unusual iconography involving Saint Peter Martyr.

    Se atribuye y suma al catálogo del pintor una pequeña tabla que, por sus dimensiones, pudo ser concebida para cumplir la devoción privada de algún fraile dominico, quien sin duda pudo sugerir al pintor la iconografía inusual representada de San Pedro Mártir

  15. Astroclimate at San Pedro M\\'artir I: 2004-2008 Seeing Statistics from the TMT Site Testing Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, L J; Echevarría, J; Ruelas-Mayorga, A; García, A M; Avila, R; Carrasco, E; Carramiñana, A; Nigoche-Netro, A

    2012-01-01

    We present comprehensive seeing statistics for the San Pedro M\\'artir site derived from the Thirty Meter Telescope site selection data. The observations were obtained between 2004 and 2008 with a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) and a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) combined instrument (MASS--DIMM). The parameters that are statistically analised here are: whole atmosphere seeing -measured by the DIMM-; free atmosphere seeing --measured by the MASS--; and ground-layer seeing (GL) --difference between the total and free-atmosphere seeing--. We made a careful data coverage study along with statistical distributions of simultaneous MASS--DIMM seeing measurements, in order to investigate the nightly, monthly, seasonal, annual and global behaviour, as well as possible hourly seeing trends. Although this campaign covers five years, the sampling is uneven, being 2006 and 2007 the best sampled years in terms of seasonal coverage. The overall results yield a median seeing of 0.78 (DIMM), 0.37 (MASS) ...

  16. Elaboración y consumo de tortillas como patrimonio cultural de San Pedro del Rosal, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Chávez Mejía

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Planting and consumption of maize are identity and determining activities in the evolution of population’s food heritage, since they contribute to food security and preservation of the biocultural heritage. Based on qualitative collection of information from producers and consumers of hand-made maize tortillas in San Pedro del Rosal, Atlacomulco, Estado de Mexico, an ethnographic study was conducted. From an anthropological perspective, the production of tortillas was characterized in order to analyze the know-how concerning this food, typical of central Mexico’s culinary identity. For tortilla producers, the know-how constitutes an identity heritage, as well as possibly a strategy for generating an income. In the case of consumers, it was concluded that they choose hand-made tortillas given their symbolic value.

  17. Nuevos documentos para el estudio de un convento de predicadores en la Oaxaca colonial: San Pedro Etla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Spínola, Gloria

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia el convento de Predicadores de San Pedro en la ciudad de Etla, estado de Oaxaca, como ejemplo de los conventos rurales o vicarías que los dominicos establecieron en Nueva España. El trabajo, enfocado desde un punto de vista artístico, analiza las distintas etapas de construcción, la configuración arquitectónica final del edificio y las funciones de cada uno de los espacios arquitectónicos que lo forman. Con ello, se pretende ilustrar la política misional desarrollada por la orden dominica en el proceso de evangelización de la región oaxaqueña.

  18. Recent Site Testing Campaign at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos llevado a cabo un nuevo programa para medir el seeing en el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional en San Pedro Mártir. Los resultados obtenidos durante un período de dos años, arrojan una calidad de imagen con mediana de 0.57 segundos de arco y un primer cuartil de 0.46 segundos de arco. Mostramos también que el seeing puede ser muy estable durante toda la noche bajo condiciones excelentes. Las mejores medidas arrojan una mediana de 0.37 segundos de arco, obtenidas de observaciones continuas durante casi nueve horas. Nuestros resultados son comparados con un estudio previo del sitio, encontrándose resultados muy similares.

  19. Wavefront outer scale measurements at San Pedro Mártir observatory. Its impact on adaptive optics performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Conan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las primeras mediciones de la escala externa de coherencia espacial L0 en el Observatorio Astron omico Nacional de San Pedro M artir, M exico. Dicho par ametro fue medido con el monitor generalizado de seeing de la Universidad de Niza, Francia. Se encuentra una distribuci on log-normal con valor mediano de 27.0 m. La importancia de L0 en la derivaci on del desempe~no de la optica adaptativa (OA es analizada. Se demuestra que valores bajos de L0 incrementan las habilidades correctoras de la OA de bajo orden, pero no tienen pr acticamente ning un efecto en OA de alto orden.

  20. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation

  1. Ictiofauna de los humedales del río San Pedro, Balancán, Tabasco, México

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    Alfonso Castillo-Domínguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales de San Pedro sostienen redes tróficas del sistema fluvial debido a la alta disponibilidad de hábitats y a sus variaciones espacio-temporales. En esta investigación se estudió la composición, densidad y biomasa de la ictiofauna de los humedales; se capturaron 1 049 organismos de 25 especies, dos son exóticas: Oreochromis niloticus y Parachromis managuense. Con 23 especies capturadas en el sitio I, 17 en el II y 14 en el III. En la época de secas se obtuvo mayor riqueza con 21 especies, lluvias con 17 y cinco en nortes. La mayor densidad se mostró en el sitio II (0.23ind./m², seguido de los sitios I y III (0.12, 0.12ind./m². La mayor biomasa fue en secas (8.30g/m², seguida de lluvias (2.1g/m² y por último nortes (0.01g/m². La mayor densidad se mostró en secas (0.43ind./m² y la mínima en nortes (0.023ind./m². Las especies dominantes en densidad según el diagrama Olmstead-Tukey fueron: Petenia splendida, Vieja heterospila, Vieja synspila, Dorosoma petenense y Astyanax aeneus. Por lo tanto, existieron diferencias significativas en los parámetros ecológicos y ambientales. Al considerar la variación en la riqueza podemos concluir que los humedales del río San Pedro, es un sistema donde la composición de la ictiofauna responde a las fluctuaciones espaciales y temporales.

  2. Estimation of potential pollution from mine tailings in the San Pedro River (1993-2005), Mexico-US border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Villalba-Atondo, Arturo I.; Valenzuela-García, Jesús Leobardo; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Almendariz-Tapia, Javier

    2009-06-01

    The San Pedro River (SPR) is located in northern Sonora (Mexico) and southeastern Arizona (USA). SPR is a transboundary river that develops along the Sonora (Mexico) and Arizona (USA) border, and is considered the main source of water for a variety of users (human settlements, agriculture, livestock, and industry). The SPR originates in the historic Cananea mining area, which hosts some of the most important copper mineralizations in Mexico. Acid mine drainage derived from mine tailings is currently reaching a tributary of the SPR near Cananea City, resulting in the contamination of the SPR with heavy metals and sulfates in water and sediments. This study documents the accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in surface water along a segment of the SPR from 1993 to 2005. Total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in surface waters are above maximum permissible levels in sampling sites near mine tailing deposits. Nevertheless, a significant decrease in the Fe and SO4 2- in surface water (SO4 2-: 7,180-460.39 mg/L; Fe: 1,600-9.51 mg/L) as well as a gradual decrease in the heavy and transition metal content were observed during the period from 1994 to 2005. Approximately 2.3 km downstream of the mine tailings, the heavy metal content of the water drops quickly following an increase in pH values due to the discharging of wastewater into the river. The attenuation of the heavy metal content in surface waters is related to stream sediment precipitation (accompanied by metal coprecipitation and sorption) and water dilution. Determining the heavy metal concentration led to the conclusion that the Cananea mining area and the San Pedro River are ecosystems that are impacted by the mining industry and by untreated wastewater discharges arising from the city of Cananea (Sonora, Mexico).

  3. Post-Palaeolithic - Palaeolithic pictorial sequences in the Sierra de San Pedro. International Tagus. Cáceres

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    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The UAH team is developing successive projects of heritage evaluation in the International Tagus, focused on the megalithic culture. Our surveys, based on the theoretical statement of a predictive model that considers the presence of outdoor paintings, make the Sierra de San Pedro one of the most important schematic painting groups of the Iberian Peninsula. Its parallel development to the sites with outdoor engravings in the International Tagus draws a complex set of symbols with a major role in the definition of megalithic territories. The identification of Palaeolithic figures coincides with similar recurrences documented in outdoor sites of the western peninsula, pointing to the resort to the past as one of the arguments of vindication and use of traditional territories.

    El equipo de la UAH viene desarrollando sucesivos proyectos de valoración patrimonial en el Tajo Internacional centrados en la cultura megalítica. Nuestras prospecciones a partir de la exposición teórica de un modelo predictivo que considera la presencia de pinturas al aire libre, hacen de la Sierra de San Pedro uno de los más importantes conjuntos de la pintura esquemática de la Península Ibérica. Su desarrollo paralelo a los yacimientos con grabados al aire libre del Tajo Internacional dibuja un complejo entramado de símbolos con un importante papel en la definición de los territorios megalíticos. La identificación de figuras paleolíticas coincide con recurrencias similares documentadas en los yacimientos al aire libre del occidente peninsular, apuntando al recurso al pasado como uno de los argumentos de reivindicación y uso de territorios tradicionales.

  4. Procesos históricos y ambientales en Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí, México, 1948-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Martínez Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el municipio Cerro de San Pedro enfatizan la continuidad ambiental aparente que estimula la minería; sin embargo, esta lectura subvalora otras dinámicas que ocurren en la zona. Con base en observaciones directas de trabajo en campo, para realizar análisis de coberturas vegetales, entrevistas con los habitantes de la zona, revisión de cartografía e investigación de archivo, el presente trabajo muestra procesos como la explotación de recursos vegetales y el pastoreo, como actividades económicas paralelas a las labores mineras, y que no habían sido tratados hasta ahora.

  5. Ictiofauna de los humedales del río San Pedro, Balancán, Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Castillo-Domínguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales de San Pedro sostienen redes tróficas del sistema fluvial debido a la alta disponibilidad de hábitats y a sus variaciones espacio-temporales. En esta investigación se estudió la composición, densidad y biomasa de la ictiofauna de los humedales; se capturaron 1 049 organismos de 25 especies, dos son exóticas: Oreochromis niloticus y Parachromis managuense. Con 23 especies capturadas en el sitio I, 17 en el II y 14 en el III. En la época de secas se obtuvo mayor riqueza con 21 especies, lluvias con 17 y cinco en nortes. La mayor densidad se mostró en el sitio II (0.23ind./m², seguido de los sitios I y III (0.12, 0.12ind./m². La mayor biomasa fue en secas (8.30g/m², seguida de lluvias (2.1g/m² y por último nortes (0.01g/m². La mayor densidad se mostró en secas (0.43ind./m² y la mínima en nortes (0.023ind./m². Las especies dominantes en densidad según el diagrama Olmstead-Tukey fueron: Petenia splendida, Vieja heterospila, Vieja synspila, Dorosoma petenense y Astyanax aeneus. Por lo tanto, existieron diferencias significativas en los parámetros ecológicos y ambientales. Al considerar la variación en la riqueza podemos concluir que los humedales del río San Pedro, es un sistema donde la composición de la ictiofauna responde a las fluctuaciones espaciales y temporales.Ichthyofauna from wetlands of San Pedro, Balancán, Tabasco, México. San Pedro River’s wetlands sustain trophic nets in the fluvial system, due to the high habitat availability, and space and temporal variations. In order to describe the relationship between environmental parameters and ichthyofauna, this study evaluated fish assemblages composition, distribution, abundance, density, biomass, richness species, diversity and equitability in the wetlands. Sampling considered three different sites and climatic seasons (dry, rainy and cold fronts. The physical and chemical parameters considered were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, water

  6. Conservación y restauración de un tocado atacameño del sitio Solcor-3, San Pedro de Atacama, norte de Chile

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    Carolina Andrea Morales Nilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En la colección de tocados cefálicos prehispánicos asociados a contextos funerarios del Instituto de Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Museo R.P. Gustavo Le Paige (I.I.A.M., San Pedro de Atacama, existe un tocado atacameño poco usual conformado por una banda afelpada y un casquete cuadrado. El presente artículo expone los procesos de documentación, diagnóstico y tratamiento de conservación aplicado a este tocado atacameño, procedente del fardo funerario de un individuo de la tumba 112 del sitio Solcor 3, asociado a la fase de influencia del estado Tiwanaku en San Pedro de Atacama.

  7. Restauración del Tajo de San Pedro en La Alhambra de Granada. Aspectos de cálculo

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    Justo, E.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available San Pedro cliff (Figure 1 is a dihedral 65.5 m high, which has progressed to place itself at 23.8 m from the Alhambra wall-palace that is a heritage of the Humankind. Active normal faults surrounding the cliff have created an extension tectonic regime that loosens the ground and activates the slab falls. One of the faces of the dihedral is a major fault. The cliff’s factor of safety subject to the 1000 years return period earthquake is 0.73. The preservation solution proposed is a posttensioned high elastic limit wire mesh and autochthonous vegetation. With this reinforcement, the factor of safety under that earthquake raises to a value around one. A computer simulation has permitted to analyse the environmental impact.La muralla-palacio de La Alhambra, que es Patrimonio de la Humanidad, se ve amenazada por el avance del Tajo de San Pedro (Figura1, un diedro de 65,5 m de altura, que corta la colina de La Alhambra y que se ha situado a sólo 23,8 m de ella. Existe en la zona un régimen tectónico de extensión que afloja el terreno y activa la caída de lajas. Otra causa importante del deterioro del Tajo es la erosión. El coeficiente de seguridad al deslizamiento del Tajo sometido al terremoto de periodo de retorno de 1.000 años es de 0,73. La solución propuesta para su preservación es una malla de alambre postesada de alto límite elástico y revegetación autóctona. La presión que puede llegar a aplicar la malla en servicio eleva el coeficiente de seguridad con sismo a un valor próximo a uno. Mediante una simulación en ordenador se ha analizado el impacto ambiental.

  8. Mejora de los procesos de beneficio y extracción de minerales auroargentíferos del asentamiento minero de San Pedro Frío, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region producing gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtaining fundamental ...

  9. Development of a shared vision for groundwater management to protect and sustain baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Holly E.; Gungle, Bruce; Lacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Bushman, Brooke M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  10. Cooperación y conflicto entre empresas, comunidades, nuevos movimientos sociales y el papel del gobierno. el caso de cerro de san pedro (méxico)

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Hernández, José G.

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre la Compañía Minera (MSX) y las comunidades de San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis Potosí, los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañía Minera inició operaciones en una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes de estas comunidades apoyados por grupos ambientalistas y Organizaciones No Gub...

  11. Cooperación y conflicto entre empresas, comunidades, nuevos movimientos sociales y el papel del gobierno. El caso de Cerro de San Pedro

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Hernández, José G.

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre la Compañía Minera (MSX) y las comunidades de San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis Potosí, los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañía Minera inició operaciones en una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes de estas comunidades apoyados por grupos ambientalistas y Organizaciones No Gub...

  12. Perfiles anhelados. Correspondencia de lenguajes y estéticas entre el Cementerio San Pedro y la red social Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Lamilla Guerrero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze, through ethnographic observation of the Cemetery San Pedro in Medellin (Colombia, the recent trend of tombstones decoration in confluence with the proposal of structure and aesthetics of the social network Facebook. This correlation between the virtual language of Facebook and the ritual language of the tombs, is much more complex than a mere coincidence so we propose a thorough comparative reading of these two universes of representation for the meeting and communication, is needed to provide a better understanding of the two phenomena. Both are plethoric spaces that reveal the relentless pursuit of the subject to perpetuate their presence, to tell about their lives and deaths, to eternalize their expressions of affection, love and devotion, and to continue their social relationships despite physical or virtual distance, as scenarios with common origins and intentions, where appearing is more important than being. Currently, the “walls” of both the Cemetery and Facebook, serve as communicational sceneries that share publicly and shamelessly intimate details; where family relationships are announced; idyllic havens are displayed as photographic backgrounds; messages are left and profiles with the strong necessity to achieve the long-awaited update transcendence.

  13. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation

  14. La antigua iglesia de San Pedro (Íscar, Valladolid. Evidencias arquitectónicas románicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Molina, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Saint Peter is the great unknown of the Iscar churches due to the demolition of most of its architectural structures and the insufficient characteristics of the scarcely preserved evidence, hidden between contemporary buildings. Nevertheless, the recent demolition of one of the buildings attached to the eastern side of the former temple, where the Romanesque remains are concentrated, has brought to light a decisive part of the apse and the presbytery along with the front closure of the southern aisle. This discovery has allowed an indepth analysis and an approach to what could have been the primitive building.San Pedro es la gran desconocida de las iglesias de Íscar a consecuencia de la demolición de la mayor parte de sus estructuras arquitectónicas y de la insuficiente representatividad de las escasas evidencias conservadas, enmascaradas entre edificios contemporáneos. Sin embargo, el reciente derribo de uno de los inmuebles adosados en el extremo oriental del antiguo templo, donde se concentran los restos del periodo románico, ha sacado a la luz una parte determinante del ábside y el presbiterio así como el testero de cierre de la nave meridional, permitiendo su análisis en profundidad y una aproximación a lo que pudo ser la primitiva construcción.

  15. Carbonate facies of the Upper Triassic Ojo Huelos Member, San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group), southern New Mexico: Paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Lawrence H.; Lucas, Spencer G.

    2012-10-01

    The Upper Triassic (Adamanian LVF) Ojo Huelos Member of the San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group) is a distinctive, carbonate-rich unit that occurs in the lower Chinle section of central New Mexico. The member consists mainly of micritic lime mudstones, ostracodal wackestones to grainstones, peloidal grainstones and distinctive pisolitic rudstones, interbedded with fine-grained siliciclastic mudstones. Most limestones exhibit some evidence of pedogenic brecciation and root penetration, and porous fabrics similar to those of modern limestone tufas occur locally. The interbedded mudstones are typically lenticular and commonly display a blocky ped fabric in which subequant peds are separated by sparry calcite veins. Fossils from the Ojo Huelos Member are freshwater (darwinulid) ostracodes, various freshwater fishes and aquatic/amphibious tetrapods-metoposaurs and phytosaurs. We interpret the carbonate facies as the deposits of carbonate lakes, ponds and wetlands that were partly spring-fed, whereas the interbedded and surrounding mudstones were alluvial in origin. The groundwater and overland hydrology of the region was likely controlled by the relative proximity to an upland recharge area in the Mogollon Highlands to the south, but sedimentary fabrics record strong overprinting by desiccation and pedogenic reworking. Consequently, we interpret the Ojo Huelos Member as recording a climate that varied from subhumid to semi-arid, which caused episodic falls in the hydrologic base-level. This resulted in landscape degradation, exemplified by significant pedogenic and erosional reworking of the carbonate sediments and fluvial incision.

  16. Contribution of the surface layer to the seeing at San Pedro Mártir: simultaneous microthermal and dimm measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Sánchez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos medidas de la contribuci on de la capa super cial al seeing en el Observatorio Astron omico Nacional de San Pedro M artir (OAN{SPM. Utilizamos un m astil instrumentado con sensores de temperatura microdiferenciales localizados en 7 niveles para medir la constante de estructura del indice de refracci on C2 n en los primeros 15-m. El par ametro de distorsi on de la imagen (llamado com unmente seeing integrado se determin o utilizando un Monitor Diferencial de Movimiento de Imagen durante 23 noches. Se encontr o una estad stica log{normal con valores promedio de 0.9800 y de mediana 0.8400. La contribuci on de la capa super cial (2.3 a 15-m a la turbulencia optica total tiene un valor promedio de 16%, lo cual corresponde a una degradaci on de 10% del seeing total. Estos valores son similares a los encontrados en otros observatorios en el mundo, lo que sugiere que la presencia de arboles en el sitio del OAN{SPM no afecta de manera considerable el seeing debido a la capa super cial. Se requieren m as estudios para con rmar esta tendencia.

  17. Abundance and distribution of lantern fishes (Myctophiformes: Myctophidae around San Pedro Martir Island, Gulf of California, during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Díaz Santana-Iturríos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Myctophids (Myctophidae are a group of abundant mesopelagic fishes in the world's oceans and are known as the main feeding resource for several high trophic level predators. Changes in abundance may be related to population size of some commercially important species that feed on them. Only two of the myctophid species reported for the Gulf of California were found in the present study: Benthosema panamense and Triphoturus mexicanus. The highest abundance and biomass of myctophids were found during the warm season (June and September, with B. panamense being the most abundant species (20,954 ind 1000 m-3, as well as the one with highest biomass (17,165.8 g 1000 m-3. B. panamese had a size mode interval of 35-40 mm, while T. mexicanus presented a size mode interval of 40-45 mm; both species had negative allometric growth. During the temperate season (February and April B. panamense was distributed in the northwest, west, and southern regions around the island, while T. mexicanus was found in the north, west, and southern regions. During the warm season B. panamense was found distributed around the entire island and T. mexicanus was found in the west, south, and east regions of the island. These species are common around San Pedro Martir Island, with the highest values of abundance and biomass occurring during summer upwelling's.

  18. Comparing approaches to spatially explicit ecosystem service modeling: a case study from the San Pedro River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius J.; Winthrop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of ecosystem service modeling tools has grown in recent years, quantitative comparative studies of these tools have been lacking. In this study, we applied two leading open-source, spatially explicit ecosystem services modeling tools – Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) – to the San Pedro River watershed in southeast Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. We modeled locally important services that both modeling systems could address – carbon, water, and scenic viewsheds. We then applied managerially relevant scenarios for urban growth and mesquite management to quantify ecosystem service changes. InVEST and ARIES use different modeling approaches and ecosystem services metrics; for carbon, metrics were more similar and results were more easily comparable than for viewsheds or water. However, findings demonstrate similar gains and losses of ecosystem services and conclusions when comparing effects across our scenarios. Results were more closely aligned for landscape-scale urban-growth scenarios and more divergent for a site-scale mesquite-management scenario. Follow-up studies, including testing in different geographic contexts, can improve our understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these and other ecosystem services modeling tools as they move closer to readiness for supporting day-to-day resource management.

  19. San Juan Basin, USA; coalbed methane development and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluskoter, H. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Twenty one slides/overheads outline the talk on production of coalbed methane from sedimentary basins in the USA. Figures are given for production and reserves for the year 2000. The San Juan basin's geologic structure, containing resources of the Cretaceous coal age, primarily in the Fruitland Formation, is described. 4 refs.

  20. Evolución trófica de Laguna Grande de San Pedro (VIII Región, Chile durante el último siglo, mediante el análisis de registros sedimentarios Trophic evolution of Laguna Grande de San Pedro (VIII Region, Chile during the last century, by means of the analysis of sedimentary records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIOLA CRUCES

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación realizó una reconstrucción de la evolución trófica de Laguna Grande de San Pedro (VIII Región, Chile durante el último siglo, a través del análisis estratigráfico de diatomeas y registros geoquímicos preservados en un núcleo de sedimento obtenido en el lago. Los resultados obtenidos señalan que la comunidad de diatomeas ha variado su composición a través del tiempo, reconociéndose cuatro períodos distintos, que representan cada uno de ellos una condición trófica diferente. Por otra parte, los registros geoquímicos aumentan sus tasas de acumulación hacia los estratos superficiales del perfil, evidenciando un aumento de la productividad hacia la actualidad. De acuerdo a lo anterior, es posible concluir que la productividad de Laguna Grande ha experimentado importantes cambios, evolucionando desde un sistema oligo-mesotrófico (período más antiguo a uno eutrófico (período reciente. Los cambios más drásticos habrían sucedido en las últimas décadas, como respuesta al fuerte desarrollo de actividades forestales y de urbanización en la cuenca de este sistemaThis research reconstructs the trophic evolution of Laguna Grande de San Pedro (VIII Region, Chile during the last century, through both the stratigraphic analyses of diatom remains and geochemical parameters preserved in a sediment core obtained in this lake. The results obtained show that the community of diatoms has changed its composition throughout time, showing four different periods, representing each one a distinctive trophic condition. On the other hand, the geochemical records increase their accumulation rates to the profile surface layers, making evident an increase of the productivity to the present time. In this context, it is possible to conclude that the productivity at Laguna Grande has experienced significant changes, evolving from an oligo-mesotrophic system (earlier period to an eutrophic one (recent period. The most drastic

  1. Datación de una viga de la iglesia de San Pedro de la Nave (Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Trobajo, Eduardo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Churches usually ascribed to the Visigothic period are difficult to place in a clear cultural framework, with the result that other dating methods assume a vital importance. In this study, dendro-chronqlogy, carbon-14 dating, and archaeological evidence combine to give a terminus post quem of AD 330-474 for the pine-trunk employed for the beam of the church of San Pedro de la Nave (''pino albar o laricio''. Given the trunk's completed dendro-chronological sequence of 282 years, the beam in its present location must constitute a case of re-use. At least some of the other elements employed in the construction of the building must also have been re-used. The discussion serves to illustrate how an interdisciplinary approach can be applied to the study of early medieval Spanish churches and how it might be refined to produce ever more reliable and valuable results.Las dudas sobre la adecuada adscripción cultural de las iglesias consideradas de época visigoda, obliga a conseguir dataciones lo más seguras posibles. Por ello se ha realizado este estudio interdisciplinar, que compagina la dendrodatación, la datación por carbono-14 y la arqueología y cuyo resultado data el árbol de pino albar o laricio con el que se talló la viga de la iglesia de S. Pedro de La Nave en una fecha post quem de 330-474 AD (ref. CSIC-1318. Sus caracteres anatómicos nos indican que la secuencia dendrocronológica obtenida de 282 años es completa, por lo que la viga tuvo que ser reutilizada, como debió ocurrir al menos con parte del material de construcción. Los análisis han servido para ensayar la aplicación de esta metodología a las iglesias altomedievales españolas y mejorarla para lograr resultados más fiables y precisos.

  2. Cross-shelf transport into nearshore waters due to shoaling internal tides in San Pedro Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Burt Jones,; Peter Hamilton,; Xu, Jingping; George Robertson,; Leslie Rosenfeld,; John Largier,

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, a coastal ocean measurement program in the southeastern portion of San Pedro Bay, CA, was designed and carried out. One aim of the program was to determine the strength and effectiveness of local cross-shelf transport processes. A particular objective was to assess the ability of semidiurnal internal tidal currents to move suspended material a net distance across the shelf. Hence, a dense array of moorings was deployed across the shelf to monitor the transport patterns associated with fluctuations in currents, temperature and salinity. An associated hydrographic program periodically monitored synoptic changes in the spatial patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients and bacteria. This set of measurements show that a series of energetic internal tides can, but do not always, transport subthermocline water, dissolved and suspended material from the middle of the shelf into the surfzone. Effective cross-shelf transport occurs only when (1) internal tides at the shelf break are strong and (2) subtidal currents flow strongly downcoast. The subtidal downcoast flow causes isotherms to tilt upward toward the coast, which allows energetic, nonlinear internal tidal currents to carry subthermocline waters into the surfzone. During these events, which may last for several days, the transported water remains in the surfzone until the internal tidal current pulses and/or the downcoast subtidal currents disappear. This nonlinear internal tide cross-shelf transport process was capable of carrying water and the associated suspended or dissolved material from the mid-shelf into the surfzone, but there were no observation of transport from the shelf break into the surfzone. Dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates (such as phytoplankton) transported from the mid-shelf into the nearshore region by nonlinear internal tides may contribute to nearshore algal blooms, including harmful algal blooms that occur off local beaches.

  3. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú , Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Figueredo Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  4. GEOPROCESAMIENTO APLICADO AL ANALISIS DEL USO DE LA TIERRA EN EL MUNICIPIO DE SAN PEDRO DE YCUAMANDYYÚ, PARAGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  5. Assessment of runoff response to landscape changes in the San Pedro subbasin (Nayarit, Mexico) using remote sensing data and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Rafael; Ruiz-Luna, Arturo; Berlanga-Robles, César Alejandro

    2008-10-01

    Results on runoff estimates as a response to land-use and land-cover changes are presented. We used remote sensing and GIS techniques with rainfall time-series data, spatial ancillary information, and the curve-number method (NRCS-CN) to assess the runoff response in the San Pedro subbasin. Thematic maps with eight land-cover classes derived from satellite imagery classification (1973, 1990, and 2000) and hydrologic soil-group maps were used as the input for the runoff calculation. About 20% to 25% of the subbasin landscape has changed since 1973, mainly as consequence of the growth of agriculture. Forest is the main cover, although further analyses indicate that forest is degrading from good to poor conditions when evaluated as a function of the spectral response. Soils with low infiltration rates, classified as the hydrological soil-group "C", were dominant in the area (52%). The overlaying of all the hydrological soil groups with the land-use map produced a total of 43 hydro-group and land-use categories for which runoff was calculated using the curve-number method. Estimates of total runoff volumes (26 x 10(6) m3) were similar for the three dates analyzed in spite of landscape changes, but there were temporal variations among the hydro-group and land-use categories as a consequence. Changes are causing the rise of covers with high runoff potential and the increase of runoff depth is expected, but it can be reversed by different management of subbasin hydro-groups and land-use units.

  6. LA EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL Y EL DESARROLLO SUSTENTABLE. ESTUDIO DE CASO SAN PEDRO MIXTEPEC, JUQUILA, OAXACA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinoza-Nájera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La problemática en materia de impacto ambiental en México está referida a que no se ha realizado una evaluación sobre su efectividad como instrumento de la política ambiental, por lo que es importante conocer si dicho instrumento cumple o coadyuva con los principios básicos del desarrollo sustentable, considerando que debe evolucionar y estar en un proceso de mejora continua. Debe garantizarse, efectivamente, el enfoque preventivo que brinde certeza acerca de la factibilidad ambiental de los diversos proyectos con los cuales se busca promover el desarrollo. En este trabajo se aplicó un sistema de investigación hipotético-deductivo, a través del método empírico descriptivo y correlacional, realizando la recopilación, análisis y evaluación de información existente, principalmente de las manifestaciones de impacto ambiental de proyectos de desarrollo con dictamen técnico, en San Pedro Mixtepec, Juquila, Oaxaca. El resultado demuestra que la información es superficial, y no aporta conocimiento científico sobre los verdaderos impactos que generará el proyecto o actividad al medio ambiente y a los recursos naturales. Se puede concluir que dichos documentos desempeñan un papel preponderante, ya que permiten identificar los impactos ambientales negativos y, al mismo tiempo, armonizar estos efectos aplicando medidas de prevención o mitigación que favorezcan el equilibrio entre el desarrollo y la conservación del ambiente.

  7. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú, Paraguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  8. Multiwell Ojo Alamo development advancing in San Juan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-27

    Commercial production from a new formation is rare in a basin as mature as the San Juan. Such a development can be economically attractive because with so many existing wellbores, behind pipe formations can be placed on production quickly and inexpensively. That is happening on the east side of the San Juan, where what appears to be the first significant commercial gas production from Tertiary Ojo Alamo sandstone started last year. The deposit is briefly described.

  9. Petrography, geochemistry and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are present for nearly 35 km along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. Each coal zone contains carbonaceous shales, thin ({lt}0.75 m) impure coal beds, and thin ({lt}0.85 m) but commercially significant nonbanded coal beds. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. Discontinuities within the San Pedro coal zone are attributed mainly to the influence of contemporaneous deposition of distributary mouth-bar sand bodies. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. A highly degraded groundmass composed of eugelinite is the main petrographic component (approximately 71%, mineral-matter-free basis). An enriched liptinite fraction (approximately 23%) probably accounts for unusually high calorific values. There is negligible inertinite. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications, which also occur in clastic rocks of the coal-bearing intervals. Such algal material cannot be identified or quantified by conventional coal petrographic techniques that utilize particle pellets or by palynological analyses that include acid preparation. 63 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. RELACIÓN DE LA MOTIVACIÓN Y SATISFACCIÓN LABORAL CON LA CALIDAD DEL SERVICIO DE LOS TRABAJADORES DE LA UNIVERSIDAD SAN PEDRO DE CHIMBOTE

    OpenAIRE

    PORTALES PAIRAZAMÁN, MANUELA

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this research work was oriented to determine the existence of relation between the variables “motivation” and “labor satisfaction” with the “quality of the service”, in the appointed workers of the University San Pedro of Chimbote; for which, one identified the levels of these variables. For the determination of the sample the proportional stratified random method was used. For the data collection on the two first variables it was used like instrument the test of motivation ...

  11. Bioantropología de una población de San Pedro de Atacama a través de tres fases culturales

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, María Antonieta; Hubbe, Mark; Llagostera, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio se ha hecho a través de la población arqueológica de Quitor 5, un cementerio ubicado en el distrito (ayllu) homónimo, a orillas del río San Pedro, el que aportó 164 tumbas con 371 cuerpos. Los cuerpos, todos en cuclillas, se hallaron a varias profundidades y su orientación es igualmente variable. Hay tumbas de uno hasta siete cuerpos y entre los entierros secundarios desde ocho hasta treinta cuerpos. Entre el ajuar acompañante se encuentra: numerosas alfarerías de las épocas y ce...

  12. Effects of stream flow intermittency on riparian vegetation of a semiarid region river (San Pedro River, Arizona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, J.C.; Bagstad, K.J.; Leenhouts, J.M.; Lite, S.J.; Makings, E.

    2005-01-01

    The San Pedro River in the southwestern United States retains a natural flood regime and has several reaches with perennial stream flow and shallow ground water. However, much of the river flows intermittently. Urbanization-linked declines in regional ground-water levels have raised concerns over the future status of the riverine ecosystem in some parts of the river, while restoration-linked decreases in agricultural ground-water pumping are expected to increase stream flows in other parts. This study describes the response of the streamside herbaceous vegetation to changes in stream flow permanence. During the early summer dry season, streamside herbaceous cover and species richness declined continuously across spatial gradients of flow permanence, and composition shifted from hydric to mesic species at sites with more intermittent flow. Hydrologic threshold values were evident for one plant functional group: Schoenoplectus acutus, Juncus torreyi, and other hydric riparian plants declined sharply in cover with loss of perennial stream flow. In contrast, cover of mesic riparian perennials (including Cynodon dactylon, an introduced species) increased at sites with intermittent flow. Patterns of hydric and mesic riparian annuals varied by season: in the early summer dry season their cover declined continuously as flow became more intermittent, while in the late summer wet season their cover increased as the flow became more intermittent. Periodic drought at the intermittent sites may increase opportunities for establishment of these annuals during the monsoonal flood season. During the late summer flood season, stream flow was present at most sites, and fewer vegetation traits were correlated with flow permanence; cover and richness were correlated with other environmental factors including site elevation and substrate nitrate level and particle size. Although perennial-flow and intermittent-flow sites support different streamside plant communities, all of the plant

  13. Dendrocronología de Alnus acuminata en el bosque reservado de San Pedro de Saño, Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Requena Rojas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de Alnus acuminata para su uso posterior en estudios dendroclimatológicos. Se analizó una cronología de ancho de anillos para un bosque de A. acuminata en San Pedro de Saño y se relacionó el crecimiento de los árboles con los registros instrumentales de temperatura media, máxima y mínima, precipitación y horas sol de las estaciones meteorológicas de Huayao (12° 02´ 18.1¨ S - 75° 19´22.2¨ O y Santa Ana (12° 00´ 15¨ S - 75° 13´ 15¨ O. La cronología de ancho de anillos está compuesta por 33 series de 22 árboles y cubre el período 1968-2013. El crecimiento de los árboles estuvo relacionado negativamente con la temperatura mínima mensual del mes de abril del año corriente. Se observó una relación positiva y significativa entre la cronología de crecimiento y la precipitación de la estación de Santa Ana para los meses de marzo del año previo y diciembre del año actual de crecimiento. Las horas sol mensuales de abril del año corriente tienen una correlación significativa con el crecimiento radial. Existe influencia de las precipitaciones del verano previo y primavera del año corriente favoreciendo el crecimiento del árbol. El árbol entra en dormancia, posiblemente por las bajas temperaturas de otoño. El amplio rango de distribución y la utilización histórica de su madera en construcciones en el pasado, abre la posibilidad de extender temporalmente los registros dendrocronológicos, en los Andes centrales de Perú.

  14. Using Radium Isotopes to Evaluate Cross-shelf Dispersion in the Coastal Ocean: Application to San Pedro Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, S. L.; Hammond, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    The short-lived radium isotopes Ra-223 (11 day half life) and Ra-224 (3.6 day half-life) are potentially useful for evaluating cross-shelf dispersion rates in the coastal ocean. A requirement for this application is that their source function and its variability in time and space must be defined. The primary mechanisms for introducing radium into coastal surface waters include: (1) wave and tide-driven circulation of water through permeable beach sands, (2) input from the seafloor due to molecular diffusion and circulation of bottom water through surficial sands, (3) flow of water rich in Ra from marshes and estuaries, and (4) net advection of groundwater. The importance of these inputs to San Pedro Bay was determined from concentrations in waters collected from each of these potential sources. In most of the region, mechanism (2) supplies 90% of the input, although mechanisms (1) and (2) may become dominant locally as the coastal morphology varies in the longshore direction. Longshore variations in the composition of beach sand and the presence of persistent coastal eddies create longshore gradients in Ra concentration that are significant in this region. Temporal variations in shoreline concentrations on time scales 6-8 hours reflect variations in mechanism (1) as tides rise and fall, with drainage of water from the beach face creating higher concentrations during the falling tide. Despite these complications in characterizing the source function, the distribution of short-lived Ra isotopes is useful in constraining the rate of horizontal mixing. A two-dimensional advection-diffusion model was best fit with an eddy diffusivity of 1.3+/-0.2 m2/s over length scales of several km offshore, with a value about 50% smaller in the littoral zone. The scale dependence of eddy diffusivity is also apparent in the distribution of Ra-228, which requires lower eddy diffusivities in the nearshore than in the offshore region. A budget for Ra-226 indicates that little groundwater

  15. FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA CONDUCTA DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EXCLUSIVA HASTA EL SEXTO MES DE LA VIDA EN NIÑOS Y NIÑAS DE LA COMUNA DE SAN PEDRO DE LA PAZ

    OpenAIRE

    ROMERO GARCIA, STEPHANIE

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La comuna de San Pedro de la Paz posee una baja prevalencia de lactancia materna exclusiva en todos sus períodos reportados. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la conducta de lactancia materna exclusiva en niños/as hasta el octavo mes de vida, que estén bajo control en la red asistencial de la comuna de San Pedro de la Paz. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal mediante aplicación de encuesta en domicilio a 253 madres de niños/as de 1 a 8 meses de vi...

  16. Geological study of the northern part of Chicontepec Basin, state of San Luis Potosi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.M.

    The stratigraphic subdivisions, supported by paleontological evidence, comprise Triassic to Paleocene formations. The permo-Triassic basement complex is transgressed by continental clastics of upper Triassic and lower Jurassic age, which are succeeded by marine upper Jurassic that rests unconformably on the basement complex in the northern or Tamalihuale area, on Triassic clastics in the central or Palmira-San Pedro area, and on lower Jurassic clastics in the sourthern or Maguey area. The lower Cretaceous is composed of deep-water deposits, which change into the shallow water and reefoid El Abra formation in the Tamalihuale area. The upper Cretaceous changes upward from fine clastics into argillaceous limestone, while the Paleocene is characterized by arenaceous clays. Anticlines in the basin have been unsuccessfully tested with the exception of one well in the Maguey anticline that encountered distillate and gas in fractured Agua Nueve formation (Cretaceous). Electric logs indicate very irregular and poor porosity and permeability. Potential petroleum source rocks are present in the basin, but absence of reservoir rocks accounts for lack of commercial production.

  17. Flebotominos (Diptera: Psychodidae de San Pedro, distrito Kosñipata, Paucartambo - Cusco, y nuevos reportes para el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Cáceres L

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre el 13 y 17 de setiembre de 1999, se realizaron colectas de flebotominos en la localidad de San Pedro, distrito Kosñipata, provincia Paucartambo, departamento Cusco, para conocer la diversidad de las especies presentes. Materiales y Métodos: Las colectas fueron con: a trampa de luz (CDC colocadas en peri y extradomiciliarios, y b mediante cebo humano realizados en intra y peridomiciliarios. Resultados: Se obtuvieron cinco especies de flebotominos pertenecientes a Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia guderiani (71%, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia tocaniensis (23%, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia saupiensis (3%, Psathyromyia (Forattiniella abuanensis (2% y Psathyromyia (Forattiniella aragaoi (1%, de las cuales tres especies son reportes nuevos para el Perú. Conclusiones: Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Lu. guderiani, P. tocaniensis y P. saupiensis desde los 16°06’ LS y 67°44’ LW (Suapi, Yungas, La Paz-Bolivia hasta los 13°03'19" LS y 71°32'48" LW (San Pedro, Kosñipata, Cusco-Perú. Además, se menciona que tres de las cinco especies encontradas podrían ocasionar casos de leishmaniasis tegumentaria y/o enfermedad de Carrión (verruga peruana.

  18. Documentación del fondo de Oseira (AHN relacionada con el monasterio San Pedro de Vilanova de Dozón (1015-1295

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    Romaní Martínez, Miguel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction and the criteria for transcription, we publish 25 documents of the 11>sub>th 12th and 13thcenturies belonging to the collection of Oseira at the AHN related to the monastery of San Pedro de Vilanova de Dozon, in Tierra de Deza (Pontevedra. The suggested periods make it possible to observe the transition from the Visigothic writing to the Carolingian. We also include an appendix with tables of diplomatic and paléographie analyses, a sample of the most representative writings, onomastic and toponymie indices, and a bibliography.

    Tras la introducción y criterios de transcripción, se editan 25 documentos de los siglos XI, XII y XIII pertenecientes al fondo de Oseira del AHN relacionados con el monasterio de San Pedro de Vilanova de Dozón, en Tierra de Deza (Pontevedra. Las fechas propuestas permiten observar el paso de la escritura visigótica a la Carolina. Se incluye un apéndice con tablas de análisis diplomático y paleográfico, una muestra de las escrituras más representativas, índices onomástico y toponímico, y bibliografía.

  19. San Pedro Hacienda Hotel

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    Neutra, Richard J.

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las arterias principales de Los Angeles, la carretera de acceso desde Western Avenue, que relaciona la ciudad con su puerto, permite llegar fácilmente, a través de una pequeña desviación, a la entrada principal del hotel. El sencillo grupo de edificios que lo constituyen, se amolda a la pendiente del terreno, acusando el juego de volúmenes y de sol y sombra para aumentar el interés visual. Al fondo, la severidad del paisaje montañoso contrasta con la tranquilidad del mar, que en este caso, pese a ser el Océano Pacífico el gran mar occidental americano, aparece al E., por estar el edificio situado en la orilla oriental de la península de Falos Verdes.

  20. Desarrollo de un programma de rehabilitación cardiaca en la clínica San Pedro Claver, mediante un sistema efectivo de integración y comunicación

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    Blanca Cruz de Linares

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La  rehablitación cardica debe convertirse en una actividad prioritaria en la Clínica San Pedro Claver, aprovechando los recursos existentes, recursos físicos y algunos recursos tecnológicos.

  1. Cómo se construye una torre mudéjar. La torre de la iglesia de San Pedro el Viejo de Madrid

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    Caballero Zoreda, Luis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mudejar tower of San Pedro el Viejo de Madrid offers, thanks to various modern-era and contemporary interventions, the possibility of analyzing its unknown construction process and construction tecniques combining brick and limestone stonework. A wall of brick and mud was used as the formwork of limestone walls and then used as a base for the first sections and staircase. The wood and brick walls on view were also used as formwork.La torre mudéjar de S. Pedro el Viejo de Madrid ofrece, gracias a diversas intervenciones de época moderna y contemporánea, la posibilidad de analizar su desconocido proceso de construcción y sus técnicas constructivas donde se combinan fábricas de ladrillo y calicanto. Un muro de ladrillo con barro sirvió de encofrado de la fábrica de calicanto y luego fue utilizado como base de los primeros tramos de la escalera. También se utilizaron como encofrado la madera y los muros de ladrillo visto.

  2. Pedro de Castañeda: su pintura para el refectorio del Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso (1553

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    González Ramos, Roberto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El pintor Pedro de Castañeda es un artista poco conocido, activo en la zona de Alcalá de Henares en las décadas centrales del siglo XVI. Se sabe que junto a su hijo Juan fue colaborador del entallador y traductor de Vitruvio Miguel de Urrea. Pedro de Castañeda pintó un cirial que había tallado Urrea para la iglesia parroquial de Camarma de Esteruelas, trabajo por el que ambos cobraron cierta cantidad en 1540, y en 1550 colaboró con ese entallador y con Claudio de Arciniega, ayudado por Juan, en la obra de los retablos colaterales de la iglesia de Daganzo de Arriba (perdidos, realizando su pintura. Parece que se trata del mismo artista el Pedro Castañeda que se documenta trabajando en la zona de Segovia, concretamente en dos retablos para la iglesia de Cascajares del Fresno. Falleció en 1557…

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN QUÍMICA Y MINERALÓGICA DE LAS CROMITAS DE LA ZONA DE BELLO Y SAN PEDRO (DEPARTAMENTO DE ANTIOQUIA

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    Camilo Andres Quintero G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron químicamente cinco muestras de cromita de los municipios de Bello y San Pedro (Antioquia en forma semicuantitativa (Análisis Espectrográfico y cuantitativa (Absorción Atómica y Espectroscopia de Emisión con fuente de plasma de Acoplamiento Inductivo; la caracterización mineralógica de las muestras se realizó mediante DRX, ATG y ATD, Microscopía Óptica y Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido con análisis por microsonda SEM-EDS, Estos resultados muestran la factibilidad de utilizar las cromitas de estos sectores como materia prima refractaria por poseer características químicas similares a las cromitas de Cuba o Filipinas que se explotan en la actualidad.

  4. [Survey of smoking habits of the medical personnel at the Hospital San Pedro de Alcántara (Cáceres)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, J; Salas, J M; Piñeiro, F; Pacheco, J; Herrera, T; Montero, J

    1989-12-01

    The prevalence and social and health aspects of smoking habits among physicians of the Hospital San Pedro de Alcántara (Cáceres) were evaluated with the questionnaire used in the course on smoking habits delivered by the INSALUD in 1988. The sample consisted of 123 physicians. 47.1% (+8.7%) declared to be smokers. This prevalence is higher than that in the general population. The rate of female nonsmokers was significantly higher than that of male nonsmokers (p less than 0.05). 51.7% of smokers had not made any attempt to give up smoking. 90% thought that the role of the doctors as a model is important, and that the health system should undertake their treatment. 97.2% declared to lack therapeutic resources. The results disclose the need for specific programs directed to exemplary groups of professionals, such as those devoted to health care, so as to achieve a reduction in the smoking habit.

  5. Soft–bottom sipunculans from San Pedro del Pinatar (Western Mediterranean: influence of anthropogenic impacts and sediment characteristics on their distribution

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    Ferrero–Vicente, L. M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the distribution of soft bottom sipunculansfrom San Pedro del Pinatar (Western Mediterranean. This study was carried out from December 2005 to June 2010, sampling with biannual periodicity (June and December. Physical and chemical parameters of the sediment were analysed (granulometry, organic matter content, pH, bottom salinity and shelter availability. Nine different species and subspecies were identified, belonging to five families. Aspidosiphon muelleri muelleri was the dominant species, accumulating 89.06% of the total abundance of sipunculans. Higher sipunculan abundances were correlated with stations of higher percentage of coarse sand, empty mollusc shells and empty tubes of the serpulid polychaete Ditrupa arietina, where some of the recorded species live. Sediment characteristics played the main role controlling the sipunculans distribution. Anthropogenic impacts could be indirectly affecting their distribution, changing the sediment characteristics.

  6. La deformación craneana en la población prehistórica de Coyo Oriente, San Pedro de Atacama

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,M. Antonietta; Llagostera, Agustín; JOSÉ A. COCILOVO

    2008-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es caracterizar una población representativa del salar de Atacama durante el Período Medio y los posibles flujos poblacionales asociados al fenómeno Tiwanaku. Para ello, la colección de cráneos del cementerio arqueológico Coyo Oriente, depositada en el Museo Arqueológico de San Pedro de Atacama, fue sometida a análisis osteológicos determinándose sexo, edad y deformación craneana. Estos análisis se aplicaron a la totalidad de la colección, así como a las tres zona...

  7. Reconnaissance field report for the search of large telescope sites in the sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México

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    Erika Sohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La Sierra San Pedro Mártir en el estado de Baja California, México, es conocida por sus excelentes condiciones para la observación astronómica. Ofrece una serie de sitios con elevaciones que rebasan los 2650 m, potencialmente apropiados para la instalación de futuros grandes telescopios. Algunos de estos sitios son remotos y es necesario determinar sus rutas de acceso para efectuar mediciones de evaluación de las condiciones para la observación astronómica. Durante el verano de 2005 se visitaron seis sitios que pueden ser adecuados para la instalación de telescopios e instrumentos de medición de la calidad del cielo, para determinar sus coordenadas asÍ como sus posibles rutas de acceso. En este trabajo se presenta una breve descripción de cada uno de estos sitios

  8. El turismo de naturaleza en espacios naturales. El caso del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar

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    Gustavo A. Ballesteros Pelegrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios naturales atraen a turistas que buscan el contacto con la naturaleza, surgiendo nuevos productos turísticos. Surgen, de este modo, nuevos productos turísticos. En la oferta de turismo de naturaleza del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar destaca: deportes en la naturaleza, aventura y ecoturismo. Este último se divide en: turismo ornitológico y fotográfico, que junto al tradicional de sol y playa y de salud, se ve favorecido por su situación geográfica, condiciones naturales y amplia oferta hotelera. Sin embargo, el turismo cultural basado en la tradición salinera y pesquera no ha sido desarrollado.

  9. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of lower Eocene San Jose formation, central San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S.G.; Smith, L.N. (New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The lower Eocene San Jose Formation in the central portion of the San Juan basin (Gobernador-Vigas Canyon area) consists of the Cuba Mesa, Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members. Well log data indicate that, from its 100-m thickness, the Cuba Mesa Member thins toward the basin center and pinches out to the northeast by lat. 36{degree}40'N, long. 107{degree}19'W. The Regina Member has the most extensive outcrops in the central basin, and it decreases in sandstone/mud rock ratio to the north. The Llaves and Tapicitos Members occur only at the highest elevations, are thin due to erosion, and are not mappable as separate units. Well log data and 1,275 m of measured stratigraphic section in the Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members indicate these strata are composed of approximately 35% medium to coarse-grained sandstone and 65% fine-grained sandstone and mud rock. Sedimentology and sediment-dispersal patterns indicate deposition by generally south-flowing streams that had sources to the northwest, northeast, and east. Low-sinuosity, sand-bedded, braided( ) streams shifted laterally across about 1 km-wide channel belts to produce sheet sandstones that are prominent throughout the San Jose Formation. Subtle levees separated channel environments from floodplain and local lacustrine areas. Avulsion relocated channels periodically to areas on the floodplain, resulting in the typically disconnected sheet sandstones within muddy overbank deposits of the Regina Member.

  10. Emerging pollutants in the Esmeraldas watershed in Ecuador: discharge and attenuation of emerging organic pollutants along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshenko-Rossin, A; Gasser, G; Cohen, K; Gun, J; Cumbal-Flores, L; Parra-Morales, W; Sarabia, F; Ojeda, F; Lev, O

    2015-01-01

    Water quality characteristics and emerging organic pollutants were sampled along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas River and its main water pollution streams in the summer of 2013. The annual flow rate of the stream is 22 000 Mm(3) y(-1) and it collects the wastewater of Quito-Ecuador in the Andes and supplies drinking water to the city of Esmeraldas near the Pacific Ocean. The most persistent emerging pollutants were carbamazepine and acesulfame, which were found to be stable along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas River, whereas the concentration of most other organic emerging pollutants, such as caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, and steroidal estrogens, was degraded to a large extent along the 300 km flow. The mass rate of the sum of cocaine and benzoylecgonine, its metabolite, was increased along the stream, which may be attributed to coca plantations and wild coca trees. This raises the possibility of using river monitoring as an indirect way to learn about changes in coca plantations in their watersheds. Several organic emerging pollutants, such as venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulphamethoxazole, and benzoylecgonine, survived even the filtration treatment at the Esmeraldas drinking water system, though all except for benzoylecgonine are found below 20 ng L(-1), and are therefore not likely to cause adverse health effects. The research provides a way to compare drug consumption in a major Latin American city (Quito) and shows that the consumption of most sampled drugs (carbamazepine, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, sulphamethoxazole, ethinylestradiol) was below their average consumption level in Europe, Israel, and North America.

  11. Presence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli in the San Pedro River located in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Castillo, Flor Y; Avelar González, Francisco J; Garneau, Philippe; Márquez Díaz, Francisco; Guerrero Barrera, Alma L; Harel, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of surface waters in developing countries is a great concern. Treated and untreated wastewaters have been discharged into rivers and streams, leading to possible waterborne infection outbreaks and may represent a significant dissemination mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, the water quality of San Pedro River, the main river and pluvial collector of the Aguascalientes State, Mexico was assessed. Thirty sample locations were tested throughout the River. The main physicochemical parameters of water were evaluated. Results showed high levels of fecal pollution as well as inorganic and organic matter abundant enough to support the heterotrophic growth of microorganisms. These results indicate poor water quality in samples from different locations. One hundred and fifty Escherichia coli were collected and screened by PCR for several virulence genes. Isolates were classified as either pathogenic (n = 91) or commensal (n = 59). The disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to 13 antibiotics. Fifty-two percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent and 30.6% were multi-resistant. Eighteen E. coli strains were quinolone resistant of which 16 were multi-resistant. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were detected in 12 isolates. Mutations at the Ser-83→Leu and/or Asp-87→Asn in the gyrA gene were detected as well as mutations at the Ser-80→Ile in parC. An E. coli microarray (Maxivirulence V 3.1) was used to characterize the virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes profiles of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes such as bla TEM, sulI, sulII, dhfrIX, aph3 (strA), and tet (B) as well as integrons were found in fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance E. coli strains. The presence of potential pathogenic E. coli and antibiotic resistance in San Pedro River such as FQ resistant E. coli could pose a potential threat to human and animal

  12. A preliminary evaluation of the San Pedro daisy (Lasianthaea podocephala tuber powder, as a feed additive on the intensive culture of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory conditions

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    Marcel Martínez-Porchas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out during seven weeks to preliminarily evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of powder from the tuber Lasianthaeapodocephala, commonly known as the San Pedro daisy or pionilla, as a feed additive on the production parameters, food consumption, and nutritional condition of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, intensively farmed under laboratory conditions. Hypothetically, the additive should improve these parameters as it does when used for humans. The powder was included at different levels (0 [Control], 0.2 [T1] and 1 g kg-1 [T2] in a commercial shrimp feed. The tuber powder exhibited a free amino acid profile being arginine (8.59 mg g-1 and glutamine (3.36 mg g-1 the most abundant. Feed consumption was not influenced by any treatment; however, the survival and the overall production responses were higher in both treatments using the powder (T1 and T2 compared to the control. No significant differences were detected in muscle concentrations of lactate and glucose, although higher protein and lower cholesterol concentrations were observed in shrimp reared in the control. The lower cholesterol concentration of shrimp from the control could be associated to a poor nutritional status. In conclusion, addition of the powder of San Pedro daisy did not improve the feed consumption, but apparently had a positive effect on survival, production response and nutritional status of shrimp. These responses could be associated to an hypothetic effect of some plant components at a nutritional-molecular level, or to a possible antimicrobial effect; however, further specific studies are needed.

  13. Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are presented for nearly 35 km in outcrop, surface and underground mines, and shallow drill holes along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications. -from Authors

  14. Evaluación de la contaminación por metales en pasivos ambientales de actividades metalúrgicas históricas en el distrito minero Cerro de San Pedro, S.L.P. (México)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez y Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Pasivos ambientales minero-metalúrgicos son frecuentemente encontrados en regiones donde estas actividades se han desarrollado históricamente, como es el caso del Estado de San Luis Potosí, en donde desde el siglo XVI han existido importantes centros mineros, destacando entre ellos el Distrito Minero de Cerro de San Pedro que se localiza en la porción centro-sur del Estado, 19.5 kilómetros al NW de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí. La situación geográfica del sitio donde se descubriero...

  15. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  16. Cooperación y conflicto entre empresas, comunidades, nuevos movimientos sociales y el papel del gobierno. El caso de Cerro de San Pedro

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    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre la Compañía Minera (MSX y las comunidades de San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis Potosí, los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañía Minera inició operaciones en una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes de estas comunidades apoyados por grupos ambientalistas y Organizaciones No Gubernamentales argumentan que el proyecto contamina las fuentes de agua fresca, además de perturbar el medio ambiente y la ecología de la región. En tal sentido el artículo analiza el impacto, la interacción social y de conflicto entre los distintos actores desde una perspectiva local y socio-ambiental, previa contextualización histórica de subregión y el desarrollo de la industria minera.

  17. Multiyear Riparian Evapotranspiration and Groundwater Use for the Upper San Pedro Basin 1915

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the surface and subsurface water balance for many semiarid watersheds. Measurement or model-based estimates of ET are often made on a local scale, but spatially distributed estimates are needed to determine ET over catchments. In this paper,...

  18. Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of very small changes of Earth’s gravitational field (time-lapse gravity) provide a direct, non-invasive method for measuring changes in aquifer storage change. An existing network of gravity stations in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed was revised in 2014 to better understand the spatial distribution of changes in aquifer storage, especially with relation to ephemeral channel recharge and a groundwater cone of depression associated with pumping in the greater Sierra Vista area. In addition, the network was extended to provide baseline data for possible future enhanced-recharge projects.

  19. Sr- and Nd- isotope variations along the Pleistocene San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain, N. Chile: Tracking the influence of the upper crustal Altiplano-Puna Magma Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Le Roux, Petrus; de Silva, Shanaka; Parada, Miguel Ángel; Kojima, Shoji; González-Maurel, Osvaldo; Morata, Diego; Polanco, Edmundo; Martínez, Paula

    2017-07-01

    Subduction-related magmas that erupted in the Central Andes during the past 10 Ma are strongly affected by crustal assimilation as revealed by an increase in 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios with time that in turn are correlated with increased crustal thickening during the Andean orogeny. However, contamination is not uniform and can be strongly influenced locally by crustal composition, structure and thermal condition. This appears to be the case along the NW-SE San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC) in northern Chile, which straddles the boundary of a major zone of partial melt, the Altiplano_Puna Magma Body (APMB). Herein we report 40Ar/39Ar ages, compositional and isotope data on lavas from the SPLVC that track the influence of this zone of partial melting on erupted lavas with geochronological and geochemical data. Ages reported here indicate that SPLVC has evolved in the last 2 M.y., similar to other volcanoes of the Western Cordillera (e.g. Lascar, Uturuncu, Putana). 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase systematically along the chain from a minimum value of 0.7057 in San Pedro dacites to a maximum of 0.7093-0.7095 for the Toconce and Cerro de Leon dacites in the SE. These changes are interpreted to reflect the increasing interaction of SPLVC parental magmas with partial melt within the APMB eastwards across the chain. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio and an antithetic trend in 143Nd/144Nd is therefore a proxy for the contribution of melt from the APMB beneath this volcanic chain. Similar 87Sr/86Sr increases and 143Nd/144Nd decreases are observed in other transects crossing the boundary of the APMB. Such trends can be recognized from NW to SE between Aucanquilcha, Ollagüe, and Uturuncu volcanoes, and from Lascar volcano to the N-S-trending Putana-Sairecabur-Licancabur volcanic chain to the north. We interpret these isotopic trends as reflecting different degrees of interaction of mafic parental melts with the APMB. High 87Sr/86Sr, and low 143Nd/144Nd reveal zones where the APMB is

  20. Espacios naturales en zonas urbanas. Análisis comparado de la ciudad alemana de Halle y las chilenas de San Pedro de la Paz y Talcahuano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priego González de Canales, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the social perception and valorization that people of different social statuses and different cultural cities have about nature, an international cooperative project was started between Germany and Chile. Due to the comparative nature of the project, districts of upper-middle and lower-middle class neighborhoods in both countries were chosen. In Germany, two neighborhoods (Silberhöhe and Paulusviertel were chosen from the city of Halle whereas in Chile one neighborhood from the city of Talcahuano (Tumbes and the city of San Pedro de la Paz (both in the Region VIII, Biobío were selected. People from all four study areas were surveyed with the same questions. The results revealed a differential use and perception of the urban landscape by people of different social and cultural backgrounds. Likewise, in Chile a person’s social condition was found to determine the possibility of his/her access to green areas and recreational zones.

    Con el objetivo de estudiar la percepción social y la valoración de la naturaleza por personas de diferente estrato social y en ciudades de diferente cultura, se inició un proyecto de cooperación internacional entre Alemania y Chile. Para la realización de este proyecto comparativo se escogieron barrios de clase media-alta y media-baja en cada uno de los países. En Alemania se estudiaron los barrios de Silberhöhe y Paulusviertel de la ciudad de Halle, y en Chile el sector de Tumbes (Comuna de Talcahuano y la Comuna de San Pedro de la Paz, VIII Región del Biobío. La herramienta base para el estudio fue la aplicación de una encuesta base con las mismas preguntas para cada uno de los países. Se determinó cómo las personas de diferentes procedencias sociales y culturales presentaban un diferente uso y percepción del paisaje urbano. De la misma manera, en Chile la condición social del ciudadano condiciona la posibilidad de acceso a áreas verdes y de recreo.

  1. Mejora de los procesos de beneficio y extracción de minerales auroargentíferos del asentamiento minero de San Pedro Frío, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yáñez Traslaviña, J. J.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region producing gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtaining fundamental parameters for the technical selection of more efficient gold and silver extraction processes. Experimental work was addressed to the study of both processes the agitation cyanidation and the adsorption on activated carbon in pulp. As a final result proposed a flowsheet to improve the precious metals recovery and reduce the environment contamination.

    El asentamiento minero San Pedro Frío, Colombia, es una región rica en minerales auroargentíferos. Actualmente, los mineros de la región emplean procesos de tratamiento como amalgamación, cianuración por percolación y precipitación con viruta de zinc. Debido al desconocimiento de las características del mineral que allí se explota, los procesos de beneficio y tratamiento de oro y plata resultan inadecuados y poco eficientes, ocasionando, además, contaminación ambiental por el uso inapropiado del mercurio y cianuro. En este trabajo se realizó la caracterización del mineral obteniéndose parámetros fundamentales para la selección técnica de los procesos de extracción y recuperación de oro y de plata. El trabajo experimental se orientó al estudio de los procesos de cianuración por agitación y de adsorción con carbón activado en pulpa. Como resultado final, se presentó una propuesta de tratamiento para mejorar la recuperación de los metales preciosos y disminuir los niveles de contaminación ambiental

  2. Presence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli in the San Pedro River located in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

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    Flor Yazmin Ramirez Castillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of surface waters in developing countries is a great concern. Treated and untreated wastewaters have been discharged into rivers and streams, leading to possible waterborne infection outbreaks and may represent a significant dissemination mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, the water quality of San Pedro River, the main river and pluvial collector of the Aguascalientes State, Mexico was assessed. Thirty sample locations were tested throughout the River. The main physicochemical parameters of water were evaluated. Results showed high levels of fecal pollution as well as inorganic and organic matter abundant enough to support the heterotrophic growth of microorganisms. These results indicate poor water quality in samples from different locations. One hundred and fifty Escherichia coli were collected and screened by PCR for several virulence genes. Isolates were classified as either pathogenic (n = 91 or commensal (n = 59. The disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to 13 antibiotics. Fifty-two percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent and 30.6% were multi-resistant. Eighteen E. coli strains were quinolone resistant of which 16 were multi-resistant. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were detected in 12 isolates. Mutations at the Ser-83→Leu and/or Asp-87→Asn in the gyrA gene were detected as well as mutations at the Ser-80→Ile in parC. An E. coli microarray (Maxivirulence V 3.1 was used to characterize the virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes profiles of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes such as blaTEM, sulI, sulII, dhfrIX, aph3 (strA and tet (B as well as integrons were found in fluoroquinolone resistance E. coli strains. The presence of potential pathogenic E. coli and antibiotic resistance in San Pedro River such as fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli could pose a potential threat to human

  3. Dieta de murciélagos filostómidos del valle de Kosñipata, San Pedro, Cusco - Perú

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    Rossana Maguiña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la dieta de murciélagos filostómidos de los bosques montanos del valle de Kosñipata (San Pedro, Cusco. Las especies evaluadas pertenecieron a los géneros Carollia, Sturnira y Anoura. Se analizó la dieta en base a la presencia de polen y semillas en muestras fecales. Se realizó un análisis de la importancia de las plantas consumidas, la amplitud del nicho alimenticio y el nivel de superposición del nicho alimenticio. Los resultados mostraron que la dieta de los murciélagos está compuesta en su mayoría por frutos y néctar-polen de las plantas. Los principales recursos registrados pertenecieron a los géneros Piper (registrado en 23,08% de las muestras, Cecropia (en 21,15% y Abutilon (en 13,46%, los cuales fueron los recursos más importantes para la comunidad de murciélagos evaluada. La amplitud de nicho alimenticio para las 6 especies analizadas indicó que son especialistas en su dieta en el área de estudio. Por otro lado, los mayores niveles de superposición de nicho alimenticio ocurre entre las especies C. brevicauda, C. perspicillata y S. erythromos.

  4. Diversidad florística y conservación del Santuario Regional de Piura Manglares San Pedro de Vice-Sechura

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    Manuel Charcape-Ravelo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo con la finalidad de conocer la composición de las fanerógamas del Santuario Regional de Piura Manglares San Pedro de Vice-Sechura. Su importancia radica en que es el manglar más austral del Pacífico de Sudamérica. Dicho trabajo fue realizado desde abril del 2000 hasta febrero del 2004. Para la realización del presente estudio se realizaron visitas periódicas cada dos meses al lugar, se colectaron las plantas bajo procedimientos estándar. Las muestras se determinaron en el lugar y algunas fueron llevadas al laboratorio de Botánica de la Universidad Nacional de Piura y al laboratorio de Botánica Fanerogámica de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo para su determinación definitiva; luego, las muestras se depositaron en el herbario en formación de la Universidad Nacional de Piura. El manglar consiste en primer lugar de árboles y arbustos de Avicennia germinans (L. L. (Verbenaceae «mangle prieto». En el presente inventario se documentan un total de 44 especies de fanerógamas correspondiendo a 36 géneros en 21 familias para el manglar.

  5. El turismo rural como factor de acumulación, en la comunidad Indígena de San Pedro Atlapulco. Estado de Mexico

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    Dulce Enríquez Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda el tema de organización comunal, turismo comunitario y formas de acumulación para comprender la realidad de San Pedro Atlapulco. Esta población de origen indígena, está localizada Estado de México y sobresale entre muchas otras por conservar hasta el día de hoy el régimen comunal. Su privilegiada localización geográfica, la hacen susceptible a una riqueza extraordinaria natural de paisajes alpinos, esplendorosos valles y una abundancia de recursos acuíferos que le permitieron a sus habitantes incursionar en el turismo, en las primeras décadas del siglo pasado. El desarrollo de las actividades recreativas activó la economía local para la comunidad pero también rompió los esquemas tradicionales de las actividades, ya que el turismo se delineo bajo una dinámica individual de las familias campesinas, propiciando paulatinamente formas de acumulación desde el ceno de la comunidad que ponen en riesgo su organización y el futuro de sus recursos ante el actual contexto neoliberal.

  6. Long-term decrease in satellite vegetation indices in response to environmental variables in an iconic desert riparian ecosystem: the Upper San Pedro, Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River is one of the few remaining undammed rivers that maintain a vibrant riparian ecosystem in the southwest United States. However, its riparian forest is threatened by diminishing groundwater and surface water inputs, due to either changes in watershed characteristics such as changes in riparian and upland vegetation, or human activities such as regional groundwater pumping. We used satellite vegetation indices to quantify the green leaf density of the groundwater-dependent riparian forest from 1984 to 2012. The river was divided into a southern, upstream (mainly perennial flow) reach and a northern, downstream (mainly intermittent and ephemeral flow) reach. Pre-monsoon (June) Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed a 20% drop for the northern reach (P  0·05). NDVI and enhanced vegetation index values were positively correlated (P factor in reducing river flows. Climate change, regional groundwater pumping, changes in the intensity of monsoon rain events and lack of overbank flooding are feasible explanations for deterioration of the riparian forest in the northern reach.

  7. Percepción de la comunidad en torno al turismo como factor de desarrollo local. Caso San Pedro Tultepec, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina García Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La percepción de la comunidad en torno al turismo es uno de los elementos fundamentales para el logro del desarrollo local de los destinos turísticos o potencialmente turísticos, que debe ser considerado en la realización de proyectos de turismo enfocados en la participación de la población local, que busquen la solución y prevención de ciertas problemáticas, además de los tradicionales beneficios económicos que genera esta actividad. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes teóricos y metodológicos de los estudios de la percepción de la comunidad en relación con la importancia del turismo como eje articulador del desarrollo local, a partir de la protección y el aprovechamiento de su patrimonio natural y cultural, específicamente de la localidad de San Pedro Tultepec en el estado de México. En el quehacer investigativo sobre este tema, la detección de las características de la localidad anfitriona que se desea investigar resulta enriquecedora, ya que se aportan elementos de la percepción de la comunidad que podrían contribuir en futuras investigaciones turísticas.

  8. Riesgo de inundación en la llanura fluvial del curso bajo del río San Pedro, Nayarit

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    Maria de Lourdes Romo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available . El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el riesgo de inundación en una porción de la llanura costera nayarita. Esto es importante a considerar en la planeación, por representar un peligro potencial para los asentamientos humanos en la llanura fluvial del rió San Pedro, Nayarit y su creciente actividad agrícola. La base de este estudio es la geomortoiogía aplicada con un enfoque ambiental Se parte del levantamiento y análisis geomorfológico. Posteriormente, empleando la estadística, se correlaciona con un análisis multitemporal del escurrimiento en un periodo de 50 años. Esto permitió determinar las áreas susceptibles a inundaciones. su grado de susceptibilidad y los periodos de retorno. En las resultados se observa que el 92.296 del área en estudio presenta algún grado de susceptibilidad del terreno a inundaciones y que las poblaciones más importantes y sus actividades económicas se desarrollan en la zona de alta susceptibilidad. De ahí la necesidad de extremar medidas precautorias y considerar las propuestas de este trabajo

  9. Incorporación al turismo y transformación del habitus en la mujer campesina de San Pedro Atlapulco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pérez-Ramírez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar as mudanças no habitus das mulheres rurais na comunidade de San Pedro Atlapulco, localizado no Estado do México (México, com base na inclusão de serviços turísticos, a fim de determinar o impacto sobre a dinâmica e conformação da unidade familiar, o espaço coletivo e até mesmo sua relação com o exterior. A pesquisa é baseada na teoria do habitus proposta por Bourdieu (1988, contrastando a situação do habitus de mulheres antes e depois do desenvolvimento do turismo rural. Conclui-se que, apesar das mudanças que a atividade turística gerou no habitus, as mulheres desta comunidade preserva a sua organização social através do trabalho, as ações de legado, e um interesse coletivo para melhorar suas condições de vida.

  10. Los componentes de la variación intramuestral en la población prehistórica de San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

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    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una síntesis de una serie de experiencias realizadas con el fin de analizar el efecto del dimorfismo sexual, la variación etaria, la deformación artificial y la variación cronológica sobre la morfología craneana de la población prehistórica de San Pedro de Atacama. La muestra está constituída por 120 cráneos de ambos sexos, de edades adulto, maduro y senil, deformados y no deformados artificialmente, pertenecientes a cementerios que cubren cuatro fases culturales del Periodo Agroalfarero (500aC-1500dC. Los ejemplares masculinos presentaron valores medios mayores que los femeninos en la mayoría de las variables analizadas. La influencia de los restantes factores se manifestó en un tercio de las medidas craneométricas. Entre las clases adulto y maduro se comprobó un incremento significativo de los promedios. El efecto de la deformación artificial se destaca principalmente por alteraciones en el crecimiento de la bóveda y, en menor medida, en la cara y en la base del cráneo. Un hallazgo de importancia lo constituye la existencia de variación cronológica indicando cambios en la estructura de la población en el período estudiado.

  11. 33 CFR 334.940 - Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve, National Guard, and Coast Guard units. 334.940 Section 334.940 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve, National Guard, and Coast Guard units....

  12. San Juan Basin, CO and NM coal resources calculation area (sjbbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile and polygon coverage outline the area underlain by the Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico. Also, it delimits the area...

  13. Final unioned polygon coverage used in coal resource calculations, San Juan Basin, CO and NM (sjbfing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and the final unioned polygon coverage used to calculate coal resources of the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin coal assessment area, Colorado...

  14. [Draft] Environmental Impact Statement : San Luis Valley Project : Colorado Closed Basin Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Closed Basin Division, San Luis Valley Project, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, is a multi-purpose water resource plan designated to salvage and deliver...

  15. La sucesión paleozoica en el sinforme de la Sierra de San Pedro (provincias de Cáceres y Badajoz, SO de España

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    Soldevila Bartolí, J.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra of San Pedro forms a Paleozoic synform, located in the southern part of the Central Iberian zone (Iberian Massif. The thickness of the Paleozoic sequence in the synform can be evaluated at 2,800-3,000 m. Its base is in general formed by a 5-40 m thick quartzite unit, equivalent to the Armorican Quartzite (Arenig, resting unconformable on the Precambrian. However, a discontinuous conglomerate level, attributed to the basal Arenig, can locally be found underlying the quartzite. Above the quartzite, the sequence is essentially compound of an alternation of predominantly quartzite, sandstone and slate units. This alternation allows the sequence to be subdivided into several distinct lithological units. Towards the top, carbonate and volcanic levels are found, interlayered in the predominantly terrigenous sequence. Most of the lithostratigraphical units have provided fairly abundant faunas and could therefore be dated. The paleontological evidence shows that the sequence is continuous from the Lower Ordovician to the Lower Carboniferous, with the exception of a probable hiatus comprising the Middle Devonian. Upper Carboniferous conglomerates and sandstones also occur in the area.El sinforme de la Sierra de San Pedro, situado en la parte meridional de la Zona Centroibérica, está formado por materiales paleozoicos cuyo contacto con los materiales precámbricos que le rodean es en clara discordancia angular. La parte inferior de la sucesión paleozoica está formada por un tramo cuarcítico de 5-40 m de espesor y edad Arenig (Cuarcita Armoricana bajo la cual aparecen muy localmente tramos conglomeráticos atribuibles al Arenig basal. El resto de la sucesión paleozoica está constituida esencialmente por materiales detríticos formados por cuarcitas, areniscas y pizarras que se encuentran alternando en distintos niveles. No obstante, hacia la parte alta de la sucesión aparecen también materiales carbonatados y rocas volcánicas. El

  16. Puesta en valor de las capillas de la parroquia de San Nicolás Obispo y San Pedro Mártir de Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    BRU BARRERO, LAURA

    2015-01-01

    The duties of the conservator-restorer go beyond the simple intervention of artworks. Maintaining heritage activation is a fundamental part of the conservation process, because as part of this there is a concern and interest in the protection of cultural property. For this reason, this work is intended as a first step towards the enhancement of the chapels of the parish of San Nicolás, objective accomplished through the historical study of the temple as well as reviewing and updating their...

  17. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../DEIS) for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder (RCF) Project. Interested parties are invited to comment..., 555 West 6th Street, San Bernardino, California 92410 Corona Public Library, 650 South Main...

  18. Benthic community structure and biomarker responses of the clam Scrobicularia plana in a shallow tidal creek affected by fish farm effluents (Rio San Pedro, SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Mattioli, Mattia; Fabbri, Elena; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Delvalls, T Angel; Martín-Díaz, M Laura

    2012-10-15

    The effects of solid organic wastes from a marine fish farm on sediments were tested using benthic community as ecological indicators and biomarkers in native clam (Scrobicularia plana) as biochemical indicators. The benthic fauna and clam samples were collected in the intertidal sediment in October 2010 from five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, following a gradient of contamination from the aquaculture effluent to the control site. Numbers of species, abundance, richness and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna. Morphological and reproduction status of clams were assessed using the condition factor and gonado-somatic index, respectively. Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymatic activities (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST)), antioxidant enzymatic activities (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR)) and oxidative stress parameters (Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) and DNA strand breaks) were measured in clams' digestive gland tissues. In parallel, temperature and salinity in the adjacent water, redox potential, pH and organic matter in sediment, and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured. The results suggested that RSP showed a spatial gradient characterised by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced potential, acidic conditions and high organic enrichment in sediments at the most contaminated sites. Significant (pbiodiversity indicators were observed in the areas impacted by the aquaculture discharges. Biomarkers did not show a clear pattern and of all biochemical responses tested, GPX, DNA damage and LPO were the most sensitive ones and showed significant (ppolluted sites. Benthic biodiversity indicators were significantly (pchanges of the benthic population structure and health status of the exposed organisms.

  19. New Contributions to the Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale: Paleomagnetic study of Tequila and Ceboruco-San Pedro-Amado Nervo Volcanic Fields (Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Ceja, M.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Rosas Elguera, J.; Calvo, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the largest continental volcanic arcs of the North American plate. It spans about 1000 km from the Pacific to the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the abundance of thick lava sequences with quite high extrusion rates, the TMVB have been relatively little studied from a paleomagnetic point of view. Previous studies were aimed for tectonic evolution of the region rather than documenting fluctuations of Earth's magnetic field in terms of both directions and intensity. We report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study of Tequila and Ceboruco-San Pedro-Amado Nervo volcanic fields. 350 oriented samples belonging to 31 independent cooling units were collected. All these sites were previously dated by means of the state-of-the-art 40Ar-39Ar geochronological method and span from 1.1 Ma to 2 Ky. Rock-magnetic experiments which included continuous susceptibility, isothermal remanence acquisition and hysteresis measurements point to simple magnetic mineralogy. In most of cases, the remanence is carried by Ti-poor titanomagnetite of pseudo-single-domain magnetic structure. The paleodirections of the flow dated as 819±25 ka correspond to a VGP latitude of 18° N. This anomalous field behaviour apparently recorded prior to the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal may coincide with the geomagnetic event, defined as M-B precursor. Two independent lava flows, dated as 623±91 and 614±16 ka respectively, yield reverse paleodirections and one lava flow dated as 690±29 yields transitional paleodirections. It is possible that these lavas erupted during the worldwide observable Big Lost or Delta events.

  20. La vida en torno al café: marginación social de pequeños productores en San Pedro Cafetitlán, Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Morales Becerra

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta una descripción etnográfica del trabajo de campo realizado en San Pedro Cafetitlán, Oaxaca, México sobre la situación de marginación social derivada de la implementación del modelo económico neoliberal; se hace una interpretación del significado que tiene el cultivo del café en la vida de los pobladores. Destaca el hecho de que las generaciones mayores de 60 años aun valoran el recurso, tienen identidad con la tierra y esperanzas en su café; sin embargo, para las nuevas gen...

  1. La vida en torno al café: marginación social de pequeños productores en San Pedro Cafetitlán, Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Becerra, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta una descripción etnográfica del trabajo de campo realizado en San Pedro Cafetitlán, Oaxaca, México sobre la situación de marginación social derivada de la implementación del modelo económico neoliberal; se hace una interpretación del significado que tiene el cultivo del café en la vida de los pobladores. Destaca el hecho de que las generaciones mayores de 60 años aun valoran el recurso, tienen identidad con la tierra y esperanzas en su café; sin embargo, para las nuevas gen...

  2. Factores de riesgo relacionados al uso de drogas ilegales: perspectiva crítica de familiares y personas cercanas en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    RODRÍGUEZ FUNES, Gladys Magdalena; Brands,Bruna; Adlaf,Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich,Laura; Wright,Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    En este estudio, se presentan datos cuantitativos del estudio multicéntrico, multimétodos, de corte transversal realizado en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, en Honduras. Su objetivo es describir la perspectiva crítica que tienen los familiares o personas, que se consideran afectadas por tener a alguien cercano que usa o ha usado drogas ilegales, con relación a factores de riesgo. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta con 100 entrevistados. La mayor parte de las personas ...

  3. Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

    2004-12-01

    Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Improving the Flash Flood Frequency Analysis using dendrogeomorphological evidences in the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Spanish Central System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Bodoque, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    The flash flood frequency analysis in mountainous catchments presents specific scientific challenges. One of the challenges is the relevant gradient in precipitation intensity with altitude. Another challenge is the lack of information from rainfall or discharge gauge stations or from documentary sources. Dendrogeomorphology studies the response in the wood growth pattern and the botanical signs on the trees affected by geomorphological processes. With regard to the flood frequency, the dendrogeomorphological evidences bring forward valuable infomation about single past events (with annual or even seasonal precision) and their occurrence periodicity. The main macro-evidence that we can find in the tree trunk is a stem scar originated by a wound in the bark of the tree. When the tree grows, this wound remains reflected in the tree ring sequence. The best way to analyze the tree ring sequence is by using a complete section of the trunk, this couldn't be possible unless the tree is cut down. Due to the unfeasibility of cutting down the trees, in Dendrogeomorphology is enough to obtain an increment core, using a Pressler borer. Nevertheless, this study has been based on complete stem sections analysis facilitated for the felling works in the riverine vegetation in the Arenal River, carried out by the Tagus River Water Authority. These felling works have allowed us to obtain sections and to analyze the stump of the tree in situ. On this way, 100 samples of Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus angustifolia located by the river along the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Ávila, northern slopes of the Gredos Mountain Range in the Spanish Central System) have been analyzed. This village is known for its historical problems of flood during extreme events. A meticulous fieldwork has been carried out. Every sample was analyzed locating its geomorphological position, the distance to the riverbed and the height of the stump in which the evidences were observed. Using a

  5. The late Quaternary tephrostratigraphical record of the San Gregorio Magno basin (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, R.; Petrosino, P.

    2007-03-01

    Twenty-one primary pyroclastic layers were found embedded in the lacustrine sediments of the San Gregorio Magno basin (Southern Apennines). These sand-sized layers were characterised by a noticeable juvenile fragments content and by a sharp basal contact with the underlying clay and silt sediments. The tephra layers have been correlated with terrestrial counterparts from well-known eruptive events of the Campanian volcanic area, or with reference layers from deep sea sediment cores and from the Monticchio maar sequence. The investigation of the San Gregorio Magno tephra layers made it possible to deduce that lacustrine sedimentation at San Gregorio Magno basin began before 170k yr BP and lasted at least until the emplacement of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, which occurred about 15k yr BP. The tephrochronology allowed determination of the varying sedimentation rate that occurred in the basin. Correlation of the lacustrine record with marine sequences has allowed development of a late Quaternary tephrostratotype for southern Italy. Copyright

  6. A TRIGONOTARBID ARACHNID FROM THE UPPER CARBONIFEROUS OF THE SAN GIORGIO BASIN, SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL A. SELDEN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A trigonotarbid arachnid from the Upper Carboniferous (Westphalian D of San Giorgio Basin, Sardinia, is described and referred to Anthracomartus voelkelianus Karsch, 1882, the type genus of the family Anthracomartidae. The occurrence extends the range of this arachnid order outside of the major Euramerican coal basins and into the western Mediterranean region. This is the first pre-Miocene arachnid from Italy to be described. 

  7. Geologic and hydrologic characterization of coalbed-methane reservoirs in the San Juan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Ayers, W.B. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    Fruitland coals are best developed in the north-central part of the San Juan basin. Coal distribution is controlled by shoreline and fluvial depositional settings. Hydraulic gradient, pressure regime, and hydrochemistry reflect regional permeability contrasts. The most productive (>1 MMcf/D) coalbed wells occur along a structural hinge line in association with a regional permeability barrier (no-flow boundary) at the basin center.

  8. Chinese mitten crab surveys of San Joaquin River basin and Suisun Marsh, California, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) are known to use both brackish and freshwater habitats as rearing areas. The objectives of this study were to examine the habitat use and potential effects of mitten crabs in the freshwater habitats of the San Joaquin River drainage up-stream of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. After several unsuccessful attempts to catch or observe mitten crabs by trapping, electrofishing, and visual observations, the study was redirected to determine the presence of crabs in the San Joaquin River (in the vicinity of Mossdale) and Suisun Marsh. Monthly surveys using baited traps in the San Joaquin River were done from June through November 2000 and in the Suisun Marsh from August through October 2000. No mitten crabs were caught in the San Joaquin River Basin and only one mitten crab was caught in Suisun Marsh. Surveys were conducted at 92 locations in the San Joaquin River Basin by deploying 352 traps for 10,752 hours of trapping effort; in Suisun Marsh, 34 locations were investigated by deploying 150 traps for 3,600 hours of trapping effort. The baited traps captured a variety of organisms, including catfishes (Ictularidae), yellowfin gobies (Acantho-gobius flavimanus), and crayfish (Decapoda). It is unclear whether the failure to capture mitten crabs in the San Joaquin River Basin and Suisun Marsh was due to ineffective trapping methods, or repre-sents a general downward trend in populations of juvenile mitten crabs in these potential rearing areas or a temporary decline related to year-class strength. Available data (since 1998) on the number of mitten crabs entrained at federal and state fish salvage facilities indicate a downward trend in the number of crabs, which may indicate a declining trend in use of the San Joaquin River Basin by juvenile mitten crabs. Continued monitoring for juvenile Chinese mitten crabs in brackish and freshwater portions of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basins is needed to better assess the

  9. Isopachs of net coal thickness, Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin, NM and CO (sjbthkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This as a shapefile and coverage showing the isopachs of total net coal in beds greater than 1.2' thick for the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New...

  10. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  11. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../EIR for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder Project. The public and agencies are invited to comment..., and construction of the Riverside-Corona Feeder Project including: (i) 20 groundwater wells;...

  12. Repercussões do fechamento da Unidade de Desintoxicação do Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro Repercusiones del cierre de la Unidad de Desintoxicación del Hospital Psiquiátrico San Pedro Repercussions of closing the Detoxification Unit at Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Brasil Araujo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A lei de reforma psiquiátrica prevê substituição de leitos em hospitais psiquiátricos por leitos em hospitais gerais, e o fechamento da unidade de desintoxicação do Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro está de acordo com estes princípios. OBJETIVOS: Mensurar se aumentou a prevalência de dependentes químicos internados em unidades de psicóticos deste hospital antes e depois do fechamento da unidade de desintoxicação e se aumentaram as recusas de vagas para internação. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, com amostra não aleatória, dividida em: Grupo 1, com todos os pacientes internados em unidades que atendem adultos masculinos três meses antes do fechamento e Grupo 2, com todos os internados, nestas unidades, nos três meses posteriores. Analisou-se o número de vagas recusadas para dependentes químicos. Realizou-se um levantamento retrospectivo em registros e prontuários. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi de 135 do Grupo 1 e 126 do Grupo 2 (n=261. No Grupo 1, 15,6 % tinham o diagnóstico de dependência química e, no Grupo 2, 22,2 %. Aumentaram as internações de dependentes químicos sem co-morbidades psiquiátricas (X²=4,497; p=0,033 e o número dos que ficaram sem vaga (X²=154,40; p=0,0000. DISCUSSÃO: Após o fechamento, houve um aumento de dependentes químicos, sem co-morbidades psiquiátricas que internaram em unidades de psicóticos, sendo privados de atendimento especializado. Também se observou um aumento de desassistidos, o que fere a reforma psiquiátrica. CONCLUSÃO: A Reforma Psiquiátrica deve ser uma meta a ser seguida pelos profissionais da saúde; no entanto, não se pode esquecer das necessidades específicas dos pacientes nem desconsiderar os aspectos técnicos.INTRODUCCIÓN: La ley de reforma psiquiátrica prevé sustituir lechos en hospitales psiquiátricos por lechos en hospitales generales e el cierre de la unidad de desintoxicación del Hospital Psiquiátrico San Pedro esta de acuerdo con esos

  13. “El olor nos lleva”: identidades ecológicas como un proceso de reconocimiento social y cultural de los “recuperadores” en el Relleno Sanitario Regional de Presidente, municipio de San Pedro, departamento del Valle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Julián Quinchoa.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of environmental anthropology and ethnography, this article describes the formation of the institutionalized ecological identity of the “recuperaters” in Presidente Regional Landfill in San Pedro, Valle Department. It shows how environmental discourses, by ascribing identities to people who work in the landfill, obscure their roles. “Recuperators,” by contrast, openly discuss and think about the importance of their job. They have been forging an identity of resistance, or a political identity, through the social memory of enduring regressive policies, such as law 1259 of 2008, legally permitted by Colombia’s 1991 constitution. In this way, they propose alternatives, such as their social organization, to “struggle” for their right to recycle in the face of a growing interest by domestic and multinational companies in turning “garbage” into a business.

  14. Petroleum potential of the northern Sinu-San Jacinto Basin, Colombia: an integrated petroleum system and basin modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Christian H.; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Bedregal, Ricardo P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Azevedo, Debora A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Landau, Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    The northern Sinu-San Jacinto basin, located in the northwestern corner of South America (Colombia), belongs to the accretionary prism that resulted from the collision and subduction of the Caribbean plate under the South America plate. Despite all the previous exploratory efforts, solely a few small sub-commercial oil and gas accumulation have been found up to now. The geological and geochemical information acquired by different companies during the lasts decades was integrated with new geochemical analysis and basin modeling to characterize the petroleum systems, to reconstruct the hydrocarbon charge history in the study area and to better assess the exploratory risk. (author)

  15. Petroleum potential of the northern Sinu-San Jacinto Basin, Colombia: an integrated petroleum system and basin modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Christian H.; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Bedregal, Ricardo P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Azevedo, Debora A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Landau, Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    The northern Sinu-San Jacinto basin, located in the northwestern corner of South America (Colombia), belongs to the accretionary prism that resulted from the collision and subduction of the Caribbean plate under the South America plate. Despite all the previous exploratory efforts, solely a few small sub-commercial oil and gas accumulation have been found up to now. The geological and geochemical information acquired by different companies during the lasts decades was integrated with new geochemical analysis and basin modeling to characterize the petroleum systems, to reconstruct the hydrocarbon charge history in the study area and to better assess the exploratory risk. (author)

  16. Geohydrology of the San Agustin Basin, Alamosa Creek Basin upstream from Monticello Box, and upper Gila Basin in parts of Catron, Socorro, and Sierra counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R.G.; Everheart, J.T.; Wilson, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The San Agustin Basin, the Alamosa Creek Basin upstream from Monticello Box, and the upper Gila Basin are located in parts of Catron, Socorro, and Sierra Counties in west-central New Mexico. Four major aquifers are within the study area: (1) the San Agustin bolson-fill aquifer; (2) the Datil aquifer; (3) the shallow upland aquifers; and (4) the Alamosa Creek shallow aquifer. Two minor aquifers, the Baca Formation at the northern edge of the San Agustin Basin and a basalt to basaltic andesite unit overlying the Datil Group, yield some water to wells. Sixty-three vertical electrical- resistivity soundings were used to estimate the depth to bedrock and the saline/freshwater interface in the San Agustin bolson-fill aquifer. The dissolved-solids concentration of ground-water samples ranged from 74 to 23,500 milligrams per liter. The dominant cations varied; the dominant anion of freshwater generally was bicarbonate. Point-of-discharge temperatures of well or spring water that exceed 21 degrees Celsius are associated with faults in the areas of shallow or exposed bedrock. The dissolved-solids concentration of this warm water ranged from 120 to 1,200 milligrams per liter.

  17. Analyse des propriétés hydrodynamiques des aquifères fissurés de la région de San-Pedro (Sud-Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Lasme, O. Z.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available San-Pedro area is localized in south-western Côte d’Ivoire and covers a surface of 6912 km2. Wa t e r resources exploited in this area are constituted of surface waters and groundwater of weathered and fissured aquifers. The aims of this study are to analyze hydrodynamic properties of fissured aquifers of San-Pedro on statistical and geostatistical viewpoints for a better knowledge and management of groundwater resources. Data base includes 110 drillings tapping fissured aquifers. Transmissivity was calculated by interpreting of pumping tests with classical methods. Specific capacity was calculated at the end of the third step for all drillings after correction of drawdowns. Transmissivity and specific capacity values oscillate between 1,27.10-6 and 8,59.10-4 m2.s-1 and between 1,09.10-2 m2.h-1 et 13,2 m2.h-1, respectively. These two parameters span three orders of magnitude showing the strong heterogeneity of the medium. An empirical relationship was established between transmissivity and specific capacity of San-Pedro area. This relationship can be used to determine transmissivity in the sectors where this data is lacking. Variogram of transmissivity is characterized by a double structuring. Transmissivity assessment by kriging is satisfactory, observed and estimated values are comparable. The findings obtained in this study lead to a better understanding of hydrogeological properties of south-western Côte d’Ivoire.

    [fr] La région de San-Pedro est localisée dans le sud-ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire et couvre une superficie de 6912 km2. Les ressources en eau exploitées dans cette région sont constituées des eaux de surface et des eaux souterraines des aquifères des altérites et de fissures du socle précambrien. La présente étude a pour objectif d’analyser les propriétés hydrodynamiques des aquif

  18. Factores de riesgo relacionados al uso de drogas ilegales: perspectiva crítica de familiares y personas cercanas en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, Honduras Fatores de risco relacionados ao uso de drogas ilegais, perspectiva crítica de familiares e pessoas próximas, em um centro da saúde público em San Pedro Sula, Honduras Risk factors related to the use of illegal drugs: the critial perspective of drug users' relatives and acquaintances at a public health center in San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez Funes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio, se presentan datos cuantitativos del estudio multicéntrico, multimétodos, de corte transversal realizado en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, en Honduras. Su objetivo es describir la perspectiva crítica que tienen los familiares o personas, que se consideran afectadas por tener a alguien cercano que usa o ha usado drogas ilegales, con relación a factores de riesgo. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta con 100 entrevistados. La mayor parte de las personas informantes eran mujeres pobres con baja escolaridad. Los consumidores eran en su mayoría hombres con edad promedio de 23,3 años. La droga más usada fue la marihuana (78% seguida de crack/cocaína (72%, pegamento/inhalantes (27%, alucinógenos (éxtasis/LSD (3%, anfetaminas/estimulantes (1% y heroína (1%. Los factores de riesgo identificados fueron la experiencia previa con alcohol/tabaco, el tener amigos/amigas que usan drogas, la falta de conocimiento, la baja autoestima , la edad, entre otros factores personales, familiares y sociales. Se concluye que es necesario fortalecer las medidas de prevención y protección.São apresentados, aqui, dados quantitativos de um estudo multicêntrico, multimétodos, de corte transversal, realizado em um centro de saúde pública em San Pedro Sula, Honduras. O objetivo foi descrever a perspectiva crítica dos membros da família ou pessoas que se sentem afetadas por terem alguém próximo que usa ou usou drogas ilegais, em relação aos fatores de risco. Os dados foram coletados através de questionário aplicado em 100 indivíduos. A maioria era composta por mulheres pobres, com pouca escolaridade. Os consumidores eram majoritariamente varões, com idade média de 23,3 anos. A droga mais utilizada foi a maconha (78%, seguida por crack/cocaína (72%, cola/inalantes (27%, alucinógenos (ecstasy/LSD (3%, anfetaminas/estimulantes (1%, heroína (1%. Entre os fatores de risco identificados estão: experi

  19. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  20. Data points (drill locations) used to assess coal resources in the San Juan Basin, CO and NM (sjbptsg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and coverage of data points used in the assessment of coal resources of the Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico....

  1. Compounds of emerging concern in the San Antonio River Basin, Texas, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2016-11-16

    The City of San Antonio and the surrounding municipalities in Bexar County, Texas, are among the fastest growing cities in the Nation. Increases in residential and commercial development are changing runoff patterns and likely will increase chemical loads into streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, evaluated the concentrations and distributional patterns of selected “compounds of emerging concern” (CECs) by collecting and analyzing water-quality samples from 20 sites in the San Antonio River Basin, Tex., during 2011–12. On the basis of their chemical composition or similar uses, the CECs discussed in this fact sheet are wastewater compounds, pharmaceutical compounds (hereinafter referred to as “pharmaceuticals”), and steroidal hormone and sterol compounds (hereinafter referred to as “steroidal hormones and sterols”). Three synoptic sampling events were completed during 2011–12 to analyze for CECs in the San Antonio River Basin. Samples were analyzed for 54 wastewater compounds, 13 pharmaceuticals, 17 steroidal hormones, and 4 sterols. Overall, the concentrations of all CECs analyzed for during this study were low, generally close to or less than the laboratory reporting level.

  2. El paisaje de la colonia agrícola de san pedro alcántara (provincia de Málaga. Bases naturales y reconstrucción geohistórica a través del catastro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gómez Zotano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para comprender la actual configuración paisajística de buena parte de la Costa del Sol Occidental hay que remontarse a finales del siglo XIX, cuando se creó la colonia agrícola de San Pedro Alcántara. Con ella surgió un modélico y moderno paisaje agrario, caracterizado por una extraordinaria diversidad de usos del suelo y un aprovechamiento sostenible de los recursos naturales en el marco de una organización que suponía importantes transformaciones ligadas al orden técnico y productivo. Sin embargo, la irrupción de la actividad turística a partir de los años 50 del siglo pasado supuso un cambio decisivo en las formas de vida tradicionales, vinculadas sobre todo a las actividades primarias, de tal manera que los paisajes coloniales de base agraria se fueron transformando paulatinamente en paisajes urbanos, totalmente desvinculados del mundo rural y en disonancia con el medio natural. En este trabajo trataremos de recuperar la memoria histórica del territorio que comprendía la colonia de San Pedro Alcántara a través del estudio de su paisaje, con el fin de no perder las raíces de los ciudadanos que lo habitan. Intentaremos conocer la magnitud de dichas mutaciones paisajísticas y provocar una reflexión sobre sus costes y beneficios. Para ello analizaremos las principales características del proceso de diversificación del paisaje a través de una interpretación geohistórica que abarca desde mediados del siglo XIX hasta mediados del XX. El estudio del medio físico, junto al análisis —a través de los planos catastrales— de los distintos modelos de organización productiva que han funcionado en esta finca, nos dará la clave de la ordenación última de este espacio y de la constitución de sus paisajes agrarios característicos.

  3. Structurally controlled and aligned tight gas reservoir compartmentalization in the San Juan and Piceance Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, A.D.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Recurrent basement faulting is the primary controlling mechanism for aligning and compartmentalizing upper Cretaceous aged tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan and Piceance Basins. Northwest trending structural lineaments that formed in conjunction with the Uncompahgre Highlands have profoundly influenced sedimentation trends and created boundaries for gas migration; sealing and compartmentalizing sedimentary packages in both basins. Fractures which formed over the structural lineaments provide permeability pathways which allowing gas recovery from otherwise tight gas reservoirs. Structural alignments and associated reservoir compartments have been accurately targeted by integrating advanced remote sensing imagery, high resolution aeromagnetics, seismic interpretation, stratigraphic mapping and dynamic structural modelling. This unifying methodology is a powerful tool for exploration geologists and is also a systematic approach to tight gas resource assessment in frontier basins.

  4. Water quality modelling in the San Antonio River Basin driven by radar rainfall data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoutaz Elhassan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of stream water quality is needed as it has significant impacts on human and ecological health and well-being. Estimating water quality between sampling dates requires model simulation based on the available geospatial and water quality data for a given watershed. Models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT can be used to estimate the missing water quality data. In this study, SWAT was used to estimate water quality at a monitoring station near the outlet of the San Antonio River. Precipitation data from both rain gauges and weather radar were used to force the SWAT simulations. Virtual rain gauges which were based on weather radar data were created in the approximate centres of the 163 sub-watersheds of the San Antonio River Basin for SWAT simulations. This method was first tested in a smaller watershed in the middle of the Guadalupe River Basin resulting in increased model efficiency in simulating surface run-off. The method was then applied to the San Antonio River watershed and yielded good simulations for surface run-off (R2 = 0.7, nitrate (R2 = 0.6 and phosphate (R2 = 0.5 at the watershed outlet (Goliad, TX – USGS (United States Geological Survey gauge as compared to observed data. The study showed that the proper use of weather radar precipitation in SWAT model simulations improves the estimation of missing water quality data.

  5. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologi...

  6. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologi...

  7. Assessing a bioremediation strategy in a shallow coastal system affected by a fish farm culture--application of GIS and shellfish dynamic models in the Rio San Pedro, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; DelValls, T A

    2012-04-01

    An integrated multi-trophic aquaculture assessment for Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture as a bioremediation strategy in areas impacted by fish farm effluents in Rio San Pedro was assessed by combining geographic information system with carrying capacity models. Sites of 0.44 km(2) were evaluated considering constraints; physical factors, growth and survival factors, environmental quality factors, water and sediment quality criteria, factor suitability ranges, and Multi-Criteria Evaluation. Isleta and Flamenco are promising sites for oyster production, and Dorada is of marginal interest. Carbon and nitrogen removal from the water by algae and through detritus filtration was estimated. The biodeposition of organic material from longline leases was found to have little negative impact on sediment. The eutrophication results indicate that phytoplankton removal had a positive impact on water quality at the Dorada. This case study quantified the direct profitability and bioremediative environmental service advantages that fish-shellfish farms can have relative to fish monocultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ocupantes espontáneos y derechos por la tierra en la formación de “pueblos de españoles” (Rincón de San Pedro, Buenos Aires, 1740-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Canedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, se multiplicó la presencia de “pueblos de espa-ñoles” y villas en la frontera sur hispanoamericana. El protagonismo de ocupantes rurales en la formación de “pueblos de españoles” fue más frecuente en la campaña de Buenos Aires que en otras jurisdicciones, aunque poco se conoce sobre su proceder. El objetivo del artículo fue analizar las características de los ocupantes rurales y el rango de acción que tuvieron para solicitar el reconocimiento legal de terrenos para la formación de un pueblo en la campaña de Buenos Aires durante el siglo XVIII y parte del XIX. El análisis del caso del pueblo de San Pedro nos permitió profundizar la situación de los “ocupantes” y abrir varios inte-rrogantes sobre la regulación de los derechos por la tierra, particularmen-te sobre los pueblos y villas, en un período que suele estar vinculado a transformaciones en los derechos y en las relaciones de poder ejercidas en su puesta en práctica.

  9. Diego de San Pedro's Cárcel de Amor: Political and Social Consequences of the Mismatch of Laureola and the King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Márquez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a political and social analysis of Diego de San Pedro’s Cárcel de Amor. Our starting point will be the Laureola's rejection, which will contrast with the king's refusal to request of his vassals. From there, we will examine both the social ideology of courtly love for the social class of the nobility as well as the political implications of this situation for the government of the kingdom.

  10. Além da lama e do lixo: movimentos de escolarização em São Pedro, Vitória/ES (1977-2007 Beyond the mud and the waste: schooling movements in San Pedro, Victoria/ES (1977-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia Rodrigues Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Discute o processo histórico de escolarização da infância no bairro São Pedro I, em Vitória/ES. Relaciona-o com o movimento de constituição da região na década de 1970. Toma como lócus o CMEI da Amizade, instituição que acompanha a primeira referência de espaço educativo. Privilegia como fonte o relato dos sujeitos residentes no bairro, expressos em dois livros sobre o movimento de constituição da região, escritos por uma moradora, e uma obra produzida por pesquisadores, moradores e a Prefeitura de Vitória. Também destaca as narrativas de uma cozinheira e de uma auxiliar de serviços gerais, profissionais da instituição pesquisada. As fontes são analisadas como "testemunhos", como conhecimento através de "vestígios". Procura compreender os "usos táticos" e "estratégicos" praticados pelos sujeitos na mobilização popular, na organização das moradias e instituições educativas, bem como os reflexos dessa experiência para os que permanecem no CMEI educando crianças, atualmente.This paper discusses the historical process of schooling in childhood in the neighborhood of San Pedro I, in Victoria, E.S. It looks at the constitutional movement of the 1970s in the (E.S. region. As its focal point, it takes "CMEI da Amizade", an institution that follows the first reference to educational space. It has as a privileged source, the accounts of residents of the neighborhood. These subjects' accounts, are expressed in two books on the region's constitutional movement, one written by a resident, and another, a work produced by researchers, residents and the local government of Victoria. It also highlights the narratives of a cook and a general services assistant, professionals of the institution being investigated. The sources are analyzed as witness accounts providing remnants of knowledge and therefore comparative data. What it seeks to understand are the "practical strategies" and "tactics" employed by the subjects in these

  11. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year.

    The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000, when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through

  12. Regional Studies Program. Biological aspects of surface coal mine reclamation, Black Mesa and San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.B.

    1977-08-01

    This report discusses case study data on surface mine reclamation accumulated at selected mines in the Southwest, specifically the Black Mesa Mine in Arizona and the Navajo Mine located south of Fruitland, New Mexico, in the San Juan Basin. Experimental results have made it apparent that reclamation of disturbed lands cannot begin and end with planting seed. The report therefore considers hydrologic, edaphic, and biotic factors, as well as land use and management, as important aspects of land reclamation. Recommendations are made to initiate, broaden, and intensify research studies in plant succession, productivity, species selection, and attendant soil characteristics, along with grazing practices and land use potential.

  13. Application of an area of review variance methodology to the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Norman, S.; Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.

    1995-12-01

    When the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Regulations were promulgated in 1980, existing Class II Injection wells operating at the time were excluded from Area of Review (AOR) requirements. EPA has expressed its intent to revise the regulations to include the requirement for AOR`s for such wells, but it is expected that oil and gas producing states will be allowed to adopt a variance strategy for these wells. An AOR variance methodology has been developed under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The general concept of the variance methodology is a systematic evaluation of basic variance criteria that were agreed to by a Federal Advisory Committee. These criteria include absence of USDWs, lack of positive flow potential from the petroleum reservoir into the overlying USDWs, mitigating geological factors, and other evidence. The AOR variance methodology has been applied to oilfields in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. This paper details results of these analyses, particularly with respect to the opportunity for variance for injection fields in the San Juan Basin.

  14. Geologic controls on open-hole cavity completions in the San Juan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, B.S. (Advanced Resources International, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The success of open-cavity-completed wells is measured (1) by how well mechanically the cavity is created, which results in a higher degree of completion efficiency; and (2) by production success, whereby production rates are improved relative to other completion techniques. Open-hole cavitation is highly successful in the San Juan basin fairway, but the technique has not been successful in other areas. Outside the fairway, particularly to the south, operators have not achieved mechanical success with cavity completions. To explain the change in permeability across the southern fairway boundary, an hypothesis is proposed that involves the presence of a northwest-trending basement structure, such as a fault or fault zone. Episodic post-Fruitland movement on the northeastern limb of the structure could have enhanced the fracturing of the coal seams, resulting in higher permeabilities and the higher productivity levels of both cavity and fracture-stimulated wells. Based on the San Juan basin data reviewed, it appears that a combination of adequate permeability, overpressuring, and coal rank of high-volatile A bituminous are required for mechanical success of cavity completions. Although the level of permeability is not quantified, it is the author's opinion that at least 5 md is required. High production rates from cavity-completed wells are a function of better completion efficiency, whereby the wellbore is linked to favorable permeability settings. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Increasing coal absolute permeability in the San Juan basin Fruitland formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavor, M.J.; Vaughn, J.E. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Recently measured data show that the absolute permeability of coal natural fracture is increasing significantly with continued gas production in the San Juan basin Fruitland formation. This phenomenon caused gas-production rates to be many times greater than expected from early production history. The phenomenon also caused producing bottomhole pressures to increase when gas rates were constant, opposite from that expected from conventional applications of Darcy`s law. The increase in absolute permeability caused by gas desorption has been measured on cores but, until recently, there was no verification that this phenomenon occurs in situ. Palmer and Mansoori (P & M) presented a new theory and showed how this theory matched gas- and water-production rates and estimated bottomhole-pressure data for a high-deliverability San Juan basin Fruitland formation coal-gas well. However, Palmer and Mansoor had no transient pressure data to support in-situ permeability changes. This paper documents data from drillstem tests and shut-in tests with analyses thereof and additional production-rate and pressure behaviors that support the P & M theory.

  16. CO{sub 2} sequestration in an unmineable coalbed - San Juan Basin, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D.; Jensen, J.R. [BP Amoco, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    BP Amoco (BPA) is investigating the sequestration of approximately 464 tonnes per day of vented CO{sub 2} from gas processing plant by injecting the CO{sub 2} into a non-mineable natural gas producing coal in the Colorado portion of the San Juan Basin. Removed CO{sub 2} from this production will be re-injected into the coalbed for sequestration. BPA has concentrated efforts on utilizing nitrogen to enhance the recovery of methane from coals and currently operates the largest and most significant project of its kind. On a pilot basis, CO{sub 2} sequestration, as an enhanced recovery process for Fruitland coals, has also been undertaken in the San Juan Basin (SJB). The two gases behave differently in coals. CO{sub 2} is readily adsorbed on the coal and therefore displaces the methane whereas the nitrogen strips the methane from the coals by reducing the partial pressure of the methane. Injection, production and reservoir data will be used to evaluate the success of the CO{sub 2} sequestration. BPA will use its proprietary GCOMP Reservoir Model to investigate the flow and adsorption of CO{sub 2}, simulate the process, compare field results with model predictions, and adjust the model to better match actual field performance. Preliminary simulations indicate that some incremental methane production will be recovered, while sequestering nearly all of the injected CO{sub 2} in the coals seams. 3 figs.

  17. Impacto del fenómeno "El Niño - Oscilación del Sur" sobre la evapotranspiración de la localidad de San Pedro, Buenos Aires, Argentina, para el periodo 2005-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Texeira Soria

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial el uso del agua para riego representa 70 % de la demanda hídrica total, con una eficiencia de uso inferior al 40 %. Para lograr un uso sustentable del recurso hídrico es necesaria una adecuada planificación y un aumento en la eficiencia del uso. La producción de materia seca de un cultivo depende entre otros factores del agua transpirada. El conocimiento de la evapotranspiración es la base para el cálculo de las necesidades de riego, por lo tanto resulta una herramienta imprescindible para el uso sustentable del recurso. El fenómeno de "El Niño - Oscilación del Sur" (ENOS es uno de los principales responsables de la variabilidad climática interanual, tiene influencia sobre la región pampeana argentina, y su ocurrencia puede ser pronosticada con meses de anticipación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el impacto del ENOS sobre las variaciones mensuales de la evapotranspiración de la localidad de San Pedro, para el periodo 2005-2011. Los resultados indicaron que los desvíos de la evapotranspiración con respecto al valor histórico del periodo 1969-2004 son negativos durante eventos "El Niño" y positivos durante "La Niña". Las variaciones de la evapotranspiración de los meses de diciembre y febrero tuvieron una correlación altamente significativa con los eventos del fenómeno ENOS. En estos meses el ENOS resultaría un buen predictor de las variaciones de la evapotranspiración y por ende de los volúmenes de agua necesarios para satisfacer la demanda de los cultivos.

  18. Tectonic Setting and Characteristics of Natural Fractures in MesaVerde and Dakota Reservoirs of the San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.; COOPER,SCOTT P.

    2000-12-20

    The Cretaceous strata that fill the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado were shortened in a generally N-S to NN13-SSW direction during the Laramide orogeny. This shortening was the result of compression of the strata between southward indentation of the San Juan Uplift at the north edge of the basin and northward to northeastward indentation of the Zuni Uplift from the south. Right-lateral strike-slip motion was concentrated at the eastern and western basin margins of the basin to form the Hogback Monocline and the Nacimiento Uplift at the same time, and small amounts of shear may have been pervasive within the basin as well. Vertical extension fractures, striking N-S to NNE-SSW with local variations (parallel to the Laramide maximum horizontal compressive stress), formed in both Mesaverde and Dakota sandstones under this system, and are found in outcrops and in the subsurface of the San Juan Basin. The immature Mesaverde sandstones typically contain relatively long, irregular, vertical extension fractures, whereas the quartzitic Dakota sandstones contain more numerous, shorter, sub-parallel, closely spaced, extension fractures. Conjugate shear planes in several orientations are also present locally in the Dakota strata.

  19. El agua y los territorios hídricos en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile. Casos de estudio: Tiltil, Valle de Mallarauco y San Pedro de Melipilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesser Obregón, Claudio Ernesto Esteban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rural area of the Santiago Metropolitan Region is a combination of natural, social, economic and technical factors that give origin to several territories. If we consider those in which water resources play a significant role in carrying out agricultural activity, several different «water territories» can be identified in the Tiltil, Valle de Mallarauco and San Pedro de Melipilla areas. In these cases the study allowed us to shed light upon and discuss several important points regarding the territorial approach to water resources and water management in a model that favors the actions of private parties, such as: the extension of the agricultural use of the water resources, the conflicts and problems over its control and the resulting water territories that have come about as a result of the various assessments of a liberal management system. This has been done with the intention of contributing, from a Geographical point of view, thoughts geared towards achieving a comprehensive and sustainable management of the water resources in Chile.El espacio rural de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile es una combinación de factores naturales, sociales, económicos y técnicos que dan origen a diversos territorios. Si consideramos aquellos donde el recurso hídrico tiene un papel predominante en el desarrollo de las actividades agrícolas, se pueden identificar distintos «territorios hídricos» en las áreas de Tiltil, Valle de Mallarauco y San Pedro de Melipilla. El estudio de estos casos permitió poner en evidencia y discutir un cierto número de puntos importantes concernientes al enfoque territorial de los recursos hídricos y de la gestión del agua en un modelo que privilegia la acción de los privados, tales como: la dimensión espacial del uso agrícola de los recursos hídricos, los conflictos y problemas por su control y los consecuentes territorios hídricos que han surgido como resultado de diversas valorizaciones de un

  20. California GAMA Program: Ground-Water Quality Data in the Northern San Joaquin Basin Study Unit, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over the closure of public-supply wells because of ground-water contamination has led the State Water Board to establish the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. With the aid of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the program goals are to enhance understanding and provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where ground water is an important source of drinking water. The Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit covers an area of approximately 2,079 square miles (mi2) across four hydrologic study areas in the San Joaquin Valley. The four study areas are the California Department of Water Resources (CADWR) defined Tracy subbasin, the CADWR-defined Eastern San Joaquin subbasin, the CADWR-defined Cosumnes subbasin, and the sedimentologically distinct USGS-defined Uplands study area, which includes portions of both the Cosumnes and Eastern San Joaquin subbasins. Seventy ground-water samples were collected from 64 public-supply, irrigation, domestic, and monitoring wells within the Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit. Thirty-two of these samples were collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin study area, 17 in the Tracy Basin study area, 10 in the Cosumnes Basin study area, and 11 in the Uplands Basin study area. Of the 32 samples collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin, 6 were collected using a depth-dependent sampling pump. This pump allows for the collection of samples from discrete depths within the pumping well. Two wells were chosen for depth-dependent sampling and three samples were collected at varying depths within each well. Over 350 water-quality field parameters, chemical constituents, and microbial constituents were analyzed and are reported as concentrations and as detection frequencies, by compound classification as well as for individual constituents, for the Northern San Joaquin Basin study unit as a whole and for each individual study area

  1. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  2. CBM in 3-D: coalbed methane multicomponent 3-D reservoir characterisation study, Cedar Hill Field, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, T.; Shuck, E.; Benson, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

    1995-10-01

    The article explains how 3-D multicomponent seismic surveys could substantially improve the production and development of fractured coalbed methane reservoirs. The technique has been used by Northern Geophysical for the detection of geological faults and zones of enhanced fracture permeability proximal to the fault in the western side of the Cedar Hill field in San Juan Basin, NM, USA. 3 figs.

  3. Age, distribution, and stratigraphic relationship of rock units in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 5 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin is a major petroleum province that forms the southern half of California’s Great Valley, a 700-km-long, asymmetrical basin that originated between a subduction zone to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. Sedimentary fill and tectonic structures of the San Joaquin Basin record the Mesozoic through Cenozoic geologic history of North America’s western margin. More than 25,000 feet (>7,500 meters) of sedimentary rocks overlie the basement surface and provide a nearly continuous record of sedimentation over the past ~100 m.y. Further, depositional geometries and fault structures document the tectonic evolution of the region from forearc setting to strike-slip basin to transpressional margin. Sedimentary architecture in the San Joaquin Basin is complicated because of these tectonic regimes and because of lateral changes in depositional environment and temporal changes in relative sea level. Few formations are widespread across the basin. Consequently, a careful analysis of sedimentary facies is required to unravel the basin’s depositional history on a regional scale. At least three high-quality organic source rocks formed in the San Joaquin Basin during periods of sea level transgression and anoxia. Generated on the basin’s west side, hydrocarbons migrated into nearly every facies type in the basin, from shelf and submarine fan sands to diatomite and shale to nonmarine coarse-grained rocks to schist. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources and future additions to reserves in the San Joaquin Valley of California (USGS San Joaquin Basin Province Assessment Team, this volume, chapter 1). Several research aims supported this assessment: identifying and mapping the petroleum systems, modeling the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, and defining the volumes of rock to be analyzed for additional resources. To better understand the three dimensional

  4. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-08-15

    The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. DISEÑO, CONSTRUCCIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE UN INSTRUMENTO PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DE LAS COMPETENCIAS DE LOS DOCENTES (IECOD) DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DEL ALUMNO, EN EL INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TECNOLÓGICO JESÚS DE NAZARETH, SAN PEDRO DE SULA, HONDURAS. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón-Víquez, Luis Diego

    2013-01-01

    La investigación que se presenta a continuación es de corte cuantitativo con un enfoque empírico analítico.Se describe el proceso del diseño, construcción y validación de un Instrumento para la Evaluación de las Competencias de los Docentes (IECOD) desde la perspectiva del alumno en el Instituto Superior Tecnológico Jesús de Nazareth de San Pedro de Sula, Honduras. El instrumento se diseñó con la intención de evaluar cinco competencias, que fueron visualizadas como fundamentalespara el desemp...

  6. Sequence stratigraphy of the marine and non-marine Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, San Juan Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, P.

    1994-12-31

    Late Cretaceous, middle Cenomanian, shallow marine and non-marine sandstones of the Dakota Sandstone have been studied in the western part of the Western Interior, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. 15-20 m thick sharp based, slightly coarsening upward shoreface sandstones characterize the eastern fully marine part of the San Juan Basin, while non-marine sediments dominate the western part of the basin. The aim of this paper is to carefully correlate key-surfaces from the thick shoreface sandstones towards the west into the non-marine succession, using sequence stratigraphic principles. The present paper will document an additional marine sandstone underlying the Cubero Tongue; the Oak Canyon Member. (au)

  7. San Vicente Ferrer en una tabla procedente de Alcalá La Real: precisiones y propuestas en torno a la Aparición de Cristo a San Pedro Mártir, atribuida a Juan Correa de Vivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesada Quesada, José Joaquín

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New information is offered concerning a panel attributed to the Toledan painter Juan Correa de Vivar, giving its provenance as the city of Alcalá la Real (Jaén and proposing that the iconographic theme represented is the Vision in Avignon, related to Saint Vincent Ferrer.Se aportan nuevos datos acerca de una tabla atribuida al pintor toledano Juan Correa de Vivar, señalando como su lugar de procedencia la ciudad de Alcalá la Real (Jaén y proponiendo como tema iconográfico la Visión de Avignon, relativa a San Vicente Ferrer.

  8. Geochemical evaluation of upper cretaceous fruitland formation coals, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G.E.; Anders, D.E.; Law, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of coal samples from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado were used to determine thermal maturity, type of kerogen, and hydrocarbon generation potential. Mean random vitrinite reflectance (%Rm) of the Fruitland coal ranges from 0.42 to 1.54%. Rock-Eval pyrolysis data and saturated to aromatic hydrocarbon ratio indicate that the onset of thermal hydrocarbon generation begins at about 0.60% Rm and peak generation occurs at about 0.85% Rm. Several samples have hydrogen index values between 200 and 400, indicating some potential for liquid hydrocarbon generation and a mixed Type III and II kerogen. Pentacyclic and tricyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and methylphenanthrene maturity parameters were observed through the complete range of thermal maturity in the Fruitland coals. Aromatic pentacyclic terpanes, similar to those found in brown coals of Australia, were observed in low maturity samples, but not found above 0.80% Rm. N-alkane depleted coal samples, which occur at a thermal maturity of approx. 0.90% Rm, paralleling peak hydrocarbon generation, are fairly widespread throughout the basin. Depletion of n-alkanes in these samples may be due to gas solution stripping and migration fromthe coal seams coincident with the development of pressure induced fracturing due to hydrocarbon generation; however, biodegradation may also effect these samples. ?? 1993.

  9. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.; Farrar, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) North San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in northern California in Marin, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA North San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 89 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the North San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the North San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or

  10. Observed and simulated ground motions in the San Bernardino basin region for the Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.W.; Wald, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the MW 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake, peak ground velocities recorded at sites in the central San Bernardino basin region were up to 2 times larger and had significantly longer durations of strong shaking than sites just outside the basin. To better understand the effects of 3D structure on the long-period ground-motion response in this region, we have performed finite-difference simulations for this earthquake. The simulations are numerically accurate for periods of 2 sec and longer and incorporate the detailed spatial and temporal heterogeneity of source rupture, as well as complex 3D basin structure. Here, we analyze three models of the San Bernardino basin: model A (with structural constraints from gravity and seismic reflection data), model F (water well and seismic refraction data), and the Southern California Earthquake Center version 3 model (hydrologic and seismic refraction data). Models A and F are characterized by a gradual increase in sediment thickness toward the south with an abrupt step-up in the basement surface across the San Jacinto fault. The basin structure in the SCEC version 3 model has a nearly uniform sediment thickness of 1 km with little basement topography along the San Jacinto fault. In models A and F, we impose a layered velocity structure within the sediments based on the seismic refraction data and an assumed depth-dependent Vp/Vs ratio. Sediment velocities within the SCEC version 3 model are given by a smoothly varying rule-based function that is calibrated to the seismic refraction measurements. Due to computational limitations, the minimum shear-wave velocity is fixed at 600 m/sec in all of the models. Ground-motion simulations for both models A and F provide a reasonably good match to the amplitude and waveform characteristics of the recorded motions. In these models, surface waves are generated as energy enters the basin through the gradually sloping northern margin. Due to the basement step along the San Jacinto fault, the

  11. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  12. Observations of basin ground motions from a dense seismic array in San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Bice, T.; Sell, R.; Hanson, S.

    2001-01-01

    We installed a dense array of 41 digital seismographs in San Jose, California, to evaluate in detail the effects of a deep sedimentary basin and shallow sedimentary deposits on earthquake ground motions. This urban array is located near the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley and spans the Evergreen sedimentary basin identified by gravity data. Average station spacing is 1 km, with three stations initially spaced 110 m apart. Despite the high-noise urban environment, the stations of the array successfully triggered on and recorded small local earthquakes (M 2.5-2.8 at 10-25 km distance) and larger regional events such as the M 5.0 Bolinas earthquake (90 km distance), M 4.6-5.6 earthquakes near Mammoth Lakes (270 km distance), M 4.9-5.6 events in western Nevada (420 km distance) and the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake (590 km distance). Maps of spectral ratios across the array show that the highest amplitudes in all frequency bands studied (0.125-8 Hz) are generally observed at stations farther from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Larger spectral amplitudes are often observed above the western edge of the Evergreen Basin. Snapshots of the recorded wavefield crossing the array for regional events to the east reveal that large, low-frequency (0.125-0.5 Hz) arrivals after the S-wave travel from south to north across the array. A moving-window, cross-correlation analysis finds that these later arrivals are surface waves traveling from the south. The timing and propagation direction of these arrivals indicates that they were likely produced by scattering of incident S waves at the border of the Santa Clara Valley to the south of the array. It is remarkable that the largest low-frequency phases at many of the valley sites for regional events to the east are basin surface waves coming from a direction about 70 degrees different from that of the epicenters. Basin surface waves emanating from the eastern edge of the valley are also identified by the cross

  13. Hydrogeology, water quality, water budgets, and simulated responses to hydrologic changes in Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creek ground-water basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Eugene B.; Van Konyenburg, Kathryn M.

    1998-01-01

    Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creeks are underlain by thin, narrow ground-water basins that supply nearly all water used for local agricultural and municipal purposes. The creeks discharge to the Pacific Ocean near the northwestern corner of San Luis Obispo County, California. The basins contain heterogeneous, unconsolidated alluvial deposits and are underlain by relatively impermeable bedrock. Both creeks usually stop flowing during the summer dry season, and most of the pumpage during that time is derived from ground-water storage. Annual pumpage increased substantially during 1956?88 and is now a large fraction of basin storage capacity. Consequently, dry-season water levels are lower and the water supply is more vulnerable to drought. The creeks are the largest source of ground-water recharge, and complete basin recharge can occur within the first few weeks of winter streamflow. Agricultural and municipal pumpages are the largest outflows and cause dry-season water-level declines throughout the San Simeon Basin. Pumping effects are more localized in the Santa Rosa Basin because of subsurface flow obstructions. Even without pumpage, a large quantity of water naturally drains out of storage at the upper ends of the basins during the dry season. Ground water is more saline in areas close to the coast than in inland areas. Although seawater intrusion has occurred in the past, it probably was not the cause of high salinity in 1988?89. Ground water is very hard, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some locations. Probability distributions of streamflow were estimated indirectly from a 120-year rainfall record because the periods of record for local stream-gaging stations were wetter than average. Dry-season durations with recurrence intervals between 5 and 43 years are likely to dry up some wells but not cause seawater intrusion. A winter with no streamflow is likely to occur about every 32 years and to

  14. El impacto de la desecación de la laguna de Lerma en la gastronomía lacustre de San Pedro Tultepec de Quiroga, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Carlos Viesca González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la gastronomía lacustre en el Alto Lerma, prevaleciente antes y después de la desecación de la Laguna de Lerma, específicamente la de San Pedro Tultepec de Quiroga municipio de Lerma, en el Estado de México. Mediante la aplicación de la técnica etnográfica en la realización de la investigación de campo, se identificaron y localizaron a 30 personas adultas que aún entran a la laguna de Chimaliapan o Lerma, o que tienen conocimiento sobre los ingredientes lacustres y las preparaciones culinarias elaboradas con ellos. Además se realizaron visitas a los mercados locales e incursiones en la laguna y áreas aledañas con la guía de lugareños conocedores del entorno, con el fin de obtener información sobre estos productos. Se encontró que todavía se recolectan especies vegetales como nopales, hongos, papas de agua o apacloles y quelites, entre ellos berros o tiernitos y quintoniles. Asimismo, se aprovechan especies animales como patos, carpas, atepocates, ranas, acociles y ajolotes. Menos del 1% de la población estudiada aún elabora platillos basados en ingredientes extraídos de la laguna. Se preparan tamales de pescado, rana o carpa, acociles, hueva de carpa, carpas y patos de diversas maneras, chile relleno de támbulas y atepocates, y ranas empanizadas o fritas. Con base en lo anterior, se concluye, que a pesar de estar contaminada, todavía se extrae de la laguna de Chimaliapan una gran variedad de flora y fauna que se emplea para la alimentación, lo cual indica que estos recursos bióticos son una importante fuente para muchas familias, y que tienen un "buen potencial" de aprovechamiento.

  15. Physical properties by geologic unit in the southern San Luis Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V. J.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    ambient magnetic field (McElhinny, 1973). Remanent components that are generally aligned with or opposite to the present-day Earth’s field are considered to have normal or reversed polarity, respectively. The remanent component is determined from paleomagnetic laboratory measurements of oriented samples, none of which are reported here. However, the remanent components for volcanic units in the southern San Luis Basin are known to be significant, and commonly dominate the total magnetization (Grauch and Keller, 2004).References:Blakely, R.J., 1995, Potential theory in gravity and magnetic applications:  Cambridge University Press, 441 p.Grauch, V.J.S., and Keller, G.R., 2004, Gravity and aeromagnetic expression of tectonic and volcanic elements of the southern San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook 55, p. 230–243.Hansen, R.O., Racic, L., and Grauch, V J.S., 2005, Magnetic methods in near-surface geophysics, in Butler, D. K., ed., Near-surface Geophysics: Investigations in Geophysics No. 13, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 151–175.Koning, D., and Mansell, M.M., 2011, Regional geologic map of north-central New Mexico:  New Mexico Geological Society Guidebok 62, Plate 2, p. 150.McElhinny, M.W., 1973, Paleomagnetism and plate tectonics, Cambridge, Mass., Cambridge University Press, 358 p.Read, A.S., Thompson, R.A., and Mansell, M.M., 2004, Generalized geologic map—southern San Luis Basin:  New Mexico Geological Society Guidebok 55, Plate 2, p. 114.

  16. Surface and Subsurface Characterization of a Carbon Sequestration Pilot Site: San Juan Basin, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henthorn, B. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Wilson, T.H.; Wells, A.W.

    2007-04-01

    Successful sequestration of CO2 requires that the majority of injected CO2 remain underground for hundreds to thousands of years. Evaluation of site integrity is important in the design and implementation stages of the sequestration effort. This study presents some of the background evaluation undertaken of a Fruitland coal pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan basin. The study includes comparison of fracture traces measured in the field and in high resolution QuickBird satellite imagery, along with multi-frequency terrain conductivity surveys and subsurface maps of the surrounding area. Prominent fracture systems are exposed along the edges of mesas formed in the nearly flat-lying Eocene age San Jose Formation. Fracture trend varies considerably, however, rose diagrams reveal two prominent fracture sets: one trending ~N30E and the other ~N45W. Analysis of the QuickBird image reveals similar variability along with two prominent sets: one trending N35E and another smaller set trending N50W. Previous studies in the area suggest that the face cleat orientation and direction of preferential flow during CO2 injection will follow this NE trend. The site lies in the "High Rate Fairway" near a structural low in the Fruitland Formation. Subsurface maps will help determine whether smaller scale folds and faults similar to those observed to the northwest in the Cedar Hill area exist. If present, they may exert additional control on CO2 flow patterns and serve as potential avenues for CO2 escape. The study will help National Energy Technology Laboratory scientists position tracer and soil monitors at the site.

  17. Geologic Map of the San Luis Quadrangle, Costilla County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    The map area includes San Luis and the primarily rural surrounding area. San Luis, the county seat of Costilla County, is the oldest surviving settlement in Colorado (1851). West of the town are San Pedro and San Luis mesas (basalt-covered tablelands), which are horsts with the San Luis fault zone to the east and the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone to the west. The map also includes the Sanchez graben (part of the larger Culebra graben), a deep structural basin that lies between the San Luis fault zone (on the west) and the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone (on the east). The oldest rocks exposed in the map area are the Pliocene to upper Oligocene basin-fill sediments of the Santa Fe Group, and Pliocene Servilleta Basalt, a regional series of 3.7?4.8 Ma old flood basalts. Landslide deposits and colluvium that rest on sediments of the Santa Fe Group cover the steep margins of the mesas. Rare exposures of the sediment are comprised of siltstones, sandstones, and minor fluvial conglomerates. Most of the low ground surrounding the mesas and in the graben is covered by surficial deposits of Quaternary age. The alluvial deposits are subdivided into three Pleistocene-age units and three Holocene-age units. The oldest Pleistocene gravel (unit Qao) forms extensive coalesced alluvial fan and piedmont surfaces, the largest of which is known as the Costilla Plain. This surface extends west from San Pedro Mesa to the Rio Grande. The primary geologic hazards in the map area are from earthquakes, landslides, and localized flooding. There are three major fault zones in the area (as discussed above), and they all show evidence for late Pleistocene to possible Holocene movement. The landslides may have seismogenic origins; that is, they may be stimulated by strong ground shaking during large earthquakes. Machette and Thompson based this geologic map entirely on new mapping, whereas Drenth supplied geophysical data and interpretations.

  18. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  19. Effects of the earthquake of 11 May 2011 upon the historic family vaults in the San Clemente cemetery, the church of Santa Maria, the church of San Pedro and the Golden Fountain at Lorca in Murcia (SE Spain); Afecciones ocasionadas por el terremoto en el conjunto de panteones historicos del cementerio de San Clemente, iglesia de Santa Maria, iglesia de San Pedro y la Fuente del Oro de Lorca, Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ballesteros, J. A.; Gallardo Carrillo, J.; Lopez Aguilera, V.

    2012-11-01

    This study forms a contribution to the record of deformations caused by the earthquake that occurred on 11 May 2011 in and around the city of Lorca, affecting a wide variety of its historic buildings. Our work has focused on the San Clemente cemetery, the churches of the Barrios Altos (the higher districts) and on the Fuente del Oro (the Golden Fountain). Our aim was to quantify the deformations and the numerous other effects using archaeological and architectural methods and retrieve as much of this information as possible before the works of structural consolidation and cleaning of the debris could begin. At the same time we tried to analyse the impact of the seismic shocks upon other historic buildings in the city. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Reconnaissance Report on San Pedro Ports, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    contribute significantly to their development and operational use. As the population has become more environmentally aware and ecologic - ally... Hydrofoils * Air-cushion Vehicles 0 Surface-effect Ships. Each of the craft has limitiations with regard to potential utilization of waterways. The tables...u u Hydrofoil s s s s u u Air-cushion Vehicles s s s s s s Surface-effect Ships s s s s u u MARINE CRAFT GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Type HP/Gross Ton

  1. A late Eocene-early Oligocene transgressive event in the Golfo San Jorge basin: palynological results and stratigraphic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes, José M.; Foix, Nicolas; Guerstein, Gladys Raquel; Guler, Maria Veronica; Irigoyen, Martin; Moscoso, Pablo; Giordano, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A new Cenozoic dataset in the subsurface of the South Flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin (Santa Cruz province) allowed to identify a non-previously recognized transgressive event of late Eocene to early Oligocene age. Below of a marine succession containing a dinoflagellate cyst assemblage that characterizes the C/G palynological zone of the Chenque Formation (early Miocene), a 80–110 m thick marine succession contains a palynological assemblage integrated by Gelatia inflata, Diphyes colliger...

  2. Geology, thermal maturation, and source rock geochemistry in a volcanic covered basin: San Juan sag, south-central Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gries, R.R. [Priority Oil & Gas, Denver, CO (United States); Clayton, J.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Leonard, C. [Platte River Associates, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The San Juan sag, concealed by the vast San Juan volcanic field of south-central Colorado, has only recently benefited from oil and gas wildcat drilling and evaluations. Sound geochemical analyses and maturation modeling are essential elements for successful exploration and development. Oil has been produced in minor quantities from an Oligocene sill in the Mancos Shale within the sag, and major oil and gas production occurs from stratigraphically equivalent rocks in the San Juan basin to the southwest and in the Denver basin to the northeast. The objectives of this study were to identify potential source rocks, assess thermal maturity, and determine hydrocarbon-source bed relationships. Source rocks are present in the San Juan sag in the upper and lower Mancos Shale (including the Niobrara Member), which consists of about 666 m (2184 ft) of marine shale with from 0.5 to 3.1 wt. % organic carbon. Pyrolysis yields (S{sub 1} + S{sub 2} = 2000-6000 ppm) and solvent extraction yields (1000-4000 ppm) indicate that some intervals within the Mancos Shale are good potential source rocks for oil, containing type II organic matter, according to Rock-Eval pyrolysis assay.

  3. Summary of the geology of the San Luis Basin, Colorado-New Mexico with emphasis on the geothermal potential for the Monte Vista Graben. Special Publication 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burroughs, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The known geologic data of the San Luis Basin are reviewed and related to an understanding of the hydrogeothermal potential of the Alamosa-Monte Vista area. The physiographic setting of the region, the structural framework of the basin, and its influence on the stratigraphic makeup of the rock sequence, which in turn control the occurrence of potential deep water reservoirs, are reviewed. It is suggested that the San Luis Basin was well-developed by Miocene time, and that although the basin was modified by Neogene faulting, it is essentially a late Laramide event having been produced during the Paleogene. Attention is also given to high heat flow along the Rio Grande Rift and to the geothermal gradient of the San Luis Basin. The confined aquifer is then considered in respect to its hydrogeology, water quality, and as to the legal aspects of the system. (LEW)

  4. Pedro Bosch Gimpera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Posse de Arnaiz, M.ª Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an intellectual profile of Pedro Bosch Gimpera. It reviews his academic training, the social and intellectual environment in which he grew up, his role in the institutionalization of Catalan archaeology, his theoretical outlook, and his long-term influence even after his exile.Este artículo presenta un perfil intelectual de Pedro Bosch Gimpera. Revisa su formación académica, el ambiente social e intelectual en el que se desarrolló, su papel en la institucionalización de la arqueología catalana, su perspectiva teórica y su influencia a largo plazo incluso tras su exilio.

  5. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  6. Human exposure to mercury in San Jorge river basin, Colombia (South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesus; Johnson, Boris; Arguello, Eduardo

    2002-04-22

    During May-September 1999 human hair samples were collected from the village of Caimito, a fishing community of the state of Sucre (Colombia), in the San Jorge River basin area, and analyzed for total mercury (t-Hg) by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg was measured in both male and female people aged 15-65 years, whose diet mainly consists of fish collected in nearby marshes. Average hair t-Hg concentration in people from Caimito was 4.91 +/- 0.55 microg/g (n = 94), similar to the value previously detected in fishermen living in the gold mining area, 50 km east. Males had similar t-Hg concentrations (4.31 +/- 0.42 microg/g; n = 56) to females (5.78 +/- 1.21 microg/g; n = 38) and there was no difference in t-Hg levels between groups of different age. Mercury content in hair was weakly but significantly associated (R = 0.20, P = 0.05) with fish consumption.

  7. Shallow gas well drilling with coiled tubing in the San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, R.G.; Ovitz, R.W.; Guild, G.J.; Biggs, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Coiled tubing is being utilized to drill new wells, for re-entry drilling to deepen or laterally extend existing wells, and for underbalanced drilling to prevent formation damage. Less than a decade old, coiled tubing drilling technology is still in its inaugral development stage. Initially, utilizing coiled tubing was viewed as a {open_quotes}science project{close_quotes} to determine the validity of performing drilling operations in-lieu of the conventional rotary rig. Like any new technology, the initial attempts were not always successful, but did show promise as an economical alternative if continued efforts were made in the refinement of equipment and operational procedures. A multiwell project has been completed in the San Juan Basin of Northwestern New Mexico which provides documentation indicating that coiled tubing can be an alternative to the conventional rotary rig. A 3-well pilot project, a 6-well project was completed uniquely utilizing the combined resources of a coiled tubing service company, a producing company, and a drilling contractor. This combination of resources aided in the refinement of surface equipment, personnel, mud systems, jointed pipe handling, and mobilization. The results of the project indicate that utilization of coiled tubing for the specific wells drilled was an economical alternative to the conventional rotary rig for drilling shallow gas wells.

  8. Petroleum systems of the San Joaquin Basin Province -- geochemical characteristics of gas types: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Paul G.; Warden, Augusta; Claypool, George E.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin Province is a petroliferous basin filled with predominantly Late Cretaceous to Pliocene-aged sediments, with organic-rich marine rocks of Late Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene age providing the source of most of the oil and gas. Previous geochemical studies have focused on the origin of the oil in the province, but the origin of the natural gas has received little attention. To identify and characterize natural gas types in the San Joaquin Basin, 66 gas samples were analyzed and combined with analyses of 15 gas samples from previous studies. For the purpose of this resource assessment, each gas type was assigned to the most likely petroleum system. Three general gas types are identified on the basis of bulk and stable carbon isotopic composition—thermogenic dry (TD), thermogenic wet (TW) and biogenic (B). The thermogenic gas types are further subdivided on the basis of the δ13C values of methane and ethane and nitrogen content into TD-1, TD-2, TD-Mixed, TW-1, TW-2, and TW-Mixed. Gas types TD-1 and TD-Mixed, a mixture of biogenic and TD-1 gases, are produced from gas fields in the northern San Joaquin Basin. Type TD-1 gas most likely originated from the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Moreno Formation, a gas-prone source rock. The biogenic component of the TD-Mixed gas existed in the trap prior to the influx of thermogenic gas. For the assessment, these gas types were assigned to the Winters- Domengine Total Petroleum System, but subsequent to the assessment were reclassified as part of the Moreno-Nortonville gas system. Dry thermogenic gas produced from oil fields in the southern San Joaquin Basin (TD-2 gas) most likely originated from the oil-prone source rock of Miocene age. These samples have low wetness values due to migration fractionation or biodegradation. The thermogenic wet gas types (TW-1, TW-2, TW-Mixed) are predominantly associated gas produced from oil fields in the southern and central San Joaquin Basin. Type TW-1 gas most likely

  9. Petrophysical Analysis and Geographic Information System for San Juan Basin Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Robert Balch; Tom Engler; Roger Ruan; Shaojie Ma

    2008-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the availability and ease of access to critical data on the Mesaverde and Dakota tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan Basin. Secondary goals include tuning well log interpretations through integration of core, water chemistry and production analysis data to help identify bypassed pay zones; increased knowledge of permeability ratios and how they affect well drainage and thus infill drilling plans; improved time-depth correlations through regional mapping of sonic logs; and improved understanding of the variability of formation waters within the basin through spatial analysis of water chemistry data. The project will collect, integrate, and analyze a variety of petrophysical and well data concerning the Mesaverde and Dakota reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, with particular emphasis on data available in the areas defined as tight gas areas for purpose of FERC. A relational, geo-referenced database (a geographic information system, or GIS) will be created to archive this data. The information will be analyzed using neural networks, kriging, and other statistical interpolation/extrapolation techniques to fine-tune regional well log interpretations, improve pay zone recognition from old logs or cased-hole logs, determine permeability ratios, and also to analyze water chemistries and compatibilities within the study area. This single-phase project will be accomplished through four major tasks: Data Collection, Data Integration, Data Analysis, and User Interface Design. Data will be extracted from existing databases as well as paper records, then cleaned and integrated into a single GIS database. Once the data warehouse is built, several methods of data analysis will be used both to improve pay zone recognition in single wells, and to extrapolate a variety of petrophysical properties on a regional basis. A user interface will provide tools to make the data and results of the study accessible and useful. The final deliverable

  10. Status and Understanding of Groundwater Quality in the Central-Eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Justin T. Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment. An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  11. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  12. Hydrogeology of the Point Lookout Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigg, Steven D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), and Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Point Lookout Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's database, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Point Lookout Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less areally extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  13. California Basin Studies (CaBS). Final contract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    The California Continental Borderland`s present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10{sup 6} years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10{sup 6} years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation.

  14. Netivestlus Pedro Gadanhoga = An online conversation with Pedro Gadanho / Pedro Gadanho ; intervjueerinud Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gadanho, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Pedro Gadanho oma raamatusarjast "Beyond", mille mõte on eelistada arhitektuurist ja linnast kirjutamisel fiktsionaalset tehnikat, avastada eksperimentaalseid kirjutamisviise. Kirjutajateks on kriitikud ja arhitektid

  15. Netivestlus Pedro Gadanhoga = An online conversation with Pedro Gadanho / Pedro Gadanho ; intervjueerinud Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gadanho, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Pedro Gadanho oma raamatusarjast "Beyond", mille mõte on eelistada arhitektuurist ja linnast kirjutamisel fiktsionaalset tehnikat, avastada eksperimentaalseid kirjutamisviise. Kirjutajateks on kriitikud ja arhitektid

  16. New discoveries of early Paleocene (Torrejonian) primates from the Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silcox, Mary T; Williamson, Thomas E

    2012-12-01

    Primates underwent a period of diversification following the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs. Although the Order first appeared near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, it is not until the Torrejonian (the second North American Land Mammal Age of the Paleocene) that a diversity of families began to emerge. One of the lithological units critical to understanding this first primate adaptive radiation is the early Paleocene Nacimiento Formation of the San Juan Basin (SJB; New Mexico). Primates previously described from this formation comprise six species of palaechthonid and paromomyid plesiadapiforms, all known from very limited material. Collecting has increased the sample of primate specimens more than fivefold. Included in the new sample is the first specimen of a picrodontid plesiadapiform from the Torrejonian of the SJB, referable to Picrodus calgariensis, and the first paromomyid specimen complete enough to allow for a species level taxonomic assignment, representing a new species of Paromomys. With respect to the 'Palaechthonidae', the current report describes large collections of Torrejonia wilsoni and Palaechthon woodi, and the first new specimens attributed to Plesiolestes nacimienti and Anasazia williamsoni since 1972 and 1994, respectively. These collections demonstrate previously unknown morphological variants, including the presence of a metaconid on the p4 of some specimens of T. wilsoni, a discovery that supports previous inferences about a close relationship between Torrejonia and Plesiolestes problematicus. This new sample considerably improves our knowledge of the poorly understood 'Palaechthonidae', and about the biostratigraphy, biogeography, and early evolution of North American primates. In particular, the rarity of paromomyids, the continuing absence of plesiadapid and carpolestid plesiadapiforms, and the presence of a number of endemic palaechthonid species in the SJB contrast with plesiadapiform samples from contemporaneous deposits to the

  17. An energy systems view of sustainability: emergy evaluation of the San Luis Basin, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Daniel E; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2012-03-01

    Energy Systems Theory (EST) provides a framework for understanding and interpreting sustainability. EST implies that "what is sustainable" for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system and within the system of concern. The pulsing paradigm explains the ubiquitous cycles of change that apparently govern ecosystems, rather than succession to a steady state that is then sustainable. Therefore, to make robust decisions among environmental policies and alternatives, decision-makers need to know where their system resides in the cycles of change that govern it. This theory was examined by performing an emergy evaluation of the sustainability of a regional system, the San Luis Basin (SLB), CO. By 1980, the SLB contained a climax stage agricultural system with well-developed crop and livestock production along with food and animal waste processing. The SLB is also a hinterland in that it exports raw materials and primary products (exploitation stage) to more developed areas. Emergy indices calculated for the SLB from 1995 to 2005 revealed changes in the relative sustainability of the system over this time. The sustainability of the region as indicated by the renewable emergy used as a percent of total use declined 4%, whereas, the renewable carrying capacity declined 6% over this time. The Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI) showed the largest decline (27%) in the sustainability of the region. The total emergy used by the SLB, a measure of system well-being, was fairly stable (CV = 0.05). In 1997, using renewable emergy alone, the SLB could support 50.7% of its population at the current standard of living, while under similar conditions the U.S. could support only 4.8% of its population. In contrast to other indices of sustainability, a new index, the Emergy Sustainable Use Index (ESUI), which considers the benefits gained by the larger system compared to the potential for local environmental

  18. Noble gas tracing of groundwater/coalbed methane interaction in the San Juan Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Ballentine, C.J.; Kipfer, R.; Schoell, M.; Thibodeaux, S. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Isotope Geology & Mineral Resources

    2005-12-01

    The San Juan Basin natural gas field, located in northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado in the USA, is a case-type coalbed methane system. Groundwater is thought to play a key role in both biogenic methane generation and the CO{sub 2} sequestration potential of coalbed systems. We show here how noble gases can be used to construct a physical model that describes the interaction between the groundwater system and the produced gas. The results conclusively show that the volume of groundwater seen by coal does not play a role in determining the volume of methane produced by secondary biodegradation of these coalbeds. There is no requirement of continuous groundwater flow for renewing the microbes or nutrient components. Strong mass related isotopic fractionation of {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}NE and {sup 38}Ar/{sup 36} isotopic ratios was also seen. This can be explained by a noble gas concentration gradient in the groundwater during gas production, which causes diffusive partial re-equilibration of the noble gas isotopes. It is important for the study of other systems in which extensive groundwater degassing may have occurred to recognize that severe isotopic fractionation of air-derived noble gases can occur when such concentration gradients are established during gas production. Excess air-derived Xe and Kr in our samples are shown to be related to the diluting coalbed methane and can only be accounted for if Xe and Kr are preferentially and volumetrically trapped within the coal matrix and released during biodegradation to form CH{sub 4}.

  19. Geological and production characteristics of the Lewis Shale, San Juan Basin, USA: an ongoing study with applications to other foreland basins of the Western Interior, USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereskin, R. [Tesseract Corporation, Park City, UT (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The geological characteristics of the Lewis Shale, San Juan Basin, New Mexico is examined to provide information about ways to characterize productive wells. Logs of Cretaceous shale need to be examined more closely. The lithology, environment of deposition, and porosity types shown by a type log of Lewis shale and the utility of a FMI log for indicating various features are described. Integrated use of core, FMI, gamma ray, and neutron log techniques improve target identification. Lewis shale analogues likely exist along lengths of the Western Interior and Canada. 21 figs.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  1. Multi-scale reservoir modeling as an integrated assessment tool for geo-sequestration in the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G.; Haerer, D.; Bromhal, G.; Reeves, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Southwestern Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration conducted an Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM)/Carbon Storage Pilot in the San Juan Basin as part of the ongoing DOE/NETL Carbon Capture and Storage Program. The primary goal of this pilot is to demonstrate the efficacy of using CO2 to enhance coalbed methane recovery particularly near reservoir abandonment pressure while also evaluating the suitability of coal seams for longer-term carbon storage. Basic geologic models of the coal seams were developed from well logs in the area. Production histories from several surrounding CBM wells were shown. To monitor the injection of up to 75,000 ton of CO2 beginning September 2007, seismic surveys and tiltmeter arrays were utilized. Larger-scale geo-hydrodynamic simulations were used to develop a regional model for the fluid dynamics of the northern San Juan Basin. Smaller-scale reservoir simulations, incorporating available laboratory and field data, were used to develop an improved understanding of reservoir dynamics within the specific 640-acre pilot area. Both modeling scales were critical to assessing the suitability of deploying commercial carbon storage programs throughout the basin. Reservoir characterization results on the optimization of total CO2 injection volume, injection rate over time, and how CO2 is expected to disperse after injection are presented. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 AIChE Annual Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT 11/4-9/2007).

  2. Geological and hydrological factors affecting coalbed methane producibility in the San Juan, Greater Green River and Piceance Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.R.; Kaise, W.R.; Tyler, R.; Hamilton, D.S.; Finley, R.J. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

    1996-01-01

    In the traditional view, coalbed methane resources were generated in situ during coalification and stored primarily in micro-pores on the coal matrix`s large internal surface area by sorption. Net coal thickness and coal rank are assumed to be the dominant factors for determining areas of exceptionally high coalbed methane producibility. However, new insights based on research performed in the San Juan, Greater Green River, and Piceance Basins indicate that this traditional view is oversimplified because it fails to recognize the need for additional sources of gas beyond that generated initially during coalification to achieve unusually high gas contents. Migrated conventionally and hydrodynamically trapped gases, in-situ generated secondary biogenic gases, and solution gases are required to achieve high gas contents or fully gas-saturated coals. This paper summarises research on the geological and hydrological controls that are critical to coalbed methane producibility by contrasting the prolific San Juan and marginally-producing Greater Green River and Piceance Basins in the Rocky Mountain Foreland. These basins have different geologic and hydrologic attributes critical to coalbed methane producibility and are thought to be end-members of a coalbed methane producibility continuum. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Surface-water quality in the upper San Antonio River Basin, Bexar County, Texas, 1992-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.; Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of chemicals in rivers and streams on human health or the ecology have long been a source of concern to water managers. Chemicals in rivers may result from natural or anthropogenic sources (such as industrial or residential practices) which are commonly associated with urbanized watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, examined water-quality data collected from periodic and stormflow sampling events at five sites in the upper San Antonio River Basin during 1992–98. These water-quality data were compared among sites as well as between periodic and stormflow events. The samples were collected from five continuous streamflow-gaging stations in Bexar County, Texas. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds, including selected pesticides.

  4. Environmental management and monitoring of coal bed methane development and production, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherbee, K.G.; Salwerowicz, F.A.; Hoffmann, K.L.; Swanson, D.M.; Lovato, J.A. [Colorado State Office, Lakewood, CO (United States). Bureau of Land Management

    1994-12-31

    Potential contamination of groundwater supplies from methane produced from coal has become a critical environmental concern in the northern San Juan basin, Colorado. BLM`s San Juan Resources Area (SJRA) office was instrumental and proactive in building citizens` confidence in our regulatory responsibilities, establishing an environmental baseline, identifying potential sources of contamination, and instituting annual monitoring (Bradenhead testing) of all jurisdictional wells. Outreach programs by the SJRA have continued to maintain lines of communication among the various regulatory agencies, special interest groups, and concerned citizens. These programs emphasized the regulatory requirements necessary to protect valid existing rights to develop the gas resources, as well as protecting the resource values of the surface. Future activity includes continued coordination with other governmental agencies, state and local governments, and citizens groups and remains among our highest priority in managing resource development. This coordination is necessary to maintain the starting of information, identificating and mitigating of problems, and for developing reasonable alternatives. 4 refs.

  5. Deep structure of the northern Rio Grande rift beneath the San Luis basin (Colorado) from a seismic reflection survey: implications for rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Kush; Brown, Larry; Hearn, Thomas

    1999-02-01

    A seismic reflection survey by Chevron across the San Luis basin (northern Rio Grande rift) and San Juan volcanic field of southern Colorado is reprocessed with extended correlation to search for basement structure. The trace of the main bounding fault of the basin, a high-angle normal fault against the Sangre de Cristo Range, can be correlated to a wide zone of dipping reflection fabric and soles out at lower crustal depths (26-28 km). The deeper reflection fabric represent either broad extensional strain or pre-existing structure, such as a Laramide thrust system. The Sangre de Cristo bounding fault in San Luis basin does not sole out at mid-crustal depths but continues into the lower crust with a shallower dip. The basin architecture in the northern Rio Grande rift (San Luis basin) provides little if any evidence that the Sangre de Cristo bounding fault should flatten in a shallow listric fashion. This fault geometry is quite similar to the high-angle bounding fault in the Espanola basin but contrasts with less deeply-rooted faults in the Albuquerque basin in the central Rio Grande rift. Deeper soling out of the Sangre de Cristo bounding fault could be due to less extension in the northern Rio Grande rift and/or greater strength of the lithosphere compared to the central Rio Grande rift. Unequivocal Moho reflections beneath the San Luis basin cannot be identified, probably due to limited signal penetration or a gradational nature of the Moho. The majority of rift-related movement observed on the Sangre de Cristo bounding fault is post-Eocene. Either the western margin of the basin is marked by a tight monocline or a low-angle normal fault.

  6. Subsurface structure of the East Bay Plain ground-water basin: San Francisco Bay to the Hayward fault, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Borchers, J.W.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Ponce, D.A.; Steedman, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The area of California between the San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Santa Clara Valley, and the Diablo Ranges (East Bay Hills), commonly referred to as the 'East Bay', contains the East Bay Plain and Niles Cone ground-water basins. The area has a population of 1.46 million (2003 US Census), largely distributed among several cities, including Alameda, Berkeley, Fremont, Hayward, Newark, Oakland, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, and Union City. Major known tectonic structures in the East Bay area include the Hayward Fault and the Diablo Range to the east and a relatively deep sedimentary basin known as the San Leandro Basin beneath the eastern part of the bay. Known active faults, such as the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas pose significant earthquake hazards to the region, and these and related faults also affect ground-water flow in the San Francisco Bay area. Because most of the valley comprising the San Francisco Bay area is covered by Holocene alluvium or water at the surface, our knowledge of the existence and locations of such faults, their potential hazards, and their effects on ground-water flow within the alluvial basins is incomplete. To better understand the subsurface stratigraphy and structures and their effects on ground-water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), acquired a series of high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction profiles across the East Bay Plain near San Leandro in June 2002. In this report, we present results of the seismic imaging investigations, with emphasis on ground water.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Juan Basin Province of New Mexico and Colorado, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 50.6 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas (TCFG), a mean of 19 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the San Juan Basin Province. Of the 50.6 TCFG of undiscovered gas at the mean, about 29.2 TCFG is estimated to be in the Fruitland Total Petroleum System; 80 percent of this 29.2 TCFG (23.5 TCFG) is Fruitland TPS coal-bed gas. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, 2004: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 3,900-square-mile (mi2) San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter San Diego) study unit was investigated from May through July 2004 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southwestern California in the counties of San Diego, Riverside, and Orange. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Diego study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 58 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as the primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the San Diego study unit. The San Diego study unit consisted of four study areas: Temecula Valley (140 mi2), Warner Valley (34 mi2), Alluvial Basins (166 mi2), and Hard Rock (850 mi2). The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers. For example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination than groundwater in deep water-bearing zones. This study had two components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first component of this study-the status assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource-was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to

  9. Examining regional groundwater-surface water dynamics using an integrated hydrologic model of the San Joaquin River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James M.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2017-02-01

    Widespread irrigated agriculture and a growing population depend on the complex hydrology of the San Joaquin River basin in California. The challenge of managing this complex hydrology hinges, in part, on understanding and quantifying how processes interact to support the groundwater and surface water systems. Here, we use the integrated hydrologic platform ParFlow-CLM to simulate hourly 1 km gridded hydrology over 1 year to study un-impacted groundwater-surface water dynamics in the basin. Comparisons of simulated results to observations show the model accurately captures important regional-scale partitioning of water among streamflow, evapotranspiration (ET), snow, and subsurface storage. Analysis of this simulated Central Valley groundwater system reveals the seasonal cycle of recharge and discharge as well as the role of the small but temporally constant portion of groundwater recharge that comes from the mountain block. Considering uncertainty in mountain block hydraulic conductivity, model results suggest this component accounts for 7-23 % of total Central Valley recharge. A simulated surface water budget guides a hydrograph decomposition that quantifies the temporally variable contribution of local runoff, valley rim inflows, storage, and groundwater to streamflow across the Central Valley. Power spectra of hydrograph components suggest interactions with groundwater across the valley act to increase longer-term correlation in San Joaquin River outflows. Finally, model results reveal hysteresis in the relationship between basin streamflow and groundwater contributions to flow. Using hourly model results, we interpret the hysteretic cycle to be a result of daily-scale fluctuations from precipitation and ET superimposed on seasonal and basin-scale recharge and discharge.

  10. Stratigraphic relationships between the Colombian, Sinú Offshore and Sinú-San Jacinto basins based on seismic stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Alfaro

    Full Text Available There are diverse controversial and contradictory models about the geological history of the Caribbean region. Some issues such as the origin of the Caribbean plate, the nature of basement of the Caribbean basins and the regional tectonics, have been in discussion during decades. There are disperse and punctual studies across the Caribbean. Application of seismic stratigraphy in regional seismic lines across the Colombian, Sinú Offshore and Sinú-San Jacinto basins suggests a stratigraphic continuity between these regions. A chronostratigraphic chart of the Colombian and Sinú Offshore basins based on stratal terminations and seismic facies was proposed. Seven stratigraphic stages were identified in the Colombian, Sinú Offshore and Sinú-San Jacinto basins, which, also, have been recognized across the Caribbean region. First stratigraphic stage was characterized by continental to restricted marine deposition during a Triassic/Jurassic rifting. Second, third and fourth stages correspond with deposition of a wide carbonate platform in the Cretaceous, sandy carbonate platform during the Paleocene and carbonate and coarse-grained fluvial sedimentation during the Eocene, respectively. Another stage was characterized by rising of base level and deep-water deposition (turbidites and pelagic/hemipelagic sediments during the Oligocene. The Early to Middle Miocene was characterized by shallow marine to fluvial sedimentation during falling base level, which was controlled by episodic events of tectonic inversion. During the Late Miocene to recent, the sedimentation consisted of terrigenous coarse-grained deposits. Stratigraphic relationships between these zones, suggest a shared geological history between the Caribbean and northern South America. The geologic continuity founded in this study is easily explained by the model of an in situ origin for the Caribbean plate.

  11. Scenario Analysis: Evaluating Biodiversity Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change in the San Pedro River Basin (U.S.-Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envisioning and evaluating future scenarios has emerged as a critical component of both science and social decision-making. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is absolutely critical to our capacity to make informed decisions...

  12. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for Escondido Creek, San Antonio River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D.R.

    1971-01-01

    History of Small Watershed Projects in Texas The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of the "Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and "Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater-retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1970, 1,439 of these structures had been built. This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the surface and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data under natural and developed conditions are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on the yield and mode of occurrence of runoff. Hydrologic investigations of these small watersheds were begun by the Geological Survey in 1951 and are now being made in 12 study areas (fig. 1). These investigations are being made in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, the Soil Conservation Service, the San Antonio River Authority, the city of Dallas, and the Tarrant County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The 12 study areas were chosen to sample watershed having different rainfall, topography, geology, and soils. In five of the study areas, (North, Little Elm, Mukewater, little Pond-North Elm, and Pin Oak Creeks), streamflow and rainfall records were collected prior to construction of the floodwater-retarding structures, thus affording the opportunity for analyses of the conditions "before and after" development. A summary of the development of the floodwater-retarding structures in each study areas of September 30, 1970, is shown in table 1. Objectives of the Texas Small Watersheds Project The purpose of these investigations is to collect sufficient data to meeting the following

  13. Holocene landscape evolution and geoarcheology of low-order streams in the Rio Grande basin, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Daniel P.; Beeton, Jared M.

    2014-09-01

    This geoarcheological study investigates soil stratigraphy and geochronology of alluvial deposits to determine Holocene landscape evolution within the Hot Creek, La Jara Creek, and Alamosa River drainage basins in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. Geomorphic mapping and radiocarbon dating indicate synchronicity in patterns of erosion, deposition, and stability between drainage basins. In all three basins, the maximum age of mapped alluvial terraces and fans is ~ 3300 cal yr BP. A depositional period seen at both Hot Creek and the Alamosa River begins ~ 3300 to 3200 cal yr BP. Based on soil development, short periods of stability followed by alluvial fan aggradation occur in the Alamosa River basin ~ 2200 cal yr BP. A period of landscape stability at Hot Creek before ~ 1100 cal yr BP is followed by a period of rapid aggradation within all three drainages between ~ 1100 and 850 cal yr BP. A final aggradation event occurred between ~ 630 and 520 cal yr BP at La Jara Creek. These patterns of landscape evolution over the past ~ 3300 yr provide the framework for an archeological model that predicts the potential for buried and surficial cultural materials in the research area.

  14. Well-response model of the confined area, Bunker Hill ground-water basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    The Bunker Hill ground-water basin, in the vicinity of San Bernardino, Calif., is being artificially recharged with imported water. Current and future artificial recharge of the basin may cause the potentiometric surface in an area of confined ground water to rise above land surface and water to flow from uncapped and unplugged wells. This could cause damage to structures where the soil becomes waterlogged and where buried wells begin to flow beneath the structures. A well-response model was used to generate a series of water-level hydrographs representing the response of the ground-water basin to six possible combinations of conditions for each well; one pumping rate, two artificial-recharge rate, and three natural-recharge rates. Inflow to the ground-water basin exceeds outflow for all tested combinations. According to model predictions, the accumulation of stored ground water resulting from the excess of inflow is sufficient to cause the water level in the selected wells to rise above land surface for all but one of the combinations of conditions tested. Water levels in wells are predicted to rise above the land surface as early as 1981 for the combination with the greatest excess of inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Poomacha Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Poomacha Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  16. Emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2007 Harris Fire, San Diego County, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionThe objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Harris Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  17. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Witch Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Witch Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  18. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Rice Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Rice Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  19. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ammo Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ammo Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  20. Overcoming the challenges of gathering system requirements for coalbed methane production : a San Juan Basin case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, K. [Burlington Resources Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    For the past 14 years, Burlington Resources has operated the Val Verde Gas Gathering and Treating System in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. It is a world-class CO{sub 2} removal and dehydration facility consisting of 8 individual treating trains. This paper described the company's experiences with material and equipment selection, pressure regimes, design objectives and other issues regarding CO{sub 2} production, including environmental challenges. The coalbed methane (CBM) production contained a substantial quantity of CO{sub 2} (10 per cent) and was not suitable for gathering and processing within the conventional infrastructure of the San Juan Basin. Val Verde gathers gas from 229 wellheads and 10 central delivery points. There are about 465 miles of pipeline in the area. Because of the depletion characteristics of CBM systems, most of the wells gathered by Val Verde currently use wellhead booster compression prior to entry into the system. The paper described the gathering and processing requirements for CBM, pressure regimes, the efficiency of modular design, CO{sub 2} management, and hydraulic modeling systems. A comparison of CBM systems to conventional gathering systems was also presented. 6 figs.

  1. Potential Implications of PCM Climate Change Scenarios for Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin Hydrology and Water Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rheenen, N.T.; Wood, A.W.; Palmer, R.N.; Lettenmaier, D.P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 164 Wilcox Hall, P.O. Box 352700, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2700 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin were evaluated using ensemble climate simulations generated by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (DOE/NCAR PCM). Five PCM scenarios were employed. The first three were ensemble runs from 1995-2099 with a 'business as usual' global emissions scenario, each with different atmospheric initializations. The fourth was a 'control climate' scenario with greenhouse gas emissions set at 1995 levels and run through 2099. The fifth was a historical climate simulation forced with evolving greenhouse gas concentrations from 1870-2000, from which a 50-year portion is taken for use in bias-correction of the other runs. From these global simulations, transient monthly temperature and precipitation sequences were statistically downscaled to produce continuous daily hydrologic model forcings, which drove a macro-scale hydrology model of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basins at a ?-degree spatial resolution, and produced daily streamflow sequences for each climate scenario. Each streamflow scenario was used in a water resources system model that simulated current and predicted future performance of the system. The progressive warming of the PCM scenarios (approximately 1.2C at midcentury, and 2.2C by the 2090s), coupled with reductions in winter and spring precipitation (from 10 to 25%), markedly reduced late spring snowpack (by as much as half on average by the end of the century). Progressive reductions in winter, spring, and summer streamflow were less severe in the northern part of the study domain than in the south, where a seasonality shift was apparent. Results from the water resources system model indicate that achieving and maintaining status quo (control scenario climate) system performance in the future would be nearly impossible, given the altered climate scenario

  2. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2007—California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 620-square-mile (1,600-square-kilometer) San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California, in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout the State. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 79 wells in 2007 and is supplemented with water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Water- quality data from the CDPH database also were incorporated for this assessment. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water

  3. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.; Thompson, R.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Anderson, M.; Drenth, B.J.; Rotzien, J.; Lyon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sunshine Valley–Costilla Plain, a structural subbasin of the greater San Luis Basin of the northern Rio Grande rift, is bounded to the north and south by the San Luis Hills and the Red River fault zone, respectively. Surficial mapping, neotectonic investigations, geochronology, and geophysics demonstrate that the structural, volcanic, and geomorphic evolution of the basin involves the intermingling of climatic cycles and spatially and temporally varying tectonic activity of the Rio Grande rift system. Tectonic activity has transferred between range-bounding and intrabasin faults creating relict landforms of higher tectonic-activity rates along the mountain-piedmont junction. Pliocene–Pleistocene average long-term slip rates along the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone range between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/year with late Pleistocene slip rates approximately half (0.06 mm/year) of the longer Quaternary slip rate. During the late Pleistocene, climatic influences have been dominant over tectonic influences on mountain-front geomorphic processes. Geomorphic evidence suggests that this once-closed subbasin was integrated into the Rio Grande prior to the integration of the once-closed northern San Luis Basin, north of the San Luis Hills, Colorado; however, deep canyon incision, north of the Red River and south of the San Luis Hills, initiated relatively coeval to the integration of the northern San Luis Basin. Long-term projections of slip rates applied to a 1.6 km basin depth defined from geophysical modeling suggests that rifting initiated within this subbasin between 20 and 10 Ma. Geologic mapping and geophysical interpretations reveal a complex network of northwest-, northeast-, and north-south–trending faults. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults show dual polarity and are crosscut by north-south– trending faults. This structural model possibly provides an analog for how some intracontinental rift structures evolve through time.

  4. Investigating Controls on Sedimentation Through Interpretation of the Syntectonic Cretaceous-Paleogene Sedimentary Record in the San Juan Basin (New Mexico, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, K.; Weissmann, G. S.; Fawcett, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the southwestern San Juan Basin is bracketed by the mudstone-dominated Cretaceous Kirtland Formation, the sandstone-dominated Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone, and the mudstone-dominated Paleocene lower Nacimiento Formation. Geochemical trends of fluvial mudstones from these units indicate changing sedimentary source areas through time. While the Kirtland and Nacimiento Formations represent periods of high accommodation within the San Juan Basin, the Ojo Alamo Sandstone represents a period of low accommodation and general reworking and transport by southeast-flowing paleorivers. The Kirtland and Nacimiento Formations thin and fine away from their interpreted source area whereas the Ojo Alamo Sandstone thickens and fines away from the source area. Here we investigate the enigmatic sedimentary architecture of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, geochemical evidence for a changing source area through this time period, and the complex relationships between sedimentation, source area, accommodation, and basin tectonic evolution. Incorporating new measured sections, petrographic analyses, geochemical trends, and stratigraphic relationships, we propose that the Ojo Alamo Sandstone represents an anomalous short period of low accommodation in the San Juan Basin during the early Laramide Orogeny and explore possible intra- and extra-basinal tectonic, climatic, and sedimentologic explanations as well as implications for understanding the evolution of the basin.

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the central-eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment.An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  6. Advancements in understanding the aeromagnetic expressions of basin-margin faults—An example from San Luis Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V. J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in aeromagnetic acquisition technology over the past few decades have led to greater resolution of shallow geologic sources with low magnetization, such as intrasedimentary faults and paleochannels. Detection and mapping of intrasedimentary faults in particular can be important for understanding the overall structural setting of an area, even if exploration targets are much deeper. Aeromagnetic methods are especially useful for mapping structures in mountain-piedmont areas at the margins of structural basins, where mineral exploration and seismic-hazard studies may be focused, and where logistical or data-quality issues encumber seismic methods. Understanding if the sources of aeromagnetic anomalies in this context originate from sedimentary units or bedrock is important for evaluating basin structure and/or depth to shallow exploration targets. Advancements in aeromagnetic acquisition technology over the past few decades have led to greater resolution of shallow geologic sources with low magnetization, such as intrasedimentary faults and paleochannels. Detection and mapping of intrasedimentary faults in particular can be important for understanding the overall structural setting of an area, even if exploration targets are much deeper. Aeromagnetic methods are especially useful for mapping structures in mountain-piedmont areas at the margins of structural basins, where mineral exploration and seismic-hazard studies may be focused, and where logistical or data-quality issues encumber seismic methods. Understanding if the sources of aeromagnetic anomalies in this context originate from sedimentary units or bedrock is important for evaluating basin structure and/or depth to shallow exploration targets.

  7. Coalbed gas systems, resources, and production and a review of contrasting cases from the San Juan and Powder River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, W.B. [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Coalbed gas is stored primarily within micropores of the coal matrix in an adsorbed state and secondarily in micropores and fractures as free gas or solution gas in water. The key parameters that control gas resources and producibility are thermal maturity, maceral composition, gas content, coal thickness, fracture density, in-situ stress, permeability, burial history, and hydrologic setting. These parameters vary greatly in the producing fields of the United States and the world. In 2000, the San Juan basin accounted for more than 80% of the United States coalbed gas production. This basin contains a giant coalbed gas play, the Fruitland fairway, which has produced more than 7 tcf (0.2 Tm{sup 3}) of gas. The Fruitland coalbed gas system M and its key elements contrast with the Fort Union coalbed gas play in the Powder River basin. The Fort Union coalbed play is one of the fastest developing gas plays in the United States. Its production escalated from 14 bcf (0.4 Gm{sup 3}) in 1997 to 147.3 bcf (4.1 Gm{sup 3}) in 2000, when it accounted for 10.7% of the United States coalbed gas production. By 2001, annual production was 244.7 bcf (6.9 Gm{sup 3}). Differences between the Fruitland and Fort Union petroleum systems make them ideal for elucidating the key elements of contrasting coalbed gas petroleum systems.

  8. Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: COMMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alan E.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Heckert, Andrew B.; Sullivan, Robert M.; Jasinski, Steven E.; Fowler, Denver W.

    2012-01-01

    Based on U-Pb dating of two dinosaur bones from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico (United States), Fassett et al. (2011) claim to provide the first successful direct dating of fossil bones and to establish the presence of Paleocene dinosaurs. Fassett et al. ignore previously published work that directly questions their stratigraphic interpretations (Lucas et al., 2009), and fail to provide sufficient descriptions of instrumental, geochronological, and statistical treatments of the data to allow evaluation of the potentially complex diagenetic and recrystallization history of bone. These shortcomings lead us to question the validity of the U-Pb dates published by Fassett et al. and their conclusions regarding the existence of Paleocene dinosaurs.

  9. The San Luis Valley Project : Closed Basin Division : Design and planning of the project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This design and planning document for the Closed Basin Division is a public information packet. The packet describes the planning process, design of the project,...

  10. Results of alternatives negotiations of November 7, Closed Basin Division, San Luis Valley Project, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of discussions and agreements as well as a trascription of the November 7th, 1978 meeting pertaining to the planning for the Closed Basin Division Project.

  11. Transmittal of field data regarding wetlands : Closed Basin Division, San Luis Valley Project, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Copies of 1980 field information involving auger hole surveys, soil sample moisture analyses, infiltration tests, and evaporation pan readings from the Closed Basin...

  12. Results of Mitigation Meeting on June 10, 1980 : Closed Basin Division, San Luis Valley Project, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Results of a meeting regarding mitigation on the Closed Basin Division project written by David Coleman. Water and Power Resource Service, U.S. Geological Survey and...

  13. The San Luis Valley Project : Closed Basin Division : Facts and concepts about the project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact and concept packet for the Closed Basin Division project serves as a reference and has background information. Commonly asked questions, information about...

  14. Fish and Wildlife report for the Closed Basin Division : San Luis Valley Project Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for the Closed Basin Division is a description of the project and the fish and wildlife resources associated with the project. The document also reports...

  15. Caracterización de los minerales auríferos de la zona minera de San Pedro Frío (Bolívar-Colombia, para la selección de los procesos de extracción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. YÁNEZ TRASLAVIÑA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de beneficio y tratamiento de minerales auroargentíferos, existentes actualmente en la zona minera de San Pedro Frío (Bolívar, conllevan a sistemas poco eficientes con porcentajes de recuperación de oro no mayores al 40%. El presente trabajo es la recopilación de los resultados de análisis y caracterización de minerales auroargentíferos de dicha zona minera. Con este artículo, se intenta incentivar a los mineros a realizar un desarrollo compaginado con la universidad, ya que según los resultados obtenidos durante esta investigación, es posible lograr porcentajes de disolución de oro de hasta el 85% para los minerales de San Pedro Frío. Esta afirmación fue posible proponerla, mediante los análisis de la caracterización del mineral. Mediante la caracterización fisicoquímica del mineral, fue posible la estimación de ciertas condiciones de los procesos metalúrgicos involucrados en una posible planta de tratamiento, es así que el porcentaje de sólidos más adecuado para el manejo de los sólidos en pulpa fue del 40% en peso, la alta cantidad de minerales arcillosos podrían dificultar los procesos de separación sólido-líquido, entre otros especificaciones operativas Según la caracterización mineralógica y metalúrgica, el tamaño promedio del oro presente en el mineral, se encuentra a una granulometría menor a 75 µm, esto indica que el proceso de cianuración por agitación resultaría el más adecuado. Los resultados de la lixiviación diagnóstico, arrogaron resultados muy satisfactorios, ya que el 94% del oro en las muestras se encuentra como oro libre, lo cual podrá incidir en tiempos cortos de cianuración.

  16. Modeling Fall Run Chinook Salmon Populations in the San Joaquin River Basin Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyantash, J.; Quinn, N. W.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Dracup, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The number of chinook salmon returning to spawn during the fall run (September-November) were separately modeled for three San Joaquin River tributaries-the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers-to determine the sensitivity of salmon populations to hydrologic alterations associated with potential climate change. The modeling was accomplished using a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) with error backpropagation. Inputs to the ANN included modeled monthly river temperature and streamflow data for each tributary, and were lagged multiple years to include the effects of antecedent environmental conditions upon populations of salmon throughout their life histories. Temperature and streamflow conditions at downstream locations in each tributary were computed using the California Dept. of Water Resources' DSM-2 model. Inputs to the DSM-2 model originated from regional climate modeling under a CO2 doubling scenario. Annual population data for adult chinook salmon (1951-present) were provided by the California Dept. of Fish and Game, and were used for supervised training of the ANN. It was determined that Stanislaus, Tuolumne and Merced River chinook runs could be impacted by alterations to the hydroclimatology of the San Joaquin basin.

  17. Simulation of hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, 2000-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2014-01-01

    Suspended sediment in rivers and streams can play an important role in ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand suspended-sediment loads and transport in a watershed, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, developed a Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12 for four watersheds, which comprise the overall study area in the San Antonio River Basin (hereinafter referred to as the “USGS–2014 model”). The study area consists of approximately 2,150 square miles encompassing parts of Bexar, Guadalupe, Wilson, Karnes, DeWitt, Goliad, Victoria, and Refugio Counties. The USGS–2014 model was calibrated for hydrology and suspended sediment for 2006–12. Overall, model-fit statistics and graphic evaluations from the calibration and testing periods provided multiple lines of evidence indicating that the USGS–2014 model simulations of hydrologic and suspended-sediment conditions were mostly “good” to “very good.” Model simulation results indicated that approximately 1,230 tons per day of suspended sediment exited the study area and were delivered to the Guadalupe River during 2006–12, of which approximately 62 percent originated upstream from the study area. Sample data and simulated model results indicate that most of the suspended-sediment load in the study area consisted of silt- and clay-sized particles (less than 0.0625 millimeters). The Cibolo Creek watershed was the largest contributor of suspended sediment from the study area. For the entire study area, open/developed land and cropland exhibited the highest simulated soil erosion rates; however, the largest contributions of sediment (by land-cover type) were pasture and forest/rangeland/shrubland, which together composed approximately 80 percent of the land cover of the

  18. The paradigm of paraglacial megafans of the San Juan river basin, Central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvires, Graciela M.

    2014-11-01

    The spatial distribution and several morphometric characteristics of the Quaternary alluvial fans of the San Juan River, in the province of San Juan, at the Central and Western part of Argentina, have been studied to classify them as paraglacial megafans, as well to ratify its depositional environmental conditions. The high sedimentary load exported by San Juan river from the Central Andes to the foreland depressions is estimated about 3,682,200 hm3. The large alluvial fans of Ullum-Zonda and Tulum valleys were deposited into deep tectonic depressions, during the Upper Pleistocene deglaciation stages. The outcome of collecting remotely sensed data, map and DEM data, geophysical data and much fieldwork gave access to morphometric, morphographic and morphogenetic data of these alluvial fans. The main drainage network was mapped on processed images using QGis (vers.2.0.1). Several fan morphometric parameters were measured, such as the size, the shape, the thickness, the surface areas and the sedimentary volume of exported load. The analyzed fans were accumulated in deep tectonic depressions, where the alluvium fill reaches 700 to 1200 m thick. Such fans do not reach the large size that other world megafans have, and this is due to tectonic obstacles, although the sedimentary fill average volume surpasses 514,000 hm3. The author proposes to consider Ullum-Zonda and Tulum alluvial fans as paraglacial megafans. According to the stratigraphic relationships of the tropical South American Rivers, the author considers that the San Juan paraglacial megafans would have occurred in the period before 24 ka BP , possibly corresponding to Middle Pleniglacial (ca 65-24ka BP). They record colder and more humid conditions compared with the present arid and dry conditions.

  19. Paleoenvironmental interpretation using fossil record: San Juan Raya Formation, Zapotitlán basin, Puebla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The San Juan Raya Formation is world-wide recognized because of the high diversity and abundance of fossils. In this study nine biofacies, three ichnofacies and ten lithofacies were recognized and interpreted on the basis of the influence of several environmental factors such as water depth change, sedimentation rate, water salinity and substrate consistency. Among these factors, salinity variations were apparently crucial for developing and replacement of the different biofacies. Most of bio...

  20. A brief history of oil and gas exploration in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California: Chapter 3 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The Golden State got its nickname from the Sierra Nevada gold that lured so many miners and settlers to the West, but California has earned much more wealth from so-called “black gold” than from metallic gold. The San Joaquin Valley has been the principal source for most of the petroleum produced in the State during the past 145 years. In attempting to assess future additions to petroleum reserves in a mature province such as the San Joaquin Basin, it helps to be mindful of the history of resource development. In this chapter we present a brief overview of the long and colorful history of petroleum exploration and development in the San Joaquin Valley. This chapter relies heavily upon the work of William Rintoul, who wrote extensively on the history of oil and gas exploration in California and especially in the San Joaquin Valley. No report on the history of oil and gas exploration in the San Joaquin Valley would be possible without heavily referencing his publications. We also made use of publications by Susan Hodgson and a U.S. Geological Survey Web site, Natural Oil and Gas Seeps in California (http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/seeps/index.html), for much of the material describing the use of petroleum by Native Americans in the San Joaquin Valley. Finally, we wish to acknowledge the contribution of Don Arnot, who manages the photograph collection at the West Kern Oil Museum in Taft, California. The collection consists of more than 10,000 photographs that have been scanned and preserved in digital form on CD-ROM. Many of the historical photographs used in this paper are from that collection. Finally, to clarify our terminology, we use the term “San Joaquin Valley” when we refer to the geographical or topographical feature and the term “San Joaquin Basin” when we refer to geological province and the rocks therein.

  1. El arquitecto madrileño Pedro de la Torre en Toledo y un retablo inédito localizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Díaz Fernández

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre las realizaciones del arquitecto barroco Pedro de la Torre para la ciudad de Toledo es posible identificar un retablo hasta ahora inédito, datado en 1653 y en el que colabora el ensamblador toledano Juan García de San Pedro, localizado hoy en la parroquia de Nambroca (Toledo, en el que se aprecian las innovaciones estructurales y ornamentales propias del lenguaje desarrollado por el artista.Among the works of the baroque architect Pedro de la Torre for the city of Toledo is possible to identify an up to now unpublished altarpiece in which collaborates the toledan assembler Juan García de San Pedro. Dated in 1653 and at present located in the parish of Nambroca (Toledo, in which we can appreciate the typical structural and ornamental innovations of the language developed by the artist.

  2. Paleoclimate cycles and tectonic controls on fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian strata in upper Triassic Chinle Formation, San Juan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubiel, R.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Sedimentologic study of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the San Juan basin (SJB) indicates that Late Triassic paleoclimate and tectonic movements influenced the distribution of continental lithofacies. The Shinarump, Monitor Butte, and Petrified Forest Members in the lower part of the Chinle consist of complexly interfingered fluvial, floodplain, marsh, and lacustrine rocks; the Owl Rock and Rock Point Members in the upper part consists of lacustrine-basin and eolian sandsheet strata. Facies analysis, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, and paleoclimate models demonstrate that the Late Triassic was dominated by tropical monsoonal circulation, which provided abundant precipitation interspersed with seasonally dry periods. Owl Rock lacustrine strata comprise laminated limestones that reflect seasonal monsoonal precipitation and larger scale, interbedded carbonates and fine-grained clastics that represent longer term, alternating wet and dry climatic cycles. Overlying Rock Point eolian sand-sheet and dune deposits indicate persistent alternating but drier climatic cyclicity. Within the Chinle, upward succession of lacustrine, alternating lacustrine/eolian sand-sheet, and eolian sand-sheet/dune deposits reflects an overall decrease in precipitation due to the northward migration of Pangaea out of low latitudes dominated by monsoonal circulation.

  3. Seismic attribute-based characterization of coalbed methane reservoirs: An example from the Fruitland Formation, San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, I.D.; Hart, B.S. [McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-11-01

    The Fruitland Formation of the San Juan basin is the largest producer of coalbed methane in the world. Production patterns vary from one well to another throughout the basin, reflecting factors such as coal thickness and fracture and cleat density. In this study, we integrated conventional P-wave three-dimensional (3-D) seismic and well data to investigate geological controls on production from a thick, continuous coal seam in the lower part of the Fruitland Formation. Our objective was to show the potential of using 3-D seismic data to predict coal thickness, as well as the distribution and orientation of subtle structures that may be associated with enhanced permeability zones. To do this, we first derived a seismic attribute-based model that predicts coal thickness. We then used curvature attributes derived from seismic horizons to detect subtle structural features that might be associated with zones of enhanced permeability. Production data show that the best producing wells are associated with seismically definable structural features and thick coal. Although other factors (e.g., completion practices and coal type) affect coalbed methane production, our results suggest that conventional 3-D seismic data, integrated with wire-line logs and production data, are useful for characterizing coalbed methane reservoirs.

  4. Pliocene and Quaternary Deposits in the Northern Part of the San Juan Basin in Southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Glenn R.; Moore, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Unconsolidated late Cenozoic deposits in the northern part of the San Juan Basin range in age from late Pliocene to Holocene. Most of the deposits are alluvial gravel composed of resistant quartzite, sandstone, and igneous, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks derived from the uplifted central core of the San Juan Mountains 20-50 miles (32-80 kilometers) north of the basin. Alluvial deposits are most voluminous in the Animas Valley, but deposits of gravel of the same general age are present in the La Plata, Florida, Los Pinos, and Piedra River valleys as well. Alluvial gravel forms tabular deposits, generally about 20 feet (6 meters) thick, that are exposed beneath a sequence of terraces at many levels above the rivers. Gravel layers 360 feet (110 meters) or less above the Animas River are glacial outwash. The gravel layers begin at the south toes of end moraines and extend discontinuously downvalley at least 10-20 miles (16-32 kilometers). Farther south, distinction between outwash and nonglacial alluvium is problematical. Alluvial gravel beneath higher terraces does not grade to end moraines. Glacial till forms a series of end moraines at the north edge of the town of Durango. The oldest moraines are farthest downvalley, are higher above the river, and have more mature surficial soils than do moraines farther north. The two youngest moraines, the Animas City moraines, are interpreted to be Pinedale in age. They have narrow, ridgelike crests and form nearly unbroken arcs across the valley floor. Small segments of still more weathered moraines, the Spring Creek moraines, are 170-230 feet (52-70 meters) above the river and are 660-990 feet (200-300 meters) farther downvalley. The oldest moraines, the Durango moraines, are on the north end of the unnamed mesa on which Fort Lewis College is located. The base is about 180 feet (55 meters) above the river. These oldest moraines may be of Bull Lake age. Alluvial fans, pediment gravel, and landslides are scattered at several

  5. Groundwater basin of the Tulum Valley, San Juan, Argentina: A morphohydrogeologic analysis of its central sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Gustavo; Suvires, Graciela M.

    2006-07-01

    The geometry of a sector in the groundwater basin of the Tulum Valley has been studied to determine the shape, thickness, and vertical and horizontal distribution of the grain size, as well as the depositional environmental conditions of the Quaternary deposits that fill the valley. The geomorphologic features of the area have been investigated on the basis of aerial photographs checked with fieldwork. Three subsurface sections were prepared for a hydrogeological analysis of the area. These cross-sections were prepared by combining information from descriptions of well samples and interpretations of geophysical logs of wells and electric resistivity surveys. Within the studied area, the floor of the groundwater basin is asymmetrically shaped; the Quaternary deposits, which lie on an impervious or poorly pervious electrically conductive hydrogeologic basement of Late Tertiary age, reach a thickness of 670 m in the west and only 215 m in the eastern extreme. The Tulum Valley Basin is divided into two subbasins by a fault system trending NNE-SSW, which plays an important role in the configuration of the basin and the distribution of the Quaternary sediments units, as well as the distribution of aquifers in the subsurface. The western subbasin has a thicker cover and coarser grain sizes than the eastern one, where the sediments have more fine-grained intercalations and hardpans. The latter are probably pedogenic in origin.

  6. El arquitecto madrileño Pedro de la Torre en Toledo y un retablo inédito localizado

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio José Díaz Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Entre las realizaciones del arquitecto barroco Pedro de la Torre para la ciudad de Toledo es posible identificar un retablo hasta ahora inédito, datado en 1653 y en el que colabora el ensamblador toledano Juan García de San Pedro, localizado hoy en la parroquia de Nambroca (Toledo), en el que se aprecian las innovaciones estructurales y ornamentales propias del lenguaje desarrollado por el artista.Among the works of the baroque architect Pedro de la Torre for the city of Toledo is possible to...

  7. Hydraulic fracturing of tight CBM reservoirs in the San Juan Basin, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, R. [Burlington Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Stimulation techniques, reservoir size and effects of stimulation, and regulatory compliance are described. The gas content, thickness, and pressure characteristics of San Juan Fruitland coal are considered. Cavitation, no proppant injection, sand-laden fluids, foamed fluids, sand control additives, coiled tubing fracturing, and breakdown have been tried, and better stimulation techniques are being pursued. Reduced pad size and minimal new road development to prevent surface damage, disposal of stimulation fluids in disposal wells, and surface casing and zonal isolation to protect surface waters has minimized damage to the environment during fracturing and disposal. 3 figs.

  8. Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of foreland basins: U-Pb dating of the discharge that would have originated the piggy-back basin of Rodeo-Iglesias, San Juan-Argentina; Evolucao tectono-sedimentar de bacias de antepais: datacao U-Pb do corrimento que teria originado a bacia de piggy-back de Rodeo-Iglesias, San Juan-Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Romulo Duarte Moreira dos; Hauser, Natalia; Matteini, Massimo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Laboratorio de de Estudos Geocronologicos, Geodinamicos e Ambientais; Limarino, Oscar; Marensi, Sergio; Ciccioli, Patricia; Alonso, Susana, E-mail: romulodms@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Geologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    Between the 28 ° and 31 ° LS parallels of the Argentinean west, in the province of San Juan, foreland basins originated by the subhorizontal subduction of oceanic crust as a result of the Andean orogeny in the late Oligocene emerges. The Bermejo basin and Rodeo-Iglesias piggy-back basin would be associated with the progressive development of landslides, backscatter and minor faults, and basin fragmentation. Two samples of volcanic rocks, R-1 (rhyolitic dome) and R-3 (fall deposit) of the Rodeo-Iglesias basin, had ages of 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma and 8.7 ± 0.24 Ma. At the same time, the age of the (R-1) made it possible to infer quantitatively the age of the first cavalcade that occurred approximately 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma. From the data obtained in the Rodeo-Iglesias basin both volcanism and the first cavalcade could have been synchronous.

  9. Appraisal of ground-water quality in the Bunker Hill Basin of San Bernardino Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, L.F.; Schroeder, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 47 wells and analyzed for concentration of major inorganic ions, nitrogen species, and volatile (purgeable) organic priority pollutants to assess groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin, California. Data were supplemented with additional analysis of nitrate, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene made by other agencies. The organic quality of groundwater in the basin generally is suitable for most uses, although fluoride concentration exceeded the California public drinking water standard of 1.4 mg/L in water from 5 of 47 wells. Nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration equaled or exceeded the public drinking water standard of 10 mg/L in water from 13 of 47 wells sampled for this study and in an additional 19 of 120 samples analyzed by other agencies. Concentration generally decreased with increasing depth below land surface. Twenty-four of the 33 volatile organic priority pollutants were detected in water from wells sampled during this study. When supplemental data from other agencies are included, tetrachloroethylene concentration exceeded the standard of 5 micrograms/L in water from 49 of 128 wells. No basinwide relation between contamination by these two chemicals and well depth or land use was discerned. A network of 11 observation wells that could be sampled twice a year would enhance the monitoring of changes groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin. (USGS)

  10. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. Collaborative Modeling in New Mexico's Upper Gila and San Francisco River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Sun, A. C.; Klise, G. T.; Peplinski, W. J.; Brainard, J. R.; Aragon, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    The 2005 Arizona Water Settlements Act (AWSA) has given southwestern New Mexico a unique opportunity to appropriate water from the Upper Gila River basin. This appropriation calls for Arizona irrigators to "trade" their existing use of Gila River water for Central Arizona Project water to realize New Mexico's legal right to develop water originating in its portion of the Upper Gila River watershed. The complexity of the AWSA and various stakeholders interested in the implications of the settlement has led to the development of a collaborative modeling team. As a team member, Sandia National Laboratories is tasked with building an integrated basin scale system-dynamics model that can implement the constraints outlined in the AWSA by projecting water supply and demand scenarios into the future. By building this model, stakeholders will gain insight into the hydrologic complexities inherent in a river basin, and it will allow them to evaluate whether alternate water use scenarios will be allowed under the constraints outlined by the AWSA. The model replicates historic surface and ground water conditions in the basin using available data for supply, including gauges that measure stream flow, ditch flow, and precipitation. Demands are measured through annual hydrographic survey records for agricultural production, industrial water use by mining, municipal and domestic use in both urban and rural communities, and riparian evapotranspiration. Within the system-dynamics framework, volumetric flow of water is the dynamic state variable calculated from one river reach to the next. Stream gauge, climate and consumptive use data are used to calibrate the historic baseline flows. There is a great deal of uncertainty that must be addressed when attempting to model a large basin. Integrating a watershed model to add the contribution of ungauged tributaries is part of this effort. Another challenge is the presence of federally listed endangered avian and aquatic species whose flow

  12. Geology and stratigraphy of the San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well and its correlation to surrounding ranges, Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J.

    2014-12-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well stratigraphy records intense episodic volcanic activity in the Mexico Basin and surroundings during the past 20 Ma. The 2008-m deep lithological column is dominated by volcanic material, either as lava flows or pyroclastic deposits (97%), and only the upper most 70 m are composed of lacustrine deposits (3%). Based on geochronology and geochemistry, the lower part of the drill core is represented by rocks correlating to the Tepoztlán Formation (876-2008 m deep) that vary in composition from basaltic-andesite to rhyolite, and ages ranging from 13 to 21.2 Ma. On the surface this formation outcrops near the towns of Malinalco and Tepoztlán, ~43 km south of the deep well. Between depths of 581 and 875 m, volcanic rocks were recovered and are interpreted as lavas from the Sierra de las Cruces that vary in composition from andesite to dacite and range in age from 0.9 Ma to 5 Ma. Additionally, we documented rocks belonging to the Xochitepec Formation, outcropping around Xochimilco, in the Mexico City, with ages ranging from 1.2 and 1.7 Ma, in contrast with the Oligocene age proposed in previous works for these rocks. These new ages plus the chemical composition data, allow us to correlate the Xochitepec rocks with Sierra de las Cruces. Upward in the drill core (510-580 m) there are andesitic rocks that correlate with the 0.25 Ma Cerro de la Estrella volcanic center. The last volcanic package found in the well is correlated to the Santa Catarina basaltic andesites (70-120 m) that are younger than 0.25 Ma, and probably Holocene. Lacustrine deposits crown the stratigraphic column of the drill core with ages probably younger than 34 ka. The San Lorenzo Tezonco well is in a graben-like structure that was filled with more than 1900 m of volcanic products, suggesting that volcanism were intense in the Miocene to the Recent, and the south drainage of the Mexico Basin was closed probably in the early Pleistocene.

  13. Application of Advanced Exploration Technologies for the Development of Mancos Formation Oil Reservoirs, Jicarilla Apache Indian Nation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Scott; Billingsley, Randy

    2002-09-09

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) develop an exploration rationale for the Mancos shale in the north-eastern San Juan basin; (2) assess the regional prospectivity of the Mancos in the northern Nation lands based on that rationale; (3) identify specific leads in the northern Nation as appropriate; (4) forecast pro-forma production, reserves and economics for any leads identified; and (5) package and disseminate the results to attract investment in Mancos development on the Nation lands.

  14. New constraints on the geometry and evolution of the Southern San Andreas Fault and Salton Pull-apart basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakian, V. J.; Holmes, J. J.; Kell, A. M.; Harding, A. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.

    2013-12-01

    In the recent geologic past, the Salton pull-apart basin, northern Imperial Fault (IF) and Southern San Andreas Fault (SSAF) have been part of an evolving tectonic regime, subject to strain partitioning. This part of the North American/Pacific plate boundary has the potential for generating a large earthquake. Several lines of active-source seismic reflection and refraction data in the Salton Sea were analyzed to better understand the fault interactions and evolution in this region by investigating the SSAF geometry, stratigraphy, and velocity structure. These data, collected in conjunction with the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) include two fault-perpendicular lines: one adjacent to the southern terminus of the SSAF (Line 7), and one just south of the terminus (Line 8). We present results from Multi Channel Seismic (MCS) data along Line 7, and refraction data along Lines 7 and 8. Velocity models along these lines were constructed from the refraction data. Included in the Line 7 model is an interface representing a strong reflector observed in the MCS data, which helps to constrain the raypaths and velocities in the model. Line 7 MCS data image stratigraphic layers thickening to and dipping down to the east towards the SSAF, indicative of a westward-dipping, oblique strike-slip fault. The refraction data along this line are consistent with a westward dipping SSAF and a down the west normal component. We present velocity models for Line 7 and 8, as well as resolution tests supporting the fault's geometry. The results from these two lines and a fault parallel line suggest that the SSAF is dipping to the west and is in transtension. We propose that the SSAF has migrated northward through time, partitioning its strain onto the IF. As the IF migrates northwards it forms the Salton pull-apart basin.

  15. Tectonic and unroofing history of Neogene Manantiales foreland basin deposits, Cordillera Frontal (32°30'S), San Juan Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel J.

    2001-12-01

    The Miocene Manantiales foreland basin is located in Cordillera Frontal of San Juan, between 32°30' and 33°S. The unroofing study of the synorogenic Miocene deposits provides information about the structural evolution of Cordón de La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt. These Tertiary deposits are represented by the Chinches Formation and comprise seven members (Tc0-Tc6). They are the result of the uplift of Mesozoic sequences that crop out in La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt of the Cordillera Principal. Quaternary deposits unconformably overlying the Chinches Formation are composed of granitic and rhyolitic blocks, and represent the final uplift of the Cordón del Espinacito and a series of out-of-sequence thrusts. The unroofing studies also provide sufficient information to establish the out-of-sequence timing of the deformation at this latitude. Initial deposition of the Tertiary deposits can be dated at about 20 Ma, or early Miocene. Andesitic lavas dated in 9.2±0.3, 10.7±0.7, and 12.7±0.7 Ma unconformably overlie the structure of La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt. These facts constrain the uplift of the High Andes between 20 and 10 Ma at this latitude. The unconformity between Tertiary and Quaternary deposits suggests final uplift during Pliocene-Pleistocene times.

  16. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynofacies analyses of the Cansona Formation (Late Cretaceous), Sinú-San Jacinto Basin, northwest Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao-Lemus, Tatiana; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Torres, Diego; Plata, Angelo; Parra, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    To reconstruct the paleoenvironments of the Cansona Formation, a Cretaceous succession in Colombia that has controversial paleoenvironmental interpretation, occasionally deep marine and occasionally shallow marine, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 93 samples from four sections of the Sinú San Jacinto Basin in the north, midwest, and southwest sectors. For the palynofacies analyses, the kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Four palynofacies associations were revealed for the four sections: Palynofacies Association I (PA I), which consisted of microforaminiferal linings, scolecodonts, dinoflagellate cysts, pollen grains, and fungi hyphae; PA II, which consisted of phytoclast translucent non-biostructured and biostructured, opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); PA III, which consisted of pseudoamorphous particles, cuticles, resin, and fungal spores; and PA IV, which consisted of fluorescent and non-fluorescent amorphous organic matter and the fresh-water algae Botryococcus. In contrast to early studies that suggested a generalization of the depositional environment for the Cansona Formation (deep or shallow conditions), this study suggests that the formation reflects conspicuous stratigraphic and lateral changes and hence different depositional environments. The Cerro Cansona (CC4 section) and Chalán (AP section) areas are a more marine proximal settings (Early Campanian-Maastrichtian), and there is an intermediate setting for the Lorica area (SC section) and deeper conditions for the Montería area (CP2 section).

  17. AVO analysis and modeling applied to fracture detection in coalbed methane reservoirs, Cedar Hill Field, San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A.C.B. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Davis, T.L.; Anderson, J.E.; Benson, R.D. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Cedar Hill Field in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, produces methane from fractured coalbed of the Fruitland Formation. The presence of fracturing is critical to methane production due to the absence of matrix permeability in the coals. To help characterize this coalbed reservoir a three-dimensional, multicomponent seismic survey was acquired in this field. Prestack P-wave amplitude data are used to delineate zones of larger Poisson`s ratio contrasts (or higher crack densities) in coalbed methane reservoir, while source-receiver azimuth sorting is used to detect preferential directions of azimuthal anisotropy. Two modeling techniques (using ray tracing and reflectivity methods) predict the effects of fractured coal-seam zones on non-normal P-wave reflectivity. Synthetic CMP gathers are generated for a horizontally layered earth model, which uses elastic parameters derived from sonic and density log measurements. Fracture density variations in the coalbeds are simulated by anisotropic modeling. The large acoustic impedance contrasts associated with the sandstone/coal interfaces dominate the P-wave reflectivity response. They far outweigh the effects of contrasts in anisotropy parameters, for the computed models. Seismic AVO analysis of nine macrobins obtained from the 3-D volume confirms model predictions. Areas with large AVO productions identify coal zones with large Poisson`s ratio contrast, therefore high fracture density.

  18. La Biblioteca de Pedro Salinas

    OpenAIRE

    González García, Juana María

    2010-01-01

    Pedro Salinas’ personal library prior to the Spanish Civil War has so far remained almost unknown for both researchers and specialists dealing with his literary works. Preserved by the Cervantes Institute of Secondary School in Madrid, this group of books has however arose great interest. A catalogue of his personal books is contained in this work; this is the result of very slow and accurate classification work and further study of the texts as well as the appropriate thoughts on its history...

  19. Historic and Holocene environmental change in the San Antonio Creek Basin, mid-coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Anderson, R.; Ejarque, Ana; Rice, Johnathan; Smith, Susan J.; Lebow, Clayton G.

    2015-03-01

    Using a combination of pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) and charcoal particle stratigraphies from sediment cores from two sites, along with historical records, we reconstructed paleoenvironmental change in mid-coastal California. The San Antonio Creek section contains a discontinuous, Holocene-length record, while Mod Pond includes a continuous late Holocene record. Together the records allow for interpretation of most of the present interglacial. The longer record documents coastal sage scrub and chaparral dominated by woodland elements early in the Holocene to about 9000 yr ago, a potential decline in woodland communities with drying conditions during the middle Holocene to about 4800 yr ago, and an expansion of coastal sage scrub with grassland during the late Holocene. Evidence for climatic fluctuations during the last 1000 yr at Mod Pond is equivocal, suggesting that the Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age had modest impact on the Mod Pond environment. However, evidence of significant environmental change associated with cultural transitions in the 18th-19th centuries is stark. Introduction of non-native plants, establishment of cattle and sheep grazing, missionization of the native population, changes in burning practices during the Spanish period and enhanced cropping activities during North American settlement worked together to substantially modify the mid-California coastal landscape in about a century's time.

  20. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Fruitland Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 6 in Geology and Oil and Gas Assessment of the Fruitland Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Fruitland Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the San Juan Basin Province includes all genetically related hydrocarbons generated from coal beds and organic-rich shales in the Cretaceous Fruitland Formation. Coal beds are considered to be the primary source of the hydrocarbons. Potential reservoir rocks in the Fruitland TPS consist of the Upper Cretaceous Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation (both sandstone and coal beds), and the Farmington Sandstone Member of the Kirtland Formation, and the Tertiary Ojo Alamo Sandstone, and Animas, Nacimiento, and San Jose Formations.

  1. Hydrogeochemistry of the formation waters in the San Francisco field, UMV basin, Colombia - A multivariate statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, J. E.; Muñoz, L. F.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Niño, J. E.; Polo, A.; Suspes, A.; Siachoque, S. C.; Hernández, A.; Trujillo, H.

    2016-08-01

    A wide variety of hydrogeochemical data were obtained through the analysis of the formation water samples collected from 118 producing wells from the San Francisco Oilfield (SFO) in the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV) basin, Huila, Colombia. The study area is composed of deposited sandstone in fluvial-lacustrine marine environment, which characterized the formation waters as chloride-sodium water type. The brackish-saline facies identified can be attributed to evaporation, halite and dolomite dissolution along with water recharge of meteoric waters somewhere in the basin, probably from Magdalena River, the contribution of the SFO injection water system and significantly by the rock-water interaction. Some ionic ratios were used to confirm clearly that water-rock interactions play a significant role in the evolution of the hydrogeochemistry process in the SFO. The charge balance error ranges between -5.88% and 2.62% indicating very well balanced and mature water for blocks 1, 2 and 3 (north part of the field), and partially equilibrated and immature waters for blocks 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 as is confirmed by Piper, Giggenbach, and Schöeller diagrams. Calculated scale and stability indices (Langelier, Ryznar, and Puckorius), besides halite and dolomite indexes, indicate that these formation waters are slightly saturated with respect to the calcite and dolomite and have strong tendency to the scale formation as well. Concentration maps were used to identify the geological factors that could have influenced its chemical composition and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in the field, such as halite dissolution, calcite or dolomite precipitation and cationic exchange reactions. The mineralogical distribution leads to the conclusion that the halite dissolution is mostly distributed in the Northeastern area of the SFO between B1, B3, B4, B5, and B6 blocks, the dolomite and calcite have greater concentrations between B5 and B6 blocks. The dissolved minerals followed the

  2. Near Surface Geophysical Exploration at The Archaeological Site of San Miguel Tocuila, Basin of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, A.; Hernandez, E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Diaz-Molina, O.; Morett, L.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    The village of Tocuila is located on the western margin of Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. Volcanic activity during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene closed the basin's drainage and facilitated the development of a lacustrine environment and subsequent deposition of volcano-sedimentary sequences with abundant archaeological and paleontological record. Tocuila was one of the most prominent suburbs of the main civic ceremonial complex of the Aztecs. The rapid expansion of Mexico City's Metropolitan areas in the last three decades strongly influenced Tocuila's environment and has compromised several of its archaeological and ancient human settlements. A near surface geophysical survey including magnetometry, seismic refraction tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques was conducted to investigate pre-Hispanic structures. The magnetometric survey was performed using an Overhauser magnetometer with an omnidirectional, 0.015 nT/Hz sensor and 1Hz sampling rate over a 80x100 m area, yielding 990 measurements of total intensity magnetic field at 1.0m height above the ground surface. Thirty seismic refraction profiles were obtained with a 48-channel 24 bits Geometrics StrataVisor NZ seismograph, 14 Hz natural frequency vertical geophones with a 2m separation array and an impact source of 5 kg. The GPR survey consisted of 15 cross sections at two different resolutions with a GSSI SIR-3000 instrument, using a GSSI 200 MHz and a RadarTeam 70 MHz antennas. All surveys were georeferenced with a dual frequency GPS local station and a GPS rover attached to the surveying geophysical instruments. Seismic refraction tomography and GPR radargrams show a platform structure of approx. 80x60 m which can be subdivided in three distinctive layers with a total height of ~10m. Based on the history of ancient settlements in the area surrounding Lake Texcoco and considering the characteristics of shape and height of the surveyed structure, we interpreted that the resulting

  3. Biodegradation of sedimentary organic matter associated with coalbed methane in the Powder River and San Juan Basins, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formolo, Michael; Petsch, Steven [Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003-9297 (United States); Martini, Anna [Department of Geology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA, 01002 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    The Powder River Basin and San Juan Basin, U.S.A., are two of the most productive coalbed methane reserves in the world. Of particular interest is the microbial biodegradation of coal beds associated with this natural gas production. Biogenic methane production is indicated as a significant component to the total gas resources in the San Juan Basin, and as the nearly sole source for the shallow coals of the Powder River Basin. Molecular and isotopic signatures indicate a microbial origin for the gas. Geochemical characteristics of formation waters, such as elevated alkalinity and {sup 13}C-enriched dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), further support extensive microbial degradation of coal organic matter associated with methanogenesis. Extractable organic matter isolated from coals in both basins point to patterns of hydrocarbon biodegradation in coals restricted to specific depths. To some extent, biodegradation patterns are similar to those observed in methanogenic, biodegraded black shales of the mid-continent of the United States. Specifically, both coals and shales exhibit near-quantitative removal of straight-chain and acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons. However, loss of aromatic hydrocarbons in the coals proceeds prior to the extensive removal of the saturated hydrocarbons, in contrast to what is conventionally observed in biodegraded petroleum systems or in black shales. In addition, previous thermal maturation histories in both the Fruitland and Fort Union coalbed methane systems have little impact on more recent hydrocarbon biodegradation. Instead, localized hydrologic conditions and subsurface geology likely play important roles in controlling the extents of biodegradation and methanogenesis. These results suggest that biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled with methanogenesis may develop regardless of organic matter source across a range of inherited thermal maturities. (author)

  4. Análisis cortical de la cuenca Golfo de SanJorge utilizando anomalías de Bouguer y ondulaciones delgeoide Crustal analysis of the San Jorge Basin basedon Bouguer anomalies and geoid undulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LauraL. Cornaglia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar características tales comotipo de corteza y estado isostático de la cuenca sedimentaria del Golfo de SanJorge, analizamos los valores observados de anomalías de Bouguer y deondulaciones geoidales calculadas desde anomalías de aire libre por el métodode fuentes equivalentes, comparándolos con las respuestas de un modelo decuenca compensado hidrostáticamente determinado a partir de la masa topográficade la zona y el relleno sedimentario de la cuenca. Por ambos caminosencontramos un exceso de masas que interpretamos como significativa antirraízcortical y predice subsidencia para el futuro. Otras alternativas como porejemplo la intrusión de densas masas intracorticales, no alteran lasconclusiones.Toevaluate crustal characteristics such as crust type and isostatic balance ofthe sedimentary San Jorge Gulf Basin, we analyzed observed Bouguer anomaliesand geoid undulations calculated from free-air anomalies and equivalentsources, comparing them with the responses of a hydrostatic compensated basinmodel prepared using the topographic mass of the area and the basin sedimentaryfill. In both cases we found an excess mass that we explained as a significantcrustal anti-root that predicts subsidence in the future. Others alternativesas for example the emplacement of dense intracrustal masses, do not modifiedthe conclusions.

  5. Evolution of the late Quaternary San Gregorio Magno tectono-karstic basin (southern Italy) inferred from geomorphological, tephrostratigraphical and palaeoecological analyses: tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, G.; Ascione, A.; Barra, D.; Munno, R.; Petrosino, P.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Villani, F.

    2007-03-01

    The Pantano di San Gregorio Magno is a 4.7 km2 large tectono-karstic basin located in the axial belt of the Southern Apennines, an area affected by intense seismicity. The basin was formed in the Middle Pleistocene and is presently undissected. It is filled by lacustrine sediments (clays, silts and pyroclastic sands) passing laterally into alluvial fan deposits. Geomorphological investigations were integrated with tephrostratigraphical, palynological and palaeoecological analyses of a 61 m thick core (not reaching the bedrock). The multiproxy analysis of the S. Gregorio Magno record shows that, over the last 200k yr, the basin hosted a freshwater lake with an oscillating level. Age constraints provided by the tephrostratigraphic record allowed estimation of the sedimentation rate, which varied strongly through time. Evolution of the basin resulted from the complex combination of tectonic subsidence, karst processes and changing amounts of sedimentary inputs. The latter was influenced by allogenic contributions related both to primary and reworked volcanoclastic inputs and was climate-driven. The overall evidence, which indicates that in the long-term the accumulation rate substantially counterbalanced the accommodation space created by faulting, suggests that the basin evolution was also modulated by changing subsidence rates. Copyright

  6. Introduction to the special collection of papers on the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Hopton, Matthew E

    2012-11-30

    This paper introduces a collection of four articles describing the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project. The Project developed a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability. This introduction provides the necessary background information for the project, description of the region, overview of the methods, and summary of the results. Although there are a multitude of scientifically based sustainability metrics, many are data intensive, difficult to calculate, and fail to capture all aspects of a system. We wanted to see if we could develop an approach that decision-makers could use to understand if their system was moving toward or away from sustainability. The goal was to produce a scientifically defensible, but straightforward and inexpensive methodology to measure and monitor environmental quality within a regional system. We initiated an interdisciplinary pilot project in the San Luis Basin, south-central Colorado, to test the methodology. The objectives were: 1) determine the applicability of using existing datasets to estimate metrics of sustainability at a regional scale; 2) calculate metrics through time from 1980 to 2005; and 3) compare and contrast the results to determine if the system was moving toward or away from sustainability. The sustainability metrics, chosen to represent major components of the system, were: 1) Ecological Footprint to capture the impact and human burden on the system; 2) Green Net Regional Product to represent economic welfare; 3) Emergy to capture the quality-normalized flow of energy through the system; and 4) Fisher information to capture the overall dynamic order and to look for possible regime changes. The methodology, data, and results of each metric are presented in the remaining four papers of the special collection. Based on the results of each metric and our criteria for understanding the sustainability trends, we find that the San Luis Basin is moving away from sustainability. Although we understand

  7. Small theropod teeth from the Late Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, northwestern New Mexico and their implications for understanding latest Cretaceous dinosaur evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Thomas E; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Studying the evolution and biogeographic distribution of dinosaurs during the latest Cretaceous is critical for better understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction event that killed off all non-avian dinosaurs. Western North America contains among the best records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrates in the world, but is biased against small-bodied dinosaurs. Isolated teeth are the primary evidence for understanding the diversity and evolution of small-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Late Cretaceous, but few such specimens have been well documented from outside of the northern Rockies, making it difficult to assess Late Cretaceous dinosaur diversity and biogeographic patterns. We describe small theropod teeth from the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. These specimens were collected from strata spanning Santonian - Maastrichtian. We grouped isolated theropod teeth into several morphotypes, which we assigned to higher-level theropod clades based on possession of phylogenetic synapomorphies. We then used principal components analysis and discriminant function analyses to gauge whether the San Juan Basin teeth overlap with, or are quantitatively distinct from, similar tooth morphotypes from other geographic areas. The San Juan Basin contains a diverse record of small theropods. Late Campanian assemblages differ from approximately coeval assemblages of the northern Rockies in being less diverse with only rare representatives of troodontids and a Dromaeosaurus-like taxon. We also provide evidence that erect and recurved morphs of a Richardoestesia-like taxon represent a single heterodont species. A late Maastrichtian assemblage is dominated by a distinct troodontid. The differences between northern and southern faunas based on isolated theropod teeth provide evidence for provinciality in the late Campanian and the late Maastrichtian of North America. However, there is no indication that major components of small-bodied theropod diversity were lost

  8. Small theropod teeth from the Late Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, northwestern New Mexico and their implications for understanding latest Cretaceous dinosaur evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Williamson

    Full Text Available Studying the evolution and biogeographic distribution of dinosaurs during the latest Cretaceous is critical for better understanding the end-Cretaceous extinction event that killed off all non-avian dinosaurs. Western North America contains among the best records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial vertebrates in the world, but is biased against small-bodied dinosaurs. Isolated teeth are the primary evidence for understanding the diversity and evolution of small-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Late Cretaceous, but few such specimens have been well documented from outside of the northern Rockies, making it difficult to assess Late Cretaceous dinosaur diversity and biogeographic patterns. We describe small theropod teeth from the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. These specimens were collected from strata spanning Santonian - Maastrichtian. We grouped isolated theropod teeth into several morphotypes, which we assigned to higher-level theropod clades based on possession of phylogenetic synapomorphies. We then used principal components analysis and discriminant function analyses to gauge whether the San Juan Basin teeth overlap with, or are quantitatively distinct from, similar tooth morphotypes from other geographic areas. The San Juan Basin contains a diverse record of small theropods. Late Campanian assemblages differ from approximately coeval assemblages of the northern Rockies in being less diverse with only rare representatives of troodontids and a Dromaeosaurus-like taxon. We also provide evidence that erect and recurved morphs of a Richardoestesia-like taxon represent a single heterodont species. A late Maastrichtian assemblage is dominated by a distinct troodontid. The differences between northern and southern faunas based on isolated theropod teeth provide evidence for provinciality in the late Campanian and the late Maastrichtian of North America. However, there is no indication that major components of small-bodied theropod

  9. Cooperative evaluation of San Juan Basin, Phillips Petroleum Company, openhole well recompletion efforts. Topical report, May 1, 1993-January 15, 1994. Western cretaceous coal seam project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavor, M.J.; Logan, T.L.; Robinson, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    Over 920 San Juan Basin Fruitland Formation openhole coal gas wells have been drilled. Significantly greater gas deliverabilty is possible if substandard productivity can be improved. Two low productivity wells were recompleted. The first was recompleted using conventional and high pressure dynamic openhole procedures. The second was recompleted using hydraulic fracturing techniques. None of the stimulation techniques increased the reservoir deliverablity above that achieved by the original openhole completion. Hydraulic fracturing damaged the near-wall permeability and productivity of the no. 234 well. Extensive testing and production logging were performed to support the conclusions.

  10. Pedro José Velarde: un rapsoda callejero en el México del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabéu Albert, Salvador

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Inquisition trial of Pedro José Velarde in 1768 reveals the life and works of this street poet that was very popular in the market of El Baratillo. Velarde was imprisoned because some of his compositions were dedicated to praise the activities of the jesuits, expelled in 1767. He was sentenced to three years in prison serving in the San Juan de Dios Hospital, but died in poverty in 1768.

    Gracias al proceso abierto por la Inquisición mexicana en 1768 podemos reconstruir parcialmente la vida y la obra de Pedro José Velarde, poeta callejero que se hizo famoso en el mercado del Baratillo. Algunas de sus composiciones fueron dedicadas a ensalzar las actividades de los jesuitas, expulsados en 1767, por lo que fue encarcelado y sentenciado a servir durante tres años en el hospital de San Juan de Dios. Murió en 1784 en la pobreza.

  11. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  12. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  13. Response to critique by lucas et al. (2009) of paper by Fassett (2009) documenting Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue of Palaeontologia Electronica Lucas, et al. (2009) question the validity f the Fassett (2009) paper that presented evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. Their challenges focus primarily on the lithostratigraphy, palynology, and paleomagnetism of the dinosaur-bearing Ojo Alamo Sandstone, shown by Fassett to be of Paleocene age. The lithostratigraphy of the Ojo Alamo is addressed by Lucas et al. (2009) based on detailed studies of outcrops of this formation in two relatively small areas in the southern San Juan Basin where Ojo Alamo dinosaur fossils have been found. When viewed over its 13,000 km2 extent, the Ojo Alamo is seen to be a much more complex formation than these authors recognize, thus their perception and description of the lithostratigraphy of this rock unit is limited and provincial. Fassett (2009) presented a detailed discussion of the palynology of the rocks adjacent to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) interface in the San Juan Basin, including a 67-page appendix and 25 tables listing the 244 palynomorph species identified from these strata. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone produced 103 palynomorphs from five principal localities including one especially prolific sample set from drill core through K-T strata. Without exception, all samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone for palynologic analysis were found to contain Paleocene palynomorph assemblages. Lucas et al. challenge only one Ojo Alamo palynomorph assemblage from one of the five areas studied, stating that they were unable to find palynomorph-productive samples at that locality. They submit no new palynologic data that refutes the Paleocene palynologic age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone. In addressing the paleomagnetism of the Ojo Alamo, these authors dismiss the presence of a critical normal-polarity magnetochron discovered in the lower part of the Ojo Alamo - magnetochron C29n.2n of Fassett (2009) with no evidence to justify this dismissal

  14. Fault kinematics and depocenter evolution of oil-bearing, continental successions of the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian) in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, José Matildo; Plazibat, Silvana; Crovetto, Carolina; Stein, Julián; Cayo, Eric; Schiuma, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    Up to 10% of the liquid hydrocarbons of the Golfo San Jorge basin come from the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian), an ash-dominated fluvial succession preserved in a variably integrated channel network that evolved coeval to an extensional tectonic event, poorly analyzed up to date. Fault orientation, throw distribution and kinematics of fault populations affecting the Mina del Carmen Formation were investigated using a 3D seismic dataset in the Cerro Dragón field (Eastern Sector of the Golfo San Jorge basin). Thickness maps of the seismic sub-units that integrate the Mina del Carmen Formation, named MEC-A-MEC-C in ascending order, and mapping of fluvial channels performed applying geophysical tools of visualization were integrated to the kinematical analysis of 20 main normal faults of the field. The study provides examples of changes in fault throw patterns with time, associated with faults of different orientations. The "main synrift phase" is characterized by NE-SW striking (mean Az = 49°), basement-involved normal faults that attains its maximum throw on top of the volcanic basement; this set of faults was active during deposition of the Las Heras Group and Pozo D-129 formation. A "second synrift phase" is recognized by E-W striking normal faults (mean Az = 91°) that nucleated and propagated from the Albian Mina del Carmen Formation. Fault activity was localized during deposition of the MEC-A sub-unit, but generalized during deposition of MEC-B sub-unit, producing centripetal and partially isolated depocenters. Upward decreasing in fault activity is inferred by more gradual thickness variation of MEC-C and the overlying Lower Member of Bajo Barreal Formation, evidencing passive infilling of relief associated to fault boundaries, and conformation of wider depocenters with well integrated networks of channels of larger dimensions but random orientation. Lately, the Mina del Carmen Formation was affected by the downward propagation of E-W to ESE-WNW striking

  15. Application of techniques to identify coal-mine and power-generation effects on surface-water quality, San Juan River basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, C.L.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous analytical techniques were applied to determine water quality changes in the San Juan River basin upstream of Shiprock , New Mexico. Eight techniques were used to analyze hydrologic data such as: precipitation, water quality, and streamflow. The eight methods used are: (1) Piper diagram, (2) time-series plot, (3) frequency distribution, (4) box-and-whisker plot, (5) seasonal Kendall test, (6) Wilcoxon rank-sum test, (7) SEASRS procedure, and (8) analysis of flow adjusted, specific conductance data and smoothing. Post-1963 changes in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, specific conductance, suspended sediment concentration, or suspended sediment load in the San Juan River downstream from the surface coal mines were examined to determine if coal mining was having an effect on the quality of surface water. None of the analytical methods used to analyzed the data showed any increase in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, or specific conductance in the river downstream from the mines; some of the analytical methods used showed a decrease in dissolved solids concentration and specific conductance. Chaco River, an ephemeral stream tributary to the San Juan River, undergoes changes in water quality due to effluent from a power generation facility. The discharge in the Chaco River contributes about 1.9% of the average annual discharge at the downstream station, San Juan River at Shiprock, NM. The changes in water quality detected at the Chaco River station were not detected at the downstream Shiprock station. It was not possible, with the available data, to identify any effects of the surface coal mines on water quality that were separable from those of urbanization, agriculture, and other cultural and natural changes. In order to determine the specific causes of changes in water quality, it would be necessary to collect additional data at strategically located stations. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  17. San Pedro Martir observations of microvariability in obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Polednikova, Jana; Cepa, Jordi; de Diego, José Antonio; González-Serrano, José Ignacio; Bongiovanni, Angél; Oteo, Iván; García, Ana M Pérez; Pérez-Martínez, Ricardo; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Ramón-Pérez, Marina; Sánchez-Portal, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fast brightness variations are a unique tool to probe the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN). These variations are called microvariability or intra-night variability, and this phenomenon has been monitored in samples of blazars and unobscured AGNs. Detecting optical microvariations in targets hidden by the obscuring torus is a challenging task because the region responsible for the variations is hidden from our sight. However, there have been reports of fast variations in obscured Seyfert galaxies in X-rays, which rises the question whether microvariations can also be detected in obscured AGNs in the optical regime. Because the expected variations are very small and can easily be lost within the noise, the analysis requires a statistical approach. We report the use of a one-way analysis of variance, ANOVA, with which we searched for microvariability. ANOVA was successfully employed in previous studies of unobscured AGNs. As a result, we found microvariable events during three observing blocks: ...

  18. LOS ADVERBIOS EN MAZAHUA DE SAN PEDRO POTLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una descripción de los adverbios o adjuntos en mazahua. El adverbio es la categoría gramatical menos homogénea semántica, sintáctica y morfológicamente. Los adjuntos se realizan en formas ligadas, léxicas, frasales y oracionales. Estas unidades tienen un comportamiento sintáctico específico, modifican diferentes partes de la oración y presentan movilidad o restricciones en el interior de la construcción oracional. Los adverbios exhiben distintos fenómenos, como afijación, clitización, incorporación y reduplicación. Semánticamente, estas unidades son clasificadas como adverbios de posición, locativos, meta, proximativos, dirección y tiempo, entre otros grupos.

  19. Unraveling multiple provenance areas using sandstone petrofacies and geochemistry: An example in the southern flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limarino, Carlos Oscar; Giordano, Sergio Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the provenance of Late Cretaceous sandstones deposited along the south flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin. For this purpose, detrital modes of three hundred thirty-seven sandstone samples collected in the Mina del Carmen, Bajo Barreal, and Cañadón Seco Formations were studied in ten oil fields. According to the modal composition of the sandstones, six petrofacies were defined allowing the identification of not only principal, but also secondary provenance areas. The QVM and VQM petrofacies are more than 20% metamorphic, sedimentary, and polycrystalline quartz clasts (Lm + Ls + Qpg > 20%), evidencing a secondary signal of basement supply masked by a predominant volcanic provenance. The petrofacies VP and VF are characterized by Lm + Ls + Qpg 20%.), which indicate a supply of sediment from volcanic terrains and scarce derivation of materials from basement rocks. Based on the plagioclase/k-feldspar ratio, the VF petrofacies is interpreted to be dominated by the supply of sand grains from the Andean volcanic-arc, while VP is supposed have originated through the erosion of intermediate volcanic rock outcroppings in the Macizo del Deseado. Finally, both the VQ and QV petrofacies show Lm + Ls + Qpg <20% and Pm + Om<20%, indicating a provenance of volcanic areas coupled with minor contributions from basement rocks. During the Late Cretaceous, the Golfo San Jorge Basin underwent a sag phase that was characterized by very scarce volcanism and tectonic activity. Although these conditions did not favor defined patterns in the vertical stacking of petrofacies, the sandstones exhibit remarkable changes in their regional distribution, which were determined by the paleogeography of the basin and differences in basement composition within the source areas. Finally, a paleogeographic model for sediment circulation in the basin is proposed. This model recognizes the main fluvial dispersal trends that flowed northwest to southeast and transported

  20. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  1. Localization of the maximum sedimentary power of Bermejo, San Juan Basin, Argentina; Ubicacion de la maxima potencia sedimentaria de la Cuenca del bermejo, San Juan, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, Mario E. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina). Inst. Sismologico Ing. F. Volponi]|[Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Introcaso, Antonio [Rosario Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Inst. de Fisica]|[Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, M. Patricia [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina). Inst. Sismologico Ing. F. Volponi

    1995-12-31

    We began from a relative Bouguer valver chart (source YPF, Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales), which we adjusted using three gravialtimetric profiles and were connected to national gravimetric network (Miguelete station, Bs. As). The working area was extended for better evaluation of regional Bouguer anomalies obtained by means of surface of tendency. We compared this work with Introcaso, 1990, where we obtained similar regional Bouguer that they found with strike of geological structure and we used mathematical filter in 3-D, the major area of work and more number of date. We found that the minimum gravimetric was displacement towards north of Bermejo basin, with valves of residual Bouguer anomalies -80 m Gals. (author). 5 refs., 6 figs

  2. Latest Miocene-earliest Pliocene evolution of the ancestral Rio Grande at the Española-San Luis Basin boundary, northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Koning,; Scott Aby,; Grauch, V. J.; Matthew J. Zimmerer,

    2016-01-01

    We use stratigraphic relations, paleoflow data, and 40Ar/39Ar dating to interpret net aggradation, punctuated by at least two minor incisional events, along part of the upper ancestral Rio Grande fluvial system between 5.5 and 4.5 Ma (in northern New Mexico). The studied fluvial deposits, which we informally call the Sandlin unit of the Santa Fe Group, overlie a structural high between the San Luis and Española Basins. The Sandlin unit was deposited by two merging, west- to southwest-flowing, ancestral Rio Grande tributaries respectively sourced in the central Taos Mountains and southern Taos Mountains-northeastern Picuris Mountains. The river confluence progressively shifted southwestward (downstream) with time, and the integrated river (ancestral Rio Grande) flowed southwards into the Española Basin to merge with the ancestral Rio Chama. Just prior to the end of the Miocene, this fluvial system was incised in the southern part of the study area (resulting in an approximately 4–7 km wide paleovalley), and had sufficient competency to transport cobbles and boulders. Sometime between emplacement of two basalt flows dated at 5.54± 0.38 Ma and 4.82±0.20 Ma (groundmass 40Ar/39Ar ages), this fluvial system deposited 10–12 m of sandier sediment (lower Sandlin subunit) preserved in the northern part of this paleovalley. The fluvial system widened between 4.82±0.20 and 4.50±0.07 Ma, depositing coarse sand and fine gravel up to 14 km north of the present-day Rio Grande. This 10–25 m-thick sediment package (upper Sandlin unit) buried earlier south- to southeast-trending paleovalleys (500–800 m wide) inferred from aeromagnetic data. Two brief incisional events are recognized. The first was caused by the 4.82±0.20 Ma basalt flow impounding south-flowing paleodrainages, and the second occurred shortly after emplacement of a 4.69±0.09 Ma basalt flow in the northern study area. Drivers responsible for Sandlin unit aggradation may include climate

  3. Stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation, Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Erpenbeck, Michael F.

    1982-01-01

    This report illustrates and describes the detailed stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation exposed in isolated badlands and along washes within a 20-mile outcrop belt in the Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, southwestern San Juan Basin, Nex Mexico (see index). The stratigraphic framework showing the vertical and lateral distributions of rock types and the lateral continuity of coal beds is illustrated in cross sections. The cross sections were constructed from 112 stratigraphic sections measured at an average distance of 0.4 mi apart. Each section contained key marker beds (sandstone, coal, and tonstein) that were physically traced to adjacent sections. Each measured section was "hung" on multiple marker beds arranged in a geometric best-fit method that accounts for the differential compaction and facies associations of the deposits. 

  4. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-01-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for this first phase of the agreement was $386,385.00 as detailed in Phase I Authorization For Expenditure (AFE). This report describes the tasks performed, the results, and conclusions for the first phase (Phase I) of the cooperative agreement.

  5. Identifying active interplate and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean plate from seismic reflection data and the significance of the Pedro Bank fault zone in the tectonic history of the Nicaraguan Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean Sea is an approximately 500,000 km2 area of Precambrian to Late Cretaceous tectonic terranes that have been assembled during the Late Cretaceous formation of the Caribbean plate and include: 1) the Chortis block, a continental fragment; 2) the Great Arc of the Caribbean, a deformed Cretaceous arc, and 3) the Caribbean large igneous province formed in late Cretaceous time. Middle Eocene to Recent eastward motion of the Caribbean plate has been largely controlled by strike-slip faulting along the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone that bounds the northern margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. These faults reactivate older rift structures near the island of Jamaica and form the transtensional basins of the Honduran Borderlands near Honduras. Recent GPS studies suggest that small amount of intraplate motion within the current margin of error of GPS measurements (1-3 mm/yr) may occur within the center of the western Caribbean plate at the Pedro Bank fault zone and Hess Escarpment. This study uses a database of over 54,000 km of modern and vintage 2D seismic data, combined with earthquake data and results from previous GPS studies to define the active areas of inter- and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean. Intraplate deformation occurs along the 700-km-long Pedro Bank fault zone that traverses the center of the Nicaraguan Rise and reactivates the paleo suture zone between the Great Arc of the Caribbean and the Caribbean large igneous province. The Pedro Bank fault zone also drives active extension at the 200-km-long San Andres rift along the southwest margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. Influence of the Cocos Ridge indentor may be contributing to reactivation of faulting along the southwesternmost, active segment of the Hess Escarpment.

  6. 2010 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  7. Economic Value of Water in the Rio Bravo Basin (Mexico) : The Case of Bajo San Juan, Juarez and Saltillo

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the economic value of water in three locations in the Rio Bravo Basin. Formally known as the Bravo-Conchos, this basin overlaps across five Mexican states, beneath the Rio Bravo in northeastern Mexico. The paper also estimates the level of economic output in terms of value added for the main economic activities, using official statistics. The evaluation of water use pr...

  8. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  9. Basin-scale recharge in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J. F.; Duffy, C.; Eastoe, C.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Goodrich, D.; Hendrickx, J.; Hibbs, B.; Phillips, F.; Small, E.; Wilson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The major domestic water source in the arid southwestern United States is groundwater from alluvial basin aquifers. Accurate estimates of basin-scale groundwater recharge rates are a critical need for developing sustainable or "safe yield" groundwater pumping. Basin-scale recharge rates are typically estimated using inverse hydrologic modeling or geochemical tracers (e.g. chloride mass balance). These methods, while useful, have a high level of uncertainty and provide no information about the mechanisms of groundwater recharge. SAHRA - an NSF Science and Technology Center focused on the Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas - has developed an integrated research plan to address this problem. Our approach is two-fold. First we are investigating the "input" components that comprise basin-scale recharge: basin floor recharge, alluvial channel recharge, mountain front recharge, and mountain block recharge. Each component has unique spatial and temporal scales and thus requires distinct methods. Our research is aimed at understanding the factors (e.g. vegetation type, bedrock lithology, soil structure) that control recharge rates in each of these locations. With such an understanding one could then scale from point measurements to the basin-scale using remote sensing data. Our second approach is to employ isotopic tracers to determine water sources, groundwater ages and residence times of the groundwater and surface water "outputs"; these values can then be used to better calibrate recharge rates in groundwater models. By focusing our studies on two basins, the San Pedro River Basin in Arizona and the Rio Grande in New Mexico, we hope to develop a better understanding of the importance of different recharge pathways for basin-scale recharge and which methods are best suited for estimating basin-scale recharge.

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  11. 2007 Rocky Mountain Section Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip - Quaternary Geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, September 7-9, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Coates, Mary-Margaret; Johnson, Margo L.

    2007-01-01

    Prologue Welcome to the 2007 Rocky Mountain Cell Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip, which will concentrate on the Quaternary geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. To our best knowledge, Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) has never run a trip through the San Luis Basin, although former trips in the region reviewed the 'Northern Rio Grande rift' in 1987 and the 'Landscape History and Processes on the Pajarito Plateau' in 1996. After nearly a decade, the FOP has returned to the Rio Grande rift, but to an area that has rarely hosted a trip with a Quaternary focus. The objective of FOP trips is to review - in the field - new and exciting research on Quaternary geoscience, typically research being conducted by graduate students. In our case, the research is more topically oriented around three areas of the San Luis Basin, and it is being conducted by a wide range of Federal, State, academic, and consulting geologists. This year's trip is ambitious?we will spend our first day mainly on the Holocene record around Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, the second day on the Quaternary stratigraphy around the San Luis Hills, including evidence for Lake Alamosa and the 1.0 Ma Mesita volcano, and wrap up the trip's third day in the Costilla Plain and Sunshine Valley reviewing alluvial stratigraphy, the history of the Rio Grande, and evidence for young movement on the Sangre de Cristo fault zone. In the tradition of FOP trips, we will be camping along the field trip route for this meeting. On the night before our trip, we will be at the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve's Pinyon Flats Campground, a group facility located about 2 miles north of the Visitors Center. After the first day's trip, we will dine and camp in the Bachus pit, about 3 miles southwest of Alamosa. For the final night (after day 2), we will bed down at La Junta Campground at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Wild and Scenic Rivers State Recreation Area, west of Questa

  12. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  13. Pedro Mourlane Michelena y el pensamiento reaccionario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creus Visiers, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of some central aspects of the work of the Spanish writer Pedro Mourlane Michelena, considered in relation with his fascist ideology and in the context of the summit and decline of the European totalitarianism.Análisis de algunos aspectos centrales de la obra ensayística del escritor español Pedro Mourlane Michelena, considerados en relación con su ideología falangista y en el contexto del auge y declive de los totalitarismos europeos.

  14. Tectonic Setting and Characteristics of Natural Fractures in Mesaverde and Dakota Reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LORENZ, JOHN C.; COOPER, SCOTT P.

    2001-01-01

    A set of vertical extension fractures, striking N-S to NNE-SSW but with local variations, is present in both the outcrop and subsurface in both Mesaverde and Dakota sandstones. Additional sets of conjugate shear fractures have been recognized in outcrops of Dakota strata and may be present in the subsurface. However, the deformation bands prevalent locally in outcrops in parts of the basin as yet have no documented subsurface equivalent. The immature Mesaverde sandstones typically contain relatively long, irregular extension fractures, whereas the quartzitic Dakota sandstones contain short, sub-parallel, closely spaced, extension fractures, and locally conjugate shear planes as well. Outcrops typically display secondary cross fractures which are rare in the subsurface, although oblique fractures associated with local structures such as the Hogback monocline may be present in similar subsurface structures. Spacings of the bed-normal extension fractures are approximately equal to or less than the thicknesses of the beds in which they formed, in both outcrop and subsurface. Fracture intensities increase in association with faults, where there is a gradation from intense fracturing into fault breccia. Bioturbation and minimal cementation locally inhibited fracture development in both formations, and the vertical limits of fracture growth are typically at bedding/lithology contrasts. Fracture mineralizations have been largely dissolved or replaced in outcrops, but local examples of preserved mineralization show that the quartz and calcite common to subsurface fractures were originally present in outcrop fractures. North-south trending compressive stresses created by southward indentation of the San Juan dome area (where Precambrian rocks are exposed at an elevation of 14,000 ft) and northward indentation of the Zuni uplift, controlled Laramide-age fracturing. Contemporaneous right-lateral transpressive wrench motion due to northeastward translation of the basin was both

  15. The transtensional offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault: Fault zone geometry, late Pleistocene to Holocene sediment deposition, shallow deformation patterns, and asymmetric basin growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Goldfinger, Chris

    2017-01-01

    We mapped an ~120 km offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault (SAF) between Point Arena and Point Delgada using closely spaced seismic reflection profiles (1605 km), high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (~1600 km2), and marine magnetic data. This new data set documents SAF location and continuity, associated tectonic geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy, and deformation. Variable deformation patterns in the generally narrow (∼1 km wide) fault zone are largely associated with fault trend and with transtensional and transpressional fault bends.We divide this unique transtensional portion of the offshore SAF into six sections along and adjacent to the SAF based on fault trend, deformation styles, seismic stratigraphy, and seafloor bathymetry. In the southern region of the study area, the SAF includes a 10-km-long zone characterized by two active parallel fault strands. Slip transfer and long-term straightening of the fault trace in this zone are likely leading to transfer of a slice of the Pacific plate to the North American plate. The SAF in the northern region of the survey area passes through two sharp fault bends (∼9°, right stepping, and ∼8°, left stepping), resulting in both an asymmetric lazy Z–shape sedimentary basin (Noyo basin) and an uplifted rocky shoal (Tolo Bank). Seismic stratigraphic sequences and unconformities within the Noyo basin correlate with the previous 4 major Quaternary sea-level lowstands and record basin tilting of ∼0.6°/100 k.y. Migration of the basin depocenter indicates a lateral slip rate on the SAF of 10–19 mm/yr for the past 350 k.y.Data collected west of the SAF on the south flank of Cape Mendocino are inconsistent with the presence of an offshore fault strand that connects the SAF with the Mendocino Triple Junction. Instead, we suggest that the SAF previously mapped onshore at Point Delgada continues onshore northward and transitions to the King Range thrust.

  16. [Medical education in the Chilean colonial period during 18th century: Professor Domingo Nevin and his disciple Pedro Manuel Chaparro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique; Duarte, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines the beginning of the medical studies at the Universidad de San Felipe de Santiago de Chile on the second half of the 18th century. Dr Domingo Nevin was the first professor of Prima Medicina and Proto-medico. Dr. Pedro Manuel Chaparro was the first Chilean student who complete his studies and got his degree at the same university. Both of them had remarkable achievements during the colonial Chilean Medicine.

  17. Preliminary results of cooperative research efforts with Phillips Petroleum Company and Amax Oil and Gas Inc. , San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, T.L. (Resource Enterprises Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Gas production rates from Fruitland open-hole coalbed wells often are greater than those from offset hydraulic fracture-stimulated wells in similar geologic environments by a factor of three or more. GRI and Resource Enterprises Inc, entered into cooperative research agreements with Phillips Petroleum Company and Amax Oil and Gas Inc. to evaluate the effectiveness of recompletion techniques, compare hydraulically fractured and cavity-completed wells, and measure at various locations in the basin the critical reservoir characteristics that influence completion technique selection. The Phillips' wells that were studied are located in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, southeast of the productive Northeast Blanco Unit. Amax's cooperative research project is situated outside the fairway along the Northwestern basin boundary in La Plata County, Colorado, where Fruitland coals are relatively shallow. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Structure and mechanics of the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault junction, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Bruns, Terry R.; Sliter, Ray

    2005-01-01

    The right-lateral San Gregorio and San Andreas faults meet west of the Golden Gate near San Francisco. Coincident seismic reflection and refraction profiling across the San Gregorio and San Andreas faults south of their junction shows the crust between them to have formed shallow extensional basins that are dissected by parallel strike-slip faults. We employ a regional finite element model to investigate the long-term consequences of the fault geometry. Over the course of 2-3 m.y. of slip on the San Andreas-San Gregorio fault system, elongated extensional basins are predicted to form between the two faults. An additional consequence of the fault geometry is that the San Andreas fault is expected to have migrated eastward relative to the San Gregorio fault. We thus propose a model of eastward stepping right-lateral fault formation to explain the observed multiple fault strands and depositional basins. The current manifestation of this process might be the observed transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault east to the Golden Gate fault.

  19. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  20. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  1. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  2. Natural Tracers and Multi-Scale Assessment of Caprock Sealing Behavior: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Heath; Brian McPherson; Thomas Dewers

    2011-03-15

    The assessment of caprocks for geologic CO{sub 2} storage is a multi-scale endeavor. Investigation of a regional caprock - the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA - at the pore-network scale indicates high capillary sealing capacity and low permeabilities. Core and wellscale data, however, indicate a potential seal bypass system as evidenced by multiple mineralized fractures and methane gas saturations within the caprock. Our interpretation of {sup 4}He concentrations, measured at the top and bottom of the caprock, suggests low fluid fluxes through the caprock: (1) Of the total {sup 4}He produced in situ (i.e., at the locations of sampling) by uranium and thorium decay since deposition of the Kirtland Formation, a large portion still resides in the pore fluids. (2) Simple advection-only and advection-diffusion models, using the measured {sup 4}He concentrations, indicate low permeability ({approx}10-20 m{sup 2} or lower) for the thickness of the Kirtland Formation. These findings, however, do not guarantee the lack of a large-scale bypass system. The measured data, located near the boundary conditions of the models (i.e., the overlying and underlying aquifers), limit our testing of conceptual models and the sensitivity of model parameterization. Thus, we suggest approaches for future studies to better assess the presence or lack of a seal bypass system at this particular site and for other sites in general.

  3. Using Cable Suspended Submersible Pumps to Reduce Production Costs to Increase Ultimate Recovery in the Red Mountain Field of the San Juan Basin Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don L. Hanosh

    2006-08-15

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells, installing cable suspended submersible pumps ( Phase I ) and operating the oil field for approximately one year ( Phase II ). Upon the completion of Phases I and II ( Budget Period I ), Enerdyne LLC commenced work on Phase III which required additional drilling in an attempt to improve field economics ( Budget Period II ). The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for the two Budget Periods, of the Agreement, was $1,205,008.00 as detailed in Phase I, II & III Authorization for Expenditures (AFE). This report describes tasks performed and results experienced by Enerdyne LLC during the three phases of the cooperative agreement.

  4. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD OF THE SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-11-01

    This report discusses: (1) being able to resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP); (2) determining if this system can reduce life costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improve the economics. In April 2003, a cooperative 50% cost share agreement between Enerdyne and the DOE was executed to investigate the feasibility of using cable suspended electric submersible pumps to reduce the life costs and increase the ultimate oil recovery of the Red Mountain Oil Field, located on the Chaco Slope of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The field was discovered in 1934 and has produced approximately 55,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}), (350,000 barrels, 42 gallons) of oil. Prior to April 2003, the field was producing only a few cubic meters of oil each month; however, the reservoir characteristics suggest that the field retains ample oil to be economic. This field is unique, in that, the oil accumulations, above fresh water, occur at depths from 88-305 meters, (290 feet to 1000 feet), and serves as a relatively good test area for this experiment.

  5. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pat Fort; Don L. Hanosh

    2003-11-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. Resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain oil fields located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP), determine if this system can reduce lift costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improved the economics. Three Phases of work have been defined in the DOE Form 4600.1 Notice of Financial Assistance Award for this project, in which the project objectives are to be attained through a joint venture between Enerdyne LLC (Enerdyne), owner and operator of the fields and Pumping Solutions Inc. (PSI), developer of the submersible pumping system. Upon analysis of the results of each Phase, the DOE will determine if the results justify the continuation of the project and approve the next Phase to proceed or terminate the project and request that the wells be plugged. This topical report shall provide the DOE with Phase I results and conclusions reached by Enerdyne and PSI.

  6. Petroleum electronic data reporting option (PEDRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, C.C.; Lippert, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the major collector of reliable and comprehensive data on energy supply and demand in this country. During its 16-year history, EIA has tried steadily to reduce the data-collection burden placed on business, industry, and the general public. Four years ago, EIA embarked on the creation of flexible, user-friendly, portable, state-of-the-art tool that would allow those petroleum companies that submit data to EIA to save time and money in the preparation and submission of their forms. This effort was undertaken in cooperation with the petroleum industry and resulted in the development of the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Today, more than 20 forms are available for electronic filing. Further, the technology embodied in PEDRO has been adopted by other government agencies in various forms for their individual data collection systems.

  7. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  8. Thermogenic and secondary biogenic gases, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico - Implications for coalbed gas producibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Ayers, W.B. Jr. (Taurus Exploration, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States))

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the types and the major components of coalbed gases, (2) evaluate the variability of Fruitland coalbed gas composition across the basin, (3) assess factors affecting coalbed gas origin and composition, (4) determine the timing and extent of gas migration and entrapment, and (5) suggest application of these results to coalbed gas producibility. Data from more than 750 Fruitland coalbed gas wells were used to make gas-composition maps and to evaluate factors controlling gas origin. The gas data were divided into overpressured, underpressured, and transitional categories based on regional pressure regime. Also, [delta][sup 13]C isotopic values from 41 methane, 7 ethane and propane, 13 carbon dioxide, and 10 formation-water bicarbonate samples were evaluated to interpret gas origin. The data suggests that only 25-50% of the gas produced in the high-productivity fairway was generated in situ during coalification. 82 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  10. Pedro Zamora and Pedro and Me in Requiem: Scoring the Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. David Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When originally published at the turn of the century, 'Pedro and Me: Friendship, Loss, and What I Learned' (2000 was riding both the popularity of its reality television roots ''and the growing awareness of homosexuality in the popular consciousness. At that time, too, Macmillan publisher Henry Holt had its own website set up to support Winick’s work; it featured interviews, tour dates, and, most importantly, omitted scenes originally drafted but not completed by the author. The opportunity to finally include this apocrypha was missed in the newer 2009 addition, as the publisher opted for a one-page afterword.  This paper discusses how this constitutes a missed opportunity to reconnect with Pedro. In as much as the original graphic novel—or 'any' graphic novel—is a construction, the tenth anniversary edition of 'Pedro and Me' disallowed the excluded raw material from being included in audience’s score-overdue deconstruction of the work.

  11. Pedro Zamora and Pedro and Me in Requiem: Scoring the Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. David Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When originally published at the turn of the century, Pedro and Me: Friendship, Loss, and What I Learned (2000 was riding both the popularity of its reality television roots and the growing awareness of homosexuality in the popular consciousness. At that time, too, Macmillan publisher Henry Holt had its own website set up to support Winick’s work; it featured interviews, tour dates, and, most importantly, omitted scenes originally drafted but not completed by the author. The opportunity to finally include this apocrypha was missed in the newer 2009 addition, as the publisher opted for a one-page afterword.  This paper discusses how this constitutes a missed opportunity to reconnect with Pedro. In as much as the original graphic novel—or any graphic novel—is a construction, the tenth anniversary edition of Pedro and Me disallowed the excluded raw material from being included in audience’s score-overdue deconstruction of the work.

  12. Geology of Paleozoic Rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, Excluding the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The geology of the Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program to provide support for hydrogeological interpretations. The study area is segmented by numerous uplifts and basins caused by folding and faulting that have recurred repeatedly from Precambrian to Cenozoic time. Paleozoic rocks in the study area are 0-18,000 feet thick. They are underlain by Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and are overlain in most of the area by Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The overlying Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are 0-27,000 feet thick. All Paleozoic systems except the Silurian are represented in the region. The Paleozoic rocks are divisible into 11 hydrogeologic units. The basal hydrogeologic unit consisting of Paleozoic rocks, the Flathead aquifer, predominantly is composed of Lower to Upper Cambrian sandstone and quartzite. The aquifer is 0-800 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Gros Ventre confining unit consists of Middle to Upper Cambrian shale with subordinate carbonate rocks and sandstone. The confining unit is 0-1,100 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Bighom aquifer consists of Middle Cambrian to Upper Ordovician limestone and dolomite with subordinate shale and sandstone. The aquifer is 0-3,000 feet thick and is overlain unconformably by Devonian and Mississipplan rocks. The Elbert-Parting confining unit consists of Lower Devonian to Lower Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartzite, shale, and anhydrite. It is 0-700 feet thick and is overlain conformably to unconformably by Upper Devonian and Mississippian rocks. The Madison aquifer consists of two zones of distinctly different lithology. The lower (Redwall-Leadville) zone

  13. Pedro Salinas y el teatro desde dentro (Pedro Salinas and Theatre from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benítez Vega, Yolanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Pedro Salinas y el teatro, desde dentro es el título de este artículo cuya finalidad consiste en realizar un recorrido por la vocación teatral de Pedro Salinas desde sus primeros años hasta el final de sus días: su asistencia a representaciones teatrales, sus contactos con el teatro y sus proyectos como autor dramático tanto los que se realizaron como los que no llegaron a materializarse. El propósito es adentrarnos en el alma teatral del poeta: cómo, cuándo, por qué surge su vocación por el arte escénico, insistiendo en la necesidad de rescatar la faceta de dramaturgo de Pedro Salinas como una constante más en la labor del poeta, profesor y crítico. Abstract: "Pedro Salinas and the theatre, from inside " it is the title of this article which purpose consists of realizing a tour for Pedro Salinas's theatrical vocation from his first years until the end of his days: his assistance to theatrical representations, his contacts with the theatre and his projects like dramatic author so much those who were realized as those who did not manage to materialize. The intention is to enter the theatrical soul of the poet: how, when, why his vocation arises for the scenic art, insisting on the need to rescue the playwright's facet of Pedro Salinas as one more constant in the labor of the poet, teacher and critic.

  14. Pedro Salinas y el teatro desde dentro (Pedro Salinas and Theatre from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Benítez Vega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Pedro Salinas y el teatro, desde dentro” es el título de este artículo cuya finalidad consiste en realizar un recorrido por la vocación teatral de Pedro Salinas desde sus primeros años hasta el final de sus días: su asistencia a representaciones teatrales, sus contactos con el teatro y sus proyectos como autor dramático tanto los que se realizaron como los que no llegaron a materializarse. El propósito es adentrarnos en el alma teatral del poeta: cómo, cuándo, por qué surge su vocación por el arte escénico, insistiendo en la necesidad de rescatar la faceta de dramaturgo de Pedro Salinas como una constante más en la labor del poeta, profesor y crítico.Abstract: "Pedro Salinas and the theatre, from inside " it is the title of this article which purpose consists of realizing a tour for Pedro Salinas's theatrical vocation from his first years until the end of his days: his assistance to theatrical representations, his contacts with the theatre and his projects like dramatic author so much those who were realized as those who did not manage to materialize. The intention is to enter the theatrical soul of the poet: how, when, why his vocation arises for the scenic art, insisting on the need to rescue the playwright's facet of Pedro Salinas as one more constant in the labor of the poet, teacher and critic.

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  16. Mechanisms of aggradation in fluvial systems influenced by explosive volcanism: An example from the Upper Cretaceous Bajo Barreal Formation, San Jorge Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umazano, Aldo M.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Visconti, Graciela; Melchor, Ricardo N.

    2008-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous succession of the San Jorge Basin (Patagonia, Argentina) records different continental settings that interacted with explosive volcanism derived from a volcanic arc located in the western part of Patagonia. This paper discusses the contrasting aggradational mechanisms in fluvial systems strongly influenced by explosive volcanism which took place during sedimentation of the Bajo Barreal Formation. During deposition of the lower member of the unit, common ash-fall events and scarce sandy debris-flows occurred, indicating syn-eruptive conditions. However, the record of primary pyroclastic deposits is scarce because they were reworked by river flows. The sandy fluvial channels were braided and show evidence of important variations in water discharge. The overbank flows (sheet-floods) represent the main aggradational mechanism of the floodplain. In places, subordinate crevasse-splays and shallow lakes also contributed to the floodplain aggradation. In contrast, deposition of the upper member occurred in a fluvial-aeolian setting without input of primary volcaniclastic detritus, indicating inter-eruptive conditions. The fluvial channels were also braided and flowed across low-relief floodplains that mainly aggraded by deposition of silt-sized sediments of aeolian origin (loess) and, secondarily by sheet-floods. The Bajo Barreal Formation differs from the classic model of syn-eruptive and inter-eruptive depositional conditions in the presence of a braided fluvial pattern during inter-eruptive periods, at least at one locality. This braided fluvial pattern is attributed to the high input of fine-grained pyroclastic material that composes the loessic sediments.

  17. Pedro Ferreira, um escultor baiano desconhecido Pedro Ferreira, an unknown sculptor from Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Ochi Flexor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é o resultado do início de um estudo sobre o escultor Pedro Ferreira. Embora seja autor de obras importantes, passa quase desapercebido na historiografia da arte baiana. Trata-se de artista que pertence ao tempo em que o neoclassicismo se impunha à cultura Ocidental, porém, ainda restavam, na Bahia, as práticas do período barroco, em especial a cópia dos grandes mestres renascentistas. Pedro Ferreira foi um desses artistas e teve como principal inspirador Murillo, da escola espanhola.This work is the result of a beginning study about a sculptor Pedro Ferreira. Although he was author of important workmanships, he passes almost unknown in the bahian history of art. He was an artist who lives belongs a time when the neoclassicismo was imposed to the Occidental culture, but, still remained in Bahia, the practical ones of the baroque period, in special the copy of the great Renaissance masters. Pedro Ferreira was one of these artists and has inspired, as main artist, Murillo, of the Spanish school.

  18. El amante inaudito: duelo, melancolía y amor intransitivo en el personaje Pedro Páramo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rosas Martínez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo consiste en analizar las características del duelo, la melancolía y el amor en el personaje Pedro Páramo. La muerte de su esposa, Susana San Juan, le provoca un estado de duelo. Posteriormente, el humor melancólico lo conduce a un estado de tristeza y de profunda decadencia vital. No obstante, hay un aspecto que lo reivindica: el amor. En este sentido, es fundamental la influencia de Rainer Maria Rilke a propósito del amor intransitivo (jamás correspondido. La melancolía convierte en poeta a Pedro Páramo. La bilis negra del humor melancólico le sirve como tinta oscura para dar cuenta de su amor sin respuesta, y se convierte así en un amante inaudito.

  19. PEDRO (Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option) user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    PEDRO is an electronic data communications product that simplifies filing and transmission of petroleum survey data. Your burden is significantly reduced as PEDRO eliminates paperwork, provides immediate onsite correction of data errors, and reduces the need for followup calls and survey resubmission. PEDRO provides an online error-checking process that highlights discrepancies. This permits you to enter and check data before transmitting to EIA. EIA then combines and reformats the data from different users for use by analytical and reporting programs. PEDRO is available at no cost to the user. Formal training is not required since installation, data processing, and transmission are done by interactive, user-friendly menu options. The PEDRO system is divided into three functions: (1) data processing, (2) transmitting data to EIA, and (3) EIA processing. 28 figs.

  20. Pedro Teixeira y su viaje por Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuente del Pilar, José Javier

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Teixeira es un integrante notable de la ilustre nómina de los viajeros portugueses que, a finales del s, XVI y principios del XVII, ensancharon para Occidente las fronteras del mundo. Su conocimiento en España se debe a la publicación en 1994 de su obra «Relaciones del Origen, Descendencia y Sucesión de los Reyes de Persia, y de Harmuz, y de un viaje hecho por el autor dende la India hasta Italia por tierra», en edición realizada por el profesor Eduardo Barajas Sala, lamentablemente fallecido en 1997. En este artículo se ofrece una reseña biográfica de Pedro Teixeira, y un análisis del viaje narrado por el autor en la última parte de sus «Relaciones »: el que desde Ormuz le conducirá, a través de Mesopotamia, hasta la costa del Mediterráneo.…

  1. o100sc.m77t and o100sc.h77t: MGD77T data and header file for single-beam bathymetry for field activity O-1-00-SC in San Pedro Bay, Santa Monica, California from 04/09/2000 to 04/14/2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with GPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise O-1-00-SC. The cruise was conducted in San...

  2. o100sc.m77t and o100sc.h77t: MGD77T data and header file for single-beam bathymetry for field activity O-1-00-SC in San Pedro Bay, Santa Monica, California from 04/09/2000 to 04/14/2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with GPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise O-1-00-SC. The cruise was conducted in San...

  3. Cooperative research project Amax Oil and Gas Inc., Southern UTE No. 5-7 well, San Juan Basin, Southwestern Colorado. Western cretaceous coal seam project. Topical report, September 1992-January 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, T.L.; Robinson, J.R.; Pratt, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    A cooperative research effort was performed on one Fruitland coal gas well with AMAX Oil and Gas Inc. The well is located along the western margin of the San Juan basin where both hydraulic fracture and openhole cavity completion techniques have been used. The objective of the research effort was to: (1) determine the reservoir characteristics (gas content, sorption isotherm, absolute permeability, and reservoir pressure) of a shallow Fruitland coal interval, (2) evaluate the effectiveness of the openhole cavity completion technique in the reservoir, and (3) compare the results of this openhole cavity completed well to offset hydraulic fracture completed wells.

  4. Pragmatic consideration of geologic carbon storage design based upon historic pressure response to oil and gas production in the southern San Joaquin basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Annual CO2 emissions from large fixed sources in the southern San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in California are about 20 million metric tons per year (MMT/Y). Cumulative net fluid production due to oil and gas extracted from below the minimum depth for geologic carbon storage (taken as 1,500 m) was 1.4 billion m3 at reservoir conditions as of 2010. At an average CO2 storage density of 0.5 metric tons per m3, this implies 35 years of storage capacity at current emission rates just to refill the vacated volume, neglecting possible reservoir consolidation. However, the production occurred from over 300 pools. The production rate relative to average pressure decline in the more productive pools analyzed suggests they could receive about 2 MMT/Y raising the field average pressure to nearly the fracturing pressure. This would require well fields as extensive as those used for production, instead of the single to few wells per project typically envisioned. Even then, the actual allowable injection rate to the larger pools would be less than 2 MMT/Y in order to keep pressures at the injection well below the fracture pressure. This implies storing 20 MMT/Y would require developing storage operations in tens of pools with hundreds, if not over a thousand, wells. This utilization of one of the basins with the most storage capacity in the state would result in reducing the state's fixed source emissions by only one eighth relative to current emissions. The number of fields and wells involved in achieving this suggests a different strategy might provide more capacity at similar cost. Specifically, staging wells that initially produce water in the vicinity of fewer injection wells could result in both more storage. This water could be directed to a shallower zone, or supplied to the surface at a similar cost. The commencement of ocean water desalination in the state indicates the economics of water supply might support treating this water for beneficial use, particularly if it

  5. Multi-Scale Transport Properties of Fine-Grained Rocks: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; McPherson, B. J.; Wilson, T. H.; Flach, T.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding and characterizing transport properties of fine-grained rocks is critical in development of shale gas plays or assessing retention of CO2 at geologic storage sites. Difficulties arise in that both small scale (i.e., ~ nm) properties of the rock matrix and much larger scale fractures, faults, and sedimentological architecture govern migration of multiphase fluids. We present a multi-scale investigation of sealing and transport properties of the Kirtland Formation, which is a regional aquitard and reservoir seal in the San Juan Basin, USA. Sub-micron dual FIB/SEM imaging and reconstruction of 3D pore networks in core samples reveal a variety of pore types, including slit-shaped pores that are co-located with sedimentary structures and variations in mineralogy. Micron-scale chemical analysis and XRD reveal a mixture of mixed-layer smectite/illite, chlorite, quartz, and feldspar with little organic matter. Analysis of sub-micron digital reconstructions, mercury capillary injection pressure, and gas breakthrough measurements indicate a high quality sealing matrix. Natural full and partially mineralized fractures observed in core and in FMI logs include those formed from early soil-forming processes, differential compaction, and tectonic events. The potential impact of both fracture and matrix properties on large-scale transport is investigated through an analysis of natural helium from core samples, 3D seismic data and poro-elastic modeling. While seismic interpretations suggest considerable fracturing of the Kirtland, large continuous fracture zones and faults extending through the seal to the surface cannot be inferred from the data. Observed Kirtland Formation multi-scale transport properties are included as part of a risk assessment methodology for CO2 storage. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory for sponsoring this project. The DOE’s Basic Energy Science

  6. Pedro Salinas: la letra y la persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a Pedro Salinas's homage in the fifty anniversary of his death. Here, we analise his attitude in front of life and his securities through his poems, personal letters and essais. The poet criticizes the materialistic american stil of life, where he should live during his exile until his death (1936-1951. Against the hurry, the profitable things, the technology, the money..., Salinas believes in his language, slowness, friendship, contemplation of countryside, art, spiritualism, optimism, etc. Son of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza's ideas, his personal ethics looked for the biggest perfection trought the will.Este artículo es un homenaje a Pedro Salinas al cumplirse el cincuentenario de su muerte. En él, se analiza su actitud ante la vida y sus valores a través de sus poesías, cartas personales y ensayos. El poeta critica el materialismo del modelo americano en el que se vio obligado a vivir desde que se exilió hasta su muerte (1936-1951. Frente a la prisa, lo rentable, la tecnología, el dinero...; Salinas cree en su idioma, la lentitud, la amistad, la contemplación del paisaje, el arte, lo espiritual, el optimismo, etc. Hijo de las ideas de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, su ética personal buscó la mayor perfección a través de la voluntad.

  7. [On an unknown edition of the Reprobación de supersticiones by the master Pedro Ciruelo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Ripoll, Verónica

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the article is the analysis and description of one of the editions of the well-known Reprobación de supersticiones by the master Pedro Ciruelo. To be exact, it is the first edition, as we will demonstrate through the text, which was undiscovered until now. We proceed to the description of a copy kept at the library of the Diocesan Seminary of San Miguel de Orihuela. In addition to the more formal aspects, the evolution and development of the author, printer and engraver are extremely important for dating this printed work.

  8. Pedro Meyer vastutab oma piltide eest / Laura Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Laura, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Mehhiko fotograafi Pedro Meyeri tutvustus. P. Meyeri ettekande tekst "Kui dokumentaalne teile meeldis, siis digitaalset hakkate armastama", esitatud Soomes Jyväskyläs 2006. a. oktoobris toimunud fotograafiakonverentsil

  9. Pedro Meyer vastutab oma piltide eest / Laura Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Laura, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Mehhiko fotograafi Pedro Meyeri tutvustus. P. Meyeri ettekande tekst "Kui dokumentaalne teile meeldis, siis digitaalset hakkate armastama", esitatud Soomes Jyväskyläs 2006. a. oktoobris toimunud fotograafiakonverentsil

  10. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  11. Effects of smectite on the oil-expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale, San Joaquin Basin, California, based on hydrous-pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of oil that maturing source rocks expel is expressed as their expulsion efficiency, which is usually stated in milligrams of expelled oil per gram of original total organic carbon (TOCO). Oil-expulsion efficiency can be determined by heating thermally immature source rocks in the presence of liquid water (i.e., hydrous pyrolysis) at temperatures between 350°C and 365°C for 72 hr. This pyrolysis method generates oil that is compositionally similar to natural crude oil and expels it by processes operative in the subsurface. Consequently, hydrous pyrolysis provides a means to determine oil-expulsion efficiencies and the rock properties that influence them. Smectite in source rocks has previously been considered to promote oil generation and expulsion and is the focus of this hydrous-pyrolysis study involving a representative sample of smectite-rich source rock from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Smectite is the major clay mineral (31 wt. %) in this thermally immature sample, which contains 9.4 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) comprised of type II kerogen. Compared to other immature source rocks that lack smectite as their major clay mineral, the expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale was significantly lower. The expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen whole rock was reduced 88% compared to that of its isolated kerogen. This significant reduction is attributed to bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayers in addition to the rock matrix. Within the interlayers, much of the bitumen is converted to pyrobitumen through crosslinking instead of oil through thermal cracking. As a result, smectite does not promote oil generation but inhibits it. Bitumen impregnation of the rock matrix and smectite interlayers results in the rock pore system changing from water wet to bitumen wet. This change prevents potassium ion (K+) transfer and dissolution and precipitation reactions needed for the conversion of smectite to

  12. A Handbook for the Application of Seismic Methods for Quantifying Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest; Queen, John; Daley, Tom; Fortuna, Mark; Cox, Dale; D' Onfro, Peter; Goetz, Rusty; Coates, Richard; Nihei, Kurt; Nakagawa, Seiji; Myer, Larry; Murphy, Jim; Emmons, Charles; Lynn, Heloise; Lorenz, John; LaClair, David; Imhoff, Mathias; Harris, Jerry; Wu, Chunling; Urban, Jame; Maultzsch, Sonja; Liu, Enru; Chapman, Mark; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2004-09-28

    A four year (2000-2004) comprehensive joint industry, University and National Lab project was carried out in a 20 square mile area in a producing gas field in the Northwest part of the San Juan Basin in New Mexico to develop and apply multi-scale seismic methods for detecting and quantifying fractures in a naturally fractured gas reservoirs. 3-D surface seismic, multi-offset 9-C VSP, 3-C single well seismic, and well logging data were complemented by geologic/core studies to model, process and interpret the data. The overall objective was to determine the seismic methods most useful in mapping productive gas zones. Data from nearby outcrops, cores, and well bore image logs suggest that natural fractures are probably numerous in the subsurface reservoirs at the site selected and trend north-northeast/south-southwest despite the apparent dearth of fracturing observed in the wells logged at the site (Newberry and Moore wells). Estimated fracture spacing is on the order of one to five meters in Mesaverde sandstones, less in Dakota sandstones. Fractures are also more frequent along fault zones, which in nearby areas trend between north-northeast/south-southwest and northeast-southwest and are probably spaced a mile or two apart. The maximum, in situ, horizontal, compressive stress in the vicinity of the seismic test site trends approximately north-northeast/south-southwest. The data are few but they are consistent. The seismic data present a much more complicated picture of the subsurface structure. Faulting inferred from surface seismic had a general trend of SW - NE but with varying dip, strike and spacing. Studies of P-wave anisotropy from surface seismic showed some evidence that the data did have indications of anisotropy in time and amplitude, however, compared to the production patterns there is little correlation with P-wave anisotropy. One conclusion is that the surface seismic reflection data are not detecting the complexity of fracturing controlling the

  13. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  14. Slip rate on the San Diego trough fault zone, inner California Borderland, and the 1986 Oceanside earthquake swarm revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Holly F.; Conrad, James E.; Paull, C.K.; McGann, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The San Diego trough fault zone (SDTFZ) is part of a 90-km-wide zone of faults within the inner California Borderland that accommodates motion between the Pacific and North American plates. Along with most faults offshore southern California, the slip rate and paleoseismic history of the SDTFZ are unknown. We present new seismic reflection data that show that the fault zone steps across a 5-km-wide stepover to continue for an additional 60 km north of its previously mapped extent. The 1986 Oceanside earthquake swarm is located within the 20-km-long restraining stepover. Farther north, at the latitude of Santa Catalina Island, the SDTFZ bends 20° to the west and may be linked via a complex zone of folds with the San Pedro basin fault zone (SPBFZ). In a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), we measure and date the coseismic offset of a submarine channel that intersects the fault zone near the SDTFZ–SPBFZ junction. We estimate a horizontal slip rate of about 1:5 0:3 mm=yr over the past 12,270 yr.

  15. Don Pedro Laín Entralgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Serpa Florez

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Al amanecer del martes 5 de junio murió don Pedro Laín Entralgo eminente médico, escritor, historiador de la medicina y académico, uno de las más grandes pensadores y humanistas españoles del siglo veinte (1908-2001. En España el trato de “don” es el de más alta categoría que puede darse: don Gregorio Marañón, don José Ortega y Gasset, don Miguel de Unamuno, don Carlos Jiménez Díaz, don Antonio Machado.

    Don Pedro Laín Entralgo fue uno de los más grandes historiadores de la medicina en todo el mundo:

    Miembro de la Real Academia de Medicina Española (desde 1948, Miembro de la Real Academia Española de la Lengua (desde 1954, Miembro de la Real Academia Española de Historia (desde 1962; por muchos años fue Presidente de la Real Academia de la Lengua y miembro numerario de la Academia de Medicina.

    Catedrático de Historia de la Medicina de la Universidad Central y Rector de ella hasta 1956, don Pedro Laín Entralgo dirigió y editó el más completo e importante tratado de Historia de la Medicina.

    En los siete volúmenes de La Historia Universal de la Medicina, publicados entre los años 1972 y 1975, colaboraron más de un centenar de autores de veinte países. Otros libros de los muchos que escribió:

    “España como problema” (1949, su manual de “Historia de la Medicina” (1978, “Historia de la Medicina Moderna y Contemporánea” (1963, “La relación médico-enfermo, historia y teoría” (1961, El que hacer del médico a lo largo de la historia de la cultura (el ars medica de los romanos, la thekné de los griegos y la técnica deshumanizada del siglo XX, la relación humana entre el médico y su paciente, las relaciones entre la praxis (el conocimiento y las destrezas y la ética y los valores, fueron objeto de sus meditaciones filosóficas.

    En el Epílogo de su libro La Medicina actual (1973 don Pedro Laín Entralgo escribió:

    “La fabulosa medicina actual es, en

  16. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities Food Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  17. Pedro Lemebel: género y sociedad Pedro Lemebel: Gender and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Morales T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo, primero, examina la crónica urbana de Pedro Lemebel a la luz de sus condiciones históricas de producción y de lectura (la memoria de la dictadura y el presente de la mercancía globalizada. Luego, ofrece un análisis de algunas formas de su discurso (que afectan tanto al género sexual como a los recursos retóricos y del modo en que este discurso, como discurso crítico, piensa críticamente la vida cotidiana chilena.The following article, first, examines the urban chronicle of Pedro Lemebel in light of its historical conditions of production and reading (The memory of dictatorship and the present of globalized merchandize. Then, it offers an analysis of discourse forms (that affect both sex gender and rhetoric resources and the way in which this discourse, as a critical discourse, thinks critically of Chilean everyday life.

  18. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, examined the geologic framework, regional aquifer properties, and spring, creek, and seep properties of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, which contains areas proposed for exploratory drilling and possible uranium mining on U.S. Forest Service land. The geologic structure of the region was formed from uplift of the Zuni Mountains during the Laramide Orogeny and the Neogene volcanism associated with the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field. Within this structural context, numerous aquifers are present in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations and the Quaternary alluvium. The distribution of the aquifers is spatially variable because of the dip of the formations and erosion that produced the current landscape configuration where older formations have been exhumed closer to the Zuni Mountains. Many of the alluvial deposits and formations that contain groundwater likely are hydraulically connected because of the solid-matrix properties, such as substantive porosity, but shale layers such as those found in the Mancos Formation and Chinle Group likely restrict vertical flow. Existing water-level data indicate topologically downgradient flow in the Quaternary alluvium and indiscernible general flow patterns in the lower aquifers. According to previously published material and the geologic structure of the aquifers, the flow direction in the lower aquifers likely is in the opposite direction compared to the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater within the Chinle Group is known to be confined, which may allow upward migration of water into the Morrison Formation; however, confining layers within the Chinle Group likely retard upward leakage. Groundwater was sodium-bicarbonate/sulfate dominant or mixed cation-mixed anion with some calcium/bicarbonate water in the study area. The presence of the reduction/oxidation-sensitive elements iron and manganese in groundwater indicates reducing

  19. Geologic controls on transgressive-regressive cycles in the upper Pictured Cliffs sandstone and coal geometry in the lower Fruitland Formation, Northern San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, W.A.; Ayers, W.B. [University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Three upper Pictured Cliffs Sandstone tongues in the northern part of the San Juan Basin record high-frequency transgressive episodes during the Late Cretaceous and are inferred to have been caused by eustatic sea level rise coincident with differential subsidence. Outcrop and subsurface studies show that each tongue is an amalgamated barrier strand-plain unit up to 100 ft (30 m) thick. Upper Pictured Cliffs barrier strand-plain sandstones underlie and bound thickest Fruitland coal seams on the seaward side. Controls on Fruitland coal-seam thickness and continuity are a function of local facies distribution in a coastal-plain setting, shoreline positions related to transgressive-regressive cycles, and basin subsidence. During periods of relative sea level rise, the Pictured Cliffs shoreline was temporarily stabilized, allowing thick, coastal-plain peats to accumulate. Although some coal seams in the lower Fruitland tongue override abandoned Pictured Cliffs shoreline deposits, many pinch out against them. Differences in the degree of continuity of these coal seams relative to coeval shoreline sandstones are attributed to either differential subsidence in the northern part of the basin, multiple episodes of sea level rise, local variations in accommodation and progradation, stabilization of the shoreline by aggrading peat deposits, or a combination of these factors. Fruitland coalbed methane resources and productivity are partly controlled by coal-seam thickness; other important factors include thermal maturity, fracturing, and overpressuring. The dominant production trend occurs in the northern part of the basin and is oriented northwestward, coinciding with the greatest Fruitland net coal thickness.

  20. Sediment-quality and water-toxicity data from 10 sites on the Westside Creeks and San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment samples and samples for water-toxicity testing were collected during 2014 from several streams in San Antonio, Texas known locally as the Westside creeks (Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks) and from the San Antonio River. Samples were collected once during base-flow and again after periods of storm-water runoff (post-storm conditions) to determine baseline sediment- and water-quality conditions. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  1. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was -254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, -218‰ in the San Joaquin River, -175‰ in the California State Water Project and -152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California's Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, -204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between -275 and -687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California's Central Valley.

  2. New constraints on the subsurface geology of the Mexico City Basin: The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, on the basis of 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and whole-rock chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J. A.; Rangel, E.; Escolero, O.

    2013-10-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, drilled in 2012 by "Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México" (Water Supply System of Mexico City) in the Mexico Basin to a depth of 2008 m, offers an excellent opportunity to explore the subsurface stratigraphy and general geology of the region. Unfortunately, only chipped samples from this well were recovered, which were examined and analyzed for whole-rock chemistry, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb zircon geochronology, in order to reconstruct the lithology of the well. Contrary to previous deep wells of the Mexico Basin, no basement sedimentary rocks were found in this one. While the upper 70 m are composed of lacustrine sediments associated with Lake Texcoco, volcanic rocks make up the majority of the well and range in age from more than 18 Ma to 0.25 Ma. Andesitic lavas are the most abundant products of the stratigraphic column, followed by acidic products represented by dacitic and rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrite deposits. Less abundant are basaltic andesite lavas appearing in the upper and lower parts of the column. The thickest sequence of the well is represented not only by Miocene volcanic rocks ranging from 5 to 17 Ma, suggesting a period of intense volcanic activity in this area producing mainly andesitic lavas, but also by thick rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits dated at 5 Ma. These deposits suggest the presence of a caldera structure, probably buried by subsequent volcanic products and lacustrine sediments. Trace element concentrations suggest that volcanism is likely produced in a subduction environment with typical negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, and P and positive anomalies in Pb and Cs. We correlated the well units with units outcropping in mountain ranges in the surrounding area, with the recognition of the following units or formations: Eocene Andesite, San Nicolás Basaltic Andesite, Tepoztlán Formation, Miocene Volcanism, Sierra de las Cruces, and Chichinautzin Volcanic Field products. By correlating the two closest deep

  3. A interação existencial entre seres humanos e animais no romance Pedro Páramo, de Juan Rulfo = The existential interaction between human beings and animals in the novel Pedro Páramo by Juan Rulfo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evely Vânia Libanori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Pedro Páramo, de Juan Rulfo, o corvo, o cavalo e o gato são animais que mantêm estreita ligação existencial com o ser humano. A interação ser humano-animal é fundamental para o entendimento de temas filosóficos presentes no romance, como a identidade humana, o outro, a morte. O corvo é o batedor da chegada de Juan Preciado no mundo da morte. O cavalo de Miguel Páramo é o único ser que sofre, verdadeiramente, a morte do seu tutor. O gato é o animal que faz visitas noturnas a Susana San Juan, com quem estabelece um diálogo somente inteligível para os dois. A integração entre personagens humanas e animais em Pedro Páramo mostra a comunicação entre seres pertencentes a diferentes espécies animais. No romance, seres humanos, corvos, cavalos e gatos têm mais semelhanças entre si do que a cultura ocidental antropocêntrica conhece.In Pedro Páramo by Juan Rulfo, the raven, the horse and the cat are animals that maintain a close existential link to the human beings. In the book, this human being/animal interaction is fundamental to the understanding of philosophical themes such as the identity, the other, and the death. In the story, the raven is the escort of Juan Preciado arrival into the death world. Miguel Páramos’s horse is the only being that genuinely suffers because of the death of its guardian, that is, Miguel’s death. The cat is the animal that make night visits to Susana San Juan to whom it speaks in a way that is understood by the two of them only. The connection between human and animal characters in Pedro Páramo shows the communication among beings that belong to different animal species. In the novel, human beings, ravens, horses, and cats are much more alike than the western anthropocentric culture has it.

  4. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesFood Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  5. Mapping selected trace elements and major ions, 2000-2012, Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.; Landon, Matthew K.; House, Sally F.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    The population of the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins has grown rapidly during the last several decades, increasing from an estimated population of almost 273,000 in 1990 (Mojave Water Agency, 2004) to more than 453,000 in 2010 (Mojave Water Agency, 2014). Groundwater is the primary source of potable water in both basins (Mojave Water Agency, 2014). Previous studies noted elevated concentrations of several trace elements, nitrate, and total dissolved solids in groundwater in portions of the two basins (Christensen and Fields-Garland, 2001; Ball and Izbicki, 2004; Izbicki and others, 2008; Mathany and Belitz, 2009; Wright and Belitz, 2010; Dawson and Belitz, 2012; and Izbicki and others, 2012). Since 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected water-quality data annually from a network of wells and has provided quality-assurance for Mojave Water Agency (MWA) data that are stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The new data and results from the joint State of California and USGS Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program assessments of regional water quality (these data are also stored in NWIS), in combination with ongoing MWA/USGS groundwater-quality monitoring provide a timely opportunity for mapping of groundwater quality in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins. The purpose of this report is to provide maps and time-series plots of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents (arsenic, boron, chromium-6, total chromium, dissolved oxygen, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitriate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total dissolved solids, uranium, and vanadium) in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins using data collected by the USGS and MWA from 2000 to 2012. These maps and plots can be accessed on this website.

  6. San Marino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  7. Using SW4 for 3D Simulations of Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: Application to Near-Field Strong Motion, Building Response, Basin Edge Generated Waves and Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Petersson, N. A.; Sjogreen, B.; McCallen, D.; Miah, M.

    2016-12-01

    Simulation of earthquake ground motions is becoming more widely used due to improvements of numerical methods, development of ever more efficient computer programs (codes), and growth in and access to High-Performance Computing (HPC). We report on how SW4 can be used for accurate and efficient simulations of earthquake strong motions. SW4 is an anelastic finite difference code based on a fourth order summation-by-parts displacement formulation. It is parallelized and can run on one or many processors. SW4 has many desirable features for seismic strong motion simulation: incorporation of surface topography; automatic mesh generation; mesh refinement; attenuation and supergrid boundary conditions. It also has several ways to introduce 3D models and sources (including Standard Rupture Format for extended sources). We are using SW4 to simulate strong ground motions for several applications. We are performing parametric studies of near-fault motions from moderate earthquakes to investigate basin edge generated waves and large earthquakes to provide motions to engineers study building response. We show that 3D propagation near basin edges can generate significant amplifications relative to 1D analysis. SW4 is also being used to model earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. This includes modeling moderate (M3.5-5) events to evaluate the United States Geologic Survey's 3D model of regional structure as well as strong motions from the 2014 South Napa earthquake and possible large scenario events. Recently SW4 was built on a Commodity Technology Systems-1 (CTS-1) at LLNL, new systems for capacity computing at the DOE National Labs. We find SW4 scales well and runs faster on these systems compared to the previous generation of LINUX clusters.

  8. Streamflow and water-quality properties in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin and regression models to estimate real-time suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids concentrations and loads in the West Fork San Jacinto River in the vicinity of Conroe, Texas, July 2008-August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Lee J.; Oden, Jeannette H.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the hydrology (streamflow and water quality) of the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas, including spatial and temporal variation in suspended-sediment (SS) and total suspended-solids (TSS) concentrations and loads, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, measured streamflow and collected continuous and discrete water-quality data during July 2008-August 2009 in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe. During July 2008-August 2009, discrete samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made over the range of flow conditions at two streamflow-gaging stations on the West Fork San Jacinto River: West Fork San Jacinto River below Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas (station 08067650) and West Fork San Jacinto River near Conroe, Texas (station 08068000). In addition to samples collected at these two main monitoring sites, discrete sediment samples were also collected at five additional monitoring sites to help characterize water quality in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin. Discrete samples were collected semimonthly, regardless of flow conditions, and during periods of high flow resulting from storms or releases from Lake Conroe. Because the period of data collection was relatively short (14 months) and low flow was prevalent during much of the study, relatively few samples collected were representative of the middle and upper ranges of historical daily mean streamflows. The largest streamflows tended to occur in response to large rainfall events and generally were associated with the largest SS and TSS concentrations. The maximum SS and TSS concentrations at station 08067650 (180 and 133 milligrams per liter [mg/L], respectively) were on April 19, 2009, when the instantaneous streamflow was the third largest associated with a discrete sample at the station. SS concentrations

  9. Redefinición estratigráfica del grupo Río Chico (Paleógeno Inferior, en el norte de la cuenca del golfo San Jorge, Chubut Stratigraphic redefinition of Río Chico Group (Early Paleogene in the north of the Golfo San Jorge basin, Chubut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sol Raigemborn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo Río Chico (Paleoceno Superior-Eoceno Medio, de origen continental y aflorante en la cuenca del Golfo San Jorge, aun no cuenta con un esquema litoestratigráfico adecuado que contemple las variaciones y relaciones espaciales de sus unidades integrantes. En este trabajo, restringido arealmente al norte de la cuenca, se redefinen sus cuatro formaciones que de base a techo son: Las Violetas, Peñas Coloradas, Las Flores y Koluel-Kaike. La relación inferior del grupo con la Formación Salamanca es de tipo transicional y se resuelve en un intervalo estratigráfico denominado en este trabajo niveles transicionales. La Formación Las Violetas se circunscribe al centro del área de estudio, borde norte de la cuenca, donde se manifiesta una posible relación de lateralidad con la Formación Peñas Coloradas. Esta última muestra un importante desarrollo en la zona costera y occidental, sin aflorar en el área central de estudio. La Formación Las Flores alcanza su mayor espesor en la zona central (facies más gruesas y disminuye hacia el este y oeste (facies más finas. La Formación Koluel-Kaike posee sus facies típicas y mayores espesores hacia el oeste, mientras que hacia el centro y este se acuña hasta desaparecer en el borde norte de la cuenca. La relación superior de esta última unidad con la suprayacente Formación Sarmiento es de tipo transicional.The Río Chico Group (Late Paleocene-Middle Eocene, which is continental in origin and outcrop in Golfo San Jorge basin, has not got a suitable lithostratigraphic scheme yet which considers variations and spatial relationships of its internal units. In this paper, restricted to the north of the basin, four formations are redefined from base to top: Las Violetas, Peñas Coloradas, Las Flores and Koluel-Kaike. The lower relationship of this group with Salamanca Formation is transitional and it is resolved in a stratigraphic interval called in this paper transitional levels. Las Violetas

  10. La batalla por San Luis: ¿el agua o el oro? La disputa argumentativa contra la Minera San Xavier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Reygadas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se refiere al conflicto urbano socioambiental entre la sociedad civil de San Luis Potosí y la Minera San Xavier en Cerro de San Pedro (1995-2007. Se aplica la metodología descriptiva del análisis discursivo argumentativo a las diversas esquematizaciones de los actores en torno al "patrimonio", el "agua" y el "cianuro", para contribuir a revelar la topología de las posiciones encontradas, delinear los núcleos de sus representaciones, y comprenderlas como parte sustantiva de la confrontación en un proceso político urbano que articula lo local, lo nacional y lo internacional.

  11. Congreso www.derechotics.com 2010 Pedro Grimalt Mesa 2

    OpenAIRE

    Cotino Hueso, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Responsabilidad civil por contenidos en la red: LSSICE y Ley de Prensa y responsabilidad por hecho ajeno, por Pedro Grimalt, Profesor titular de Derecho civil de la U. de les Illes Balears.Mesa 2: Control y responsabilidad en la redCongreso www.derechotics.com Valencia, 14-15 octubre 2010 Libertades informativas en internet: ejercicio, amenazas y garantías, Lorenzo Cotino (org.)

  12. PEDRO TAFUR, UN HIDALGO CASTELLANO EN TIERRA SANTA Y EGIPTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Molina Molina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El hidalgo castellano Pedro Tafur (1410-1487, deseoso de conocer mundo y vivir aventuras, realizó un largo viaje entre el otoño de 1436 y la primavera de 1439. En este trabajo, analizamos un episodio que se corresponde con la peregrinación a Tierra Santa y Egipto (mayo-octubre de 1437, en el que visita lugares relacionados con la vida de Jesucristo y otros relatos bíblicos.

  13. Establishing the base of underground sources of drinking water (10,000ppm) using geophysical logs and chemical reports in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, David; Gillespie, Janice

    2016-04-01

    Recent concerns about well stimulation and oilfield disposal practices has resulted in the desire to learn more about the distribution of usable groundwater that might be impacted by these practices. Waters that require protection are classified by the US EPA as USDW's (Underground Sources of Drinking Water). These waters have a concentration of 10,000 parts per million total dissolved solids and are not within an exempt aquifer. Direct sampling and chemical analyses of the water from oil and gas producing formations provide the most accurate values for the formation water salinities, but the data is scarce. The method in this analysis uses open-hole geophysical logs and Archie's equation to calculate the salinity. The two methods used in the analysis are the spontaneous potential method that uses the spontaneous potential log and the mud and formation resistivity values to calculate a salinity, and the resistivity-porosity method that uses the resistivity and porosity logs. Sonic, density, and neutron logs are available in the southern San Joaquin as well as porosity values from cores. Results shows that the resistivity porosity method has a smaller error than the spontaneous potential method, therefore, the resistivity-porosity method is chosen for the analysis of the 10,000 parts per million boundary. Due to the lack of porosity logs in wells with chemical analyses, porosity values recorded in DOGGR reports are used in the Humble equation to link the formation water resistivity to salinity. In this way, we can back calculate the deep resistivity vales that should correspond to the 10,000 salinity boundary to determine the depth at which the base of the USDW is found.

  14. Anthropocentric use of plant in the homegarden San Pedro Ixtlahuaca, Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Hernández Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using providing farm families plant agrobiodiversity found in the homegarden can understand how communities perceive, interpret and know the environment around them, the most illustrative approach is to generate plant elements anthropocentric categories of use defined as those where a group of people gives a utility value to the species, therefore, the objective of this research was to describe using traditional anthropocentric and families express and agrobiodiversity of plants in their homegarden, to determine use is anthropocentric applied semi-structured questionnaires with openquestions, tours and interviews, the information gathered was presented to the participating households in order to supplement such information. The results recorded were 67 species belonging to 50 genera and 37 families which are categorized into nine anthropocentric uses: medicinal in people, animal medicine, food or groceries, ornamentals, spices, or religious rituals, structural, for product development, used as firewood and to provide shade, these results show that the composition of the solar plant is based on the needs and decisions of the family unit.

  15. Agua, faenas y organización comunal: San Pedro de Casta - Huarochirí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Gelles

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available El rol importante que ha desempeñado el manejo del agua en laorganización social y en la formacibn de las llamadas "sociedades hidraúlicas" es un tema que ha interesado a muchos cienfistas sociales. El siguiente artículo, que tiene como enfoque al trabajo comunal, demuestra la importancia del agua en la organización social de una comunidad campesina andina. El autor es alumno del Post-Grado de Antropología en la Pontificia Universidad Católica. Este articulo forma parte de una tesis elaborada en el Post-Grado de la Pontificia Universidad Católica.

  16. LONG-TERM OPTICAL PHOTOPOLARIMETRIC MONITORING OF BLAZARS AT SAN PEDRO MÁRTIR

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez, E.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Agudo, I.; Cabrera, J. I.; Dultzin, D; González, M. M.; López, J. M.; R. Mújica; Nilsson, K.; Sacahui, R.; Sorcia, M.

    2011-01-01

    La variabilidad de luz polarizada en el óptico ha resultado ser una herramienta poderosa para estudiar a los Blázares debido a que permite determinar la intensidad y orientación del campo magnético asociado al jet relativista. También la luz polarizada es útil para estimar el sitio donde se origina la emisión de rayos-gama, aun cuando el mecanismo físico responsable de su producción sigue sin aclararse. Más importante aún, dado que las campañas en multifrecuencias típicamente se concentran en...

  17. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment Proposed SMC Military Family Housing, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TRPH total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons TSS total suspended solids UCLA University of California Los...Osgood-Farley and Fort MacArthur Military Museum - Coast Artillery, the Mission Maria Stella Maris Church, a maritime broadcast station, a youth hostel ...station, located in the eastern portion of the park; (5) a youth hostel , located to the north of the Korean Friendship Bell; and, (6) a public

  18. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment for Space Division Proposed Housing, White Point, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    efficient construction, including attic and wall insulation, and reduced glass areas; 0 Energy-efficient electrical equipment, such as fluores - cent...soapstone objects is particularly significant. The subsistence base was diverse including acorns, chia (sage seeds), wild fruits, large and I a small

  19. MÁS QUE UNA SUMA DE CASAS: LA UNIDAD VECINAL VILLA SAN PEDRO DE CORONEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Franck Demiddel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el desarrollo industrial de la provincia, parcialmente promovido por la Corporación de Fomento, CORFO, desde el terremoto de 1939, y la construcción de la planta CAP-Huachipato en 1950, la CORVI buscó construir un conjunto para satisfacer la creciente necesidad habitacional. El terremoto de 1960 incorporó, indudablemente, una extrema urgencia al encargo. Por el particular entorno geográfico de la ciudad de Concepción, la institución se enfrentó a la escasez de terrenos baratos cercanos a Concepción, por lo que consideró un área perteneciente a la comuna de Coronel, pero, por su ubicación e importancia, era considerada como parte integrante de Concepción. Otro aspecto relevante es el fundamento o discurso político que incorporaba la Unidad Vecinal, seguramente fomentado por el terremoto político causado por la revolución cubana de 1959 y el remezón que produjo en la política de EE.UU. frente a los países latinoamericanos. Los arquitectos Raúl Farrú y Enrique Porte se encargaron del diseño de este particular proyecto habitacional que ofrecía 1.918 alojamientos, repartidos entre viviendas unifamiliares y departamentos. Con este proyecto, sea por el diseño arquitectónico y urbano, o por la política de selección de usuarios, la CORVI implementó una forma de crear una nueva ciudad, el paso inicial de un proyecto mayor. La permanencia, o sobrevivencia, de algunos servicios, como los colegios y algunos comercios, demostraron el logro y éxito de la propuesta de la CORVI, que iba mucho mas allá del diseño físico ya que incorporaba otra variante bastante más compleja como el uso o la función. Esta diversidad de funciones y actividades, en conjunto con la oferta habitacional, convirtieron, finalmente, este proyecto en una ciudad satélite prácticamente autónoma.

  20. San Pedro meeting on Wide Field Variability Surveys: Some concluding comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feast, Michael W.

    2017-09-01

    This is a written version of the closing talk at the 22nd Los Alamos Stellar pulsation conference on wide field variability surveys. It comments on some of the issues which arise from the meeting. These include the need for attention to photometric standardization (especially in the infrared) and the somewhat controversial problem of statistical bias in the use of parallaxes (and other methods of distance determination). Some major advances in the use of pulsating variables to study Galactic structure are mentioned. The paper includes a clarification of apparently conflicting results from classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars in the inner Galaxy and bulge. The importance of understanding non-periodic phenomena in variable stars, particularly asymptotic giant branch variables and R Coronae Borealis stars, is stressed, especially for its relevance to mass-loss in which pulsation may only play a minor role.

  1. LEISHMANIASIS EN COYO ORIENTE: MIGRANTES TRASANDINOS EN SAN PEDRO DE ATACAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,María Antonietta; Llagostera, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    En el cementerio arqueológico de Coyo Oriente se detectaron cráneos femeninos con extensas lesiones destructivas, especialmente en la órbita y nariz. Pequeñas porciones de material óseo de los bordes de las lesiones fueron sometidas a análisis molecular por amplificación del ADN de leishmaniasis, lo que hizo posible diagnosticar positivamente esta enfermedad. Se analiza la patología de estos cráneos y los elementos biológicos y culturales asociados con ellos, así como el contexto bioantropoló...

  2. Optical-turbulence and wind profiles at san Pedro Mártin with g-scidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Avila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La turbulencia atmosférica puede ser caracterizada por el centelleo de las fuentes astronómicas. Se presenta una breve revisión de la física del centelleo débil y fuerte. El Sensor de Centelleo Multi-Apertura, MASS, utiliza las propiedades espaciales del centelleo producido por una estrella para reconstruir perfiles de turbulencia de baja resolución. Se presenta una descripción del instrumento combinado MASS-DIMM y se evalúa la precisión de este método. Se describe el experimento de remplazar la estrella por un planeta, ya que en ese caso se puede sensar la turbulencia a unos cuantos cientos de metros sobre el sitio. Sin embargo, de mayor importancia es medir la turbulencia en la vecindad inmediata de un telescopio o un monitor del sitio. En este caso, un medidor de centelleo lunar es el método a elegir. Un medidor de centelleo lunar, LuSci, está siendo desarrollado por el Observatorio Inter-Americano de Cerro Tololo (CTIO. Se presenta el nuevo método para interpretar sus datos y los resultados de las primeras pruebas

  3. Environmental Assessment for Slope Stabilization Projects at Fort MacArthur, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    brittlebush, and Common deerweed ( Lotus scoparius). Implementation of the Proposed Action would have no impact on federal or state-listed threatened and...cancer, birth defects, genetic damage, and other adverse health effects. The source and effects of hazardous air pollutants are generally local

  4. Restauración de la Iglesia de San Pedro, en Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Tresguerres, Ramón

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The work have been carried out in two consecutive phases. Firstly the four wooden nave forms were sustituted by overdimensioned iron lattice girders that entered the aisles and ended in a capping hoop thus allowing the absorption of the pushes from the vaults that were ruining the church fabric. Besides a careful impermeabilization of both nave and aisles roof was undertaken. The second phase included the restoration of pases and sacristies roofs to their original configurations, both with a re-pointing of the tower's ashlers and a reopening of blinded windows in his intermediate volume. The ruined capping body made of bricks was substituted by another made of ashlers. New windows were designed according to the existent buttress and following the double arch configuration of the reopened ones.

    Las obras fueron realizadas en dos fases consecutivas. En la primera consistieron en sustituir las cuatro cerchas de madera de la nave central por estructuras metálicas de celosía sobredimensionadas que continuaban por las naves laterales y terminaban en zunchos de coronación, al objeto de absorber los empujes de las bóvedas que estaban arruinando la fábrica de la iglesia. Complemento de este trabajo fue una impermeabilización muy cuidada de las cubiertas de las tres naves. En la segunda fase se restituyeron las cubiertas de ábsides y sacristía a su configuración original, se rejuntaron los sillares de la torre, se abrieron los huecos que estaban cegados en su cuerpo intermedio y se sustituyó el cuerpo de ladrillo en ruinas de la coronación, por otro de sillería con los nuevos huecos dimensionados de acuerdo con los machones existentes y con el doble arco de las ventanas descubiertas.

  5. Signo de Pedro Pons en antropología forense Pedro Pons´ sign in forensic anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armentano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron los restos esqueléticos de un varón de entre 25-29 años fallecido durante la Guerra Civil Española (1936-1939 en Seròs (Lleida, España. El estudio antropológico evidenció la presencia de lesiones perimortem por proyectil de arma de fuego a nivel craneal como causa de muerte. El estudio del resto del esqueleto destacó una lesión a nivel de la columna vertebral. Macroscópica y radiológicamente se observó un foco destructivo en el borde antero-superior de la quinta vértebra lumbar que se corresponde con el clásico signo de Pedro Pons, compatible con una espondilitis brucelar. No se apreció afectación a nivel sacro-ilíaco. La presencia del signo de Pedro Pons indica que este individuo padecía brucelosis desde, como mínimo, tres semanas antes de su muerte.Human remains from the Spanish Civil War period were found (1936-1939 in Seròs (Lleida, Spain. One of the skeletons was identified as a 25-29 year old male. The anthropological study leaded to the identification of firearm perimortem lesions in the skull. Macroscopically and radiologically, erosion at the anterior superior angle of fifth lumbar vertebra was observed. This lesion agrees with Pedro Pons´ sign and matches with brucella spondylitis. The presence of Pedro Pons´ sign indicates that the individual suffered from brucellosis for more than three weeks. The sacral vertebrae did not showed any injuries.

  6. Vertical tectonic deformation associated with the San Andreas fault zone offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, H. F.; Parsons, T.; Sliter, R. W.

    2008-10-01

    A new fault map of the shelf offshore of San Francisco, California shows that faulting occurs as a distributed shear zone that involves many fault strands with the principal displacement taken up by the San Andreas fault and the eastern strand of the San Gregorio fault zone. Structures associated with the offshore faulting show compressive deformation near where the San Andreas fault goes offshore, but deformation becomes extensional several km to the north off of the Golden Gate. Our new fault map serves as the basis for a 3-D finite element model that shows that the block between the San Andreas and San Gregorio fault zone is subsiding at a long-term rate of about 0.2-0.3 mm/yr, with the maximum subsidence occurring northwest of the Golden Gate in the area of a mapped transtensional basin. Although the long-term rates of vertical displacement primarily show subsidence, the model of coseismic deformation associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake indicates that uplift on the order of 10-15 cm occurred in the block northeast of the San Andreas fault. Since 1906, 5-6 cm of regional subsidence has occurred in that block. One implication of our model is that the transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault to a fault 5 km to the east, the Golden Gate fault, is not required for the area offshore of San Francisco to be in extension. This has implications for both the deposition of thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments (the Merced Formation) observed east of the San Andreas fault, and the age of the Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault.

  7. Demanda de irrigação da cultura da uva na Bacia do Rio São Francisco Irrigation demand for grape crop in San Francisco River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallisson da S. Freitas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando subsidiar o planejamento de projetos agrícolas para o dimensionamento de projetos de irrigação e a gestão de recursos hídricos, estimou-se e se espacializou a demanda de irrigação da videira (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Itália, na bacia do Rio São Francisco. Utilizaram-se séries históricas de dados de 81 estações climáticas distribuídas na bacia. Para cada estação calculou-se os valores, máximos diários e o total anual, da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc, da demanda suplementar da cultura e da demanda suplementar de irrigação (este com eficiência de 70%. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: (a a ETc máxima diária variou, em grande parte da bacia, de 4,5 a 5,7 mm d-1, tendo média anual de 943 mm; (b em média, a demanda anual suplementar da cultura foi 839,5 mm, equivalente a 103,5 mm inferior à ETc; (c o fato do sistema funcionar com 70% de eficiência, em vez de 90%, implica em acréscimo estimado de 18.808.755 m³ de água por ano, somente nas microrregiões de Juazeiro, BA e Petrolina, PE.The irrigation water demand of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Italy was estimated and spatialized in San Francisco River Basin, in order to subsidize the agricultural project planning and water resource management. Historical data series relative to 81 climatic stations distributed throughout the basin were used. The maximum daily values and the annual total values of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, crop evapotranspiration (ETc, supplementary demand of the crop and the supplementary irrigation demand (70% efficiency were calculated for each station. According to the results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a in a large area of the basin, the maximum daily ETc varied from 4.5 to 5.7 mm d-1, with an annual mean of 943 mm; (b the supplementary annual demand of the crop averaged 839.5 mm, corresponding to 103.5 mm less than ETc; and (c the irrigation

  8. Usage evaluation of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) among Brazilian physical therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Mark R.; Moseley, Anne M.; Pinto, Rafael Z.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) is widely and equally used by physical therapists in Brazil. As PEDro is considered a key resource to support evidence-based physical therapy, analyses of PEDro usage could reflect the extent of dissemination of evidence-based practice. OBJECTIVE: To describe the usage of PEDro among the five regions of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) and, in more detail, in the South American region and Brazil over a 5-year period. METHOD: PEDro home-page sessions and the number of searches performed were logged for a 5-year period (2010-2014). Absolute usage and relative usage were calculated for each region of the WCPT, each country in the South American region of WCPT, and each Regional Council (CREFITO) in Brazil. RESULTS: Europe had the highest absolute and relative usage among the five regions of the WCPT (971 searches per million-population per year), with the South American region ranked 4th in absolute terms and 3rd in relative terms (486). Within the South American region, Brazil accounted for nearly 60% of searches (755). Analysis at a national level revealed that usage per physical therapist in Brazil is very low across all CREFITOs. The highest usage occurred in CREFITO 6 with 1.3 searches per physical therapist per year. CONCLUSIONS: PEDro is not widely and equally used throughout Brazil. Strategies to promote PEDro and to make PEDro more accessible to physical therapists speaking Portuguese are needed. PMID:26443980

  9. Kirjanikud Pedro Krusten, Henrik Visnapuu ja teised / Edla Krusten ; intervjueerinud Martin Viirand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krusten, Edla

    2012-01-01

    Pedro Krusteni lesk Edla Krusten räägib oma käekäigust sõja ajal, Saksamaal ja USA-s, oma abikaasast Pedro Krustenist ja vaimsest atmosfäärist, mis valitses välis-eestlaste seas Ameerika Ühendriikides. Artikkel põhineb Rahvusringhäälingu raadiosaatel "Maailmapilt" (2008)

  10. Kirjanikud Pedro Krusten, Henrik Visnapuu ja teised / Edla Krusten ; intervjueerinud Martin Viirand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krusten, Edla

    2012-01-01

    Pedro Krusteni lesk Edla Krusten räägib oma käekäigust sõja ajal, Saksamaal ja USA-s, oma abikaasast Pedro Krustenist ja vaimsest atmosfäärist, mis valitses välis-eestlaste seas Ameerika Ühendriikides. Artikkel põhineb Rahvusringhäälingu raadiosaatel "Maailmapilt" (2008)

  11. La encrucijada en Pedro Páramo de Juan Rulfo / The Crossroads in Pedro Páramo by Juan Rulfo

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Leticia García-Peña

    2015-01-01

    La obra de Juan Rulfo sintetiza la realidad del campo mexicano, captura el contorno de las identidades individuales y de la estructura de la interacción social del mundo que tanto le preocupó y del que es intérprete indiscutible, pero también supo convertir en materia narrativa aquellas atmósferas que rebasan el contexto mexicano y social. En este trabajo abordaré el tema de la encrucijada en el imaginario simbólico de Pedro Páramo (1955) como expresión de una reelaboración del mito de Hermes...

  12. The San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region, California: Structure and kinematics of a Young plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, R.C.; Zoback, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data delineate offset and/or truncated magnetic rock bodies of the Franciscan Complex that define the location and structure of, and total offset across, the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region. Two distinctive magnetic anomalies caused by ultramafic rocks and metabasalts east of, and truncated at, the San Andreas fault have clear counterparts west of the fault that indicate a total right-lateral offset of only 22 km on the Peninsula segment, the active strand that ruptured in 1906. The location of the Peninsula segment is well defined magnetically on the northern peninsula where it goes offshore, and can be traced along strike an additional ~6 km to the northwest. Just offshore from Lake Merced, the inferred fault trace steps right (northeast) 3 km onto a nearly parallel strand that can be traced magnetically northwest more than 20 km as the linear northeast edge of a magnetic block bounded by the San Andreas fault, the Pilarcitos fault, and the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault zone. This right-stepping strand, the Golden Gate segment, joins the eastern mapped trace of the San Andreas fault at Bolinas Lagoon and projects back onshore to the southeast near Lake Merced. Inversion of detailed gravity data on the San Francisco Peninsula reveals a 3 km wide basin situated between the two strands of the San Andreas fault, floored by Franciscan basement and filled with Plio-Quaternary sedimentary deposits of the Merced and Colma formations. The basin, ~1 km deep at the coast, narrows and becomes thinner to the southeast along the fault over a distance of ~12 km. The length, width, and location of the basin between the two strands are consistent with a pull-apart basin formed behind the right step in the right-lateral strike-slip San Andreas fault system and currently moving southeast with the North American plate. Slight nonparallelism of the two strands bounding the basin (implying a small component of convergence

  13. Quality, language, subdiscipline and promotion were associated with article accesses on Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Tiê P; Arora, Mohit; Stevens, Matthew L; Elkins, Mark R; Moseley, Anne M

    2017-08-12

    To quantify the relationship between the number of times articles are accessed on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and the article characteristics. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between accesses and the number of citations of articles. The study was conducted to derive prediction models for the number of accesses of articles indexed on PEDro from factors that may influence an article's accesses. All articles available on PEDro from August 2014 to January 2015 were included. We extracted variables relating to the algorithm used to present PEDro search results (research design, year of publication, PEDro score, source of systematic review (Cochrane or non-Cochrane)) plus language, subdiscipline of physiotherapy, and whether articles were promoted to PEDro users. Three predictive models were examined using multiple regression analysis. Citation and journal impact factor were downloaded. There were 29,313 articles indexed in this period. We identified seven factors that predicted the number of accesses. More accesses were noted for factors related to the algorithm used to present PEDro search results (synthesis research (i.e., guidelines and reviews), recent articles, Cochrane reviews, and higher PEDro score) plus publication in English and being promoted to PEDro users. The musculoskeletal, neurology, orthopaedics, sports, and paediatrics subdisciplines were associated with more accesses. We also found that there was no association between number of accesses and citations. The number of times an article is accessed on PEDro is partly predicted by how condensed and high quality the evidence it contains is. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surto de histoplasmose em Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, Brasil Outbreak of histoplasmosis in Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cunha Cury

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de histoplasmose foi identificado em Pedro Leopoldo, cidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 1997, na qual quatro indivíduos tiveram contato com uma caverna habitada por morcegos. O diagnóstico de histoplasmose pulmonar aguda foi feito com o uso de critérios clínicos, sorológicos, radiológicos e epidemiológicos. Instituiu-se uma terapia antifúngica com cetoconazol (400mg/dia durante 30 dias, havendo remissão dos sintomas em poucos dias.An outbreak of histoplasmosis was spotted in Pedro Leopoldo, a city in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1997, where four individuals had been in contact with a bat-inhabited cave. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis diagnosis was made by the use of clinical, serologic, radiographic and epidemiological criteria. An antifungal treatment with ketoconazole (400mg daily for 30 days was administered resulting in symptons' remission in a few days.

  15. La experienciadel sujeto cultural en la Murga de Pedro Orgambide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Royo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuando el objeto es tan recortado lo importante es plantear el propósito en términos de la pertenencia del texto a un corpus. En este caso me ha interesado Pedro Orgambide en el marco de un conjunto de autores que, contemporánea o anacrónicamente, han ingresado el Día de la Lealtad a la escritura literaria. En trabajos anteriores relevé autores como Borges, Martínez Estrada y Lamborghini que, en mayor o menor medida, textualizan el episodio del 17 de octubre de 1945, fecha en que "una cosa terminaba y otra empezaba", como expresa una novela de aquel entonces.

  16. La encrucijada en Pedro Páramo de Juan Rulfo / The Crossroads in Pedro Páramo by Juan Rulfo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Leticia García-Peña

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Juan Rulfo sintetiza la realidad del campo mexicano, captura el contorno de las identidades individuales y de la estructura de la interacción social del mundo que tanto le preocupó y del que es intérprete indiscutible, pero también supo convertir en materia narrativa aquellas atmósferas que rebasan el contexto mexicano y social. En este trabajo abordaré el tema de la encrucijada en el imaginario simbólico de Pedro Páramo (1955 como expresión de una reelaboración del mito de Hermes, analizaré cómo la novela de Juan Rulfo muestra estos ecos herméticos y qué sentido estético y sociocultural tiene esta resonancia mítica.

  17. Biological and associated water-quality data for lower Olmos Creek and upper San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, March-October 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Biological and associated water-quality data were collected from lower Olmos Creek and upper San Antonio River in San Antonio, Texas, during March-October 1990, the second year of a multiyear data-collection program. The data will be used to document water-quality conditions prior to implementation of a proposal to reuse treated wastewater to irrigate city properties in Olmos Basin and Brackenridge Parks and to augment flows in the Olmos Creek/San Antonio River system.

  18. PEDro or Cochrane to Assess the Quality of Clinical Trials? A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    Full Text Available There is debate on how the methodological quality of clinical trials should be assessed. We compared trials of physical therapy (PT judged to be of adequate quality based on summary scores from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale with trials judged to be of adequate quality by Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria.Meta-epidemiological study within Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.Meta-analyses of PT trials were identified in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each trial PeDro and Cochrane assessments were extracted from the PeDro and Cochrane databases. Adequate quality was defined as adequate generation of random sequence, concealment of allocation, and blinding of outcome assessors (Cochrane criteria or as trials with a PEDro summary score ≥5 or ≥6 points. We combined trials of adequate quality using random-effects meta-analysis.Forty-one Cochrane reviews and 353 PT trials were included. All meta-analyses included trials with PEDro scores ≥5, 37 (90.2% included trials with PEDro scores ≥6 and only 22 (53.7% meta-analyses included trials of adequate quality according to the Cochrane criteria. Agreement between PeDro and Cochrane was poor for PeDro scores of ≥5 points (kappa = 0.12; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.16 and slight for ≥6 points (kappa 0.24; 95% CI 0.16-0.32. When combining effect sizes of trials deemed to be of adequate quality according to PEDro or Cochrane criteria, we found that a substantial difference in the combined effect size (≥0.15 was evident in 9 (22% out of the 41 meta-analyses for PEDro cutoff ≥5 and 10 (24% for cutoff ≥6.The PeDro and Cochrane approaches lead to different sets of trials of adequate quality, and different combined treatment estimates from meta-analyses of these trials. A consistent approach to assessing RoB in trials of physical therapy should be adopted.

  19. 77 FR 54811 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of a bay swim in San Diego Harbor. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew...

  20. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of San...

  1. 78 FR 53243 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA, in support of a... Bryan Gollogly, Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego; telephone (619) 278-7656, email...

  2. Os primeiros filmes de Joaquim Pedro de Andrade: história e linguagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pontes de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The early films by Joaquim Pedro de Andrade: history and language – Joaquim Pedro de Andrade: primeiros tempos (early days four films by this “Cinema Novo” director are analyzed. From a historical research, the analysis focus is on this filmmaker’s training period and his initial films. His reflections on relations between fiction cinema and documentary, besides the specificities of the cinematographic language are highlighted.

  3. Usage evaluation of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro among Brazilian physical therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Elkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro is widely and equally used by physical therapists in Brazil. As PEDro is considered a key resource to support evidence-based physical therapy, analyses of PEDro usage could reflect the extent of dissemination of evidence-based practice.OBJECTIVE: To describe the usage of PEDro among the five regions of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT and, in more detail, in the South American region and Brazil over a 5-year period.METHOD: PEDro home-page sessions and the number of searches performed were logged for a 5-year period (2010-2014. Absolute usage and relative usage were calculated for each region of the WCPT, each country in the South American region of WCPT, and each Regional Council (CREFITO in Brazil.RESULTS: Europe had the highest absolute and relative usage among the five regions of the WCPT (971 searches per million-population per year, with the South American region ranked 4th in absolute terms and 3rd in relative terms (486. Within the South American region, Brazil accounted for nearly 60% of searches (755. Analysis at a national level revealed that usage per physical therapist in Brazil is very low across all CREFITOs. The highest usage occurred in CREFITO 6 with 1.3 searches per physical therapist per year.CONCLUSIONS: PEDro is not widely and equally used throughout Brazil. Strategies to promote PEDro and to make PEDro more accessible to physical therapists speaking Portuguese are needed.

  4. Contaminants investigation of the Guadalupe and San Antonio Rivers of Texas, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Guadalupe and San Antonio River Basins drain a combined area of 26,547 km2 (10,250 square miles), transporting wastewaters from agricultural, livestock, and...

  5. GABRIELA MISTRAL Y PEDRO AGUIRRE CERDA A TRAVÉS DE SU CORRESPONDENCIA PRIVADA (1919-1941)

    OpenAIRE

    Matías Tagle Domínguez

    2002-01-01

    Gabriela Mistral and Pedro Aguirre Cerda made acquaintance of themselves in 1916. Since then, they maintained correspondence until 1941. The paper is based on a set of twenty-seven letters written by Gabriela Mistral to Pedro Aguirre Cerda from different places of the world, published in Mapocho journal in 1977. It also includes the Epistolario de Gabriela Mistral issued in the Epistolario de Pedro Aguirre Cerda (1938-1941) published by the Centro de Estudios Barros Arana. Finally, it incorpo...

  6. Pleistocene Brawley and Ocotillo Formations: Evidence for initial strike-slip deformation along the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zonez, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, S.M.; Janecke, S.U.; Dorsey, R.J.; Housen, B.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; McDougall, K.A.; Steeley, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the Pleistocene tectonic reorganization of the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the Salton Trough of southern California with an integrated approach that includes basin analysis, magnetostratigraphy, and geologic mapping of upper Pliocene to Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the San Felipe Hills. These deposits preserve the earliest sedimentary record of movement on the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zones that replaced and deactivated the late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault. Sandstone and mudstone of the Brawley Formation accumulated between ???1.1 and ???0.6-0.5 Ma in a delta on the margin of an arid Pleistocene lake, which received sediment from alluvial fans of the Ocotillo Formation to the west-southwest. Our analysis indicates that the Ocotillo and Brawley formations prograded abruptly to the east-northeast across a former mud-dominated perennial lake (Borrego Formation) at ???1.1 Ma in response to initiation of the dextral-oblique San Felipe fault zone. The ???25-km-long San Felipe anticline initiated at about the same time and produced an intrabasinal basement-cored high within the San Felipe-Borrego basin that is recorded by progressive unconformities on its north and south limbs. A disconformity at the base of the Brawley Formation in the eastern San Felipe Hills probably records initiation and early blind slip at the southeast tip of the Clark strand of the San Jacinto fault zone. Our data are consistent with abrupt and nearly synchronous inception of the San Jacinto and San Felipe fault zones southwest of the southern San Andreas fault in the early Pleistocene during a pronounced southwestward broadening of the San Andreas fault zone. The current contractional geometry of the San Jacinto fault zone developed after ???0.5-0.6 Ma during a second, less significant change in structural style. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  7. SAN CARLOS APACHE PAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR.

    THE FIRST SECTION OF THIS BOOK COVERS THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE SAN CARLOS APACHE INDIANS, AS WELL AS AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. THE SECOND SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN IN GLOBE AND SAN CARLOS, ARIZONA. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1)…

  8. San Carlo Operaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2005-01-01

    En indplacering af operahuset San Carlo i en kulturhistorisk repræsentationskontekst med særligt henblik på begrebet napolalità.......En indplacering af operahuset San Carlo i en kulturhistorisk repræsentationskontekst med særligt henblik på begrebet napolalità....

  9. Epileptic seizures in a descendant of Dom Pedro I Crises epilépticas em uma descendente de Dom Pedro I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine seizure is a rare event. Genetic predisposition and trauma are possible risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To review and comment on the historical description of intrauterine events of a bastard daughter of Dom Pedro I (Maria Isabel Alcântara Brasileira - 1830-1896. METHOD: Review of historical facts about the health of Dom Pedro I's daughter according to primary and secondary historical data. RESULTS: According to historical accounts, Dom Pedro I's daughter suffered trauma during the intrauterine period that provoked intrauterine seizures. At the age of eight years, she developed self-limited and benign generalized epilepsy. Like her father, she had mood problems and also learning difficulties. CONCLUSION: Dona Maria Isabel's own report does not shown sufficient evidence to support the diagnosis of post-traumatic intrauterine seizures. Nevertheless, her family history suggests a genetic basis for her epilepsy.A convulsão intra-uterina é evento raro, sendo possíveis fatores de risco a genética e o traumatismo. OBJETIVO: Rever e comentar a descrição histórica de eventos intra-uterinas de uma filha bastarda de D. Pedro I (Maria Isabel Alcântara Brasileira - 1830-1896. MÉTODO: Revisão dos fatos históricos sobre a saúde da filha do D. Pedro I, de acordo com dados históricos primários e secundários. RESULTADOS: A filha de Dom Pedro I, de acordo com relatos históricos teria sofrido um traumatismo durante o período intra-uterino, o que provocou convulsões intra-uterinas. Na idade de oito anos a menina desenvolveu uma epilepsia generalizada limitada e benigna. Como seu pai, teve problemas do humor e, também, dificuldades de aprendizagem. CONCLUSÃO: O relato de Dona Maria Isabel não gera prova suficiente para sustentar o diagnóstico de convulsões intra-uterinas de origem traumática. Não obstante, seus antecedentes familiares sugerem uma base genética para sua epilepsia.

  10. The Emperor Dom Pedro II: his convulsive seizures when a boy O imperador Dom Pedro II: as suas crises convulsivas quando menino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dom Pedro II, the Prince Heir and Emperor under regency, in a delicate period of the construction of the Brazilian nation, had convulsive seizures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the convulsive seizures and related syndromes of Dom Pedro II and his family, besides the physicians in charge of the health care. METHOD: Narrative review based on primary and secondary sources. CONCLUSION: The scattered and self-limited convulsive seizures associated with physical and mental integrity favored a benign prognosis. Dom Pedro and his family presented rich history of epileptic seizures and febrile convulsion. This variety resembles the diagnosis of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus that seems to be a combination of several syndromes with shared genetic susceptibility.INTRODUÇÃO: Dom Pedro, o príncipe herdeiro e imperador sob regência, em período delicado da formação da nação brasileira, apresentou crises convulsivas que geraram preocupação para o país. OBJETIVO: Investigar a história da epilepsia de Dom Pedro II e da sua família e procurar identificar quais tipos de crises epilépticas estavam presentes, além dos médicos envolvidos com os cuidados de saúde. MÉTODO: Revisão narrativa baseada em fontes primárias e secundárias. CONCLUSÃO: As crises convulsivas esparsas e auto-limitadas associadas a higidez física e mental de Dom Pedro II sugerem um prognóstico benigno. A história de epilepsia idiopática e convulsões febris no imperador e em outros membros da sua família aponta para o diagnóstico mais provável de Epilepsia Generalizada com Convulsões Febris Plus que é determinada por uma combinação de alguns tipos de manifestações epilépticas com suscetibilidade genética compartilhada.

  11. OBLIQUE WAYS OF TRANSCENDENCE: ASPECTS OF IDEALISM IN AUGUSTO DOS ANJOS AND PEDRO KILKERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rodrigo da Silva Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the manifestations of the idealism of romantic orientation in the poetry of Augusto dos Anjos and Pedro Kilkerry, showing the points of contact between their oeuvres and demonstrating that many of the innovative aesthetic procedures of their poetry appear as a reaction to urgencies of an idealistic conception of poetry. Augusto dos Anjos and Pedro Kilkerry attest the anxiety of apprehension of connections with a super-sensible sphere in phenomenal reality. Although this takes a different form in each of the poets, it can refer to a common poetic ideal that transcends the concrete reality. To accomplish this, they use aesthetic procedures that modernize the language of the romantic sublime – Augusto dos Anjos uses a hybrid philosophical repertoire that marks his poetry with a tense and innovative prosaic language, and Pedro Kilkerry opts for the indirect representation, made by an evocative and metonymic language, that evidences the mystery of the transcendent ideal without deciphering it.

  12. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  13. Magnetotelluric Data, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2008-01-01

    The San Luis Valley region population is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region?s ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey (called magnetotellurics, or MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. The MT survey primary goal is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. This report does not include any data interpretation. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at 24 stations. Two of the stations were collected near Santa Fe, New Mexico, near deep wildcat wells. Well logs from those wells will help tie future interpretations of this data with geologic units from the Santa Fe Group sediments to Precambrian basement.

  14. Role of the offshore Pedro Banks left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in the plate tectonic evolution of the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Saunders, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous workers, mainly mapping onland active faults on Caribbean islands, defined the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone as a 200-km-wide bounded by two active and parallel strike-slip faults: the Oriente fault along the northern edge of the Cayman trough with a GPS rate of 14 mm/yr, and and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) with a rate of 5-7 mm/yr. In this study we use 5,000 km of industry and academic data from the Nicaraguan Rise south and southwest of the EPGFZ in the maritime areas of Jamaica, Honduras, and Colombia to define an offshore, 700-km-long, active, left-lateral strike-slip fault in what has previously been considered the stable interior of the Caribbean plate as determined from plate-wide GPS studies. The fault was named by previous workers as the Pedro Banks fault zone because a 100-km-long segment of the fault forms an escarpment along the Pedro carbonate bank of the Nicaraguan Rise. Two fault segments of the PBFZ are defined: the 400-km-long eastern segment that exhibits large negative flower structures 10-50 km in width, with faults segments rupturing the sea floor as defined by high resolution 2D seismic data, and a 300-km-long western segment that is defined by a narrow zone of anomalous seismicity first observed by previous workers. The western end of the PBFZ terminates on a Quaternary rift structure, the San Andres rift, associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism and thickening trends indicating initial rifting in the Late Miocene. The southern end of the San Andreas rift terminates on the western Hess fault which also exhibits active strands consistent with left-lateral, strike-slip faults. The total length of the PBFZ-San Andres rift-Southern Hess escarpment fault is 1,200 km and traverses the entire western end of the Caribbean plate. Our interpretation is similar to previous models that have proposed the "stable" western Caribbean plate is broken by this fault whose rate of displacement is less than the threshold

  15. From Golden Age Mexican Cinema to Transnational Border Feminism: The Community of Spectators in "Loving