WorldWideScience

Sample records for sampling plant middlesex

  1. Middlesex Sampling Plant environmental report for calendar year 1989, Middlesex, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1980, was continued in 1989 at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site, located in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey. The MSP site is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a Department of Energy (DOE) program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain either from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The monitoring program at MSP measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater samples. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted in the area of the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site during calendar year 1989. 17 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Middlesex Sampling Plant environmental report for calendar year 1992, 239 Mountain Avenue, Middlesex, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and provides the results for 1992. The site, in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, is a fenced area and includes four buildings and two storage piles that contain 50,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive and mixed hazardous waste. More than 70 percent of the MSP site is paved with asphalt. The MSP facility was established in 1943 by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) to sample, store, and/or ship uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores. In 1955 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), successor to MED, terminated the operation and later used the site for storage and limited sampling of thorium residues. In 1967 AEC activities ceased, onsite structures were decontaminated, and the site was certified for unrestricted use under criteria applicable at that time. In 1980 the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a multiphase remedial action project to clean up several vicinity properties onto which contamination from the plant had migrated. Material from these properties was consolidated into the storage piles onsite. Environmental surveillance of MSP began in 1980 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The environmental surveillance program at MSP includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analyses are performed to detect metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling th DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses.

  3. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Jessie [Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA (United States); Spaziani, Gina [Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA (United States)

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  4. UNPACKED: Middlesex University Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Wyn

    2013-01-01

    'UNPACKED: Middlesex University Product Design' is showcasing the 2013 graduating group of the Middlesex University BA/BSc Product Design course.\\ud The group of Product Designers will be exhibiting at two places in 2013; at the Old Truman Brewery, Brick Lane, London from 6-10th June and at the prestigious New Designers exhibition, Business Design Centre, London 3-6th July.

  5. Introducing RFID at Middlesex University Learning Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Alan; Chandrakar, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the first year of the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in Middlesex University Learning Resources. Design/methodology/approach: The technology is explained in detail to set the scene. Information on the implementation is presented in chronological order. Findings: Problems which would generally be…

  6. Middlesex FUSRAP Site - A Path to Site-Wide Closure - 13416

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David M. [ECC, 110 Fieldcrest Ave, Ste 31, Edison, NJ, 08837 (United States); Edge, Helen [US Army Corps of Engineers - NYD, 26 Federal Plaza, Room 1811, New York, NY, 10278 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The road-map to obtaining closure of the Middlesex Sampling Plant FUSRAP site in Middlesex, New Jersey (NJ) has required a multi-faceted approach, following the CERCLA Process. Since 1998, the US ACE, ECC, and other contractors have completed much of the work required for regulatory acceptance of site closure with unrestricted use. To date, three buildings have been decontaminated, demolished, and disposed of. Two interim storage piles have been removed and disposed of, followed by the additional removal and disposal of over 87,000 tons of radiologically and chemically-impacted subsurface soils by the summer of 2008. The US ACE received a determination from the EPA for the soils Operable Unit, (OU)-1, in September 2010 that the remedial excavations were acceptable, and meet the criteria for unrestricted use as required by the 2004 Record of Decision (ROD) for OU-1. Following the completion of OU-1, the project delivery team performed additional field investigation of the final Operable Unit for Middlesex, OU-2, Groundwater. As of December 2012, the project delivery team has completed a Supplemental Remedial Investigation, which will be followed with a streamlined Feasibility Study, Proposed Plan, and ROD. Several years of historical groundwater data was available from previous investigations and the FUSRAP Environmental Surveillance Program. Historical data indicated sporadic detections of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), with no apparent trend or pattern indicating extent or source of the VOC impact. In 2008, the project delivery team initiated efforts to re-assess the Conceptual Site Model (CSM) for groundwater. The bedrock was re-evaluated as a leaky multi-unit aquifer, and a plan was developed for additional investigations for adequate bedrock characterization and delineation of groundwater contaminated primarily by CT, TCE, and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The

  7. Challenging Texts: How Teaching "Middlesex" Challenged Students' Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Middlesex" is a book about undiagnosed hermaphrodite coming to terms with his/her socially determined sexuality and his/her choice of sexuality. The protagonist and narrator of the novel, Calliope Stephanides, is raised as a girl because he/she presented feminine genitalia at birth. When Calliope realizes he/she is a hermaphrodite--a realization…

  8. The Reinvention of Identity in Jeffrey Eugenides’s Middlesex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristi Trendel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In his second novel, Middlesex, Jeffrey Eugenides is deep in the Greeks. If Melville in Moby Dick sets up an anthology of whaling, Eugenides builds his collection of Greekness. It may be because the Greeks found a mythical way out of the contradictions and the ambiguities that characterize the fragmented human being in search of unity through Hermaphroditus, the figure of an indivisible duality, quite appropriate to express the diverse reality of American unity. The Pulitzer-prized writer re...

  9. Follow-Up Survey of the 1988-1989 Radiography Graduates of Middlesex Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Weymouth

    A graduate follow-up survey evaluated student outcomes for the radiography program at Middlesex Community College/Middlesex Memorial Hospital (Connecticut). The program prepares students for entry-level employment as radiographers. The questionnaire, based on input from program officials and respondents, was mailed to 14 1988 and 1989 graduates.…

  10. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  11. Sampling of plant in coffee for evaluation of nutritional status

    OpenAIRE

    Cintra, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"; Rozane, Danilo Eduardo; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"; Natale, William; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Silva, Silvia Helena Modenese Gorla da; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Barbosa, José Carlos; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Lopes, Marcelo Domingos Chamma; Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho

    2015-01-01

    The foliar fertilization assists programs in order to obtain higher yields, however, it is essential to know the ideal number of plants to be sampled. The study aimed to determine in commercial coffee plantations, subjected to two water regimes, the number of plants to be sampled and estimate the sample error for the diagnosis of nutritional status of that culture. The work consisted of two studies where samples of leaves were collected in rainfed and irrigated farming. For both studies the c...

  12. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  13. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  14. Qualitative Analysis of Plant-Derived Samples by Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Currently, mass spectrometry has become an effective method for the qualitative analysis of plant-derived samples. Precursor and product ions can be obtained by tandem mass spectrometry, supplying rich information for determining the structural formulas of compounds. In this work, we review the optimization of ...

  15. Measurements of radioactivity in plant and soil samples taken near a nuclear power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Langaas, Gjertrud Louise

    2016-01-01

    This project is a study of six soil and vegetation samples taken near the nuclear power plant at Ringhals, Sweden. The purpose was to detect any signs of radioactivity in the soil and vegetation originating from the plant, while simultaneously giving insight on the advantages and limitations of using equipment from the radioecology lab at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The samples were examined by a high purity germanium detector, and the resulting spectra were analyzed in M...

  16. Sampling plant diversity and rarity at landscape scales: importance of sampling time in species detectability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott E; Grainger, Tess N; Kohler, Monica; Chipchar, Tim; Farr, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Documenting and estimating species richness at regional or landscape scales has been a major emphasis for conservation efforts, as well as for the development and testing of evolutionary and ecological theory. Rarely, however, are sampling efforts assessed on how they affect detection and estimates of species richness and rarity. In this study, vascular plant richness was sampled in 356 quarter hectare time-unlimited survey plots in the boreal region of northeast Alberta. These surveys consisted of 15,856 observations of 499 vascular plant species (97 considered to be regionally rare) collected by 12 observers over a 2 year period. Average survey time for each quarter-hectare plot was 82 minutes, ranging from 20 to 194 minutes, with a positive relationship between total survey time and total plant richness. When survey time was limited to a 20-minute search, as in other Alberta biodiversity methods, 61 species were missed. Extending the survey time to 60 minutes, reduced the number of missed species to 20, while a 90-minute cut-off time resulted in the loss of 8 species. When surveys were separated by habitat type, 60 minutes of search effort sampled nearly 90% of total observed richness for all habitats. Relative to rare species, time-unlimited surveys had ∼ 65% higher rare plant detections post-20 minutes than during the first 20 minutes of the survey. Although exhaustive sampling was attempted, observer bias was noted among observers when a subsample of plots was re-surveyed by different observers. Our findings suggest that sampling time, combined with sample size and observer effects, should be considered in landscape-scale plant biodiversity surveys.

  17. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gian?, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-01-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to...

  18. Traceability of plant diet contents in raw cow milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-02-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet.

  19. Isolation and analysis of vitamin B12 from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, M; Pepelanova, I; Beutel, S; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T

    2017-02-01

    Based on increased demands of strict vegetarians, an investigation of vitamin B12 content in plant sources, was carried out. The vitamin B12 concentration was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection, after prior matrix isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). Vitamin B12 was extracted in the presence of sodium cyanide, to transform all forms of cobalamin into cyanocobalamin. Diode array detector was used to monitor vitamin B12, after its chromatographic separation under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.025% (w/v). The method demonstrated excellent linearity with a limit of detection 0.004μg/ml. The method precision was evaluated for plant samples and it was below 0.7% (n=6). Significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plants were detected in Hippophae rhamnoides (37μg/100g dry weight), in Elymus (26μg/100g dry weight) and in Inula helenium (11μg/100g dry weight). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sample preparation issues in NMR-based plant metabolomics: optimisation for Vitis wood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabalaki, Maria; Bertrand, Samuel; Stefanou, Anna; Gindro, Katia; Kostidis, Sarantos; Mikros, Emmanuel; Skaltsounis, Leandros A; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most commonly used analytical techniques in plant metabolomics. Although this technique is very reproducible and simple to implement, sample preparation procedures have a great impact on the quality of the metabolomics data. Investigation of different sample preparation methods and establishment of an optimised protocol for untargeted NMR-based metabolomics of Vitis vinifera L. wood samples. Wood samples from two different cultivars of V. vinifera with well-defined phenotypes (Gamaret and 2091) were selected as reference materials. Different extraction solvents (successively, dichloromethane, methanol and water, as well as ethyl acetate and 7:3 methanol-water (v/v)) and deuterated solvents (methanol-d4, 7:3 chloroform-d-methanol-d4 (v/v), dimethylsulphoxide-d6 and 9:1 dimethylsulphoxide-d6-water-d2 (v/v)) were evaluated for NMR acquisition, and the spectral quality was compared. The optimal extract concentration, chemical shift stability and peak area repeatability were also investigated. Ethyl acetate was found to be the most satisfactory solvent for the extraction of all representative chemical classes of secondary metabolites in V. vinifera wood. The optimal concentration of dried extract was 10 mg/mL and 7:3 chloroform-d-methanol-d4 (v/v) was the most suitable solvent system for NMR analysis. Multivariate data analysis was used to estimate the biological variation and clustering between different cultivars. Close attention should be paid to all required procedures before NMR analysis, especially to the selection of an extraction solvent and a deuterated solvent system to perform an extensive metabolomic survey of the specific matrix. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  2. Sample preparation for mass spectrometry imaging of plant tissues: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui eDong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining steps. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods specific for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of various MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites.

  3. Broad phylogenomic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Timme

    Full Text Available The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum" as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1 the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2 the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae.

  4. Land development in Massachusetts: Its effect on the environment within Essex and Middlesex counties from 1990 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardie, Peter Sean

    Since the 1970's urban centers in and surrounding Essex and Middlesex Counties in Massachusetts have expanded and proliferated into adjacent communities. This expansion has led to the conversion of land for housing, businesses, schools, recreation, and parks, placing significant strain on existing land cover, land use, and available natural resources. Mounting growth pressures and a reduction of undeveloped land have raised serious concerns as cropland and forest fragmentation, wetland destruction, protected open-space infringement, pollution, and systematic losses of rural conditions have become obvious. To monitor development, the post-classification change detection method was applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data and GIS was used to detect, quantity, and document the extent of development and its effect on the environment and to assess and quantify the demographic changes that occurred within the counties from 1990 to 2007. Classification of the 1990 image resulted in 217 clusters and 214 clusters for the 2007 image The overall accuracy achieved for the 1990 image classification was 87.3% with a KHAT value of 0.848, and the overall accuracy for the 2007 classification was 86.27% with a KHAT value of 0.840. From 1990 to 2007 land cover change occurred primarily along major transportation corridors. The post-classification change detection results indicate that Essex and Middlesex County combined gained 23,435.66 "new" acres of land development from 1990 to 2007 through a loss and change in acreage from the Bareland, Forest, Grassland, Water, and Wetland land cover class categories. Results indicate that there was an approximate 0.56% overall (net) increase of newly developed land areas within the 1990 and 2007 image classifications from 415.46 acres or 0.64 square miles. In addition, there was a substantial decrease (-40.0%) within the grassland category. Land development was responsible for a portion of the decrease of grasslands (-13

  5. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Brummitt

    Full Text Available Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.

  6. Autoradiography of plant samples exposed to neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Motoko; Maeno, Tomokazu; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Inst. (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Distribution of short half-life nuclides in seedlings of Vigna angularis exposed to neutron activation was investigated by autoradiography using image plate, which is highly sensitive. A seedling 13 cm in height was cut and cultured in Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} or Mn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for several days. The upper part of the seedling was exposed to neutron radiation in PN3 facility of KURRI and applied onto image plate (Fuji Film Co. Ltd., BAS-5000 MAC) as well as {gamma}-ray spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of short half-life nuclides. Thus obtained PSL intensities were compared among three parts of seedling; terminal bud, epicotyl and first leaf. The incorporated Al and Mn were indicated to accumulate mainly in the first leaf and the terminal bud, whereas their accumulations were less in the epicotyl, which is a conductive tissue. With regards to other short half-life nuclides such as Ca, K, Mg, Cl, etc., Ca level of the first leaf was decreased by the presence of Mn or Al, whereas Mn level of terminal bud was decreased in the presence of Mn. These results indicate that it became possible by the use of image plate to analyze short half-life nuclides in samples exposed to neutron activation. (M.N.)

  7. Effects of sampling completeness on the structure of plant-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hutinel, A; Bustamante, R O; Marín, V H; Medel, R

    2012-07-01

    Plant-animal interaction networks provide important information on community organization. One of the most critical assumptions of network analysis is that the observed interaction patterns constitute an adequate sample of the set of interactions present in plant-animal communities. In spite of its importance, few studies have evaluated this assumption, and in consequence, there is no consensus on the sensitivity of network metrics to sampling methodological shortcomings. In this study we examined how variation in sampling completeness influences the estimation of six network metrics frequently used in the literature (connectance, nestedness, modularity, robustness to species loss, path length, and centralization). We analyzed data of 186 flowering plants and 336 pollinator species in 10 networks from a forest-fragmented system in central Chile. Using species-based accumulation curves, we estimated the deviation of network metrics in undersampled communities with respect to exhaustively sampled communities and the effect of network size and sampling evenness on network metrics. Our results indicate that: (1) most metrics were affected by sampling completeness but differed in their sensitivity to sampling effort; (2) nestedness, modularity, and robustness to species loss were less influenced by insufficient sampling than connectance, path length, and centralization; (3) robustness was mildly influenced by sampling evenness. These results caution studies that summarize information from databases with high, or unknown, heterogeneity in sampling effort per species and should stimulate researchers to report sampling intensity to standardize its effects in the search for broad patterns in plant-pollinator networks.

  8. Environmental monitoring of fluoride emissions using precipitation, dust, plant and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J; Hrenn, H; Schumm, C; Klumpp, A; Fangmeier, A

    2006-11-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride producing chemical plant in Germany. In all samples the influence of emissions was discernible up to a distance of 500 m from the plant. However, fluoride concentrations in plant bioindicators (leaves of birch and black berry) and in bulk precipitation showed a more pronounced relationship with the distance from the source than fluoride concentrations in soil. Vegetables sampled in the vicinity of the plant also had elevated concentrations of fluoride, but only the consumption of larger quantities of this material would lead to exceedances of recommended daily F-intake. The present study did not indicate the existence of low phytotoxicity thresholds for fluoride in the plant species used in the study. Even at very high fluoride concentrations in leaf tissue (963 ppm) plants did not show injury due to HF. Dust sampling downwind of the chemical plant confirmed that particulate fluoride was of minor importance in the study area.

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION OF DRY SAMPLES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING LEAF EPIDERMAL FEATURES AS MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is the oldest and still the most widely used system of medicine in the world today and they are made exclusively from plants. However, most of these medicines or drugs are adulterated due to lack of proper identification of the plant samples. Method of checking adulteration of drug plants is the main focus of this study. The identification and authentication of dry samples of some medicinal plants were carried out using anatomical features. Twenty-five (25 plants materials were collected in Ibadan and Ilorin, Nigeria. The plants studied include Azardiracta indica, Newboudia leavis, Polyalthia longifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Anarcardium occidentalis, Nicotiana tobbaccum, Jatropha curcas, Chromoleana odorata, Mangifera indica, Terminalia catappa, Ocimum gratisimum, Morus messosygia, Morinda lucida, Psidium guajava, Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Vernonia amygdalina, Gliricidium sepium, Ravoulvia vomitora, Telferia occindentalis Citrus aurantifolia, C. limon, C. paradisi and C. sinensis. Leaf epidermal anatomy of these selected plants showed no major variations in stomatal complex types, frequency, size and shape of stomatal cells, epidermal cell wall and trichomes between fresh and dry samples. The variations that occur were between different species but not within species. Leaf epidermal anatomy, therefore, proved to be a significant tool for resolution of taxonomic confusion of dried samples of these plants.

  10. Direct Contact Sorptive Extraction: A Robust Method for Sampling Plant Volatiles in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Nicole; Scott, Eric; Orians, Colin; Robbat, Albert

    2017-09-27

    Plants produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with diverse structures and functions, which change in response to environmental stimuli and have important consequences for interactions with other organisms. To understand these changes, in situ sampling is necessary. In contrast to dynamic headspace (DHS), which is the most often employed method, direct contact sampling employing a magnetic stir bar held in place by a magnet eliminates artifacts produced by enclosing plant materials in glass or plastic chambers. Direct-contact sorptive extraction (DCSE) using polydimethylsiloxane coated stir bars (Twisters) coated stir bars is more sensitive than DHS, captures a wider range of compounds, minimizes VOC collection from neighboring plants, and distinguishes the effects of herbivory in controlled and field conditions. Because DCSE is relatively inexpensive and simple to employ, scalability of field trials can be expanded concomitant with increased sample replication. The sensitivity of DCSE combined with the spectral deconvolution data analysis software makes the two ideal for comprehensive, in situ profiling of plant volatiles.

  11. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor exotic invasive plants is likely to vary depending on the sampling method employed. Methods with strong qualitative thoroughness for species detection often lack the intensity necessary to monitor vegetation change. Four sampling methods (systematic plot, stratified-random plot, modified Whittaker, and timed meander) in hemlock and red...

  12. Prevalence of L. Monocytogenes in Environmental Samples Collected in Dairy Plants of Sassari Province, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Antonio; Frongia, Giorgio; Sanna, Antonietta; Melillo, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is frequently isolated from food production environment and often persists in dairy plants despite vigorous sanitation regimes. In recent years several alert notifications were sent to Rapid Alert System for Food Products system as a consequence of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of ricotta cheese. After the alert of 2012, competent authority (Local Health Unit of Sassari Province) organised an environmental monitoring plan with the partnership of the Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia to verify analysis of dairy plants own-check according to Regulation (EC) N° 2073/05 and further modifications. In 2014 n. 665 processing areas samples of n. 50 dairy plants of Sassari Province were examined. UNI EN ISO 11290-1:2005 for detection of L. monocytogenes was used. Non-compliance in n. 5 diary plants are observed (n. 8 positive samples). Post-non-compliance environmental sanitisation was efficient and own-check plans included appropriate corrective actions. PMID:27800407

  13. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes in environmental samples collected in dairy plants of Sassari Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Terrosu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria (L. monocytogenes is frequently isolated from food production environment and often persists in dairy plants despite vigorous sanitation regimes. In recent years several alert notifications were sent to Rapid Alert System for Food Products system as a consequence of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of ricotta cheese. After the alert of 2012, competent authority (Local Health Unit of Sassari Province organised an environmental monitoring plan with the partnership of the Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia to verify analysis of dairy plants own-check according to Regulation (EC N° 2073/05 and further modifications. In 2014 n. 665 processing areas samples of n. 50 dairy plants of Sassari Province were examined. UNI EN ISO 11290-1:2005 for detection of L. monocytogenes was used. Non-compliance in n. 5 diary plants are observed (n. 8 positive samples. Post-non-compliance environmental sanitisation was efficient and own-check plans included appropriate corrective actions.

  14. Microwave-assisted Acid decomposition of animal- and plant-derived samples for element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Elma Neide V M; Gonzalez, Mário H; Nogueira, Ana Rita A; Cruz, Geraldo M; Nóbrega, Joaquim A

    2002-07-17

    A single microwave-assisted acid-decomposition procedure is proposed for sample preparation of plant- and bovine-derived materials prior to multielement determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure involved sample grinding in a cryogenic mill to reduce particle sizes and increase the surface area for acid attack, followed by decomposition under high pressure and temperature. A single heating program was employed and efficiently destroyed most of the organic matrix by using small volumes of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Accuracy of the elemental analysis was indicated by the good agreement between certified and found values of elements in plant and animal samples at 95% confidence level. The sample preparation procedure was fast and reproducible, and proved to be efficient for elemental analysis in agricultural and food-related samples by a sensitive multielement technique such as ICP-OES.

  15. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Mörsdorf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in

  16. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, Martin A; Ravolainen, Virve T; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  17. EG & G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D & D soil box sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D&D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D&D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D&D Soils Packages (EG&G 1991).

  18. Preparation of Plant 41Ca Tracer Samples for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Qing-zhang1;JANG Ping-ping3;LIN De-yu4;YANG Xian-lin1;DOU Liang1;PANG Yi-jun1;WANG Xiao-ming1;ZHANG Hui1,5;YANG Xu-ran1;WU Shao-yong1;GAO Dong-sheng2;LI Ling2;WANG Lei2;SUN Ke-peng2;ZHOU Jun2;DONG Ke-jun1;HE Ming1

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium plays an important role in the metabolism of plants and animals. In this paper, the preparation method of plant 41Ca for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS measurement was developed for the first time in China. AMS, with its advantages of high sensitivity, small dose of radioactivity, high accuracy, large measuring range, and long tracer cycle, can be used to measure cosmogenic nuclide 41Ca , which has long half-life. The intensity of the beam in ion source is an important parameter for the sensitivity of AMS measurement. The high beam current can improve the sensitivity of AMS. The preparation methods of plant samples of 41Ca tracer were systematically studied to obtain high beam current using wet, dry and a combining method with wet and dry re-fluoride. A reliable preparation procedure of plant samples for 41Ca tracer and its optimization parameters were determined by testing beam currents of various samples and lay a foundation for the 41Ca-AMS technology at plant tracer applications.

  19. [Adulteration detection of tea samples based on plant rbcL gene sequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minxuan; Zhang, Yongjie

    2018-02-25

    Tea is one of the most popular drinks in the world, but counterfeit or adulterated tea can be found now and then on the tea market. The traditional methods dependent on sensory, physical and chemical tests cannot identify the composition of adulterated plant species accurately. We developed therefore a method for identification of adulterated plants in tea based on qualitative detection of plant rbcL (Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase large subunit) fragments, which involved amplification, sequencing and sequence analyses of rbcL fragments. Seven tea samples were analyzed with the established method. The results showed that Yueyanghuangcha (yellow tea) and Xinyangmaojian (green tea) were pure with only detection of the tea plant Camellia sinensis; Zhengshan Souzhong (black tea), Tieguanyin (oolong tea), Tailaoyinzhen (white tea), Liupao and Pu-erh (dark tea) were, to a certain extent, adulterated with non-Camellia sinensis plants. The method introduced in this study only requires a small amount of tea samples, easy to operate and reliable. It can be used to determine if any tea samples are adulterated.

  20. Identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves using outlier sample eliminating algorithms and hyperspectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Qinglin

    2016-02-26

    Fast identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves plays a key role in the tobacco cultivation industry and benefits the management of tobacco plant in the farm. In order to identify moisture content of tobacco plant leaves in a fast and nondestructive way, a method involving Mahalanobis distance coupled with Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) was proposed to eliminate outlier sample in this study. The hyperspectral data of 200 tobacco plant leaf samples of 20 moisture gradients were obtained using FieldSpc(®) 3 spectrometer. Savitzky-Golay smoothing(SG), roughness penalty smoothing(RPS), kernel smoothing(KS) and median smoothing(MS) were used to preprocess the raw spectra. In addition, Mahalanobis distance(MD), Monte Carlo cross validation(MCCV) and Mahalanobis distance coupled to Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) were applied to select the outlier sample of the raw spectrum and four smoothing preprocessing spectra. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to extract the most influential wavelengths. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied to build the prediction models based on preprocessed spectra feature in characteristic wavelengths. The results showed that the preferably four prediction model were MD-MCCV-SG (Rp(2) = 0.8401 and RMSEP = 0.1355), MD-MCCV-RPS (Rp(2) = 0.8030 and RMSEP = 0.1274), MD-MCCV-KS (Rp(2) = 0.8117 and RMSEP = 0.1433), MD-MCCV-MS (Rp(2) = 0.9132 and RMSEP = 0.1162). MD-MCCV algorithm performed best among MD algorithm, MCCV algorithm and the method without sample pretreatment algorithm in the eliminating outlier sample from 20 different moisture gradients of tobacco plant leaves and MD-MCCV can be used to eliminate outlier sample in the spectral preprocessing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  2. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Deng; Xinyue, Zhong; Na, Zhang; Chengying, Lao; Bo, Wang; Dingxiang, Peng; Lijun, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie). An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  3. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Gang

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie. An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  4. Determination of fluorine contents in plant samples by means of facilitated extraction with enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; An, Jinsung; Yoon, Hye-On

    2015-01-01

    In this study, facilitated extraction with enzyme was employed for the first time to extract fluorine (F) from plants. Feasibility of the proposed method for F analysis was assessed by comparing with the alkali fusion-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. In the extraction procedure, 30 mg of a protease and 0.1 g of a plant sample were added in 10 mL of deionized water. In the absence of sonication, the solution was mechanically shaken for 10 s. A variety of parameters (i.e., the amounts of enzymes used, physical treatment conditions applied, extraction time, temperature, and pH) were optimized to enhance the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The suitability of the proposed method for various plant samples (i.e., grass, perilla, peanut, hot pepper, and eggplant) was also evaluated. The proposed method involves decreased operation time, simplified extraction procedures, and minimal consumption of hazardous reagents and solvents in comparison with other existing methods. Experimental results demonstrated that facilitated extraction with enzyme is appropriate for the rapid determination of F content in plant samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elemental analysis of trace elements in fly ash sample of Yatagan thermal power plants using EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.; Kobya, M. [Selcuk University, Meram (Turkey). Faculty of Education

    2006-09-15

    Fly ash samples collected by means of an electrostatic precipitator from the lignite-fired Yatagan Power Plants of the located in Turkey was analysed using X-ray fluorescence technique. Five trace elements, namely Nd, Ba, Sr, Mo and As were quantified using XRF. These concentration values can be helpful in developing an environmental pollution abatement approach for various applications of fly ash such as cement manufacture, wastewater treatment, lightweight contraction aggregate, ceramic production, and secondary source in recovery of valuable elements. Present results compared with results of the Kemerkoy thermal power plants.

  6. Detection of Enteroviruses in Influent and Effluent Flow Samples from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistone, Andrea; Buttinelli, Gabriele; Bonomo, Paolo; Fiore, Stefano; Amato, Concetta; Mercurio, Pietro; Cicala, Antonella; Simeoni, Josef; Foppa, Adelheid; Triassi, Maria; Pennino, Francesca; Fiore, Lucia

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the presence and seasonal distribution of polio and other enteroviruses in four wastewater treatment plants in three cities in Italy, using different treatment systems. Detection of enteroviruses was carried out by virus isolation in cell cultures after concentration of water samples collected at both inlet and outlet of the treatment plants, following the methods described in the WHO guidelines. Viral serotypes isolated before and after water treatment were compared. Forty-eight non-polio enteroviruses were isolated from 312 samples collected at the inlet of the four wastewater treatment plants, 35 of which were Coxsackievirus type B (72.9 %) and 13 Echovirus (27.1 %). After treatment, 2 CVB3, 1 CVB5, and 1 Echo 6 were isolated. CVB3 and Echo 6 serotypes were also detected in samples collected at the inlet of the TP, in the same month and year. The high rate of detection of infectious enteroviruses in inlet sewage samples (30.1 %) indicates wide diffusion of these viruses in the populations linked to the collectors. The incomplete removal of infectious viruses following sewage treatment highlights possible risks for public health relate to treated waters discharge into the environment.

  7. A method for under-sampled ecological network data analysis: plant-pollination as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Sorensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a method, termed the Interaction Distribution (ID method, for analysis of quantitative ecological network data. In many cases, quantitative network data sets are under-sampled, i.e. many interactions are poorly sampled or remain unobserved. Hence, the output of statistical analyses may fail to differentiate between patterns that are statistical artefacts and those which are real characteristics of ecological networks. The ID method can support assessment and inference of under-sampled ecological network data. In the current paper, we illustrate and discuss the ID method based on the properties of plant-animal pollination data sets of flower visitation frequencies. However, the ID method may be applied to other types of ecological networks. The method can supplement existing network analyses based on two definitions of the underlying probabilities for each combination of pollinator and plant species: (1, pi,j: the probability for a visit made by the i’th pollinator species to take place on the j’th plant species; (2, qi,j: the probability for a visit received by the j’th plant species to be made by the i’th pollinator. The method applies the Dirichlet distribution to estimate these two probabilities, based on a given empirical data set. The estimated mean values for pi,j and qi,j reflect the relative differences between recorded numbers of visits for different pollinator and plant species, and the estimated uncertainty of pi,j and qi,j decreases with higher numbers of recorded visits.

  8. Standard sampling method of Longkong leaf for evaluation of plant nutrient status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-lim, M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis is a tool for effective fertilizer recommendations in fruit trees. To achieve this goal, suitable leaf sampling method is a very important step. This study aimed to investigate leaf age, leaflet from different compound leaf positions and number of trees to be sampled as a representative sample for plant nutrient status of Longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. tree. The middle pair of leaflets from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th compound leaves from growing twigs at the lower canopy of Longkong trees were separately sampled and the following nutrients were determined: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg. The effect of soil fertility management and leaf age collected from twigs flushed at flowering and post harvest stages on nutrient concentration was investigated. Results showed that concentrations of plant nutrients in leaflets collected from different compound leaf positions were not significantly different. The leaf nutrient concentration depended on soil fertility management, higher fertilizer input resulting in higher leaf nutrient concentration. As leaf age increased, concentrations of N, P and K tended to decrease. In contrast, concentrations of Ca and Mg increased with leaf age. However, concentrations of most nutrients showed minimum variation with leaf aged 3-6 months. It is, thus, suggested that the middle pair leaflet of the 2nd compound leaf position aged 3-6 months of the lower twig should be sampled at post harvest stage from 25-35 trees to be used as a composite sample for plant nutrient analysis.

  9. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husted Søren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in order to obtain high accuracy data. Results We have developed a micro-scaled microwave digestion procedure and optimized it for accurate elemental profiling of plant materials (1-20 mg dry weight. A commercially available 64-position rotor with 5 ml disposable glass vials, originally designed for microwave-based parallel organic synthesis, was used as a platform for the digestion. The novel micro-scaled method was successfully validated by the use of various certified reference materials (CRM with matrices rich in starch, lipid or protein. When the micro-scaled digestion procedure was applied on single rice grains or small batches of Arabidopsis seeds (1 mg, corresponding to approximately 50 seeds, the obtained elemental profiles closely matched those obtained by conventional analysis using digestion in large volume vessels. Accumulated elemental contents derived from separate analyses of rice grain fractions (aleurone, embryo and endosperm closely matched the total content obtained by analysis of the whole rice grain. Conclusion A high-throughput micro-scaled method has been developed which enables digestion of small quantities of plant samples for subsequent elemental profiling by ICP-spectrometry. The method constitutes a valuable tool for screening of mutants and transformants. In addition, the method facilitates studies of the distribution of essential trace elements between and within plant organs which is relevant for, e.g., breeding programmes aiming at

  10. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas H; Laursen, Kristian H; Persson, Daniel P; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K

    2009-09-26

    Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in order to obtain high accuracy data. We have developed a micro-scaled microwave digestion procedure and optimized it for accurate elemental profiling of plant materials (1-20 mg dry weight). A commercially available 64-position rotor with 5 ml disposable glass vials, originally designed for microwave-based parallel organic synthesis, was used as a platform for the digestion. The novel micro-scaled method was successfully validated by the use of various certified reference materials (CRM) with matrices rich in starch, lipid or protein. When the micro-scaled digestion procedure was applied on single rice grains or small batches of Arabidopsis seeds (1 mg, corresponding to approximately 50 seeds), the obtained elemental profiles closely matched those obtained by conventional analysis using digestion in large volume vessels. Accumulated elemental contents derived from separate analyses of rice grain fractions (aleurone, embryo and endosperm) closely matched the total content obtained by analysis of the whole rice grain. A high-throughput micro-scaled method has been developed which enables digestion of small quantities of plant samples for subsequent elemental profiling by ICP-spectrometry. The method constitutes a valuable tool for screening of mutants and transformants. In addition, the method facilitates studies of the distribution of essential trace elements between and within plant organs which is relevant for, e.g., breeding programmes aiming at improvement of the micronutrient density in edible

  11. Selenium isotope studies in plants. Development and validation of a novel geochemical tool and its application to organic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banning, Helena

    2016-03-12

    Selenium (Se), being an essential nutrient and a toxin, enters the food chain mainly via plants. Selenium isotope signatures were proved to be an excellent redox tracer, making it a promising tool for the exploration of the Se cycle in plants. The analytical method is sensitive on organic samples and requires particular preparation methods, which were developed and validated in this study. Plant cultivation setups revealed the applicability of these methods to trace plant internal processes.

  12. Comparison of digestion methods for determination of trace and minor metals in plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, I; Filgueiras, A V; Bendicho, C

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, three dissolution methods using pressure digestion vessels (low-, medium-, and high-pressure vessels) for the determination of metals in plant samples are described. The Plackett-Burman saturated factorial design was used to identify the significant factors influencing wet ashing and to select optimized dissolution conditions. The three methods were statistically compared (on-way ANOVA) on the same sample; no significant differences were obtained. In all cases the relative standard deviation values were microwave oven was validated against CRM GBW07605 tea leaves. This method was applied to the determination of Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Mg, and Ca in 22 different medicinal, aromatic, and seasoning plants by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration intervals of metal in the plants analyzed were the following: Cu, 4 (Allium sativum)-35 (Thea sinensis) microg g(-1); Zn, 7 (Piper nigrum)-90 (Betula alba) microg g(-1); Mn, 9 (Allium sativum)-939 (Caryophylus aromaticus) microg g(-1); Fe, 33 (Allium sativum)-2486 (Anethum graveolens) microg g(-1); Mg, 495 (Allium sativum)-7458 (Ocimum basilicum) microg g(-1); Ca, 386 (Allium sativum)-21500 (Ocimum basilicum) microg g(-1).

  13. Mind the bubbles: achieving stable measurements of maximum hydraulic conductivity through woody plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Susana; Schenk, H Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (k(max)) of a plant sample is a measure of the ability of a plants' vascular system to transport water and dissolved nutrients under optimum conditions. Precise measurements of k(max) are needed in comparative studies of hydraulic conductivity, as well as for measuring the formation and repair of xylem embolisms. Unstable measurements of k(max) are a common problem when measuring woody plant samples and it is commonly observed that k(max) declines from initially high values, especially when positive water pressure is used to flush out embolisms. This study was designed to test five hypotheses that could potentially explain declines in k(max) under positive pressure: (i) non-steady-state flow; (ii) swelling of pectin hydrogels in inter-vessel pit membranes; (iii) nucleation and coalescence of bubbles at constrictions in the xylem; (iv) physiological wounding responses; and (v) passive wounding responses, such as clogging of the xylem by debris. Prehydrated woody stems from Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) and Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) collected from plants grown in the Fullerton Arboretum in Southern California, were used to test these hypotheses using a xylem embolism meter (XYL'EM). Treatments included simultaneous measurements of stem inflow and outflow, enzyme inhibitors, stem-debarking, low water temperatures, different water degassing techniques, and varied concentrations of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and copper salts in aqueous measurement solutions. Stable measurements of k(max) were observed at concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts high enough to suppress bubble coalescence, as well as with deionized water that was degassed using a membrane contactor under strong vacuum. Bubble formation and coalescence under positive pressure in the xylem therefore appear to be the main cause for declining k(max) values. Our findings suggest that degassing of water is essential for achieving stable and

  14. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  15. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  16. Analysis and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil and Plant Samples of a Coal Mining Area in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, K E; Ukoha, P O

    2016-03-01

    This study analysed coal, plant and soil samples collected from the vicinity of Okobo coal mine in Nigeria for Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluated the sources of the PAH contamination in the environmental samples. The environmental samples were extracted by sonication using a ternary solvent system and analysed for 16 PAHs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the analysis of the samples identified some of the target PAHs. The ranges of total concentrations (in mg/kg) of PAHs in the coal, plant and soil samples were, 0.00-0.04, 0.00-0.16 and 0.00-0.01 respectively. The evaluation of the results of the PAH analysis of the environmental samples using diagnostic ratios revealed that the PAHs in the soil samples were mainly of petrogenic origin, while those in plant samples indicated mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic origins.

  17. Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D & D soils packages, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-02-01

    There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D&D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D&D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D&D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data.

  18. The 3D reconstruction of greenhouse tomato plant based on real organ samples and parametric L-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Longjiao; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Fu, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a fast and effective 3D reconstruction method for the growth of greenhouse tomato plant is proposed by using real organ samples and a parametric L-system. By analyzing the stereo structure of tomato plant, we extracts rules and parameters to assemble an L-system that is able to simulate the plant growth, and then the components of the L-system are translated into plant organ entities via image processing and computer graphics techniques. This method can efficiently and faithfully simulate the growing process of the greenhouse tomato plant.

  19. Secondary Metabolites in Allergic Plant Pollen Samples Modulate Afferent Neurons and Murine Tracheal Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božičević, Alen; De Mieri, Maria; Nassenstein, Christina; Wiegand, Silke; Hamburger, Matthias

    2017-11-22

    Plant pollens are strong airborne elicitors of asthma. Their proteinaceous allergens have been studied intensively, but little is known about a possible contribution of pollen secondary metabolites to the nonallergic exacerbation of asthma. Pollen samples originating from 30 plant species were analyzed by HPLC coupled to PDA, ESIMS, and ELSD detectors and off-line NMR spectroscopy. Polyamine conjugates, flavonoids, and sesquiterpene lactones were identified. Polyamine conjugates were characteristic of all Asteraceae species. The presence of sesquiterpene lactones in Asteraceae pollen varied between species and pollen lots. All plant pollen, including those from non-Asteraceae species, contained to some extent electrophiles as determined by their reaction with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Selected pollen extracts and pure compounds were tested in murine afferent neurons and in murine tracheal preparations. Tetrahydrofuran extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Ambrosia psilostachya pollen and a mixture of sesquiterpene lactones coronopilin/parthenin increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in 15%, 32%, and 37% of cinnamaldehyde-responsive neurons, respectively. In organ bath experiments, only the sesquiterpene lactones tested induced a weak dilatation of naïve tracheas and strongly lowered the maximal methacholine-induced tracheal constriction. A tetrahydrofuran extract of A. psilostachya and coronopilin/parthenin led to a time-dependent relaxation of the methacholine-preconstricted trachea. These results provide the first evidence for a potential role of pollen secondary metabolites in the modulation of the tracheal tone.

  20. The Survey of Microbial Quality of the Dry Sample, Extract and Brewing of some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh VALIASILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post- harvest stages and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, the microbial quality of 44 samples of dry herbs namely: mint (Menthaspp., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, summer savory (Satureja hortensis, zataria (Zataria multiflora, Indian valerian (Valeriana wallichii, their brewing and extracts were analyzed. Total count using plate count agar medium (PCA, coliform count by Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBL, Enterobacteriacea by Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG were evaluated. Medium Baird-Parker agar (BP medium and Tryptone Bile X-Gluc (TBX medium were used for the isolation and enumeration of Staphylococcus aurous and E. coli spp. respectively. Furthermore, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar medium (XLD and Bismuth Sulfite Agar medium(BSA were used for detection of Salmonella spp. Fungal and mold contamination was assessed using yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar. The results showed that the contamination of the samples with total count (100% and Enterobacteriaceae (85%, total coliform (83%, mold and yeast (98% and E. coli ssp. (2.27 were detected, including in the study samples the absence of pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aurous, Salmonella spp. Moreover, the extract had a lower microbial load in comparison to dry herb samples. Also, the lowest and the highest of contamination rates were observed for Indian valerian and zataria, respectively. According to the results, there is a need to control the environmental conditions and improve hygiene in the production process; even more, it is recommended to choose a suitable decontamination method for disinfection during packing medicinal plants and during post-packing manipulation and transport.

  1. [Methods for the detection of Agrobacterium from plant, soil and water samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, Adriana M; López, Ana C; Balatti, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium includes phytopathogenic bacteria that induce the development of root crown galls and/or aerial galls at the base of the stem or hairy roots on more than 600 species of plants belonging to 90 dicotyledonous families and non-pathogenic species. These bacteria being natural soil inhabitants are particularly difficult to eradicate, which is a problem in nurseries where more than 80% of infections occur. Since early detection is crucial to avoid the inadvertent spread of the disease, the aim of this work was to develop sensitive and precise identification techniques by using a set of semi-selective and differential culture media in combination with a specific PCR to amplify a partial sequence derived from the virC operon, as well as a multiplex PCR on the basis of 23SrDNA sequences, and biological assays to identify and differentiate species and biovars of Agrobacterium obtained either from soil, water or plant samples. The combination of the different assays allowed us to reduce the number of false positive and negative results from bacteria isolated from any of the three types of samples. Therefore, the combination of multiplex PCR, specific PCR, isolations in semi-selective D1, D1-M and YEM-RCT media combined with bioassays on cut leaves of Kalanchoe and seedlings of California Wonder pepper cultivar constitute an accurate tool to detect species and biovars of Agrobacterium for diagnostic purposes.

  2. An Iterative and Targeted Sampling Design Informed by Habitat Suitability Models for Detecting Focal Plant Species over Extensive Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ophelia; Zachmann, Luke J.; Sesnie, Steven E.; Olsson, Aaryn D.; Dickson, Brett G.

    2014-01-01

    Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scal...

  3. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was exa...

  4. Speciation of arsenic in plants by HPLC-HG-AFS: extraction optimisation on CRM materials and application to cultivated samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohari, Yusuf; Lobos, Gabriella; Pinochet, Hugo; Pannier, Florence; Astruc, Annette; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2002-08-01

    A recently developed method for the determination of arsenic species (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, MMAA, and dimethylarsinate, DMAA) has been applied to the study of arsenic speciation in plants. This method uses ion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled on-line to atomic fluorescence spectrometry through continuous hydride generation. Various extraction procedures have been studied in detail using three plant certified reference materials. None of the procedures tested revealed fully satisfying results with all kinds of plant samples; microwave assisted extraction with 0.3 mol dm-3 orthophosphoric acid was found to be the most convenient for dealing with terrestrial plants. Species stability appears good. This method was applied to real world cultivated plant parts. Arsenate appears to predominate in soils, roots and leaves; unidentified species (probably arsenosugars) play an important role (60%) in rice fruits. Carrot was found to be the most contaminated edible plant part, containing 1 mg kg-1 essentially as arsenate species. MMAA was detected in all soils and some plant parts especially shallots at low levels, whereas DMAA was found only in one soil sample and in hot pepper leaves. Arsenite is a minor component of all soils; it is also present in some plant parts at low levels. However, no evident relationships were found between As speciation in the various plant parts and much more detailed studies will be necessary to elucidate As behaviour in plants.

  5. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  6. SAMPLING PLAN FOR ASSESSING BROWN ROT SEVERITY IN PEACHES SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY PAZOLINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of brown rot control derivatives has been the focus of intense research owing to the negative effects of the unrelenting usage of fungicides. Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is an important post-harvest disease of peaches. The goal of this study was to estimate the optimum sample size of peaches in order to assess the average lesion size and the influence of different plant extracts on the fruits. Three preparation forms (FPE were evaluated, as well as another seven forms of application (FAE of canola and mustard extracts on peaches, with applications of the pathogen’s inoculum. Five fruits were utilized in five repetitions per treatment. Evaluation involved measurement of the fruits’ lesioned areas. The necessary sampling size was determined for estimation of the averages for each treatment and experiment. For measurement of the lesion size, 99 fruits in FPE and 23 fruits in FAE were sufficient for estimating the average with an estimation error of 10%. Based on the same estimation error, the sampling size is contingent on the extracts (canola, and mustard, batches of fruits, forms of extraction, and extract application on the fruits.

  7. 76 FR 65165 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... plant part) for or capable of propagation, including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture... articles (other than seeds, bulbs, or sterile cultures of orchid plants) from any country or locality... considered to be medium or low risk. We will update our categorizations of taxa regularly in response to data...

  8. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for soil samples around nuclear power plant IV in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuey-Lin; Lin, Chun-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2008-09-01

    Activity concentrations and distributions of natural and man-made radionuclides in soil samples collected around nuclear power plant IV, Taiwan, were investigated for five years to assess the environmental radioactivity and characterisation of radiological hazard prior to commercial operation. The activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined via gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. Data obtained show that the average concentrations of the (238)U and (232)Th series, and (40)K, were within world median ranges in the UNSCEAR report. The (137)Cs ranged from 2.46 +/- 0.55 to 12.13 +/- 1.31 Bq kg(-1). The terrestrial absorbed dose rate estimated by soil activity and directly measured with a thermoluminescence dosemeter (excluding cosmic rays), and the annual effective doses, were 45.63, 57.34 nGy h(-1) and 57.19 microSv, respectively. Experimental results were compared with international recommended values. Since the soil in this area is an important building material, the mean radium equivalent activity, external and inhalation hazard indices and the representative level index using various models given in the literature for the study area were 98.18 Bq kg(-1), 0.27, 0.34 and 0.73, respectively, which were below the recommended limits. Analytical results demonstrate that no radiological anomaly exists. The baseline data will prove useful and important in estimating the collective dose near the new nuclear power plant under construction in Taiwan.

  9. A separation theorem for the stochastic sampled-data LQG problem. [control of continuous linear plant disturbed by white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper considers the control of a continuous linear plant disturbed by white plant noise when the control is constrained to be a piecewise constant function of time; i.e. a stochastic sampled-data system. The cost function is the integral of quadratic error terms in the state and control, thus penalizing errors at every instant of time while the plant noise disturbs the system continuously. The problem is solved by reducing the constrained continuous problem to an unconstrained discrete one. It is shown that the separation principle for estimation and control still holds for this problem when the plant disturbance and measurement noise are Gaussian.

  10. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.

  11. Optimizing Peirce-Smith Converters Using Thermodynamic Modeling and Plant Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, N.; Mackey, P. J.; Coursol, P.; Parada, R.; Parra, R.

    2012-05-01

    The performance of pyrometallurgical slag cleaning furnaces at many primary copper smelters is dependent in part on the quality of the converter slag, commonly produced in the batch-wise Peirce Smith converter (PSC). In order to understand the impact of converter slag chemistry and at the same time help optimize the converter operation, thermodynamic modeling of molten slag (including any contained slag solid fractions) was carried out on slag produced at the Chagres smelter in Chile. Phase characterization studies on actual plant slag samples were also carried out. The results are provided in the present paper. This work is also considered as a case study example to illustrate the type of work that can be performed to fairly quickly diagnose the quality of converter slag and assess the overall condition of the converter operation.

  12. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  13. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building.

  14. An iterative and targeted sampling design informed by habitat suitability models for detecting focal plant species over extensive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ophelia; Zachmann, Luke J; Sesnie, Steven E; Olsson, Aaryn D; Dickson, Brett G

    2014-01-01

    Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scale sampling design that used species occurrence data, habitat suitability models, and iterative and targeted sampling efforts to sample five species and satisfy two key management objectives: 1) detecting non-native invasive plants across previously unsampled gradients, and 2) characterizing the distribution of non-native invasive plants at landscape to regional scales. Habitat suitability models of five species were based on occurrence records and predictor variables derived from topography, precipitation, and remotely sensed data. We stratified and established field sampling locations according to predicted habitat suitability and phenological, substrate, and logistical constraints. Across previously unvisited areas, we detected at least one of our focal species on 77% of plots. In turn, we used detections from 2011 to improve habitat suitability models and sampling efforts in 2012, as well as additional spatial constraints to increase detections. These modifications resulted in a 96% detection rate at plots. The range of habitat suitability values that identified highly and less suitable habitats and their environmental conditions corresponded to field detections with mixed levels of agreement. Our study demonstrated that an iterative and targeted sampling framework can address sampling bias, reduce time costs, and increase detections. Other studies can extend the sampling framework to develop methods in other ecosystems to provide detection data. The sampling methods

  15. An iterative and targeted sampling design informed by habitat suitability models for detecting focal plant species over extensive areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophelia Wang

    Full Text Available Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scale sampling design that used species occurrence data, habitat suitability models, and iterative and targeted sampling efforts to sample five species and satisfy two key management objectives: 1 detecting non-native invasive plants across previously unsampled gradients, and 2 characterizing the distribution of non-native invasive plants at landscape to regional scales. Habitat suitability models of five species were based on occurrence records and predictor variables derived from topography, precipitation, and remotely sensed data. We stratified and established field sampling locations according to predicted habitat suitability and phenological, substrate, and logistical constraints. Across previously unvisited areas, we detected at least one of our focal species on 77% of plots. In turn, we used detections from 2011 to improve habitat suitability models and sampling efforts in 2012, as well as additional spatial constraints to increase detections. These modifications resulted in a 96% detection rate at plots. The range of habitat suitability values that identified highly and less suitable habitats and their environmental conditions corresponded to field detections with mixed levels of agreement. Our study demonstrated that an iterative and targeted sampling framework can address sampling bias, reduce time costs, and increase detections. Other studies can extend the sampling framework to develop methods in other ecosystems to provide detection data. The

  16. Routine sample preparation and HPLC analysis for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) determination in wheat plants and Arabidopsis leaf tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, T; Pál, Magda

    2014-06-01

    Plants have developed various mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress. One of the most important non-enzymatic antioxidants is ascorbic acid. There is thus a need for a rapid, sensitive method for the analysis of the reduced and oxidised forms of ascorbic acid in crop plants. In this paper a simple, economic, selective, precise and stable HPLC method is presented for the detection of ascorbate in plant tissue. The sensitivity, the short retention time and the simple isocratic elution mean that the method is suitable for the routine quantification of ascorbate in a high daily sample number. The method has been found to be better than previously reported methods, because of the use of an economical, readily available mobile phase, UV detection and the lack of complicated extraction procedures. The method has been tested on Arabidopsis plants with different ascorbate levels and on wheat plants during Cd stress.

  17. Rapid and sensitive hormonal profiling of complex plant samples by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Maren

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant hormones play a pivotal role in several physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence, and the determination of endogenous concentrations of hormones is essential to elucidate the role of a particular hormone in any physiological process. Availability of a sensitive and rapid method to quantify multiple classes of hormones simultaneously will greatly facilitate the investigation of signaling networks in controlling specific developmental pathways and physiological responses. Due to the presence of hormones at very low concentrations in plant tissues (10-9 M to 10-6 M and their different chemistries, the development of a high-throughput and comprehensive method for the determination of hormones is challenging. Results The present work reports a rapid, specific and sensitive method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS to analyze quantitatively the major hormones found in plant tissues within six minutes, including auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxyic acid (the ethylene precursor, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Sample preparation, extraction procedures and UPLC-MS/MS conditions were optimized for the determination of all plant hormones and are summarized in a schematic extraction diagram for the analysis of small amounts of plant material without time-consuming additional steps such as purification, sample drying or re-suspension. Conclusions This new method is applicable to the analysis of dynamic changes in endogenous concentrations of hormones to study plant developmental processes or plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in complex tissues. An example is shown in which a hormone profiling is obtained from leaves of plants exposed to salt stress in the aromatic plant, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  18. Uranium and radium in water samples around the Nikola Tesla B lignite-fired power plant - Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Zora S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of natural radionuclide content in 23 water samples collected in the vicinity of the Nikola Tesla B thermal power plant, Serbia. All samples were analyzed for 226Ra and uranium isotopes (238U, 234U activity using radiochemical methods and alpha spectrometry. Obtained results show that the activity concentrations for uranium and radium in the water around the thermal power plant are low when compared to those from areas across Serbia with their enhanced natural uranium and radium content. No important radiological hazard related to uranium and radium activity stored in heap was found.

  19. Determination of Total Chromium and Chromium Species in Kombolcha Tannery Wastewater, Surrounding Soil, and Lettuce Plant Samples, South Wollo, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Belayneh Asfaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the determination of total chromium (total Cr, Cr(III, and Cr(VI in Kombolcha leather industrial wastewater and the surrounding (soil and lettuce plant samples where the wastewater flows. The levels of total Cr, Cr(VI, and Cr(III in wastewater, soil, and lettuce plant samples were determined by FAAS, UV/Vis spectrophotometer, and difference (Cr(VI from total Cr, respectively. Among all samples taken, the maximum amounts of total Cr, Cr(III, and Cr(VI were obtained at the discharging point and the minimum amounts of total Cr and Cr(III were found downstream (400 m from the junction of Kombolcha leather industrial wastewater. On the other hand, the minimum concentration of Cr(VI was obtained in lettuce plant sample. The amounts of total Cr in all samples except soil sample were above the permissible limit as set by WHO/FAO. The concentrations of Cr(III in all wastewater samples were above the permissible level, whereas the concentration of Cr(VI in wastewater was above the permissible level except 400 m from the junction. The result showed that a remarkable elimination of total Cr and Cr species has not been achieved by this leather industry as its level was not much decreased when entered into the water systems. Therefore, effective treatment methods should be applied to the wastewater for the wellbeing of the surroundings.

  20. Plant Structure and Specificity - Challenges and Sample Preparation Considerations for Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sophie; Naldrett, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Plants are considered as a simple structured organism when compared to humans and other vertebrates. The number of organs and tissue types is very limited. Instead the origin of the complexity comes from the high number and variety of plant species that exist, with >300,000 compared to 5000 in mammals. Proteomics, defined as the large-scale study of the proteins present in a tissue, cell or cellular compartment at a defined time point, was introduced in 1994. However, the first publications reported in the plant proteomics field only appeared at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Since these early years, the increase of proteomic studies in plants has only followed a linear trend. The main reason for this stems from the challenges specific to studying plants, those of protein extraction from cells with variously strengthened cellulosic cell walls, and a high abundance of interfering compounds, such as phenolic compounds and pigments located in plastids throughout the plant. Indeed, the heterogeneity between different organs and tissue types, between species and different developmental stages, requires the use of optimized plant protein extraction methods as described in this section. The second bottleneck of plant proteomics, which will not be discussed or reviewed here, is the lack of genomic information. Without sequence databases of the >300,000 species, proteomic studies of plants, especially of those that are not considered economically relevant, are impossible to accomplish.

  1. Comparative analysis of lycorine in wild plant and callus culture samples of Hymenocallis littoralis by HPLC-UV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran; Sahgal, Geethaa; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2014-01-01

    The Hymenocallis littoralis, an ornamental and medicinal plant, had been traditionally used for wound healing. In the present study, an analytical method using HPLC with ultraviolet detection was developed for the quantification of lycorine in the extracts of different parts of wild plant and tissue culture samples of H. littoralis. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase column. The method was found to be accurate, repeatable, and sensitive for the quantification of minute amount of lycorine present in the samples. The highest lycorine content was found in the bulb extract (2.54 ± 0.02 μg/mg) whereas the least was in the root extract (0.71 ± 0.02 μg/mg) of the wild plants. Few callus culture samples had high content of lycorine, comparable to that of wild plants. The results showed that plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone at 4.5 μM (2.58 ± 0.38 μg/mg) or a combination of 2,4-D at 9.00 μM with 4.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were the optimum concentrations for the production of high lycorine (2.45 ± 0.15 μg/mg) content in callus culture. The present analytical method could be of value for routine quantification of lycorine in the tissue culture production and standardization of the raw material or extracts of H. littoralis.

  2. Carbon transfer from plant roots to soil - NanoSIMS analyses of undisturbed rhizosphere samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Hirte, Juliane; Bender, S. Franz; Mayer, Jochen; Gattinger, Andreas; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Soils are composed of a wide diversity of organic and mineral compounds, interacting to form complex mosaics of microenvironments. Roots and microorganisms are both key sources of organic carbon (OC). The volume of soil around living roots, i.e. the rhizosphere, is a privileged area for soil microbial activity and diversity. The microscopic observation of embedded soil sections has been applied since the 1950´s and has enabled observation of the rhizosphere at the smallest scale of organism interaction, i.e. at the level of root cells and bacteria (Alexander and Jackson, 1954). However, the observation of microorganisms in their intact environment, especially in soil, remains challenging. Existing microscopic images do not provide clear evidence of the chemical composition of compounds observed in the rhizosphere. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials. This technic has been increasingly used in soil science during the last decade (Hermann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014) and more specifically for undisturbed soil sample observations (Vidal et al., 2016). In the present study, NanoSIMS was used to illustrate the biological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the rhizosphere at the microscale. To meet this objective, undisturbed rhizosphere samples were collected from a field experiment in Switzerland where wheat plants were pulse-labelled with 99% 13C-CO2 in weekly intervals throughout the growing season and sampled at flowering. Samples were embedded, sectioned, polished and analyzed with NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 13C, 12C14N, 16O, 31P16O2, and 32S. The δ13C maps were obtained thanks to 12C and 13C images. 13C labelled root cells were clearly distinguished on images and presented highly variable δ13C values. Labelled spots (soil particles, forming microaggregates tightly bound to root cells. Finally, some

  3. Effect Of Bird Manure On Cotton Plants Grown On Soils Sampled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton plant had a better development and growth when bird manure was only applied to soil or combined with mineral fertilizer and when cotton was grown on a soil where the previous crops were cereals (maize or sorghum). Planting cotton on a soil where the previous crop grown was maize or sorghum had no significant ...

  4. Diversity of spore-forming bacteria in cattle manure, slaughterhouse waste and samples from biogas plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagge, E; Persson, M; Johansson, K-E

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, the effect of the biogas process on Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. was investigated. We analysed 97 faecal samples, 20 slaughterhouse waste samples and 60 samples collected at different stages in the biogas process...

  5. Tritium analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and nationwide surveillance of radionuclides in some environmental samples(meat and drinking water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    12 kind of environmental samples such as soil, underground water, seawater, etc. around the Nuclear Power Plants(NPP) and surface seawater around the Korea peninsula were sampled, For the samples of rain, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, grain of rice and milk sampled around NPP, and surface seawater and rain sampled all around country, tritium concentration was measured, The tritium concentration in the tap water and the gamma activity in the domestic and imported beef that were sampled at ward in the large city in Korea(Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Taejun, Inchun, Kwangju) were analyzed for the meat and drinking waters. As the results of analyzing, tritium concentration in rain and tap water were very low all around country, but a little higher around the NPP than general surrounding. At the Wolsung NPP, tritium concentration was descend according to distance from the stack. Tritium activity of surface seawater around the Korea peninsula was also, very low. The measured radioactive elements in the beef is the same as the radioactive elements on the earth surface.

  6. Accounting for sampling patterns reverses the relative importance of trade and climate for the global sharing of exotic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen R.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2017-01-01

    AimThe distributions of exotic species reflect patterns of human-mediated dispersal, species climatic tolerances and a suite of other biotic and abiotic factors. The relative importance of each of these factors will shape how the spread of exotic species is affected by ongoing economic globalization and climate change. However, patterns of trade may be correlated with variation in scientific sampling effort globally, potentially confounding studies that do not account for sampling patterns.LocationGlobal.Time periodMuseum records, generally from the 1800s up to 2015.Major taxa studiedPlant species exotic to the United States.MethodsWe used data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) to summarize the number of plant species with exotic occurrences in the United States that also occur in each other country world-wide. We assessed the relative importance of trade and climatic similarity for explaining variation in the number of shared species while evaluating several methods to account for variation in sampling effort among countries.ResultsAccounting for variation in sampling effort reversed the relative importance of trade and climate for explaining numbers of shared species. Trade was strongly correlated with numbers of shared U.S. exotic plants between the United States and other countries before, but not after, accounting for sampling variation among countries. Conversely, accounting for sampling effort strengthened the relationship between climatic similarity and species sharing. Using the number of records as a measure of sampling effort provided a straightforward approach for the analysis of occurrence data, whereas species richness estimators and rarefaction were less effective at removing sampling bias.Main conclusionsOur work provides support for broad-scale climatic limitation on the distributions of exotic species, illustrates the need to account for variation in sampling effort in large biodiversity databases, and highlights the

  7. A new coprecipitation methodology with lutetium hydroxide for preconcentration of heavy metal ions in herbal plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Murat, Ipek

    2014-01-01

    A new coprecipitation methodology that used lutetium hydroxide as a precipitant for Cu(II), Pb(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), and Ni(II) ions in herbal plant and water samples for analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated. The parameters such as pH, amount of lutetium, and volume of aqueous sample were optimized for the recovery of these seven metals. The effects of concomitant ions on the separation-preconcentration of analytes were also checked. The validation of the procedure was checked with addition recovery tests and analysis of Standard Reference Material 1570a-Trace Elements in Spinach Leaves and TMDA-70 fortified lake water Certified Reference Material. The LODs for analyte ions were in the range of 1.7-7.2 microg/L. The application of the present procedure was successfully performed for the analysis of analyte contents of herbal plant samples from Turkey.

  8. Development of an improved sample preparation platform for acidic endogenous hormones in plant tissues using electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Joon Hyuk; Han, Sang Beom; Wang, Yu

    2017-12-30

    Despite their importance in pivotal signaling pathways due to trace quantities and complex matrices, the analysis of plant hormones is a challenge. Here, to improve this issue, we present an electromembrane extraction technology combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determination of acidic plant hormones including jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, gibberellic acid and gibberellin A4 in plant tissues. Factors influencing extraction efficiency, such as voltage, extraction time and stirring rate were optimized using a design of experiments. Analytical performance was evaluated in terms of specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, recovery and repeatability. The results showed good linearity (r2 > 0.995), precision and acceptable accuracy. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng mL-1, and the recoveries were 34.6-50.3%. The developed method was applied in citrus leaf samples, showing better clean-up efficiency, as well as higher sensitivity compared to a previous method using liquid-liquid extraction. Organic solvent consumption was minimized during the process, making it an appealing method. More noteworthy, electromembrane extraction has been scarcely applied to plant tissues, and this is the first time that major plant hormones were extracted using this technology, with high sensitivity and selectivity. Taken together, this work gives not only a novel sample preparation platform using an electric field for plant hormones, but also a good example of extracting complex plant tissues in a simple and effective way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yun-xia; WEN Yun-jie; HUANG Jin-li; LI Gui-hua; CHAI Xiao; WANG Hong

    2015-01-01

    The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method) is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P) in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA) is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the dige...

  10. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Reactive Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulfur Species in Plant Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Savvides, Andreas; Georgiadou, Egli C; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species are key signalling molecules involved in multiple physiological processes that can be examined in qualitative and quantitative manners. Here, we describe simple spectrophotometric assays that allow the quantification of hydrogen peroxide, nitrite-derived nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide from plant tissues.

  11. Modelling of wind power plant controller, wind speed time series, aggregation and sample results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    This report describes the modelling of a wind power plant (WPP) including its controller. Several ancillary services like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) are implemented. The focus in this document is on the performance of the WPP output...

  12. Optimisation of sampling system for a faster start-up of cycling power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soellner, Anke [Siemens AG Energy Solution, Erlangen (Germany). Center of Technology; Rziha, Michael [Siemens AG Energy Solution, Erlangen (Germany). Plant Cleaning and Chemistry; Wuhrmann, Peter [Swan Analytische Instrumente AG, Hinwil (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Due to the ongoing liberalisation of the power market, combined cycle power plants operate frequently in cycling mode (approximately 200 hot starts, 50 warm starts per year). The Siemens turbine guideline allows an earlier start of the steam turbine (ST) under restricted conditions. Test results showed that about 100 minutes start-up time can be gained. (orig.)

  13. A new dissolved gas sampling method from primary water of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L., E-mail: papp.laszlo@atomki.mta.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Isotoptech Co. Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Palcsu, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Veres, M. [Isotoptech Co. Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Pintér, T. [Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Paks (Hungary)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We constructed and applied a lightweight portable dissolved gas sampling device. • A membrane contactor has been used to sample the dissolved gases from the water. • Gas compound and gamma spectrometric measurements were done from the samples. - Abstract: This article describes a novel sampling method for dissolved gases from radioactive waters. The major aim was to build a portable, lightweight sampling device in which the gas sample container is not in contact with the water itself. Therefore, a membrane contactor was used to take representative dissolved gas samples from the water of spent fuel pools. Quadrupole mass spectrometric and gamma spectrometric measurements were made from the samples to determine the gas composition and to detect any radioactive gas of fission origin. The paper describes (i) the construction of the sampler in general, (ii) the operation of the sampling unit and (iii) the measurement results of the first samples and the interpretation of the data. Both small and large fluctuations were able to be detected when the freshly spent fuel rods were put into the spent fuel pool or when the head valves of the toques of the fuel rods were replaced. In the investigated period (2013–2014), the main gas composition did not show large fluctuations, it was close to the composition of dissolved air. However, the activity concentration of {sup 85}Kr varied in a broad range (0.001–100 kBq/l).

  14. Towards Plant Species Identification in Complex Samples: A Bioinformatics Pipeline for the Identification of Novel Nuclear Barcode Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Petrillo, Mauro; Paracchini, Valentina; Kagkli, Dafni M; Rischitor, Patricia E; Puertas Gallardo, Antonio; Patak, Alex; Querci, Maddalena; Kreysa, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of the food chain to fight fraud and protect consumer health relies on the availability of methods to correctly identify the species present in samples, for which DNA barcoding is a promising candidate. The nuclear genome is a rich potential source of barcode targets, but has been relatively unexploited until now. Here, we show the development and use of a bioinformatics pipeline that processes available genome sequences to automatically screen large numbers of input candidates, identifies novel nuclear barcode targets and designs associated primer pairs, according to a specific set of requirements. We applied this pipeline to identify novel barcodes for plant species, a kingdom for which the currently available solutions are known to be insufficient. We tested one of the identified primer pairs and show its capability to correctly identify the plant species in simple and complex samples, validating the output of our approach.

  15. Towards Plant Species Identification in Complex Samples: A Bioinformatics Pipeline for the Identification of Novel Nuclear Barcode Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Angers-Loustau

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the food chain to fight fraud and protect consumer health relies on the availability of methods to correctly identify the species present in samples, for which DNA barcoding is a promising candidate. The nuclear genome is a rich potential source of barcode targets, but has been relatively unexploited until now. Here, we show the development and use of a bioinformatics pipeline that processes available genome sequences to automatically screen large numbers of input candidates, identifies novel nuclear barcode targets and designs associated primer pairs, according to a specific set of requirements. We applied this pipeline to identify novel barcodes for plant species, a kingdom for which the currently available solutions are known to be insufficient. We tested one of the identified primer pairs and show its capability to correctly identify the plant species in simple and complex samples, validating the output of our approach.

  16. Isotopic Pu, Am and Cm signatures in environmental samples contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Sakaguchi, A; Ochiai, S; Takada, T; Hamataka, K; Murakami, T; Nagao, S

    2014-06-01

    Dust samples from the sides of roads (black substances) have been collected together with litter and soil samples at more than 100 sites contaminated heavily in the 20-km exclusion zones around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) (Minamisoma City, and Namie, Futaba and Okuma Towns), in Iitate Village located from 25 to 45 km northwest of the plant and in southern areas from the plant. Isotopes of Pu, Am and Cm have been measured in the samples to evaluate their total releases into the environment from the FDNPP and to get the isotopic compositions among these nuclides. For black substances and litter samples, in addition to Pu isotopes, (241)Am, (242)Cm and (243,244)Cm were determined for most of samples examined, while for soil samples, only Pu isotopes were determined. The results provided a coherent data set on (239,240)Pu inventories and isotopic composition among these transuranic nuclides. When these activity ratios were compared with those for fuel core inventories in the FDNPP accident estimated by a group at JAEA, except (239,240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios, fairly good agreements were found, indicating that transuranic nuclides, probably in the forms of fine particles, were released into the environment without their large fractionations. The obtained data may lead to more accurate information about the on-site situation (e.g., burn-up, conditions of fuel during the release phase, etc.), which would be difficult to get otherwise, and more detailed information on the dispersion and deposition processes of transuranic nuclides and the behavior of these nuclides in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  18. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Husted Søren; Pedas Pai; Persson Daniel P; Laursen Kristian H; Hansen Thomas H; Schjoerring Jan K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in or...

  19. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  20. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  1. Evolutionary and Experimental Assessment of Novel Markers for Detection of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria in Plant Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Caridade, Cristina M. R.; Rodrigues, Arlete S.; Marcal, Andre R. S.; Cruz, Joana; Cruz, Leonor; Santos, Catarina L.; Mendes, Marta V.; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX) are quarantine phytopathogenic bacteria responsible for heavy losses in tomato and pepper production. Despite the research on improved plant spraying methods and resistant cultivars, the use of healthy plant material is still considered as the most effective bacterial spot control measure. Therefore, rapid and efficient detection methods are crucial for an early detection of these phytopathogens. Methodology In this work, we selected and validated novel DNA markers for reliable detection of the BSX Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xeu). Xeu-specific DNA regions were selected using two online applications, CUPID and Insignia. Furthermore, to facilitate the selection of putative DNA markers, a customized C program was designed to retrieve the regions outputted by both databases. The in silico validation was further extended in order to provide an insight on the origin of these Xeu-specific regions by assessing chromosomal location, GC content, codon usage and synteny analyses. Primer-pairs were designed for amplification of those regions and the PCR validation assays showed that most primers allowed for positive amplification with different Xeu strains. The obtained amplicons were labeled and used as probes in dot blot assays, which allowed testing the probes against a collection of 12 non-BSX Xanthomonas and 23 other phytopathogenic bacteria. These assays confirmed the specificity of the selected DNA markers. Finally, we designed and tested a duplex PCR assay and an inverted dot blot platform for culture-independent detection of Xeu in infected plants. Significance This study details a selection strategy able to provide a large number of Xeu-specific DNA markers. As demonstrated, the selected markers can detect Xeu in infected plants both by PCR and by hybridization-based assays coupled with automatic data analysis. Furthermore, this work is a contribution to implement more efficient DNA-based methods of bacterial

  2. As, Hg, and Se flue gas sampling in a coal-fired power plant and their fate during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose R. Otero-Rey; Jose M. Lopez-Vilarino; Jorge Moreda-Pineiro; Elia Alonso-Rodriguez; Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo; Purificacion Lopez-Mahia; Dario Prada-Rodriguez [University of A Coruna, A Coruna (Spain). Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences

    2003-11-15

    As, Hg, and Se are the most volatile elements in the flue gas from a coal-fired power plant. Significant amounts of these elements cause an undesired direct gaseous emission, which leads to a serious environmental health risk. The main focus of this study is to evaluate the possibility of simultaneous sampling of these volatile elements using an accurate official method for Hg (the most volatile element). A study of As, Hg, and Se emissions from a 1400 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) was carried out for the combustion of a mixture of two types of coal. Simultaneous sampling of coal, bottom ash, fly ash, flue gas, and particles associated with the gas phase has been performed. Flue gas has been sampled by the Ontario Hydro Method Sampling Train, an ASTM method for Hg speciation. This sampling method was tested for As and Se sampling. As and Se determinations have been performed by HG-AAS, and Hg has been determined by CV-AAS. The results were used to examine the following: overall mass balances, relative distribution of these elements in the coal-fired power plant; As, Hg, and Se concentrations in coal and combustion residues; and predominant oxidation state for Hg in flue gas. The mass balances obtained for As, Hg, and Se were satisfactory in all cases; nevertheless, relative enrichment values in fly ash for As and Se were low; therefore, we concluded that As sampling in flue gas can be conducted by application of the Ontario Hydro Method; nevertheless Se released in the gas phase is not completely collected by this sampling train. Application of this sampling method allowed for performance of Hg speciation. The results indicated that Hg(II) was the predominant species in flue gas. It has also been proved that 24%, more than 99.8%, and 90% for As, Hg, and Se in the stack emissions, respectively, were in the gaseous phase. 42 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  3. Sampling strategy and potential utility of indels for DNA barcoding of closely related plant species: a case study in taxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Provan, Jim; Gao, Lian-Ming; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Although DNA barcoding has become a useful tool for species identification and biodiversity surveys in plant sciences, there remains little consensus concerning appropriate sampling strategies and the treatment of indels. To address these two issues, we sampled 39 populations for nine Taxus species across their entire ranges, with two to three individuals per population randomly sampled. We sequenced one core DNA barcode (matK) and three supplementary regions (trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF and ITS) for all samples to test the effects of sampling design and the utility of indels. Our results suggested that increasing sampling within-population did not change the clustering of individuals, and that meant within-population P-distances were zero for most populations in all regions. Based on the markers tested here, comparison of methods either including or excluding indels indicated that discrimination and nodal support of monophyletic groups were significantly increased when indels were included. Thus we concluded that one individual per population was adequate to represent the within-population variation in these species for DNA barcoding, and that intra-specific sampling was best focused on representing the entire ranges of certain taxa. We also found that indels occurring in the chloroplast trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA regions were informative to differentiate among for closely related taxa barcoding, and we proposed that indel-coding methods should be considered for use in future for closed related plant species DNA barcoding projects on or below generic level.

  4. The Effective Factors on Microbial Load of Air in Food Plant and Air Sampling Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    ÇÖL, B.Gökçe; Aksu, Harun

    2017-01-01

    Air is one of the most important elements for life.Outsider materials in air (e.g dust-sold particles, plant powders, and wool andcotton fibers) contaminate the air via wind and air flow as minute particles.Microorganisms can also be found in air either bounded to these materials orindependently. Some of these microorganisms can lead to diseases. If it isconsidered that air is everywhere, especially in food factories, the risk ofmicrobial contamination is at very high levels for foods without...

  5. Efficient and Selective Enrichment of Ultratrace Cytokinins in Plant Samples by Magnetic Perhydroxy-Cucurbit[8]uril Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianchun; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua; Zhan, Song; Cao, Yujuan

    2016-04-05

    Cytokinins play a critical role in controlling plant growth and development, but it is difficult to be determined in plant samples due to the extremely low concentration level of picomole/gram. So it is important for efficient sample preparation with selective enrichment and rapid separation for accurate analysis of cytokinins. Herein, a supramolecular perhydroxy-cucurbit[8]uril (PCB[8]) was fabricated into the Fe3O4 magnetic particles via chemical bonding assembly and magnetic perhydroxy-cucurbit[8]uril (MPC) materials were obtained. The MPC had good enrichment capability to cytokinins and the enrichment factors were more than 208. The interaction of MPC and cytokinins was investigated by adsorption test and density functional theory (DFT) calculation, the results showed that the main drive forces were the host-guest interaction and hydrogen-bonding interaction between the perhydroxy-cucurbit[8]uril with analytes. Combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), the MPC was used as a sorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction for the analysis of cytokinins in plant samples. A sensitive and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was developed with low detection limits of 0.14-0.32 ng/L for cytokinins analysis. Five cytokinins including zeatin riboside, meta-topolin, kinetin, kinetin riboside, and zip with 6.12-87.3 ng/kg were determined in the soybean sprout and Arabidopsis thaliana. The recoveries were in the range of 76.2-110% with relative standard deviations (n = 5) of 2.3-9.7%. On the basis of these results, magnetic perhydroxy-cucurbit[8]uril materials with selective enrichment capability have good potential on the analysis of ultratrace targets from complicated sample matrixes.

  6. Assessment of the radionuclide composition of "hot particles" sampled in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant fourth reactor unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified, and the fuel burn-up in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burn-up values based on the cesium isotopes in comparison with other radionuclides was observed. The studies conducted were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of 242Cm and 243Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from 241Am (and going higher) in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  7. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  8. Using multi-scale sampling and spatial cross-correlation to investigate patterns of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Land managers need better techniques to assess exoticplant invasions. We used the cross-correlationstatistic, IYZ, to test for the presence ofspatial cross-correlation between pair-wisecombinations of soil characteristics, topographicvariables, plant species richness, and cover ofvascular plants in a 754 ha study site in RockyMountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A. Using 25 largeplots (1000 m2) in five vegetation types, 8 of 12variables showed significant spatial cross-correlationwith at least one other variable, while 6 of 12variables showed significant spatial auto-correlation. Elevation and slope showed significant spatialcross-correlation with all variables except percentcover of native and exotic species. Percent cover ofnative species had significant spatialcross-correlations with soil variables, but not withexotic species. This was probably because of thepatchy distributions of vegetation types in the studyarea. At a finer resolution, using data from ten1 m2 subplots within each of the 1000 m2 plots, allvariables showed significant spatial auto- andcross-correlation. Large-plot sampling was moreaffected by topographic factors than speciesdistribution patterns, while with finer resolutionsampling, the opposite was true. However, thestatistically and biologically significant spatialcorrelation of native and exotic species could only bedetected with finer resolution sampling. We foundexotic plant species invading areas with high nativeplant richness and cover, and in fertile soils high innitrogen, silt, and clay. Spatial auto- andcross-correlation statistics, along with theintegration of remotely sensed data and geographicinformation systems, are powerful new tools forevaluating the patterns and distribution of native andexotic plant species in relation to landscape structure.

  9. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  10. Microbiological Sampling Methods and Sanitation of Edible Plants Grown on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Charles H. II; Khodadad, Christina L.; Garland, Nathaniel T.; Larson, Brian D.; Hummreick, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes on the surfaces of salad crops and growth chambers pose a threat to the health of crew on International Space Station. For astronauts to safely consume spacegrown vegetables produced in NASA's new vegetable production unit, VEGGIE, three technical challenges must be overcome: real-time sampling, microbiological analysis, and sanitation. Raphanus sativus cultivar Cherry Bomb II and Latuca sativa cultivar Outredgeous, two saled crops to be grown in VEGGIE, were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a bacterium known to cause food-borne illness Tape- and swab-based sampling techniques were optimized for use in microgravity and assessed for effectiveness in recovery of bacteria from crop surfaces: Rapid pathogen detection and molecular analyses were performed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactiop using LightCycler® 480 and RAZOR® EX, a scaled-down instrument that is undergoing evaluation and testing for future flight hardware. These methods were compared with conventional, culture-based methods for the recovery of S. Typhimurium colonies. A sterile wipe saturated with a citric acid-based, food-grade sanitizer was applied to two different surface materials used in VEGGIE flight hardware that had been contaminated with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa,. another known human pathogen. To sanitize surfaces, wipes were saturated with either the sanitizer or sterile deionized water and applied to each surface. Colony forming units of P. aeruginosa grown on tryptic soy agar plates were enumerated from surface samples after sanitization treatments. Depending on the VEGGIE hardware material, 2- to 4.5-log10 reductions in colony-forming units were observed after sanitization. The difference in recovery of S. Typhimurium between tape- and swab- based sampling techniques was insignificant. RAZOR® EX rapidly detected S. Typhimurium present in both raw culture and extracted DNA samples.

  11. Simultaneous ultrasound-assisted emulsification-extraction of polar and nonpolar compounds from solid plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Serradilla, J A; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2007-09-01

    A new approach to solid sample preparation for the simultaneous isolation of polar and nonpolar compounds using a microemulsion as leaching medium is proposed. Methanol/water (dispersed-phase)-hexane (continuous-phase) emulsions formed in the presence of ultrasound and a solid sample allow polar and nonpolar compounds to be transferred to the dispersed and continuous phase, respectively. The efficiency of this dual sample preparation approach was assessed in the characterization of natural products of variable hardness including acorns, grape seeds, and alperujo (a residue of olive oil production). The time needed for quantitative extraction of the target fractions (phenol compounds and fatty acids) is 9 min for acorns and alperujo and 20 min for grape seeds; the longer time needed for grape seeds can be attributed to higher matrix hardness. Such good performance can be ascribed to the ultrasound-enhanced formation of methanol/water microdroplets 1-15 microm in size, which act as solid-liquid microextractors spanning a large surface area. The presence of the sample was found to greatly improve emulsion stability, which can be ascribed to the amphiphilic nature of the fatty acids in the samples. Following leaching and separation of the two phases by centrifugation, the polar and nonpolar fractions were analyzed by HPLC-diode array detection and GC/MS, respectively. The proposed approach provides extraction efficiency similar to the Folch method (reference method for fat extraction, 4.5 h) in a shorter time and extraction efficiency equal to or higher than the stirring-based method (reference method for phenol compounds extraction, 24 h).

  12. [Chemical composition of Brazilian marihuana samples and the importance of several constituents to the pharmacological activity of the plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, R N; Zuardi, A W; Karniol, I G

    1977-12-01

    The gas chromatographic analysis of marihuana samples seized by the São Paulo State Police showed high levels of delta9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) the most active of cannabis constituents. The cannabiol (CBN) levels were also high and probably able of interfering with delta9-THC actions in some samples. The cannabidiol (CBD) and delta8-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta8THC) levels were generally low. When compared to marihuanas used in other countries the amount of delta9-THC in our samples was in average higher. When the pharmacological activity of one of those marihuana extracts, called natural extract containing a high delta9-THC to the others cannabinoid ratio (CBD, CBN and delta8-THC) was compared to a synthetic extract with the same proportions of those cannabinoids, the activity was not identical in all animals tests used. The possibility of others substances present in the plant, besides those cannabinoids listed before, of interfering with the plant's pharmacological activity is discussed.

  13. Use of CE to Analyze Solutes in Pico- and Nano-Liter Samples from Plant Cells and Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomos, A Deri

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in the accurate quantitative mapping of small molecules and ions in intact function tissues between individual cells at single cell resolution. It can also be used for the analysis of the heterogeneity of soil surrounding roots at similar spatial resolution, providing a link between plant and environment. No pretreatment or genetic manipulation of the plant is required. The application is an extension of the Single Cell Sampling and Analysis technique (SiCSA), in which glass micromanipulation of microcapillaries allows samples in the pl and nl volume range to be obtained and manipulated under paraffin oil (to prevent evaporation) before being introduced to the CE column. An advantage of this approach is that the entire sample can be brought to the detector (without the loading losses associated with other techniques). The power of SiCSA-CE is that the results can be directly related to a range of other single-cell resolution parameters ranging from mechanical and hydraulic properties to gene expression. Several protocols and (contrasting) applications are provided.

  14. [Determination of iodine and its species in plant samples using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Chen, Guang; Chen, Yuhong

    2011-07-01

    A method was established for the determination of iodine and its species in plant samples using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP/ MS). Alkaline extraction and IC-ICP/MS were applied as the sample pre-treatment method and the detection technique respectively, for iodate and iodide determination. Moreover, high-temperature pyrolysis absorption was adopted as the pre-treatment method for total iodine analysis, which finally converted all the iodine species into iodide and measured the iodide by IC-ICP/MS. The recoveries of iodine for alkaline extraction and high-temperature pyrolysis absorption were 89.6%-97.5% and 95.2%-111.2%, respectively. The results were satisfactory. The detection limit of iodine was 0.010 mg/kg. The iodine and its speciation contents in several kinds of plant samples such as seaweeds, kelp, cabbage, tea leaf and spinach were investigated. It was shown that the iodine in seaweeds mainly existed as organic iodine; while the ones in kelp, cabbage, tea leaf and spinach mainly existed as inorganic iodine.

  15. Mass-spectra-based peak alignment for automatic nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis for biomarker screening in plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai-Yan; Hu, Ou; Zhang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Li; Song, Jing-Jing; Lu, Peang; Zheng, Qing-Xia; Liu, Ping-Ping; Chen, Qian-Si; Wang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Han, Lu; Yu, Yong-Jie

    2017-09-01

    Nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis is a difficult task in a routine investigation because hundreds of chromatographic peaks are eluted within a short time, and the time shift problem is severe across samples. To address these problems, the present work developed an automatic nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis (anTMPA) method. First, peaks from the total ion chromatogram were extracted using modified multiscale Gaussian smoothing method. Then, a novel peak alignment strategy was employed based on the mass spectra and retention times of the peaks in which the maximum mass spectral correlation coefficient path was extracted using a modified dynamic programming method. Moreover, an automatic landmark peak-searching strategy was employed for self-adapting time shift modification. Missing peaks across samples were grouped and registered into the aligned peak list table for final refinement. Finally, the aligned peaks across samples were analyzed using statistical methods to identify potential biomarkers. Mass spectral information on the screened biomarkers could be directly imported into the National Institute of Standards and Technology library to select the candidate compounds. The performance of the anTMPA method was evaluated using a complicated plant gas chromatography-mass spectrometry dataset with the aim of identifying biomarkers between the growth and maturation stages of the tested plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Labile, dissolved and particulate PAHs and trace metals in wastewater: passive sampling, occurrence, partitioning in treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay-Francé, C; Bressy, A; Uher, E; Lorgeoux, C

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and seven metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were investigated in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants by means of passive and active sampling. Concentrations total dissolved and particulate contaminants were determined in wastewater at several points across the treatment system by means of grab sampling. Truly dissolved PAHs were sampled by means of semipermeable membrane devices. Labile (inorganic and weakly complexed) dissolved metals were also sampled using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique. This study confirms the robustness and the validity of these two passive sampling techniques in wastewater. All contaminant concentrations decreased in wastewater along the treatment, although dissolved and labile concentrations sometimes increased for substances with less affinity with organic matter. Solid-liquid and dissolved organic matter/water partitioning constants were estimated. The high variability of both partitioning constants for a simple substance and the poor relation between K(D) and K(OW) shows that the binding capacities of particles and organic matter are not uniform within the treatment and that other process than equilibrium sorption affect contaminant repartition and fate in wastewater.

  17. Degradation and interconversion of plant pteridines during sample preparation and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Jeroen; Blancquaert, Dieter; Kiekens, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-03-01

    The degradation and interconversion of a selected set of pterins (dihydroneopterin, hydroxymethyldihydropterin, dihydroxanthopterin, neopterin, hydroxymethylpterin, xanthopterin, 6-formylpterin, 6-carboxypterin and pterin), spiked to charcoal-treated potato and Arabidopsis thaliana matrix was investigated, together with their relative recovery in potato and A. thaliana. As a result, a matrix-specific procedure for the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based determination of 6 aromatic pterins (neopterin, hydroxymethylpterin, xanthopterin, 6-formylpterin, 6-carboxypterin and pterin) is proposed: 1.5ml of an N2-flushed, alkaline (pH=10) extraction solvent is added to 200mg of plant sample. After boiling and homogenization, the samples are incubated: Arabidopsis samples for 30min at room temperature, while shaking, and potato samples for 2h at 37°C (applying a dienzyme treatment with α-amylase and protease). After a final boiling step, the samples are ultrafiltrated and resulting extracts are analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Development and application of poison databank and poisonous animal and plants sample databank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Jiang, Shao-Feng; Cai, Jun; Luo, Tao; Xie, Li-Jing; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Cheng-Ye

    2008-03-01

    To establish a comprehensive,easily approached, operated, and searched internet poison databank as to providing professional poison data and knowledge of effective treatment for those consented such as medical staff, and emergency response team in the shortest time. We established a computer poison databank, by adopting B/S structure, using SQL Server databank, and explore technology, in which all information may easily be explored and obtained by users. The database integrated the information in relating to the substances identifiers, physical and chemical properties, toxicology data, clinical manifestation while intoxication, emergency response guides, effective treatment, anything related to the special antidotes, preventive measures, poison analysis, and manufacturers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbs, pesticides, animal, plant, bacteria, fungi, productions and toxins. Otherwise some information about poison control organizations and experts, literatures about poison case reports, poison incidents, were also involved in the system, which can also provide a shortcut, convenient, and exact search. The databank might be easily used on several fields, providing important information with acute poison incidents disposal and clinic treatment.

  19. Distinguishing Astragalus mongholicus and Its Planting Soil Samples from Different Regions by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Daodi herb” enjoys a good reputation for its quality and clinical effects. As one of the most popular daodi herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch. Bge var. mongholicus (Bge. Hsiao (A. membranaceus is popularly used for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-enhancing properties. In this study, we used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES technique to investigate the inorganic elements contents in A. mongholicu and its soil samples from daodi area (Shanxi and non-daodi areas (Inner Mongolia and Gansu. A total of 21 inorganic elements (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, P, K, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, B, Al, Na, Cr, Ni, Ba, Ti and Sr were simultaneously determined. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to differentiate A. mongholicu and soil samples from the three main producing areas. It was found that the inorganic element characteristics as well as the uptake and accumulation behavior of the three kinds of samples were significantly different. The high contents of Fe, B, Al, Na, Cr and Ni could be used as a standard in the elements fingerprint to identify daodi and non-daodi A. Mongholicus. As the main effective compounds were closely related to the pharmacodynamics activities, the inter-relationships between selected elements and components could reflect that the quality of A. Mongholicus from Shanxi were superior to others to a certain degree. This finding highlighted the usefulness of ICP-AES elemental analysis and evidenced that the inorganic element profile can be employed to evaluate the genuineness of A. mongholicus.

  20. Distinguishing Astragalus mongholicus and Its Planting Soil Samples from Different Regions by ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zheng, Sihao; Yang, Qingzhen; Chen, Shilin; Huang, Linfang

    2016-04-12

    "Daodi herb" enjoys a good reputation for its quality and clinical effects. As one of the most popular daodi herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. membranaceus) is popularly used for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-enhancing properties. In this study, we used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) technique to investigate the inorganic elements contents in A. mongholicu and its soil samples from daodi area (Shanxi) and non-daodi areas (Inner Mongolia and Gansu). A total of 21 inorganic elements (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, P, K, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, B, Al, Na, Cr, Ni, Ba, Ti and Sr) were simultaneously determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to differentiate A. mongholicu and soil samples from the three main producing areas. It was found that the inorganic element characteristics as well as the uptake and accumulation behavior of the three kinds of samples were significantly different. The high contents of Fe, B, Al, Na, Cr and Ni could be used as a standard in the elements fingerprint to identify daodi and non-daodi A. Mongholicus. As the main effective compounds were closely related to the pharmacodynamics activities, the inter-relationships between selected elements and components could reflect that the quality of A. Mongholicus from Shanxi were superior to others to a certain degree. This finding highlighted the usefulness of ICP-AES elemental analysis and evidenced that the inorganic element profile can be employed to evaluate the genuineness of A. mongholicus.

  1. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  2. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Toews, Michael D; Buntin, G David; Carpenter, James E; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A; Cottrell, Ted E; Abdo, Zaid

    2014-10-01

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was examined in 2005 and 2006, and 2010 and 2011, respectively. Brown stink bug adult feeding on maize hybrid "DKC6971" at flowering in 2005 and 2006 did not influence smut infection percentage when examined using 3 treatments (i.e., 0 adult, 5 adults, and 5 adults mixed with the smut spores). The smut infection percentages were stink bug feeding at flowering had no effect on smut infection in maize, and the best time for smut evaluation would be after flowering. The temperature and precipitation might have also influenced the percentage of smut-infected maize plants during the 4 years when the experiments were conducted. The similarity between kernel-colonizing U. maydis and Aspergillus flavus infections and genotype × environment interaction were also discussed. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Rintoul, Llew; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater effluent is expected to be a pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment, with microbeads from cosmetic products and polymer fibres from clothes likely to enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To date, few studies have quantified microplastics in wastewater. Moreover, the lack of a standardized and applicable method to identify microplastics in complex samples, such as wastewater, has limited the accurate assessment of microplastics and may lead to an incorrect estimation. This study aimed to develop a validated method to sample and process microplastics from wastewater effluent and to apply the developed method to quantify and characterise wastewater-based microplastics in effluent from three WWTPs that use primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes. We applied a high-volume sampling device that fractionated microplastics in situ and an efficient sample processing procedure to improve the sampling of microplastics in wastewater and to minimize the false detection of non-plastic particles. The sampling device captured between 92% and 99% of polystyrene microplastics using 25 μm-500 μm mesh screens in laboratory tests. Microplastic type, size and suspected origin in all studied WWTPs, along with the removal efficiency during the secondary and tertiary treatment stages, was investigated. Suspected microplastics were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, with between 22 and 90% of the suspected microplastics found to be non-plastic particles. An average of 0.28, 0.48 and 1.54 microplastics per litre of final effluent was found in tertiary, secondary and primary treated effluent, respectively. This study suggests that although low concentrations of microplastics are detected in wastewater effluent, WWTPs still have the potential to act as a pathway to release microplastics given the large volumes of effluent discharged to the aquatic environment. This study focused on a single sampling campaign, with

  4. Xenobiotic removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants: residence time distributions as a guiding principle for sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewsky, Marius; Gallé, Tom; Bayerle, Michael; Goel, Rajeev; Fischer, Klaus; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2011-11-15

    The effect of mixing regimes and residence time distribution (RTD) on solute transport in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is well understood in environmental engineering. Nevertheless, it is frequently neglected in sampling design and data analysis for the investigation of polar xenobiotic removal efficiencies in WWTPs. Most studies on the latter use 24-h composite samples in influent and effluent. The effluent sampling period is often shifted by the mean hydraulic retention time assuming that this allows a total coverage of the influent load. However, this assumption disregards mixing regime characteristics as well as flow and concentration variability in evaluating xenobiotic removal performances and may consequently lead to biased estimates or even negative elimination efficiencies. The present study aims at developing a modeling approach to estimate xenobiotic removal efficiencies from monitoring data taking the hydraulic RTD in WWTPs into consideration. For this purpose, completely mixed tanks-in-series were applied to address hydraulic mixing regimes in a Luxembourg WWTP. Hydraulic calibration for this WWTP was performed using wastewater conductivity as a tracer. The RTD mixing approach was coupled with first-order biodegradation kinetics for xenobiotics covering three classes of biodegradability during aerobic treatment. Model simulations showed that a daily influent load is distributed over more than one day in the effluent. A 24-h sampling period with an optimal time offset between influent and effluent covers less than the half of the influent load in a dry weather scenario. According to RTD calculations, an optimized sampling strategy covering four consecutive measuring days in the influent would be necessary to estimate the full-scale elimination efficiencies with sufficient accuracy. Daily variations of influent flow and concentrations can substantially affect the reliability of these sampling results. Commonly reported negative removal

  5. [Monolithic molecularly imprinted column-high performance liquid chromatography for enrichment and determination of trace cytokinins in plant samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Du, Fuyou; Ruan, Guihua; Huang, Yijia

    2013-04-01

    A method based on monolithic molecularly imprinted polymer enrichment combining with high performance liquid chromatography (mMIP-HPLC) detection was developed for the selective determination of trace cytokinins (CTKs) in plant samples. Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymer (mMIP) column was prepared in stainless steel tube by using kinetin as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, and toluene-dodecanol as the porogenic solvents. Compared with non-imprinted polymer (NIP) monolith, the prepared mMIP exhibited selective separation ability, good reproducibility and reusability, and high extraction efficiency in the separation and enrichment of the four CTKs. Under the optimized experimental conditions, mean recoveries were 91.9%, 80.0%, 87.5% and 50.2% for kinetin (K), kinetin glucoside (KR) , trans-zeatin (tZ) and meta-topolin (mT), respectively, with the corresponding RSDs less than 11.8%. The proposed mMIP-HPLC method was successfully applied in the separation and determination of the four cytokinins in different plant samples

  6. Mars Sample Return and Flight Test of a Small Bimodal Nuclear Rocket and ISRU Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.; Wolinsky, Jason J.; Bilyeu, Michael B.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    A combined Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) flight test and Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) is explored as a means of "jump-starting" NTR development. Development of a small-scale engine with relevant fuel and performance could more affordably and quickly "pathfind" the way to larger scale engines. A flight test with subsequent inflight postirradiation evaluation may also be more affordable and expedient compared to ground testing and associated facilities and approvals. Mission trades and a reference scenario based upon a single expendable launch vehicle (ELV) are discussed. A novel "single stack" spacecraft/lander/ascent vehicle concept is described configured around a "top-mounted" downward firing NTR, reusable common tank, and "bottom-mount" bus, payload and landing gear. Requirements for a hypothetical NTR engine are described that would be capable of direct thermal propulsion with either hydrogen or methane propellant, and modest electrical power generation during cruise and Mars surface insitu resource utilization (ISRU) propellant production.

  7. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  8. Joint GC-MS and LC-MS platforms for comprehensive plant metabolomics: repeatability and sample pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    t'Kindt, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Deforce, Dieter; Boerjan, Wout; Van Bocxlaer, Jan

    2009-11-01

    Metabolomics nowadays mostly comprises the application of both LC-MS and GC-MS based approaches. Here we investigate different extraction set-ups for these two established analytical platforms in the field of plant metabolomics. Six extraction approaches for Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, varying in extraction solvent composition, extraction temperature and order of solvent addition within the extraction sequence, were analyzed on the two platforms. Our aim was to establish the most suitable analysis protocol, practicable for both LC-MS and GC-MS analysis, in order to obtain as extensive as possible metabolome coverage. One single sample preparation procedure would save time and valuable sample while still offering the complementary datasets generated by GC-MS and LC-MS. All extraction approaches were evaluated based on the following criteria: number of detected m/z-retention time pairs, heat maps of the detected peaks, and residual enzymatic activity of invertase and phosphatase in the plant leaf extracts. Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate grouping trends between the different extraction approaches. Quality controls, a blend of aliquots of the different extracts, were used to establish a paired evaluation of the repeatability performance of the GC-MS and LC-MS analysis. We conclude that the use of chloroform in the extraction solvent is counterproductive in an untargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach as is heating. Below room temperature (instead of heated) extraction does not significantly degrade GC-MS performance but one should be more cautious with respect to residual enzymatic activity in the plant extract.

  9. A comparative study of the radiological hazard in sediments samples from drinking water purification plants supplied from different sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams A.M. Issa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural radiation level has been determined for 135 sediment samples from forty-six drinking water purification plants supplied from different sources (Nile River, Ibrahimia Canal and Bahr Yousif Canal aiming to evaluate the radiation hazard. The concentration of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K has been investigated by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl 3″ × 3″ detector. The results showed that the concentrations of average activity in the sediment samples collected from Nile River, Ibrahimia Canal and Bahr Yousif Canal are (29 ± 2, 30 ± 2 and 240 ± 8 Bq kg−1, (47 ± 3, 46 ± 8 and 258 ± 12 Bq kg−1 and (28 ± 2, 27 ± 3 and 219 ± 18 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The distributions of average activity concentrations of samples under investigation are within the world values although some extreme values have been determined. Radiological hazard effects such as: absorbed dose rate (D, outdoor and indoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE, radium equivalent activities (Raeq, hazard indices (Hex and Hin, gamma index (Iγ, excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR and annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE for the corresponding samples were also estimated.

  10. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  11. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling Terry

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  12. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-05-18

    Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  13. Adherence of family medicine physicians to therapy based on medicinal plants in a Greater Lisbon sample: a first survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda PS Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the adherence of general practitioners to the therapy with medicinal plants, and the constraint underlying the acceptance of their therapeutic value and use in clinical practice. An observational-transversal exploratory study was carried out through the application of a questionnaire to physicians of the National Health System in the Greater Lisbon area. A total of 80 valid questionnaires were obtained. The doctors’ ages ranged from 29 to 64 years (51.85 ± 9.95, 71.4% of whom were female, and 52.6% with more than 30 years of clinical practice. There was a general lack of knowledge regarding phytotherapy legislation. Of the sample of physicians interviewed, it was verified that 33.8% never and 28.85% only a few times recommended/prescribed any type of herbal therapy. Concerning their own use, 61.25% indicated that they never, and 21.08% rarely, used herbal medicines, primarily as self-medication. There is a poor adherence on the use of herbal medicines or medicinal plants by physicians. This underuse may underlie the lack of training on both herbal medicinal products and legislative aspects more than rejection of this therapeutic approach. Education in phytotherapy can prevent misuse and reduce risks linked to herbal-drug interactions, dealing with patient´s preference in behalf of a healthy physician-patient interaction.

  14. Conventional and enantioselective gas chromatography with microfabricated planar columns for analysis of real-world samples of plant volatile fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, C; Galli, S; Galli, M; Elmi, I; Belluce, M; Zampolli, S; Sgorbini, B; Rubiolo, P; Bicchi, C

    2016-01-15

    Within a project exploring the application of lab-on-chip GC to in-field analysis of the plant volatile fraction, this study evaluated the performance of a set of planar columns (also known as microchannels, MEMS columns, or microfabricated columns) of different dimensions installed in a conventional GC unit. Circular double-spiral-shaped-channel planar columns with different square/rectangular sections up to 2m long were applied to the analysis of both essential oils and headspace samples of a group of medicinal and aromatic plants (chamomile, peppermint, sage, rosemary, lavender and bergamot) and of standard mixtures of related compounds; the results were compared to those obtained with reference narrow-bore columns (l:5m, dc:0.1mm, df:0.1 μm). The above essential oils and headspaces were first analyzed quali-and quantitatively with planar columns statically coated with conventional stationary phases (5%-phenyl-polymethylsiloxane and auto-bondable nitroterephthalic-acid-modified polyethylene glycol), and then submitted to chiral recognition of their diagnostic markers, by enantioselective GC with a planar columns coated with a cyclodextrin derivative (30% 6(I-VII)-O-TBDMS-3(I-VII)-O-ethyl-2(I-VII)-O-ethyl-β-cyclodextrin in PS-086). Column characteristics and analysis conditions were first optimized to obtain suitable retention and efficiency for the samples investigated. The planar columns tested showed performances close to the reference conventional narrow-bore columns, with theoretical plate numbers per meter (N/m) ranging from 6100 to 7200 for those coated with the conventional stationary phases, and above 5600 for those with the chiral selector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and sampling plan optimization for RT-qPCR experiments in plants: a case study in blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measurements at different stages of the workflow, we describe the most important causes of technical variability in a case study using blueberry. In this study, we found that the stage for which increasing the number of replicates would be the most beneficial depends on the tissue used. For example, we would recommend the use of more RT replicates when working with leaf tissue, while the use of more sampling (RNA extraction replicates would be recommended when working with stems or fruits to obtain the most optimal results. The use of more qPCR replicates provides the least benefit as it is the most reproducible step. By knowing the distribution of error over an entire experiment and the costs at each step, we have developed a script to identify the optimal sampling plan within the limits of a given budget. These findings should help plant scientists improve the design of qPCR experiments and refine their laboratory practices in order to conduct qPCR assays in a more reliable-manner to produce more consistent and reproducible data.

  16. Design and Sampling Plan Optimization for RT-qPCR Experiments in Plants: A Case Study in Blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Roman, Belen; Flores, Fernando; Rowland, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in support of the conclusions of a study. There are a number of aspects of the pre- and post-assay workflow that contribute to variability of results. Here, through the study of the introduction of error in qPCR measurements at different stages of the workflow, we describe the most important causes of technical variability in a case study using blueberry. In this study, we found that the stage for which increasing the number of replicates would be the most beneficial depends on the tissue used. For example, we would recommend the use of more RT replicates when working with leaf tissue, while the use of more sampling (RNA extraction) replicates would be recommended when working with stems or fruits to obtain the most optimal results. The use of more qPCR replicates provides the least benefit as it is the most reproducible step. By knowing the distribution of error over an entire experiment and the costs at each step, we have developed a script to identify the optimal sampling plan within the limits of a given budget. These findings should help plant scientists improve the design of qPCR experiments and refine their laboratory practices in order to conduct qPCR assays in a more reliable-manner to produce more consistent and reproducible data.

  17. Evaluation of solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for direct determination of chromium in medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgilio, Alex; Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Post Office Box 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil); Rego, Jardes F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, Post Office Box 355, 14801-970, Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Neto, Jose A. Gomes, E-mail: anchieta@iq.unesp.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, Post Office Box 355, 14801-970, Araraquara-SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    A method for Cr determination in medicinal plants using direct solid sampling graphite furnace high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. Modifiers were dispensable. Pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1500 Degree-Sign C and 2400 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Slopes of calibration curves (50-750 pg Cr, R{sup 2} > 0.999) using aqueous and solid standards coincides in 96%, indicated feasibility of aqueous calibration for solid sampling of medicinal plants. Accuracy was checked by analysis of four plant certified reference materials. Results were in agreement at 95% confidence level with certified and non-certified values. Ten samples of medicinal plants were analyzed and Cr contents were in the 1.3-17.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} Cr range. The highest RSD (n = 5) was 15.4% for the sample Melissa officinalis containing 13.9 {+-} 2.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} Cr. The limit of detection was 3.3 ng g{sup -1} Cr. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct solid sampling is first time employed for Cr in plant materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration curves with liquids and solids are coincident. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microanalysis of plants for Cr is validated by reference materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed HR-CS GF AAS method is environmental friendly.

  18. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg-1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg-1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  19. Novel Set-Up for Low-Disturbance Sampling of Volatile and Non-volatile Compounds from Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Elisabeth J; Pauls, Gerhard; Rillig, Matthias C; Hansson, Bill S; Hilker, Monika; Reinecke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on rhizosphere chemicals are carried out in substrate-free set-ups or in artificial substrates using sampling methods that require an air flow and may thus cause disturbance to the rhizosphere. Our study aimed to develop a simplified and inexpensive system that allows analysis of rhizosphere chemicals at experimentally less disturbed conditions. We designed a mesocosm in which volatile rhizosphere chemicals were sampled passively (by diffusion) without air- and water flow on polydimethylsiloxane-(PDMS) tubes. Dandelion (Taraxacum sect. ruderalia) was used as model plant; roots were left undamaged. Fifteen volatiles were retrieved from the sorptive material by thermal desorption for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, three sugars were collected from the rhizosphere substrate by aqueous extraction and derivatized prior to GC/MS analysis. In order to study how the quantity of detected rhizosphere compounds depends on the type of soil or substrate, we determined the matrix-dependent recovery of synthetic rhizosphere chemicals. Furthermore, we compared sorption of volatiles on PDMS tubes with and without direct contact to the substrate. The results show that the newly designed mesocosm is suitable for low-invasive extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from rhizospheres. We further highlight how strongly the type of substrate and contact of PDMS tubes to the substrate affect the detectability of compounds from rhizospheres.

  20. Long-term sampling of CO(2) from waste-to-energy plants: (14)C determination methodology, data variation and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels Hald; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-02-01

    A dedicated sampling and measurement method was developed for long-term measurements of biogenic and fossil-derived CO(2) from thermal waste-to-energy processes. Based on long-term sampling of CO(2) and (14)C determination, plant-specific emission factors can be determined more accurately, and the annual emission of fossil CO(2) from waste-to-energy plants can be monitored according to carbon trading schemes and renewable energy certificates. Weekly and monthly measurements were performed at five Danish waste incinerators. Significant variations between fractions of biogenic CO(2) emitted were observed, not only over time, but also between plants. From the results of monthly samples at one plant, the annual mean fraction of biogenic CO(2) was found to be 69% of the total annual CO(2) emissions. From weekly samples, taken every 3 months at the five plants, significant seasonal variations in biogenic CO(2) emissions were observed (between 56% and 71% biogenic CO(2)). These variations confirmed that biomass fractions in the waste can vary considerably, not only from day to day but also from month to month. An uncertainty budget for the measurement method itself showed that the expanded uncertainty of the method was ± 4.0 pmC (95 % confidence interval) at 62 pmC. The long-term sampling method was found to be useful for waste incinerators for determination of annual fossil and biogenic CO(2) emissions with relatively low uncertainty.

  1. Upscaled CTAB-Based DNA Extraction and Real-Time PCR Assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in Plant Material with Reduced Sampling Error

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Karlovsky; Christoph Brandfass

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5-1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of ...

  2. Alumina coated with oxazolone derivative for extraction of trace amounts of cadmium and copper from water and plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabermahani, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemehsaber2003@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University of Kerman, 22 Bahman Bulvar, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taher, Mohammad Ali [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrami, Habibe; Fozooni, Samieh [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University of Kerman, 22 Bahman Bulvar, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-30

    A solid phase extraction procedure is proposed for simultaneous separation and preconcentration trace amounts of Cu(II) and Cd(II) using alumina coated with N'-{l_brace}4-[4-{l_brace}1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylidene{r_brace}-5-(4-H)oxazolone]phenyle{r_brace} acetamide and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Using 0.1 g of the sorbent, the metal ions were sorbed at pH 7 and recovered with 5.0 mL of 0.5 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3}. It was found that extraction can be performed from the sample volumes of 2000 and 800 mL for Cu and Cd, respectively (preconcentration factors of 400 for Cu and 160 for Cd). Obtained sorption capacities for 1 g sorbent were 8 mg Cu and 14 mg Cd. The linearity was maintained in the concentration range of 0.1 ng mL{sup -1} to 7.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for Cu and 0.13 ng mL{sup -1} to 2.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for Cd in the original solution. Eight replicate determinations of a mixture containing 1.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} each of the elements in the final solution gave relative standard deviation {+-}1.6 and {+-}1.3% for Cu and Cd, respectively. The detection limit was calculated as 0.06 and 0.05 ng mL{sup -1} for Cu and Cd, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination trace amounts of Cu and Cd in the water and plant samples.

  3. Advantages of the iridium permanent modifier in fast programs applied to trace-element analysis of plant samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, E.; Baeten, H.; Hoenig, M. [Centre for Veterinary and Agrochemical Research (CERVA), Tervuren (Belgium)

    2001-03-01

    The application of a fast program combined with the advantages of the iridium permanent modifier is proposed for trace element analysis of plant samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). For two volatile elements (Cd, Pb) and two mid-refractory elements (Cr, Ni) it was demonstrated that coating of the platform or of the tube atomization area with Ir is an efficient means of improving the accuracy and precision of results. A detailed study of interference from individual main matrix components and from composite plant matrices has confirmed the usefulness of the whole approach. The validity of the method has been confirmed by analysis of eight reference plant materials. (orig.)

  4. Micelle mediated extraction and simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of vanadium(V) and molybdenum(VI) in plant foodstuff samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Siri, Reza; Mohammadnejad, Masoumeh

    2011-07-15

    A micelle-mediated extraction method for preconcentration of trace quantities of V(V) and Mo(VI) as a prior step to their simultaneous spectrophotometric determination has been developed. Bromopyrogallol red, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) (cationic surfactant) and KI were used as chelating, extraction and co-extraction agents, respectively. Mean centering (MC) of ratio spectra has been used for the simultaneous analysis of these metal ions. The optimal reaction and extraction conditions were optimised and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection, linear range, maximum preconcentration and improvement factor) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range 3.0-50.0ngmL(-1) for V(V) and Mo(VI). The detection limit of the method was 0.5 and 1.0ngmL(-1) for V(V) and Mo(VI), respectively. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of V(V) and Mo(VI) in several plant foodstuff samples successfully. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dispersal and neutral sampling mediate contingent effects of disturbance on plant beta-diversity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, Christopher P; Dickson, Timothy L; Myers, Jonathan A

    2017-03-01

    A major challenge in ecology, conservation and global-change biology is to understand why biodiversity responds differently to similar environmental changes. Contingent biodiversity responses may depend on how disturbance and dispersal interact to alter variation in community composition (β-diversity) and assembly mechanisms. However, quantitative syntheses of these patterns and processes across studies are lacking. Using null-models and meta-analyses of 22 factorial experiments in herbaceous plant communities across Europe and North America, we show that disturbance diversifies communities when dispersal is limited, but homogenises communities when combined with increased immigration from the species pool. In contrast to the hypothesis that disturbance and dispersal mediate the strength of niche assembly, both processes altered β-diversity through neutral-sampling effects on numbers of individuals and species in communities. Our synthesis suggests that stochastic effects of disturbance and dispersal on community assembly play an important, but underappreciated, role in mediating biotic homogenisation and biodiversity responses to environmental change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Actinides AMS at CIRCE and {sup 236}U and Pu measurements of structural and environmental samples from in and around a mothballed nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cesare, M., E-mail: mario.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, Edificio G, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200, Canberra (Australia); Sabbarese, C. [CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, Edificio G, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Tims, S.G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200, Canberra (Australia); De Cesare, N. [CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita di Napoli , via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, Edificio G, 80126 Napoli (Italy); D' Onofrio, A. [CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, Edificio G, 80126 Napoli (Italy); D' Arco, A. [CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Esposito, A.M. [Societa Gestione Impianti Nucleari-SoGIN, via Torino 6, 00184 Roma (Italy); Petraglia, A. [CIRCE, INNOVA, and Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Roca, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II, via Cintia, Edificio G, 80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, Edificio G, 80126 Napoli (Italy); and others

    2013-01-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu. A new actinide line is in operation at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy. Using the actinide line a uranium mass sensitivity of around 4 {mu}g has been reached measuring with a 16-strip silicon detector, and a {sup 239}Pu background level of below 0.1 fg has been obtained. In this work we also discuss preliminary results for environmental and structural samples from in and around the Garigliano nuclear power plant (GNPP), presently in the decommissioning phase. Measurements on environmental samples from the vicinity of the plant allow the assessment of contamination, if any, over the years. Measurements of structural samples from the plant are relevant to the optimization of the decommissioning program for the GNPP.

  7. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain Raal

    Full Text Available The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking. The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  8. Complementary Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu with Medicinal Plants – Results from Two Samples of Pharmacy Customers in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable. PMID:23484045

  9. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  10. Statistical analysis of the associations between phenolic monoterpenes and molecular markers, AFLPs and SAMPLs in the spice plant Oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molecular markers are the examples of the contribution of genome technology to medicinal plant breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS for pharmaceutical quality.

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  12. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. STUDY OF RADON, THORON EXHALATION AND NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN COAL AND FLY ASH SAMPLES OF KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER PLANT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B K; Sapra, B K; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Electricity generation in India is largely dependent on coal-based thermal power plants, and increasing demand of energy raised the coal consumption in the power plants. In recent years, study of natural radioactivity content and radon/thoron exhalation from combustion of coal and its by-products has given considerable attention as they have been recognised as one of the important technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials. In the present study, radon, thoron exhalation rate and the radioactivity concentration of radionuclides in coal and fly ash samples collected from Kota Super Thermal Power Plant, Rajasthan, India have been measured and compared with data of natural soil samples. The results have been analysed and discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Determination of macro- and micronutrients in plant leaves by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry combining instrumental and sample preparation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Silvana R.; Gomes Neto, José A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2010-04-01

    A method for determination of B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, S and Zn in plant tissues by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) is proposed. This method is based on special features of HR-CS-AAS, such as side pixel registration, wavelength integrated absorbance, and molecular absorption bands, for determining macro- and micronutrients in foliar analysis without requiring several different strategies for sample preparation and adjustment of the analytes concentration ranges. Plant samples were analyzed and results for certified materials were in agreement at a 95% confidence level (paired t-test) with reference values. Recoveries of analytes added to plant digests varied within the 82-112% interval. Relative standard deviations ( n = 12) were lower than or equal to 5.7% for all analytes in all concentration ranges.

  15. Field-based evaluation of two herbaceous plant community composition sampling methods for long-term monitoring in Northern Great Plains National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Wienk, Cody L.; Thorstenson, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains Inventory & Monitoring (I&M) Network (Network) of the National Park Service (NPS) consists of 13 NPS units in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and eastern Wyoming. The Network is in the planning phase of a long-term program to monitor the health of park ecosystems. Plant community composition is one of the 'Vital Signs,' or indicators, that will be monitored as part of this program for three main reasons. First, plant community composition is information-rich; a single sampling protocol can provide information on the diversity of native and non-native species, the abundance of individual dominant species, and the abundance of groups of plants. Second, plant community composition is of specific management concern. The abundance and diversity of exotic plants, both absolute and relative to native species, is one of the greatest management concerns in almost all Network parks (Symstad 2004). Finally, plant community composition reflects the effects of a variety of current or anticipated stressors on ecosystem health in the Network parks including invasive exotic plants, large ungulate grazing, lack of fire in a fire-adapted system, chemical exotic plant control, nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and climate change. Before the Network begins its Vital Signs monitoring, a detailed plan describing specific protocols used for each of the Vital Signs must go through rigorous development and review. The pilot study on which we report here is one of the components of this protocol development. The goal of the work we report on here was to determine a specific method to use for monitoring plant community composition of the herb layer (< 2 m tall).

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P clean water, but metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  17. Sample prefractionation with liquid isoelectric focusing enables in depth microbial metaproteome analysis of mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, F; Heyer, R; Magnussen, A; Benndorf, D; Muth, T; Behne, A; Rapp, E; Kausmann, R; Heiermann, M; Klocke, M; Reichl, U

    2014-10-01

    Biogas production from energy crops and biodegradable waste is one of the major sources for renewable energies in Germany. Within a biogas plant (BGP) a complex microbial community converts biomass to biogas. Unfortunately, disturbances of the biogas process occur occasionally and cause economic losses of varying extent. Besides technical failures the microbial community itself is commonly assumed as a reason for process instability. To improve the performance and efficiency of BGP, a deeper knowledge of the composition and the metabolic state of the microbial community is required and biomarkers for monitoring of process deviations or even the prediction of process failures have to be identified. Previous work based on 2D-electrophoresis demonstrated that the analysis of the metaproteome is well suited to provide insights into the apparent metabolism of the microbial communities. Using SDS-PAGE with subsequent mass spectrometry, stable protein patterns were evaluated for a number of anaerobic digesters. Furthermore, it was shown that severe changes in process parameters such as acidification resulted in significant modifications of the metaproteome. Monitoring of changing protein patterns derived from anaerobic digesters, however, is still a challenge due to the high complexity of the metaproteome. In this study, different combinations of separation techniques to reduce the complexity of proteomic BGP samples were compared with respect to the subsequent identification of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS): (i) 1D: proteins were tryptically digested and the resulting peptides were separated by reversed phase chromatography prior to MS/MS. (ii) 2D: proteins were separated by GeLC-MS/MS according to proteins molecular weights before tryptic digestion, (iii) 3D: proteins were separated by gel-free fractionation using isoelectric focusing (IEF) conducted before GeLC-MS/MS. For this study, a comparison of two anaerobic digesters operated at mesophilic and at

  18. [Immunogenicity of influenza virus H5N2 vaccine strain samples produced by roller cultivation in media with plant derived components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkova, N A; Desheva, Iu A; Shishkina, L N; Stavskiĭ, E A; Rudenko, L G

    2011-01-01

    Study in CBA line mice of immunogenicity of cold adapted reassortant influenza virus H5N2 vaccine strain samples produced in rollers in MDCK and Vero cell cultures by using plant derived components. Antibody levels in blood sera and nasal swabs, lungs and small intestine of experimental vaccine strain sample immunized mice were evaluated by using HI reaction in accordance with WHO recommendations. Reassortant vaccine strain A/17/duck/Potsdam/86/92 (H5N2) produced in MDCK and Vero cells by using plant derived components (rice and soy flour hydrolyzate and plant protease based nutrient medium) after intranasal immunization of mice induced local and humoral antibodies, and the latter not only against homologous virus, but also against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains A/ Chicken/Suzdalka/Nov-11/2005 and A/Chicken/Kurgan/05/2005. Immunogenicity studies of reassortant influenza virus A/17/duck/Potsdam/86/92 (H5N2) vaccine strain samples cultivated in MDCK and Vero cells by using media with plant derived components in mice show high levels of humoral and secretory immunity.

  19. Use of XPS to identify the oxidation state of Mn in solid surfaces of filtration media oxide samples from drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, José M; Hochella, Michael F; Knocke, William R; Dietrich, Andrea M; Cromer, Thomas F

    2010-08-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to identify Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV) in the surfaces of pure oxide standards and filtration media samples from drinking water treatment plants through the determination of the magnitude of the Mn 3s multiplet splitting and the position and shape of the Mn 3p photo-line. The Mn 3p region has been widely studied by applied physicists and surface scientists, but its application to identify the oxidation state of Mn in heterogeneous oxide samples has been limited. This study shows that the use of both the Mn 3s multiplet splitting and the position and shape of the Mn 3p photo-line provides a feasible means of determining the oxidation state of manganese in complex heterogeneous, environmentally important samples. Surface analysis of filtration media samples from several drinking water treatment plants was conducted. While Mn(IV) was predominant in most samples, a mixture of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) was also identified in some of the filtration media samples studied. The predominance of Mn(IV) in the media samples was felt to be related to the maintenance of free chlorine (HOCl) at substantial concentrations (2-5 mg*L(-1) as Cl2) across these filters. XPS could be a useful tool to further understand the specific mechanisms affecting soluble Mn removal using MnOx-coated filtration media.

  20. Monolithic molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the selective determination of trace cytokinins in plant samples with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyou; Ruan, Guihua; Liang, Shenghua; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Huwei

    2012-08-01

    Cytokinins (CTKs) are a class of growth-regulating hormones involved in various physiological and developmental processes. More novel analytical methods for the accurate identification and quantitative determination of trace CTKs in plants have been desired to better elucidate the roles of CTKs. In this work, a novel method based on monolithic molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (mMI-SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed for accurate determination of four CTKs in plant samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer monolith was prepared by using kinetin as the template in syringes and exhibited specific recognition ability for the four CTKs in comparison with that of non-imprinted polymer monolith. Several factors affecting the extraction performance of mMI-SPE, including the pH of loading sample solution, the nature and volume of elution solvent, the flow rate of sample loading, and sample volume, were investigated, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed mMI-SPE-LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the selective extraction and determination of four CTKs in plant tissues, and it offers detection limits (S/N = 3) of 104, 113, 130, and 89 pg/mL and mean recoveries of 85.9%, 79.3%, 73.5%, and 70.1% for kinetin, kinetin glucoside, trans-zeatin, and meta-topolin (mT), respectively, with the corresponding RSDs less than 15%.

  1. An integrative approach for determination of air pollution and its health effects in a coal fired power plant area by passive sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükaçıl Artun, Gülzade; Polat, Narin; Yay, Ozan Devrim; Özden Üzmez, Özlem; Arı, Akif; Tuna Tuygun, Gizem; Elbir, Tolga; Altuğ, Hicran; Dumanoğlu, Yetkin; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Dawood, Abdallah; Odabasi, Mustafa; Gaga, Eftade O.

    2017-02-01

    Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at several locations in Kütahya, a severely polluted city and also characterized as a thermal power plant city, in Turkey. Two-week extensive passive sampling campaigns were carried out in summer and winter at 108 sampling sites that were classified into three main groups as urban, rural and industrial. Spatial and seasonal distributions of the measured pollutants were evaluated employing Geographical Information System techniques. All pollutant concentrations showed an increasing pattern in winter, except for ozone. The concentrations of VOCs were substantially higher particularly at sampling sites with high traffic and population densities. Power plants were noted as important sources for VOCs since high concentrations were measured especially around the power plants. Highest NO2 levels were observed in the city center while there was a general decrease in the concentration levels far away from the city center. Considerably higher SO2 levels were observed in the settlements where local coal is used for residential heating. Seasonal variations in SO2 concentrations were quite low around the thermal power plants indicating their important effect on atmospheric levels. A basic population exposure assessment was conducted for two largest settlements of the province (Kütahya city center and Tavşanlı) by combining population density maps with pollutant distribution maps of NO2 and SO2. Exposure to NO2 and SO2 were assessed separately according to a classification made for different degrees of exposure. Cancer risks associated with inhalation of benzene were also estimated. Higher risk values were obtained from the sampling sites with higher population densities, especially in winter. Risk values estimated for 95 sampling sites were higher than EPA's acceptable risk value (1 × 10-6).

  2. Liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of plant samples: a method for simultaneous screening of common cofactors or nucleotides and application to an engineered plant line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, Florence; Pétriacq, Pierre; Gakière, Bertrand; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2011-10-01

    Intense efforts are currently devoted to improve plant metabolomic analyses so as to describe more accurately the whole picture of metabolic pathways. Analyses based on liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF) are now widely distributed among plant science laboratories. However, the use of reliable, sensitive LC-TOF methods to identify and quantify micromolar or inframicromolar key metabolites is often impeded by the sensitivity of the technique to sample preparation or chromatographic conditions. Typically, the sample matrix has a substantial influence on ionization efficiency and therefore, on the detectability of such compounds. Here, we describe a new method to analyze simultaneously 23 nucleotides and cofactors from plant extracts, taking advantage of solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to injection. The influence of common m/z fragments in several metabolites and adducts is considered. We applied this method to characterise metabolic intermediates of NAD biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, using a wild-type and an engineered transgenic plant line that produces bacterial quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase (nadc). We show that sample pre-purification with SPE is strictly required not only for compound quantification and identification but also to allow ionization of matrix-sensitive compounds (e.g. nicotinamide) or alleviate fragmentation of others (e.g. NAD). When exogenous substrate quinolinate was infiltrated into Arabidopsis leaves to increase the natural content in downstream metabolites, a clear correlation between intermediates of NAD biosynthesis was seen, showing the accuracy of our method for quantification in biological samples. Nadc plants only showed very modest changes in NAD-related metabolites and furthermore, they were associated with slightly lower photosynthetic performance and ATP production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of Sample Processing to Variability and Accuracy of the Results of Pesticide Residue Analysis in Plant Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Árpád; Buczkó, Judit; Hamow, Kamirán Á; Juhász, Viktor; Solymosné Majzik, Etelka; Szemánné Dobrik, Henriett; Szitás, Róbert

    2016-08-10

    Significant reduction of concentration of some pesticide residues and substantial increase of the uncertainty of the results derived from the homogenization of sample materials have been reported in scientific papers long ago. Nevertheless, performance of methods is frequently evaluated on the basis of only recovery tests, which exclude sample processing. We studied the effect of sample processing on accuracy and uncertainty of the measured residue values with lettuce, tomato, and maize grain samples applying mixtures of selected pesticides. The results indicate that the method is simple and robust and applicable in any pesticide residue laboratory. The analytes remaining in the final extract are influenced by their physical-chemical properties, the nature of the sample material, the temperature of comminution of sample, and the mass of test portion extracted. Consequently, validation protocols should include testing the effect of sample processing, and the performance of the complete method should be regularly checked within internal quality control.

  4. Ultrasonic or accelerated solvent extraction followed by U-HPLC-high mass accuracy MS for screening of pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitescu, Carmen Lidia; Oosterink, Efraim; de Jong, Jacob; Stolker, Alida Adriana Maria Linda

    2012-01-15

    Different veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in agricultural livestock becoming a source of environment contamination. Furthermore, no regulation exists for the concentration limits of pharmaceuticals in soil or water. Monitoring programs for environment contamination with pharmaceuticals are needed, requiring new sensitive and selective screening methods. The present study focuses on developing a method for the simultaneous scanning of forty-two compounds (pharmaceuticals, azole biocides and fungicides) in soil and plant material samples. For extraction purposes the use of ultrasonic assisted and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were compared. The extract was purified and concentrated by applying a solid phase extraction step followed by ultra-high-performance-chromatographic separation and accurate-mass spectrometric detection using Exacte Orbitrap technology (FWHM 50,000). The effects of the different extraction solvents and conditions on the extraction efficiency were tested. Although both extraction approaches are applicable the optimal extraction efficiency was obtained by applying accelerated solvent extraction using solvent mixtures containing acetone for soil and methanol for plant samples. An ASE process has been validated for the determination of selected pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and in plant material. The recoveries from soil samples were >70% for more than 68% of the compounds. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 93% of the compounds tested. The recoveries from plant material were >70% for 64% of the compounds tested. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 66% of the compounds. The developed method was used to screen soil and plant material collected throughout the Netherlands and oxytetracycline residues were detected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and sampling plan optimization for RT-qPCR experiments in plants: a case study in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The qPCR assay has become a routine technology in plant biotechnology and agricultural research. It is unlikely to be technically improved in the near future, but there are still challenges which center around minimizing the variability in results and transparency when reporting technical data in su...

  6. Assessment of reproductive capacity of seeds sampled from natural populations of plants from a territory contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhusheva, O.; Evseeva, T. [Institute of biology Komi SC Ural Branch of RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Plants are an essential component of any ecosystem and are permanently exposed to soil contamination. Therefore, they are widely used for characterization of ecological situation of the territory. Located at the base of the food chain, plants are exposed to toxic agents before the organisms at higher trophic levels. Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant (Kirov, Russia) is one of the biggest chemical enterprises in Europe. Vascular plant communities from surrounding area are exposed to industrial wastes, including uranium production wastes from 1938. The aim of this work was to estimate reproductive capacity of Urtica dioica L., Cirsium setosum (Willd.) Bess and Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim - natural populations inhabiting the chemical plant industrial zone. The plant species studied are common for the meadow communities of south taiga zone, and are characterized by high seed yield and living in wide range of ecological conditions. Plant seeds were collected from two experimental sites with different soil contamination levels, located in the vicinity of the Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant, as well as from the reference site, in 2011 and 2012. Soil specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg and Cu were measured and ecological criteria of the radioactive (C{sub r}) and chemical (C{sub c}) contamination of the soil cover were calculated. Seeds germination, germinative energy and seedling survival rate were used for assessing reproductive capacity. Urtica dioicawas found to be the most sensitive among plant species studied. Germination of seeds from contaminated sites was significantly lower compared with the reference values. Exponential relationship was found between the levels of soil radioactive contamination and seeds germination (R{sup 2}=0.8, p<0.001). Germination of Cirsium setosum seeds, sampled from contaminated sites, exceeded the values obtained for the reference plant population and was linearly dependent (R{sup 2

  7. Rapid determination of endogenous cytokinins in plant samples by combination of magnetic solid phase extraction with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Cai, Bao-Dong; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-04-01

    A 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/P(AMPS-co-EGDMA)) copolymer was prepared and used as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) medium for recovery of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) from plant extracts. This magnetic porous polymer was characterized by electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption experiments, elemental analysis and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. It was demonstrated to have high extraction capacity toward CKs in plants due to its specificity, surface area and porous structure. Coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS), a rapid, simple, and effective MSPE-HILIC-MS/MS analytical method for the quantitative analysis of endogenous CKs in Oryza sativa (O. sativa) roots was successfully established. Good linearities were obtained for all CKs investigated with correlation coefficients (R²>0.9975. The results showed that LODs (S/N=3) were ranged from 0.18 to 3.65 pg mL⁻¹. Reproducibility of the method was obtained with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 16.1% and the recoveries in plant samples ranged from 72.8% to 115.5%. Finally, the MSPE-HILIC-MS/MS method was applied to several plant samples, and the amounts of endogenous CKs in O. sativa roots, leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) were successfully determined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing normative cut points through differential item functioning analysis: An example from the adaptation of the Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS for use as a cognitive screening test in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlay Sehim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS was developed as a screening test to detect cognitive impairment in the elderly. It includes 12 subtests, each having a 'pass score'. A series of tasks were undertaken to adapt the measure for use in the adult population in Turkey and to determine the validity of existing cut points for passing subtests, given the wide range of educational level in the Turkish population. This study focuses on identifying and validating the scoring system of the MEAMS for Turkish adult population. Methods After the translation procedure, 350 normal subjects and 158 acquired brain injury patients were assessed by the Turkish version of MEAMS. Initially, appropriate pass scores for the normal population were determined through ANOVA post-hoc tests according to age, gender and education. Rasch analysis was then used to test the internal construct validity of the scale and the validity of the cut points for pass scores on the pooled data by using Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis within the framework of the Rasch model. Results Data with the initially modified pass scores were analyzed. DIF was found for certain subtests by age and education, but not for gender. Following this, pass scores were further adjusted and data re-fitted to the model. All subtests were found to fit the Rasch model (mean item fit 0.184, SD 0.319; person fit -0.224, SD 0.557 and DIF was then found to be absent. Thus the final pass scores for all subtests were determined. Conclusion The MEAMS offers a valid assessment of cognitive state for the adult Turkish population, and the revised cut points accommodate for age and education. Further studies are required to ascertain the validity in different diagnostic groups.

  9. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation.

  10. Vertical Distribution and Estimated Doses from Artificial Radionuclides in Soil Samples around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuyuki Taira; Naomi Hayashida; Rimi Tsuchiya; Hitoshi Yamaguchi; Jumpei Takahashi; Alexander Kazlovsky; Marat Urazalin; Tolebay Rakhypbekov; Shunichi Yamashita; Noboru Takamura

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radi...

  11. Sampling results, DNAPL monitoring well GW-726, Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Quarterly report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    In January 1990, dense, non aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) were discovered at a depth of approximately 274 foot below ground surface along the southern border of the Y-12 Plant Burial Grounds. Immediately after the discovery, an investigation was conducted to assess the occurrence of DNAPL at the site and to make recommendations for further action. This report summarizes purging and sampling activities for one of these multiport wells, GW-726, and presents analytical results for GW-726.

  12. A TaqMan real-time PCR method based on alternative oxidase genes for detection of plant species in animal feed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia Campos

    Full Text Available Traceability of processed food and feed products has been gaining importance due to the impact that those products can have on human/animal health and to the associated economic and legal concerns, often related to adulterations and frauds as it can be the case for meat and milk. Despite mandatory traceability requirements for the analysis of feed composition, few reliable and accurate methods are presently available to enforce the legislative frame and allow the authentication of animal feeds. In this study, nine sensitive and species-specific real-time PCR TaqMan MGB assays are described for plant species detection in animal feed samples. The method is based on selective real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR amplification of target genes belonging to the alternative oxidase (AOX gene family. The plant species selected for detection in feed samples were wheat, maize, barley, soybean, rice and sunflower as common components of feeds, and cotton, flax and peanut as possible undesirable contaminants. The obtained results were compared with end-point PCR methodology. The applicability of the AOX TaqMan assays was evaluated through the screening of commercial feed samples, and by the analysis of plant mixtures with known composition. The RT-qPCR methodology allowed the detection of the most abundant species in feeds but also the identification of contaminant species present in lower amounts, down to 1% w/w. AOX-based methodology provides a suitable molecular marker approach to ascertain plant species composition of animal feed samples, thus supporting feed control and enforcement of the feed sector and animal production.

  13. Analysis of selected soil and plant samples for dioxins and furans. Untersuchungen von ausgewaehlten Boeden und Pflanzen auf Dioxine und Furane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenmaier, H.; Brunner, H.; Knapp, W.; Weberruss, U.

    1989-07-01

    Soil samples from agricultural test areas with high sewage sludge dosages between 1976 and 1982 and corresponding control samples, as well as plant samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF). Soil samples with sewage sludge application show a relatively high concentration of PCDD/PCDF (maximum 21420 ng/kg for the sum of PCDD/PCDF, corresponding to 261 ng/kg TCDD-toxicity equivalents). Increased PCDD/PCDF-concentrations are found in clover and especially in lettuce - most likely not due to systemic uptake - but not in wheat, potatoes and radish. Intensive agricultural use of sewage sludge can lead to PCDD/PCDF levels above the discussed values of 5 ng/kg toxicity equivalents (TE) for unlimited agricultural use and 40 ng/kg TE for limited agricultural use in a rather short time period. (orig.) With 36 refs., 22 tabs., 14 figs.

  14. The Integration of Plant Sample Analysis, Laboratory Studies, and Thermodynamic Modeling to Predict Slag-Matte Equilibria in Nickel Sulfide Converting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Grimsey, David; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2017-11-01

    The Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter (KNS) produces low Fe, low Cu nickel matte in its Peirce-Smith converter operations. To inform process development in the plant, new fundamental data are required on the effect of CaO in slag on the distribution of arsenic between slag and matte. A combination of plant sample analysis, high-temperature laboratory experiments, and thermodynamic modeling was carried out to identify process conditions in the converter and to investigate the effect of slag composition on the chemical behavior of the system. The high-temperature experiments involved re-equilibration of industrial matte-slag-lime samples at 1498 K (1225 °C) and P(SO2) = 0.12 atm on a magnetite/quartz substrate, rapid quenching in water, and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). A private thermodynamic database for the Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni-O-S-Si-(As) system was used together with the FactSage software package to assist in the analysis. Thermodynamic predictions combined with plant sample characterization and the present experimental data provide a quantitative basis for the analysis of the effect of CaO fluxing on the slag-matte thermochemistry during nickel sulfide converting, in particular on the spinel liquidus and the distribution of elements between slag and matte as a function of CaO addition.

  15. The Integration of Plant Sample Analysis, Laboratory Studies, and Thermodynamic Modeling to Predict Slag-Matte Equilibria in Nickel Sulfide Converting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Grimsey, David; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2018-02-01

    The Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter (KNS) produces low Fe, low Cu nickel matte in its Peirce-Smith converter operations. To inform process development in the plant, new fundamental data are required on the effect of CaO in slag on the distribution of arsenic between slag and matte. A combination of plant sample analysis, high-temperature laboratory experiments, and thermodynamic modeling was carried out to identify process conditions in the converter and to investigate the effect of slag composition on the chemical behavior of the system. The high-temperature experiments involved re-equilibration of industrial matte-slag-lime samples at 1498 K (1225 °C) and P(SO2) = 0.12 atm on a magnetite/quartz substrate, rapid quenching in water, and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). A private thermodynamic database for the Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni-O-S-Si-(As) system was used together with the FactSage software package to assist in the analysis. Thermodynamic predictions combined with plant sample characterization and the present experimental data provide a quantitative basis for the analysis of the effect of CaO fluxing on the slag-matte thermochemistry during nickel sulfide converting, in particular on the spinel liquidus and the distribution of elements between slag and matte as a function of CaO addition.

  16. Correlating activity incorporation with properties of oxide films formed on material samples exposed to BWR and PWR coolants in Finnish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinov, M.; Kinnunen, P.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Sirkiae, P. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Buddas, T.; Halin, M.; Kvarnstroem, R.; Tompuri, K. [Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Loviisa Power Plant, Loviisa (Finland); Helin, M.; Muttilainen, E.; Reinvall, A. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The extent of activity incorporation on primary circuit surfaces in nuclear power plants is connected to the chemical composition of the coolant, to the corrosion behaviour of the material surfaces and to the structure and properties of oxide films formed on circuit surfaces due to corrosion. Possible changes in operational conditions may induce changes in the structure of the oxide films and thus in the rate of activity incorporation. To predict these changes, experimental correlations between water chemistry, oxide films and activity incorporation, as well as mechanistic understanding of the related phenomena need to be established. In order to do this, flow-through cells with material samples and facilities for high-temperature water chemistry monitoring have been installed at Olkiluoto unit 1 (BWR) and Loviisa unit 1 (PWR) in spring 2000. The cells are being used for two major purposes: To observe the changes in the structure and activity levels of oxide films formed on material samples exposed to the primary coolant. Correlating these observations with the abundant chemical and radiochemical data on coolant composition, dose rates etc. collected routinely by the plant, as well as with high-temperature water chemistry monitoring data such as the corrosion potentials of relevant material samples, the redox potential and the high-temperature conductivity of the primary coolant. We describe in this paper the scope of the work, give examples of the observations made and summarize the results on oxide films that have been obtained during one full fuel cycle at both plants. (authors)

  17. Conditions of Thermal Reclamation Process Realization on a Sample of Spent Moulding Sand from an Aluminum Alloy Foundry Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Łucarz M.; Dereń M.

    2017-01-01

    The results of investigations of thermal reclamation of spent moulding sands originating from an aluminum alloy foundry plant are presented in this paper. Spent sands were crushed by using two methods. Mechanical fragmentation of spent sand chunks was realized in the vibratory reclaimer REGMAS. The crushing process in the mechanical device was performed either with or without additional crushing-grinding elements. The reclaimed material obtained in this way was subjected to thermal reclamatio...

  18. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  19. A systematic study on extraction of total arsenic from down-scaled sample sizes of plant tissues and implications for arsenic species analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anne-Christine; Haufe, Nora; Otto, Matthias

    2008-09-15

    An easily feasible, species-conserving and inexpensive protocol for the extraction of total arsenic and arsenic species from terrestrial plants was designed and applied to the investigation of accumulation and metabolization of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonate (MMA(V)), and dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) by the model plant Tropaeolum majus. In contrast to existing extraction methods hazardous additives and elaborate procedures to enhance the extraction yields were omitted. The proposed protocol is suited to down-scale the sample sizes used for the extractions and to promote a compartmentally resolved analysis of the arsenic distribution within individual leaves, leaf stalks, and stems instead of the conventional extraction of pooled samples. In a two-step extraction, the high extraction efficiencies (85-92%) for arsenic achieved by phosphate buffer from larger amounts (200mg) of homogenized leaf material in a one-step extraction, could be enhanced to 94-100% in a second extraction step. A strong dependence of the arsenic extractability on the type of arsenic species accumulated in the tissue as well as on the type of the tissue (leaf, leaf stalk, stem) was found. For the extraction of 5mm long segments cut from individual leaves without previous homogenization of the plant parts yields between 75 and 93% depending on arsenic species prevailing in the cells were obtained using 1 or 10mM phosphate buffer. The total extraction and analysis protocol was validated using a standard reference material as well as by spiking experiments. The arsenic species analysis by IC/ICPMS revealed a number of nine unidentified metabolites in the plant extracts in addition to the species MMA(V), DMA(V), As(III), and As(V) that were provided to the plants during their growth phase.

  20. Sampling Strategy and Potential Utility of Indels for DNA Barcoding of Closely Related Plant Species: A Case Study in Taxus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Ming Gao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although DNA barcoding has become a useful tool for species identification and biodiversity surveys in plant sciences, there remains little consensus concerning appropriate sampling strategies and the treatment of indels. To address these two issues, we sampled 39 populations for nine Taxus species across their entire ranges, with two to three individuals per population randomly sampled. We sequenced one core DNA barcode (matK and three supplementary regions (trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF and ITS for all samples to test the effects of sampling design and the utility of indels. Our results suggested that increasing sampling within-population did not change the clustering of individuals, and that meant within-population P-distances were zero for most populations in all regions. Based on the markers tested here, comparison of methods either including or excluding indels indicated that discrimination and nodal support of monophyletic groups were significantly increased when indels were included. Thus we concluded that one individual per population was adequate to represent the within-population variation in these species for DNA barcoding, and that intra-specific sampling was best focused on representing the entire ranges of certain taxa. We also found that indels occurring in the chloroplast trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA regions were informative to differentiate among for closely related taxa barcoding, and we proposed that indel-coding methods should be considered for use in future for closed related plant species DNA barcoding projects on or below generic level.

  1. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  2. Determination of endogenous jasmonic acid in plant samples by liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection based on derivatization with dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Wang, Fang; Chen, Zilin

    2013-02-21

    Jasmonic acid (JA), a type of plant hormone, is widely distributed in a variety of higher plants at very low concentrations, usually several nanograms per gram (ng g(-1)) fresh weight of the plant tissue. The determination of endogenous JA is challenging work. The typical electrochemical oxidation behavior of JA could only be achieved under extreme conditions such as strongly acidic medium (H(2)SO(4)) and high applied working potential (1.4-1.6 V), which cannot be used in the electrochemical detection for liquid chromatography (LC). To realize electrochemical detection for LC separation, a mild supporting electrolyte for JA oxidation is required, as the supporting electrolyte solution also serves as the mobile phase of LC. Thus, a novel electrochemical derivatization with dopamine (DA) has been developed and successfully applied to the analysis of endogenous JA in wintersweet flowers and rice florets by liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Under optimized experimental conditions including a detection potential of +0.90 V, and 0.04 mol L(-1) acetate buffer solution (pH 5.07) : acetonitrile (67 : 33, v/v) as the mobile phase, the contents of JA in wintersweet flowers and rice florets were respectively determined to be 7.86 μg g(-1) and 308 ng g(-1), consulting the linear relationship between the peak area of JA-DA derivatives and the standard JA concentration (1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) to 2.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1), R = 0.9986) with a detection limit of 5.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The results were consistent with those by LC-UV and LC-MS methods in our group, indicating that this novel pre-column electrochemical derivatization method is feasible.

  3. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces, water from inside a wastewater treatment plant, and seawater samples collected in the Antarctic Treaty area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, Virginia; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Jiménez, Sebastián; Quezada, Mario; Domínguez, Mariana; Vergara, Luis; Gómez-Fuentes, Claudio; Calisto-Ulloa, Nancy; González-Acuña, Daniel; López, Juana; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a problem of global concern and is frequently associated with human activity. Studying antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from pristine environments, such as Antarctica, extends our understanding of these fragile ecosystems. Escherichia coli strains, important fecal indicator bacteria, were isolated on the Fildes Peninsula (which has the strongest human influence in Antarctica), from seawater, bird droppings, and water samples from inside a local wastewater treatment plant. The strains were subjected to molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine their genetic relationships, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility with disk diffusion tests for several antibiotic families: β-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide. The highest E. coli count in seawater samples was 2400 cfu/100 mL. Only strains isolated from seawater and the wastewater treatment plant showed any genetic relatedness between groups. Strains of both these groups were resistant to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide.In contrast, strains from bird feces were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. We conclude that naturally occurring antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces is rare and the bacterial antibiotic resistance found in seawater is probably associated with discharged treated wastewater originating from Fildes Peninsula treatment plants.

  4. Cronograma de amostragem de alface cultivada em hidroponia para ajuste de curvas de crescimento vegetativo Sampling chronology of hydroponics lettuce plants for adjusting vegetative growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o cronograma de amostragem de plantas de alface hidropônica, para ajuste de curvas de crescimento durante o período vegetativo. Foram realizados dois cultivos de alface, variedade Regina, de 8/9/2004 a 19/11/2004 (primavera/verão e 22/2/2005 a 24/5/2005 (verão/outono, em estufas de plástico do Dep. de Fitotecnia, da UFSM, Santa Maria, RS. A partir do ajuste do modelo co-seno com amostragem diária, registrada como padrão, diferentes intervalos entre as amostragens foram simulados para o ajuste do mesmo modelo. A fim de se encontrar o intervalo adequado, foi comparada a variância de falta de ajuste do modelo de amostragem diária com as variâncias de falta de ajuste dos modelos com diferentes intervalos de amostragens pelo teste F. Os cronogramas de amostragens para ajuste de curvas de crescimento de plantas de alface sob hidroponia, para experimentos de primavera/verão e verão/outono, possuem intervalos iguais a dois dias, para fitomassa seca total da planta e da folha; intervalos de quatro dias, para fitomassa de raiz; e, diariamente, para área foliar.The objective of this work was to determinate a sampling chronology to adjust lettuce hidroponic growth curves during its vegetative development. The variety Regina was grown from September 8, 2004 until November 19, 2004 (spring/summer and February 22, 2005 until May 24, 2005 (summer/fall. Plants were placed inside a plastic covered greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Based on the adjusted cosine model, daily samples were taken as standard and different sampling intervals were simulated in order to better adjust the same model. To estimate de adequate sampling interval a comparison was conducted between the variance of lack of adjustment of the daily sampling with the variance of lack of adjustment of different samplings intervals using an F test. Sampling chronograms for adjusting crop growth curves of hydroponics lettuce plants for both

  5. Source apportionment by PMF on elemental concentrations obtained by PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manousakas, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Achaia (Greece); E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Diapouli, E. [E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Papaefthymiou, H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Achaia (Greece); Migliori, A.; Karydas, A.G.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Bogovac, M.; Kaiser, R.B. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency, 2400 Seibersdorf (Austria); Jaksic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Eleftheriadis, K. [E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important constituent of atmospheric pollution especially in areas under the influence of industrial emissions. Megalopolis is a small city of 10,000 inhabitants located in central Peloponnese in close proximity to three coal opencast mines and two lignite fired power plants. 50 PM{sub 10} samples were collected in Megalopolis during the years 2009–11 for elemental and multivariate analysis. For the elemental analysis PIXE was used as one of the most effective techniques in APM analytical characterization. Altogether, the concentrations of 22 elements (Z = 11–33), whereas Black Carbon was also determined for each sample using a reflectometer. Factorization software was used (EPA PMF 3.0) for source apportionment analysis. The analysis revealed that major emission sources were soil dust 33% (7.94 ± 0.27 μg/m{sup 3}), biomass burning 19% (4.43 ± 0.27 μg/m{sup 3}), road dust 15% (3.63 ± 0.37 μg/m{sup 3}), power plant emissions 13% (3.01 ± 0.44 μg/m{sup 3}), traffic 12% (2.82 ± 0.37 μg/m{sup 3}), and sea spray 8% (1.99 ± 0.41 μg/m{sup 3}). Wind trajectories have suggested that metals associated with emission from the power plants came mainly from west and were connected with the locations of the lignite mines located in this area. Soil resuspension, road dust and power plant emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while traffic/secondary, sea spray and biomass burning become dominant during the cold season.

  6. Source apportionment by PMF on elemental concentrations obtained by PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousakas, M.; Diapouli, E.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Migliori, A.; Karydas, A. G.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Bogovac, M.; Kaiser, R. B.; Jaksic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important constituent of atmospheric pollution especially in areas under the influence of industrial emissions. Megalopolis is a small city of 10,000 inhabitants located in central Peloponnese in close proximity to three coal opencast mines and two lignite fired power plants. 50 PM10 samples were collected in Megalopolis during the years 2009-11 for elemental and multivariate analysis. For the elemental analysis PIXE was used as one of the most effective techniques in APM analytical characterization. Altogether, the concentrations of 22 elements (Z = 11-33), whereas Black Carbon was also determined for each sample using a reflectometer. Factorization software was used (EPA PMF 3.0) for source apportionment analysis. The analysis revealed that major emission sources were soil dust 33% (7.94 ± 0.27 μg/m3), biomass burning 19% (4.43 ± 0.27 μg/m3), road dust 15% (3.63 ± 0.37 μg/m3), power plant emissions 13% (3.01 ± 0.44 μg/m3), traffic 12% (2.82 ± 0.37 μg/m3), and sea spray 8% (1.99 ± 0.41 μg/m3). Wind trajectories have suggested that metals associated with emission from the power plants came mainly from west and were connected with the locations of the lignite mines located in this area. Soil resuspension, road dust and power plant emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while traffic/secondary, sea spray and biomass burning become dominant during the cold season.

  7. Sampling, characterisation and processing of solid recovered fuel production from municipal solid waste: An Italian plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Ionescu, Gabriela; Fedele, Arcangela; Palmieri, Eleonora; Ranieri, Ada Cristina; Campanaro, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the classification of solid recovered fuel from the Massafra municipal solid waste treatment plant in Southern Italy in compliancy with the EN 15359 standard. In order to ensure the reproducibility of this study, the characterisation methods of waste input and output flow, the mechanical biological treatment line scheme and its main parameters for each stage of the processing chain are presented in details, together with the research results in terms of mass balance and derived fuel properties. Under this study, only 31% of refused municipal solid waste input stream from mechanical biological line was recovered as solid recovered fuel with a net heating value (NC=HV) average of 15.77 MJ kg -1 ; chlorine content average of 0.06% on a dry basis; median of mercury fuel produced meets the European Union standard requirements and can be classified with the class code: Net heating value (3); chlorine (1); mercury (1).

  8. Nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: Novel sample preparation methods and nanoparticle screening for plant metabolite imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagnik, Gargey B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    The main goal of the presented research is development of nanoparticle based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This dissertation includes the application of previously developed data acquisition methods, development of novel sample preparation methods, application and comparison of novel nanoparticle matrices, and comparison of two nanoparticle matrix application methods for MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS imaging.

  9. Conditions of Thermal Reclamation Process Realization on a Sample of Spent Moulding Sand from an Aluminum Alloy Foundry Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of thermal reclamation of spent moulding sands originating from an aluminum alloy foundry plant are presented in this paper. Spent sands were crushed by using two methods. Mechanical fragmentation of spent sand chunks was realized in the vibratory reclaimer REGMAS. The crushing process in the mechanical device was performed either with or without additional crushing-grinding elements. The reclaimed material obtained in this way was subjected to thermal reclamations at two different temperatures. It was found that a significant binder gathering on grain surfaces favors its spontaneous burning, even in the case when a temperature lower than required for the efficient thermal reclamation of furan binders is applied in the thermal reclaimer. The burning process, initiated by gas burners in the reclaimer chamber, generates favorable conditions for self-burning (at a determined amount of organic binders on grain surfaces. This process is spontaneously sustained and decreases the demand for gas. However, due to the significant amount of binder, this process is longer than in the case of reclaiming moulding sand prepared with fresh components.

  10. Chemical and ecotoxicological assessments of water samples before and after being processed by a Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and ecotoxicological measurements were employed to appraise the water quality of the Corumbataí River raw water (RW intake, and that of its filtered (FW and treated (TW waters, processed by the Water Treatment Plant (WTP of Piracicaba (SP, Brazil during 2010. Some herbicides: ametrine, atrazine, simazine and tebuthiuron, were measured, with levels ranging from 0.01 to 10.3 µg L-1 . These were lower than those required to produce ecotoxicological effects to aquatic life based on published literature. Similarly, trihalomethanes, such as chloroform and bromodichloromethane produced as a result of the WTP process were also shown to be present in concentrations that would neither harm environmental nor human health. Elevated free chlorine concentrations found in FW and TW were credibly responsible for toxicity effects observed in algae and daphnids. (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna. In contrast, results of toxicity testing conducted with Hydra attenuata suggested that this organism is resistant to free chorine and could be used for drinking water evaluations. Coupling bioassays with chemical analyses proved valuable to uncover putative cause-effect relationships existing between physical, chemical and toxic results, as well as in optimizing data interpretation of water quality.

  11. A SAMPLE STUDY ON THE IMPORTANCE AND THE EVALUATION OF THREE DIMENSIONAL EXPRESSION TECHNIQUES IN THE EDUCATION OF PLANTING DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Çiçek Kurdoğlu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available :Drafts developed in graphical expression techniques and models formed in abstract manners and gradually becoming concrete are used for the exhibition of the targeted images in the design process, which is also a mental improvement process. Among the biggest difficulty beginner architecture students face is failing to make comments on the products they design in architecture design process; their spatial relationships and express them in two or three-dimensional models. Expression and modelling techniques to be used in this process are very important. In this study, a lesson programme enriched with two and three – dimensional model expression techniques for planting design education, which is of vital significance in landscape architecture departments, was developed and applied. Advantages and disadvantages of the programme were evaluated and some suggestions were offered. Consequently, importance of three dimensional expression techniques and need for them were re-emphasized and the efficiency of the modelling technique used in the study was determined under today’s and Turkey’s conditions.

  12. Genotoxicity, inflammation and physico-chemical properties of fine particle samples from an incineration energy plant and urban air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Rank, Jette

    2007-01-01

    . The samples were extracted and examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5161, for content of inorganic elements and for the presence of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and the presence of DNA damage - tested...... principal component. Several clusters of constituents were identified. One cluster consisted of all the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), several groups of metals and one group of the biological endpoints (DNA damage, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression). The PAH and the inorganic content of the air...

  13. Laboratory-scale evaluation of various sampling and analytical methods for determining mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Bochan, A.J.; Clements, J.L. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Comparative bench-scale mercury sampling method tests were performed at the Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) laboratories for EPA Method 101A, EPA Method 29 and the Ontario Hydro Method. Both blank and impinger spiking experiments were performed. The experimental results show that the ambient level of mercury in the ATS laboratory is at or below the detection limit (10 ng Hg) as measured by a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) which was used to analyze the mercury samples. From the mercury spike studies, the following observations and findings were made. (a) The recovery of mercury spikes using EPA Method 101A was 104%. (b) The Ontario Hydro Method retains about 90% of mercury spikes in the first absorbing solution but has a total spike retention of 106%. As a result, the test data shows possible migration of spiked mercury from the first impinger solution (KCI) to the permanganate impingers. (c) For the EPA Method 29 solutions, when only the peroxide impingers were spiked, mercury recoveries were 65.6% for the peroxide impingers, 0.1% for the knockout impinger and 32.8% for the permanganate impingers with an average total mercury recovery of 98.4%. At press time, data was still being obtained for both the peroxide and permanganate impinger solution spikes. This and other data will be available at the presentation.

  14. Phase 2 confirmatory sampling data report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    A Remedial Investigation of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) concluded that mercury is the principal contaminant of concern in the EFPC floodplain. The highest concentrations of mercury were found to be in a visually distinct black layer of soil that typically lies 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in.) below the surface. Mercury contamination was found to be situated in distinct areas along the floodplain, and generally at depths > 20 cm (8 in.) below the surface. In accordance with Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a feasibility study was prepared to assess alternatives for remediation, and a proposed plan was issued to the public in which a preferred alternative was identified. In response to public input, the plan was modified and US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision in 1995 committing to excavating all soil in the EFPC floodplain exceeding a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) of mercury. The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) remedial action (RA) focuses on the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the city of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its associated floodplain. Specific areas were identified that required remediation at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Site along Illinois Avenue and at the Bruner Site along the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The RA was conducted in two separate phases. Phase 2, conducted from February to October 1997, completed the remediation efforts at the NOAA facility and fully remediated the Bruner Site. During both phases, data were collected to show that the remedial efforts performed at the NOAA and Bruner sites were successful in implementing the Record of Decision and had no adverse impact on the creek water quality or the city of Oak Ridge publicly owned treatment works.

  15. Ubiquitous Detection of Artificial Sweeteners and Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media in Aquatic Environmental and Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p rivers in Vietnam. Acesulfame was frequently detected in northern Vietnamese groundwater, but the concentrations varied spatially by one order of magnitude even though the sampling points were very close together. This implies that poorly performing domestic septic tanks sporadically leak household wastewater into groundwater. High acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose concentrations were found in surface water from Manila, The Philippines. The sucralose concentrations were one order of magnitude higher in the Manila samples than in the Vietnamese samples, indicating that more sucralose is used in The Philippines than in Vietnam. Acesulfame and cyclamate were found in surface water from Pathein (rural) and Yangon (urban) in Myanmar, but no ICMs were found in the samples. The ASs concentrations were two-three orders of magnitude lower in the samples from Myanmar than in the samples from Vietnam and The Philippines, suggesting that different amounts of ASs are used in these countries. We believe this is the first report of persistent ASs and ICMs having ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries.

  16. High-internal-phase-emulsion polymeric monolith coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for enrichment and sensitive detection of trace cytokinins in plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyou; Sun, Lin; Zhen, Xian; Nie, Honggang; Zheng, Yanjie; Ruan, Guihua; Li, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    High-internal-phase-emulsion polymers (polyHIPEs) show great promise as solid-phase-extraction (SPE) materials because of the tremendous porosity and highly interconnected framework afforded by the high-internal-phase-emulsion (HIPE) technique. In this work, polyHIPE monolithic columns as novel SPE materials were prepared and applied to trace enrichment of cytokinins (CKs) from complex plant samples. The polyHIPE monoliths were synthesized via the in-situ polymerization of the continuous phase of a HIPE containing styrene (STY) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in a stainless column, and revealed highly efficient and selective enrichment ability for aromatic compounds. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a method using a monolithic polyHIPE column combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and sensitive determination of trans-zeatin (tZ), meta-topolin (mT), kinetin (K), and kinetin riboside (KR). The proposed method had good linearity, with correlation coefficients (R (2)) from 0.9957 to 0.9984, and low detection limits (LODs, S/N = 3) in the range 2.4-47 pg mL(-1) for the four CKs. The method was successfully applied to the determination of CKs in real plant samples, and obtained good recoveries ranging from 68.8 % to 103.0 % and relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 16 %.

  17. Plant planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes planting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2009.

  18. FLOODPLAIN, MIDDLESEX COUNTY, USA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. Hydraulics submission for Middlesex County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating base flood elevation for a flood insurance...

  20. DCS Terrain for Middlesex County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  1. "Middlesex" Meditations: Understanding and Teaching Intersex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breu, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Teachers who include intersex issues in their curricula can provide their intersex students with a sense of community. Intersex people, whether children, teenagers, or adults, often feel that they are going through their experiences absolutely alone. For them, realizing that there are others out there with similar experiences, facing similar…

  2. Geochemical study of evaporite and clay mineral-oxyhydroxide samples from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookins, D.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (US). Dept. of Geology

    1993-06-01

    Samples of clay minerals, insoluble oxyhydroxides, and their host evaporites from the WIPP site have been studied for their major and minor elements abundances, x-ray diffraction characteristics, K-Ar ages, and Rb-Sr ages. This study was undertaken to determine their overall geochemical characteristics and to investigate possible interactions between evaporates and insoluble constituents. The evaporite host material is water-soluble, having Cl/Br ratios typical of marine evaporites, although the Br content is low. Insoluble material (usually a mixture of clay minerals and oxyhydroxide phases) yields very high Cl/Br ratios, possibly because of Cl from admixed halide minerals. This same material yields K/Rb and Th/U ratios in the normal range for shales; suggesting little, if any, effect of evaporite-induced remobilization of U, K, or Rb in the insoluble material. The rare-earth element (REE) data also show normal REE/chondrite (REE/CHON) distribution patterns, supporting the K/Rb and Th/U data. Clay minerals yield K-Ar dates in the range 365 to 390 Ma and a Rb-Sr isochron age of 428 {+-} 7 Ma. These ages are well in excess of the 220- to 230-Ma formational age of the evaporites, and confirm the detrital origin of the clays. The ages also show that any evaporite or clay mineral reactions that might have occurred at or near the time of sedimentation and diagenesis were not sufficient to reset the K-Ar and Rb-Sr systematics of the clay minerals. Further, x-ray data indicate a normal evaporitic assemblage of clay minerals and Fe-rich oxyhydroxide phases. The clay minerals and other insoluble material appear to be resistant to the destructive effects of their entrapment in the evaporites, which suggests that these insoluble materials would be good getters for any radionuclides (hypothetically) released from the storage of radioactive wastes in the area.

  3. A lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for rapid detection of miroestrol in samples of White Kwao Krua, a phytoestrogen-rich plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Krittanai, Supaluk; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Putalun, Waraporn

    2017-10-01

    White Kwao Krua (WKK)-derived products have been used worldwide as dietary supplements to relieve climacteric symptoms in menopausal women. Miroestrol is a unique chromene found in WKK tuberous roots that corresponds to the estrogenic activity of WKK. However, miroestrol naturally accumulates at low levels in WKK samples, which are difficult to detect. The development of a rapid and sensitive assay to detect miroestrol in numerous products derived from this plant would be a practical and useful method to guarantee the quality of raw materials. To allow rapid and easy qualitative detection of miroestrol, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) using a colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) against miroestrol was developed. The qualitative LFIA was based on the competition of free miroestrol in the sample and immobilized miroestrol-conjugated proteins on the strip for a limited number of antibodies in the detection reagent. Anti-miroestrol mAb was colored by colloidal gold labels and used as the detection reagent in LFIA. Anti-mouse immunoglobulin G was used to indicate the functioning of the LFIA system. The detection limit of the LFIA was 0.156 μg of miroestrol. The LFIA was applied to determine the miroestrol content in WKK samples and products. The result was compared with the validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and demonstrated a correlative outcome. This study shows that the developed LFIA is practical and suitable for detecting small amounts of miroestrol in WKK samples. This qualitative assay is more rapid in screening miroestrol in WKK samples (within 10 min) than conventional methods (ELISA and HPLC).

  4. Chemical Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Compounds from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam. according to Compound Classes, Plant Organs and Senegalese Sample Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Yoro; Diop, Abdoulaye; Diatta, William; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Costa, Jean; Wélé, Alassane; Paolini, Julien

    2017-01-01

    The chemical diversity of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides growing wild in Senegal was studied according to volatile compound classes, plant organs and sample locations. The composition of fruit essential oil was investigated using an original targeted approach based on the combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) both coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). The volatile composition of Z. zanthoxyloides fruits exhibited relative high amounts of hydrocarbon monoterpenes (24.3 - 55.8%) and non-terpenic oxygenated compounds (34.5 - 63.1%). The main components were (E)-β-ocimene (12.1 - 39%), octyl acetate (11.6 - 21.8%) and decanol (9.7 - 15.4%). The GC and GC/MS profiling of fruit essential oils showed a chemical variability according to geographical locations of plant material. The LC/MS/MS analysis of fruit oils allowed the detection of seven coumarins in trace content. The chemical composition of fruit essential oils was compared with volatile fractions of leaves and barks (root and trunk) from the same plant station. Hexadecanoic acid, germacrene D and decanal were identified as the major constituents of leaves whereas the barks (root and trunk) were dominated by pellitorine (85.8% and 57%, respectively), an atypic linear compound with amide group. The fruit essential oil exhibited interesting antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, particularly the alcohol fraction of the oil. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a good tool to study changing Leptosphaeria populations in oilseed rape plants and air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jędryczka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LAMP is an innovative, simple, rapid, specific and cost-effective nucleic acid amplification method. Due to the use of a special enzyme – GspSSD polymerase, the reaction takes a short time and can be performed at isothermal conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP technique is significantly higher, than standard PCR techniques, as two or three specific primer pairs are used. The technique is regarded as a useful tool for the detection and identification of plant pathogens. In this work, LAMP was used to study the composition of the population of fungi of the genus Leptosphaeria, causing a damaging disease of oilseed rape, called blackleg or stem canker. The detection concerned DNA present in fungal spores contained in air samples obtained using Hirst-type volumetric trap, in Pomerania (north Poland in 2010. The results achieved using the LAMP technique were similar to these obtained with previously used, highly specific method of Real-time PCR. Conducting LAMP reaction was much easier and less time-and cost-consuming, due to a simplified method of DNA isolation of pathogens from plant tissues. Then, the LAMP technique was used to assess the composition of the population of Leptosphaeria spp. in plants of oil- seed rape collected from the field in the Opole region (south-we- stern part of Poland in 2013. In contrast to studies conducted in 2002–2003, the analysis of leaf symptoms showed a higher pro- portion of L. maculans compared to L. biglobosa, what reflects changes in the composition of pathogen population of fungi causing blackleg on oilseed rape in this part of Poland.

  6. Upscaled CTAB-Based DNA Extraction and Real-Time PCR Assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in Plant Material with Reduced Sampling Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Karlovsky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch. and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB. Real-time PCR (qPCR is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5-1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of DNA yield. The costs of DNA extraction at different scales and with different methods (commercial kits versus cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol and qPCR systems (doubly labeled hybridization probes versus SYBR Green were compared. A cost-effective protocol for the quantification of F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in wheat grain and maize stalk debris based on DNA extraction from 0.5-1.0 g material and real-time PCR with SYBR Green fluorescence detection was developed.

  7. Upscaled CTAB-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in plant material with reduced sampling error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandfass, Christoph; Karlovsky, Petr

    2008-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5-1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of DNA yield. The costs of DNA extraction at different scales and with different methods (commercial kits versus cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol) and qPCR systems (doubly labeled hybridization probes versus SYBR Green) were compared. A cost-effective protocol for the quantification of F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in wheat grain and maize stalk debris based on DNA extraction from 0.5-1.0 g material and real-time PCR with SYBR Green fluorescence detection was developed.

  8. Does host plant richness explain diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi? Re-evaluation of Gao et al. (2013) data sets reveals sampling effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Dickie, Ian A

    2014-03-01

    The generally positive relationship between biodiversity of groups of directly or indirectly interacting organisms is one of the most important ecological concepts (Gaston, 2000 Nature, 405, 220-227; Scherber C, Eisenhauer N, Weisser WW et al., 2010 Nature, 468, 553-556). In a recent issue of Molecular Ecology, Gao C, Shi N-N, Liu Y-X et al. (2013: 22, 3403-3414) reported that the richness of plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi is positively correlated both at local and at global scales. Here, we challenge these findings by re-analysis of data and ascribe the reported results to sampling effect and poor data compilation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (134Cs, (137Cs, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241Am, (57Co, (137Cs, (95Zr, (95Nb, (58Co, and (60Co were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991. These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  10. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (57)Co, (137)Cs, (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (58)Co, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around SNTS. Effective doses around CNPP were over the public dose limit of 1 mSv/y (International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1991). These levels in a contaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 were high, whereas levels in a decontaminated area 12 km from Unit 4 and another contaminated area 15 km from Unit 4 were comparatively low. On the other hand, the effective doses around SNTS were below the public dose limit. These findings suggest that the environmental contamination and effective doses on the ground definitely decrease with decontamination such as removing surface soil, although the effective doses of the sampling points around CNPP in the present study were all over the public dose limit. Thus, the remediation of soil as a countermeasure could be an extremely effective method not only for areas around CNPP and SNTS but also for areas around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), and external exposure levels will be certainly reduced. Long-term follow-up of environmental monitoring around CNPP, SNTS, and FNPP, as well as evaluation of the health effects in the population residing around these areas, could contribute to radiation safety and reduce unnecessary exposure to the public.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF SAMPLES USED FOR ISOLATION OF MICROBIAL STRAINS CAPABLE OF CONVERTING STRAW DESTINED AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Cybulska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In biogas plants, almost any type of organic matter can be used as a substrate to produce biogas. To make the process of methane fermentation more effective, these materials are pretreated. This applies in particular to a group of difficult substrates. Straw, due to its hemicellulose structure and saturation, is hardly fermented by biogas reactor microorganisms. The methods of post-harvest residue preparation for anaerobic digestion being applied so far are expensive, while their application has a negative effect on methanoegenic bacteria. Therefore, the microorganisms being able to degrade straw hemicellulose structure, utilisation of which could precede the proper fermentation process, have been searched for. This paper presents the results of microbial biodiversity analysis in the environmental samples being lupin, cereal, rape and maize straw as well as hay and haylage at different degradation stages. The analysis of biodiversity will help at a further stage of study to isolate active microbial strains showing cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic or ligninolytic activity which are desirable in the process of straw biodegradation. Analysis of the microbial count was performed by the method of deep inoculation on different microbiological culture media. The conducted tests include determination of the number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the analysed samples for isolation of microbial strains capable of converting straw preceding the biogas production.

  12. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19&D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations.

  13. Electrochemical determination of the levels of cadmium, copper and lead in polluted soil and plant samples from mining areas in Zamfara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe Mabel Ogunlesi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in soil and plant samples collected from Abare and Dareta villages in Anka local government area of Zamfara State, Nigeria have been electrochemically determined. The study was carried out because of the high mortality of women and children under five, reported for these areas in June 2010. The cause was ascribed to the lead poisoning which has been related to the mining and processing of gold-containing ores. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry technique was used with the glassy carbon working, Ag/AgCl reference and platinum auxiliary electrodes. Voltammetric peaks for lead, copper and cadmium that were observed at -495 mV, -19.4 mV and -675 mV, respectively, have formed a basis for construction of the corresponding calibration plots. The concentrations (in mg/kg of lead, copper and cadmium in the soil samples were found in the ranges of 18.99−26087.70, 2.96−584.60 and 0.00−1354.25, respectively. The concentration values for lead were far above already established USEPA (2002 and WHO (1996 maximum permissible limits for residential areas. The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in the food samples ranged between 5.70−79.91, 11.17−41.21 and 0.00−5.74 mg/kg. Several of these values are found well above the FAO/WHO limits of 0.1, 2 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicate that in addition to the lead poisoning, copper and cadmium poisoning may also be responsible for sudden and high mortality in this population.

  14. Simultaneous determination of plant growth regulators 1-naphthylacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid in fruit and vegetable samples by room temperature phosphorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Pulgarín, José A; García Bermejo, Luisa F; Sánchez-Ferrer Robles, Ignacio; Becedas Rodríguez, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    1-Naphthylacetic and 2-naphthoxyacetic acids belong to the synthetic branch of auxins. Auxins have attracted considerable interest as a subject of study by virtue of their biological and physiological significance. Their broad use as plant growth regulators has raised the need for simple, rapid, sensitive and selective analytical methods for their determination in real samples. The primary aim of this work was to develop an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 1-naphthylacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid in commercial technical formulations, tomato and various fruit types (apple, strawberry, orange and plum) by room temperature phosphorescence. Filtrated solutions of aqueous slurries from ecological fruit and tomato samples are acidified and then extracted with dichloromethane. Once the solvent is evaporated, the dried residue is dissolved in sodium dodecyl sulphate (a micellar agent), and supplied with thallium (I) nitrate as an external heavy atom source and sodium sulphite as deoxygenation agent to enhance the ensuing phosphorescence. The broad-band overlapping spectra for the two analytes were resolved by first- and second-derivative phosphorescence spectrometry. Zero-crossing measurements at 488.5 nm in the first-derivative spectrum and 469.5 nm in the second derivative spectrum exhibited a linear dependence on the 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 1-naphthylacetic acid concentration, respectively. The detection limits as determined in accordance with the error propagation theory were 11.5 ng/mL for 1-naphthylacetic acid and 15.6 ng/mL for 2-naphthoxyacetic acid. The proposed method affords the determination of 1-naphthylacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid in real samples with near-quantitative recoveries from agricultural products. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Point-source CO2 emission estimation from airborne sampled CO2 mass density: a case study for an industrial plant in Biganos, Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Toscano, Piero; Zaldei, Alessandro; Miglietta, Franco

    2013-04-01

    One interesting aspect in the airborne sampling of ground emissions of all types (from CO2 to particulate matter) is the ability to understand the source from which these emissions originated and, therefore, obtain an estimation of that ground source's strength. Recently an aerial campaign has been conducted in order to sample emissions coming from a paper production plant in Biganos (France). The campaign made use of a Sky Arrow ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with a mobile flux platform system. This latter system couples (among the various instrumentation) a turbulence probe (BAT) and a LICOR 7500 open-path infra-red gas analyzer that also enables the estimation of high-resolution fluxes of different scalars via the spatial-integrated eddy-covariance technique. Aircraft data showed a marked increase in CO2 mass density downwind the industrial area, while vertical profiles samplings showed that concentrations were changing with altitude. The estimation of the CO2 source was obtained using a simple mass balance approach, that is, by integrating the product of CO2 concentration and the mass flow rate through a cross-sectional area downwind of the point source. The results were compared with those obtained by means of a "forward-mode" Lagrangian dispersion model operated iteratively. CO2 source strength were varied at each iteration to obtain an optimal convergence between the modeled atmospheric concentrations and the concentration data observed by the aircraft. The procedure makes use of wind speed and atmospheric turbulence data which are directly measured by the BAT probe at different altitudes. The two methods provided comparable estimates of the CO2 source thus providing a substantial validation of the model-based iterative dispersion procedure. We consider that this data-model integration approach involving aircraft surveys and models may substantially enhance the estimation of point and area sources of any scalar, even in more complex

  16. Determination of Al, Cu, Li and Mn in spruce seeds and plant reference materials by slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsen, C; Wibetoe, G

    2000-03-01

    An ultrasonic slurry sampling graphite furnace AAS method was developed for the determination of Al, Cu, Li and Mn in spruce seeds, NBS SRM 1575 pine needles and GBW CRM 07602 bush branches and leaves. The only sample preparation was grinding in a Mixer Mill before preparing a slurry by adding 0.14 mol/L nitric acid to a small sample aliquot. Cryogenic grinding was used for the spruce seeds to solve the problem of agglomerating during grinding at room temperature. A modified sample tray was applied allowing the use of both the commercial 1.5 mL vials and home-made 15 mL vials. With optimal conditions for ultrasonic agitation the homogeneity and particle size distributions in the slurries prepared in the two different vials were similar. Several aspects of the slurry sampling approach are discussed and data of important parameters are given, including the total number of particles injected into the graphite furnace, densities of the materials and percentage of analyte extracted into the liquid phase of the slurry. The density of the materials was determined by two methods; by using a Coulter particle analyser and by using a gravimetric method. The two methods gave similar accuracy and precision. The concentration ranges of the elements (in microg g(-1)) were: 80-2100 for Al, 3-15 for Cu, 0.06-2.5 for Li and 50-700 for Mn. External calibration with aqueous standards was employed. Chemical modifiers were not found to be necessary. The relative standard deviations were in the range 1.7-7%. Analyses of the two certified plant reference materials confirmed the accuracy of the method. In addition no significant difference was found for analyses of digested and slurried spruce seeds. The detection limit was 10 ng g(-1) for Li and 170 ng g(-1) for Cu. The characteristic mass (area measurements) was 4.4 pg for Li and 11 pg for Cu. For Al and Mn less sensitive wavelengths were used.

  17. Determination of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI Concentrations via Ion Chromatography and UV-Vis Spectrophotometry in Samples Collected from Nacogdoches Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Texas (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefa K. Onchoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI, a toxic environmental pollutant and carcinogen, was determined in samples collected from Nacogdoches Wastewater Treatment Plant (NWWTP using ion chromatography and UV-visible spectrophotometry (IC, UV-Vis. On reaction with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC Cr+6 forms a 1,5-diphenylcarbazide-Cr(VI complex, which is then analyzed at 530 nm and 540 nm, respectively. Via ion chromatography Cr(VI concentrations were in the range of 0.00190±0.0020 and 0.0010±0.0006 ppm at the influent and effluent, respectively. With the use of standard addition wastewater samples were spiked with a 0.5 ppm Cr(VI standard of various amounts and subsequently analyzed with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The spiked concentrations gave Cr(VI concentrations in the range of 0.0090±0.0060 ppm and 0.0040±0.0061 ppm at the influent and influent wastewater, respectively. The determined Cr(VI concentrations through the ion chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry are below the maximum USEPA contaminant concentration of 0.1 ppm. From the analysis, the NWWTP efficiently removes Cr(VI before discharge into the environment through La Nana Creek. The removal efficiency for Cr(VI was determined to be ≥92.8% along the wastewater treatment stages from the influent (aeration stage to the effluent stages prior to discharge into the La Nana Creek.

  18. Specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in beach sand samples in Songkhla province, Thailand after Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaratikoon, P.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Choosiri, N.; Daoh, M.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2017-06-01

    According to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 210 beach sand samples which were collected from Maharat, Sai Kaew, Samila, Chalatat, Na Thab, Sakom and Soi Sawan beaches in Songkhla Province along the eastern coast of Thailand, have been studied and evaluated. The specific activity levels of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in the area were found in the range 110.13 - 4574.12, 6.99 - 451.87, 3.75 - 665.76 and 0.58- 9.91 Bq/Kg, respectively. Furthermore, the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were calculated and compared with other research data in Thailand as well as global measurements and evaluations. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the studied area were also assessed by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th.

  19. A simple and sensitive HPLC method based on pre-column fluorescence labelling for multiple classes of plant growth regulator determination in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Liu, Shucheng; Sun, Zhiwei; Xia, Lian; Chen, Guang; You, Jinmao

    2015-03-01

    The determination of trace plant growth regulator (PGR) has received more and more attentions in the field of phytophysiology and food safety. But the simple and sensitive method for simultaneously analysing multiple classes of PGR remains poorly investigated. In this study, a new pre-column fluorescence labelling method using 2-(11H-benzo[a]carbazol-11-yl)-ethyl-4-methylbenzenesulfonate (BCETS) as the labelling reagent has been developed for simultaneous determination of seven PGRs (i.e., indole-3-acetic acid, 3-indolybutyric acid, 3-indolepropionic acid, jasmonic acid, gibberellin A3, 1-naphthylacetic acid and 2-naphthaleneacetic acid) by HPLC with fluorescent detection (FLD). The proposed method offered the LOD of 0.34-0.73 ng/mL for seven PGRs, which were significantly lower than the reported methods. The crude extract without complex pre-treatments and purification was directly labelled by BCETS and analysed by HPLC-FLD, which facilitates the high-throughput sample screening. This method was proven to be inexpensive, simple, selective, sensitive, accurate and reliable for trace PGR determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sample preparation strategies for one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoretic separation of plant proteins and the influence on arsenic and zinc bindings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anne-Christine; Ahlswede, Julia; Störr, Bianca

    2009-10-01

    A sample preparation method including protein extraction by an aqueous buffer system, precipitation with trichloroacetic acid, washing with acetone, and desalting by dialysis was developed for 2D gel electrophoresis of mature leaves from Tropaeolum majus, a plant species with a high content of glucosinolates. By the optimized method, 1D- and 2D-gels could also be produced from Festuca rubra leaves and Helianthus annuus seeds. A strong influence of the varied protein preparation parameters on arsenic and zinc bindings was observed. Microwave-digestion with subsequent atomic spectroscopy analysis of protein fractions revealed the highest arsenic binding capacity of 76.2+/-1.7% for proteins from sunflower seeds spiked with arsenite. After spiking of T. majus extracts with different arsenic species and zinc salts to 100microg As or Zn in 10mL, 9.5+/-0.97%, 0.95+/-0.39%, 0.24+/-0.02%, 0.20+/-0.09%, 0.02%, 0.83+/-0.02%, 2.21+/-1.64%, and 1.45+/-0.69% were recovered in the final protein fraction for phenylarsine oxide, arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, zinc chloride, zinc sulfate, and zinc acetate, respectively. The cultivation of T. majus under arsenic exposure resulted in a highly elevated arsenic-binding capacity of the proteins that was also dependent on the kind of arsenic species in the following order: arsenite (14.9%)>monomethylarsonate (12.4%)>arsenate (10.8%)>dimethylarsinate (0.32%).

  1. Statutory prevention of work injuries in Italy: an effectiveness evaluation with interrupted time series analysis in a sample of 5000 manufacturing plants from the Veneto region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, R; Fedeli, U; Bena, A; Farina, E; Sarto, F; Veronese, M; Mastrangelo, G

    2016-05-01

    According to Italian law, prevention of injuries in the workplace falls under the National Health System Service of Prevention, Health and Safety at Work (SPISAL). In a sample of about 5000 industrial firms in the Veneto region (North-Eastern Italy), the study examines the impact of SPISAL safety programmes on injuries. The study is based on the before-and-after comparison of injury rates in 795 industrial settings that were subject to SPISAL interventions and 4186 reference firms, which were all manufacturing industries with >10 employees; construction companies were excluded. The time window (2001-2007) was chosen in order to have 8 quarters of observation before and 8 after the intervention. The National Institute for Workers' Compensation provided data on injuries and plants, while SPISAL gave information on interventions carried out. The preintervention and postintervention rates of injuries were compared by means of interrupted time series analyses, estimating the rate ratio (RR) with a 95% CI. Inspection after injury reduced by 24% (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90; p=0.001) all injuries, and by 36% (RR=0.64; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.83; p=0.001) severe injuries (fatalities, lost workdays >30, degree of permanent disability >0). These changes occurred immediately and persisted for 2 years. The effects of programmed inspections were never significant. It can be presumed that, after a severe injury, the employees raised their standard of what they considered good work safety and, at the same time, the employers were pushed to improve the work environment as a result of the sudden attention from the workplace hygiene and safety authority and court authority. Inspection after injury was an effective strategy; however, confirmatory evidence is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Design and construction of a new temperature-controlled chamber for light and confocal microscopy under monitored conditions: biological application for plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, O; Lütz, C; Holzinger, A

    2007-02-01

    A new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber (LM-TCC) has been constructed. The special feature of the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber is the Peltier-element temperature control of a specimen holder for biological samples, with a volume capacity of 1 mL. This system has marked advantages when compared to other approaches for temperature-controlled microscopy. It works in a temperature range of -10 degrees C to +95 degrees C with an accuracy of +/-0.1 degrees C in the stationary phase. The light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber allows rapid temperature shift rates. A maximum heating rate of 12.9 degrees C min(-1) and a maximum cooling rate of 6.0 degrees C min(-1) are achieved with minimized overshoots (Ficaria verna exposed to 4500 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) in a standard microscopic preparation show a temperature increase (deltaT) of 18.0 degrees C, whereas in the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber this is reduced to 4 degrees C. The kinetics of microscope-light induced deltaT are described and infrared thermography demonstrates the dissipation of the temperature. Chloroplasts of the cold adapted plant Ranunculus glacialis show the tendency to form stroma-filled protrusions in relation to the exposure temperature. The relative number of chloroplasts with protrusions is reduced at 5 degrees C when compared to 25 degrees C. This effect is reversible. The new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber will be useful in a wide range of biological applications where a rapid change of temperature during microscopic observations is necessary or has to be avoided allowing a simulation of ecologically relevant temperature scenarios.

  3. Evaluating plant biodiversity measurements and exotic species detection in National Resources Inventory Sampling protocols using examples from the Northern Great Plains of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native plant biodiversity loss and exotic species invasions are threatening the ability of many ecosystems to maintain key functions and processes. We currently lack detailed plant biodiversity data at a national scale with which to make management decisions and recommendations based on current cons...

  4. Immunoaffinity chromatography for the sample pretreatment of Taxus plant and cell extracts prior to analysis of taxanes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodoridis, G; Haasnoot, W; Schilt, R; Jaziri, M; Diallo, B; Papadoyannis, IN; de Jong, GJ; Cazemier, G.

    2002-01-01

    The application of immunoaffinity chromatography for the purification of Taxus plant and cell extracts prior to the HPLC analysis is described. Polyclonal antibodies raised against 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III), paclitaxel's main precursor in plant, were characterised by enzymed-linked

  5. Tests of a High Temperature Sample Conditioner for the Waste Treatment Plant LV-S2, LV-S3, HV-S3A and HV-S3B Exhaust Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    Tests were performed to evaluate a sample conditioning unit for stack monitoring at Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) exhaust stacks with elevated air temperatures. The LV-S2, LV-S3, HV-S3A and HV-S3B exhaust stacks are expected to have elevated air temperature and dew point. At these emission points, exhaust temperatures are too high to deliver the air sample directly to the required stack monitoring equipment. As a result, a sample conditioning system is considered to cool and dry the air prior to its delivery to the stack monitoring system. The method proposed for the sample conditioning is a dilution system that will introduce cooler, dry air to the air sample stream. This method of sample conditioning is meant to reduce the sample temperature while avoiding condensation of moisture in the sample stream. An additional constraint is that the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard states that at least 50% of the 10 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) particles present in the stack free stream must be delivered to the sample collector. In other words, depositional loss of particles should be limited to 50% in the sampling, transport, and conditioning systems. Based on estimates of particle penetration through the LV-S3 sampling system, the diluter should perform with about 80% penetration or better to ensure that the total sampling system passes the 50% or greater penetration criterion.

  6. Environmental monitoring at the nuclear power plants and Studsvik 1992-1993. Results from measurements of radionuclide contents of environmental samples, and from random checks by SSI; Omgivningskontroll vid kaernkraftverken och Studsvik 1992-1993. Resultat fraan maetning av radionuklidhalter i miljoeprover, samt SSIs stickprovsmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtson, P.; Larsson, C.M.; Simenstad, P.; Suomela, J.

    1995-09-01

    Marine samples from the vicinity of the plants show elevated radionuclide concentrations, caused by discharges from the plants. Very low concentrations are noted in terrestrial samples. At several locations, the effects of the Chernobyl disaster still dominates. Control samples measured by SSI have confirmed the measurements performed by the operators. 8 refs, 6 tabs, 46 figs.

  7. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  8. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  9. Traces of DU in samples of environmental bio-monitors (non-flowering plants, fungi) and soil from target sites of the Western Balkan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mietelski, Jerzy W. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland)], E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl; Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Cuknic, Olivera; Demajo, Miroslav [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-08-15

    This paper reports results of gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements for mosses, lichens, fungi and soil samples from areas in the Balkans targeted by depleted uranium (DU). Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003 in the vicinity of several villages, principally Han Pijesak (Bosnia and Herzegovina, hit by DU in 1995) and Bratoselce (South Serbia, hit by DU in 1999) and in lesser numbers from Gornja Stubla, Kosovo (which is identified as a high natural radon/thoron area) and Presevo close to the Kosovo border. In the course of gamma spectrometric measurements some results suggested samples with unusual high uranium contents which might be considered to be a signature for the presence of DU, although many samples had very high detection limits. Alpha spectrometric measurements directly proved the presence of DU for five samples, all from directly targeted places. These were samples of mosses, lichens and soil. For some samples homogeneity tests were applied which showed a rather even distribution of DU in these samples. No trace of DU was found in any sample from a dwelling.

  10. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plant for the Environmental Monitoring Plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Lockheed Martin Energy System, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  11. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  12. Accumulation and variability of maize pollen deposition on leaves of European Lepidoptera host plants and relation to release rates and deposition determined by standardised technical sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Frieder; Kruse-Plass, Maren; Kuhn, Ulrike; Otto, Mathias; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Schröder, Boris; Vögel, Rudolf; Wosniok, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment for GMOs such as Bt maize requires detailed data concerning pollen deposition onto non-target host-plant leaves. A field study of pollen on lepidopteran host-plant leaves was therefore undertaken in 2009-2012 in Germany. During the maize flowering period, we used in situ microscopy at a spatial resolution adequate to monitor the feeding behaviour of butterfly larvae. The plant-specific pollen deposition data were supplemented with standardised measurements of pollen release rates and deposition obtained by volumetric pollen monitors and passive samplers. In 2010, we made 5377 measurements of maize pollen deposited onto leaves of maize, nettle, goosefoot, sorrel and blackberry. Overall mean leaf deposition during the flowering period ranged from 54 to 478 n/cm 2 (grains/cm 2 ) depending on plant species and site, while daily mean leaf deposition values were as high as 2710 n/cm 2 . Maximum single leaf-deposition values reached up to 103,000 n/cm 2 , with a 95 % confidence-limit upper boundary of 11,716 n/cm 2 . Daily means and variation of single values uncovered by our detailed measurements are considerably higher than previously assumed. The recorded levels are more than a single degree of magnitude larger than actual EU expert risk assessment assumptions. Because variation and total aggregation of deposited pollen on leaves have been previously underestimated, lepidopteran larvae have actually been subjected to higher and more variable exposure. Higher risks to these organisms must consequently be assumed. Our results imply that risk assessments related to the effects of Bt maize exposure under both realistic cultivation conditions and worst-case scenarios must be revised. Under common cultivation conditions, isolation buffer distances in the kilometre range are recommended rather than the 20-30 m distance defined by the EFSA.

  13. Analytical method development for ultra-trace determination of human pharmaceuticals in aqueous samples. Assessing the performance of a sewage treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zorita, Saioa

    2008-01-01

    Research focus in environmental pollution has recently been extended from more classical environmental pollutants such as PCBs or pesticides to pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones, which are designed to be biologically active and enter the environment primarily through regular domestic use. Consequently, it is important to monitor these substances concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) and in the environment in order to evaluate their associated risks. Moreover, th...

  14. EPA's Response to the February 2014 Release of Radioactive Material from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): EPA's WIPP Air Sampling Data from April 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2014, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) environmental monitoring and assessment team members reviewed DOE's air sampling plan, visited DOE's air samplers and placed air samplers onsite near existing DOE samplers to corroborate results.

  15. Sampling and description of the resins stockpiles in the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant large tanks; Muestreo y caracterizacion de resinas almacenadas en tanques de grandes dimensiones de la Central Nuclear de Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Fernandez, L.; Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Herrera, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The consortium ENSA-Gas Natural Fenosa Engineering has a contract with Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) for the retrieval and conditioning of the resins, which were generated during the operation of the plant. The project deals with resins characterization for which its necessary to define a proper methodology that fulfills the Bulgarian authorities requirements. Also, it will be included the design, fabrication, supply and installation of the required equipment to carry out the sampling and measurements of the resins, updating the facilities and the specific training of the personnel in order to perform by themselves every activities. This article reflects how the consortium will deal with the management of this damaging project, which involves a wide range of activities, including the management of each implicated are of both KNPP and external organizations. (Author)

  16. Determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities by liquid scintillation counting in the environmental samples close to French nuclear power plants located on Loire and Garonne rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Deniau, I. [SUBATECH, IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The protection of the aquatic and terrestrial environment from a wide range of radioactive contaminants released by nuclear industry requires continuous monitoring of radionuclides released into the environment. Specific measurement methods depending of the radionuclide are used to determinate this contribution. A lot of radionuclide can easily be measured at low level by gamma spectrometry, like {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co..., but others like {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni or {sup 55}Fe require prior specific radiochemical separations. Activity of {sup 90}Sr values in environmental samples are available but only few measurements of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities have been carried out in samples collected in the environment close to French nuclear power plants located on the Loire and Garonne rivers despite they represent 12% to 24% for {sup 63}Ni activity and <1% for {sup 55}Fe + other minor radionuclides of total activity of their liquid effluent discharges. {sup 90}Sr is not rejected by the liquid effluent discharges of Nuclear Power Plants and can be found in the environmental samples because of thermonuclear test and subsequently after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Considering the French Nuclear Power Plant located on Loire and Garonne rivers, the determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe levels in the environmental samples around French nuclear power plants is carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides originating from nuclear technology activities. The environment around five French nuclear Power Plants was investigated for 4 years between 2009 and 2014. The radionuclide activities determined by liquid scintillation counting after chemical steps were performed on a large set of various matrix samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 90

  17. Sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Boneyard/Burnyard Accelerated Action Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the Bear Creek Valley Watershed Remedial Investigation, the Boneyard/Burnyard was identified as the source of the largest releases of uranium into groundwater and surface water in Bear Creek Valley. The proposed action for remediation of this site is selective excavation and removal of source material and capping of the remainder of the site. The schedule for this action has been accelerated so that this is the first remedial action planned to be implemented in the Bear Creek Valley Record of Decision. Additional data needs to support design of the remedial action were identified at a data quality objectives meeting held for this project. Sampling at the Boneyard/Burnyard will be conducted through the use of a phased approach. Initial or primary samples will be used to make in-the-field decisions about where to locate follow-up or secondary samples. On the basis of the results of surface water, soil, and groundwater analysis, up to six test pits will be dug. The test pits will be used to provide detailed descriptions of source materials and bulk samples. This document sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in this project. This document also contains the health and safety plan, quality assurance project plan, waste management plan, data management plan, implementation plan, and best management practices plan for this project as appendices.

  18. The ex situ conservation strategy for endangered plant species: small samples, storage and lessons from seed collected from US national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ex situ collections of seeds sampled from wild populations provide germplasm for restoration and for scientific study about biological diversity. Seed collections of endangered species are urgent because they might forestall ever-dwindling population size and genetic diversity. However, collecting ...

  19. Tracking quicksilver: estimation of mercury waste from consumer products and subsequent verification by analysis of soil, water, sediment, and plant samples from the Cebu City, Philippines, landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buagas, Dale Jo B; Megraso, Cristi Cesar F; Namata, John Darwin O; Lim, Patrick John Y; Gatus, Karen P; Cañete, Aloysius M L

    2015-03-01

    Source attribution of mercury (Hg) is critical for policy development to minimize the impact of Hg in wastes. Mercury content of consumer products and its subsequent release into the waste stream of Cebu City, Philippines, is estimated through surveys that employed validated, enumerator-administered questionnaires. Initially, a citywide survey (n = 1636) indicates that each household annually generates 1.07 ppm Hg (i.e., mg Hg/kg waste) and that linear and compact fluorescent lamps (17.2 %) and thermometers (52.1 %) are the major sources of Hg. A subsequent survey (n = 372) in the vicinity of the city's municipal solid waste landfill shows that residents in the area annually generate 0.38 ppm Hg per household, which is less than the citywide mean; surprisingly though, less affluent respondents living closer to the landfill site reported more Hg from thermometers and sphygmomanometers. Analysis of collected soil (0.238 ppm), leachate water (6.5 ppb), sediment (0.109 ppm), and three plants (0.393 to 0.695 ppm) shows no significant variation throughout five stations in and around the landfill site, although the period of collection is significant for soil (P = 0.001) and Cenchrus echinatus (P = 0.016). Detected Hg in the landfill is considerably less than the annual estimated release, indicating that there is minimal accumulation of Hg in the soil or in plants. As a result of this project, a policy brief has been provided to the Cebu City council in aid of hazardous waste legislation.

  20. Pesticide residues in products of plant origin in the European Union. Sampling strategy and results from the co-ordinated EU monitoring programmes in 1996 and 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B; von Holst, C

    2001-01-01

    The results of a co-ordinated monitoring programme for pesticide residues in the European Union and Norway carried out in 1996 and 1997 are presented. The aim of this programme is to work towards a system, which makes it possible to estimate actual dietary pesticide intake for the population of the European Union. Based on a statistically dérived sampling plan and within the limited number of pesticides/commodities analysed, the most critical pesticides (benomyl group and dithiocarbamates) and commodities (mandarine and lettuce) were identified. In case of detected non-compliances, repeated sampling and, if necessary, enforcement actions are to be taken by national authorities. The programme will be continued in the next years.

  1. 75 FR 43563 - Dow Jones & Company, Sharon Pennsylvania Print Plant a Subsidiary of News Corporation, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... News Corporation, West Middlesex, Pennsylvania; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated June 21, 2010, a petitioner requested administrative... facts not previously considered; or (3) If in the opinion of the Certifying Officer, a mis...

  2. Simultaneous determination of individual isothiocyanates in plant samples by HPLC-DAD-MS following SPE and derivatization with N-acetyl-l-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipczuk, Tadeusz; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Przychodzeń, Witold; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The procedure for the isothiocyanates (ITCs) determination that involves derivatization with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and separation by HPLC was developed. Prior to derivatization, plant ITCs were isolated and purified using solid-phase extraction (SPE). The optimum conditions of derivatization are: 500μL of isopropanolic eluate obtained by SPE combined with 500μL of derivatizing reagent (0.2M NAC and 0.2M NaHCO3 in water) and reaction time of 1h at 50°C. The formed dithiocarbamates are directly analyzed by HPLC coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometer if required. The method was validated for nine common natural ITCs. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)⩾0.991) within a wide range of concentrations and limits of detection were below 4.9nmol/mL. The recoveries were in the range of 83.3-103.7%, with relative standard deviations <5.4%. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine ITCs in broccoli, white cabbage, garden cress, radish, horseradish and papaya. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term sampling of CO2 from waste-to-energy plants: 14C determination methodology, data variation and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels Hald; Larsen, Anna Warberg

    2014-01-01

    emissions were observed (between 56% and 71% biogenic CO2). These variations confirmed that biomass fractions in the waste can vary considerably, not only from day to day but also from month to month. An uncertainty budget for the measurement method itself showed that the expanded uncertainty of the method...... was ± 4.0 pmC (95 % confidence interval) at 62 pmC. The long-term sampling method was found to be useful for waste incinerators for determination of annual fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions with relatively low uncertainty....

  4. Cobalt internal standard for Ni to assist the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry employing direct solid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Babos, Diego Victor; Bechlin, Marcos André; Barros, Ariane Isis; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta; de Oliveira, Silvana Ruella

    2016-05-15

    A new method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS), employing direct solid sample analysis (DSS) and internal standardization (IS). Cobalt was used as internal standard to minimize matrix effects during Ni determinations, enabling the use of aqueous standards for calibration. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves were typically better than 0.9937. The performance of the method was checked by analysis of six plant certified reference materials, and the results for Mo and Ni were in agreement with the certified values (95% confidence level, t-test). Analysis was made of different types of plant materials used as renewable sources of energy, including sugarcane leaves, banana tree fiber, soybean straw, coffee pods, orange bagasse, peanut hulls, and sugarcane bagasse. The concentrations found for Mo and Ni ranged from 0.08 to 0.63 ng mg(-1) and from 0.41 to 6.92 ng mg(-1), respectively. Precision (RSD) varied from 2.1% to 11% for Mo and from 3.7% to 10% for Ni. Limits of quantification of 0.055 and 0.074 ng were obtained for Mo and Ni, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  6. The Survey of Microbial Quality of the Dry Sample, Extract and Brewing of some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh VALIASILL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post- harvest stages and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, the microbial quality of 44 samples of dry herbs namely: mint (Menthaspp., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, summer savory (Satureja hortensis, zataria (Zataria multiflora, Indian valerian (Valeriana wallichii, their brewing and extracts were analyzed. Total count using plate count agar medium (PCA, coliform count by Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBL, Enterobacteriacea by Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG were evaluated. Medium Baird-Parker agar (BP medium and Tryptone Bile X-Gluc (TBX medium were used for the isolation and enumeration of Staphylococcus aurous and E. coli spp. respectively. Furthermore, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar medium (XLD and Bismuth Sulfite Agar medium(BSA were used for detection of Salmonella spp. Fungal and mold contamination was assessed using yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol agar. The results showed that the contamination of the samples with total count (100% and Enterobacteriaceae (85%, total coliform (83%, mold and yeast (98% and E. coli ssp. (2.27 were detected, including in the study samples the absence of pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aurous, Salmonella spp. Moreover, the extract had a lower microbial load in comparison to dry herb samples. Also, the lowest and the highest of contamination rates were observed for Indian valerian and zataria, respectively. According to the results, there is a need to control the environmental conditions and improve hygiene in the production process; even more, it is recommended to choose a suitable decontamination method for disinfection during packing medicinal plants and during post-packing manipulation and transport.

  7. Interspecific variation in prey capture behavior by co-occurring Nepenthes pitcher plants: evidence for resource partitioning or sampling-scheme artifacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lijin; Chung, Arthur Y C; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture a wide range of arthropod prey for nutritional benefit, using complex combinations of visual and olfactory signals and gravity-driven pitfall trapping mechanisms. In many localities throughout Southeast Asia, several Nepenthes different species occur in mixed populations. Often, the species present at any given location have strongly divergent trap structures and preliminary surveys indicate that different species trap different combinations of arthropod prey, even when growing at the same locality. On this basis, it has been proposed that co-existing Nepenthes species may be engaged in niche segregation with regards to arthropod prey, avoiding direct competition with congeners by deploying traps that have modifications that enable them to target specific prey types. We examined prey capture among 3 multi-species Nepenthes populations in Borneo, finding that co-existing Nepenthes species do capture different combinations of prey, but that significant interspecific variations in arthropod prey combinations can often be detected only at sub-ordinal taxonomic ranks. In all lowland Nepenthes species examined, the dominant prey taxon is Formicidae, but montane Nepenthes trap few (or no) ants and 2 of the 3 species studied have evolved to target alternative sources of nutrition, such as tree shrew feces. Using similarity and null model analyses, we detected evidence for niche segregation with regards to formicid prey among 5 lowland, sympatric Nepenthes species in Sarawak. However, we were unable to determine whether these results provide support for the niche segregation hypothesis, or whether they simply reflect unquantified variation in heterogeneous habitats and/or ant communities in the study sites. These findings are used to propose improvements to the design of field experiments that seek to test hypotheses about targeted prey capture patterns in Nepenthes.

  8. Identification of field pea gene bank samples by component characteristics in relation to the breeding of plant varieties of various directions of economical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Чернуський

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Assumption is made that identification of valuable genotypes is possible in specific stability points of phase-parametric systems, that is, when the effect of dynamism acquires gradient and discrete anisotropic composition by way of converting the phenotype variability in the temporal and parametric and characteristic specific vector-spaced system. Devices have been suggested (electronic board for the characteristics spectral expression, 3D configuration of a characteristic variation series for displaying the location sample parametric pool in the general statistic range of quantitative characteristics. A characteristic has been detected (number of seeds in a pod that carry the traits inherent in pseudo-qualitative and oligogenic characteristic. According to findings of the study, characteristics are identified that conform to various directions of economical use

  9. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted

  10. Analysis of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in plant emissions using portable dynamic air sampling/solid-phase microextraction (PDAS-SPME) and chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan

    A portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS) using a porous polymer solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre has been validated for the determination of biogenic enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in air. These compounds were adsorbed in the field, and then thermally desorbed at 250 °C in a gas chromatograph injector port connected via a β-cyclodextrin capillary separating column to a mass spectrometer. The optimized method has been applied for investigating the emissions of enantiomeric monoterpenes from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Lavandula lanata (Lavender) which were selected as representative of coniferous trees and aromatic plants, respectively. The enantiomers of α-pinene, sabinene, camphene, δ-3-carene, β-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, 4-carene and camphor were successfully determined in the emissions from the three plants. While Douglas-fir showed a strong predominance toward (-)-enantiomers, Rosemary and Lavender demonstrated a large variation in enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of dynamic sampling with porous polymer coated SPME fibres coupled to chiral capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) makes this method potentially useful for in-field investigations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and studies of optically explicit atmospheric chemistry.

  11. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  12. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations.

  13. Simultaneous determination of two plant growth regulators in ten food samples using ion chromatography combined with QuEChERS extraction method (IC-QuEChERS) and coupled with fluorescence detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Nadeem; Subhani, Qamar; Wang, Fenglian; Lou, Chaoyan; Liu, Junwei; Zhu, Yan

    2018-02-15

    A new simple, isocratic, selective and highly sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of two plant growth regulators (PGRs): 2-(1-Naphthyl)acetic acid (NAA) and 2-(Naphthalen-1-yl)acetamide (NAD). Both PGRs were extracted by modified and miniaturized ion chromatography-Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (IC-QuEChERS) method from ten food samples. The separation and sensitive determination were carried out by using ion chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultraviolet (IC-FLD/UV) detector. The proposed analytical and extraction methods were validated by using blank samples, fortified with a standard solution of these two PGRs at three concentration levels 5, 15 and 25µg/kg. The method showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.980), satisfactory recoveries (76.3-112) with tolerable precision having relative standard deviations less than 15.4% (RSDs, n=3). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were also in the range of 0.08-6.6ng/kg and 2.2-20ng/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Challenges of Participatory Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Messmer, Monika

    2012-01-01

    FiBL Plant breeding strategies - Why participatory plant breeding ? - Level of participation - Principles of participatory research - Challenges of participatory plant breeding - Who to get started - Communication / Common language - Definition of common goals - Long term engagement & Gender aspect - Implementation of PPB & Struggle with on farm trials - Data assessment & sample handling - Legal aspects and financing - Impact of participative plant breeding

  15. Simultaneous determination of nickel and copper by H-point standard addition method-first-order derivative spectrophotometry in plant samples after separation and preconcentration on modified natural clinoptilolite as a new sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohparvar, Rasool; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Mohadesi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples.

  16. Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map Database, Middlesex County, Virginia, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  17. 2006 FEMA New Jersey Flood Mitigation Lidar: Middlesex County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. By positioning laser range finding with the use of 1...

  18. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, MIDDLESEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  19. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  20. Venous Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck to help locate abnormally functioning glands or pituitary adenoma . This test is most often used after an unsuccessful neck exploration. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling , in which blood samples are taken from veins that drain the pituitary gland to study disorders related to pituitary hormone ...

  1. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  2. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  3. Environmental sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

  4. A sensitive method for electrochemical determination of molybdenum (VI in plant foodstuff samples using Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanocomposite modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Afkhami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CPE is constructed for rapid, accurate, simple, highly sensitive, and selective determination of Mo (VI using differential pulse voltammetry. The electrode was prepared using magnetic nickel zinc ferrite nanocomposite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, as the modifier in CPE (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/CPE. Mo (VI was determined after preconcentration at the surface of the modified electrode at -0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under the optimal conditions, the linear dynamic range and limit of detection were 0.005-1.00 and 0.003 µgmL-1, respectively. Ten successive measurements of 0.06 and 0.70 µg mL-1 of Mo (VI ions showed the relative standard deviation of 3.20 and 1.98 %, respectively. The reproducibility and stability of the electrode response were also studied. Investigation of the effects of different cations and anions on the determination of Mo (VI indicated that the electrode is highly selective. Furthermore, the present method was applied to the determination of Mo (VI in several plant foodstuff samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Elevating sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  6. Métodos para la detección de Agrobacterium a partir de muestras de material vegetal, suelo y agua Methods for the detection of Agrobacterium from plant, soil and water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M Alippi

    2011-12-01

    from the virC operon, as well as a multiplex PCR on the basis of 23SrDNA sequences, and biological assays to identify and differentiate species and biovars of Agrobacterium obtained either from soil, water or plant samples. The combination of the different assays allowed us to reduce the number of false positive and negative results from bacteria isolated from any of the three types of samples. Therefore, the combination of multiplex PCR, specifc PCR, isolations in semi-selective D1, D1-M and YEM-RCT media combined with bioassays on cut leaves of Kalanchoe and seedlings of California Wonder pepper cultivar constitute an accurate tool to detect species and biovars of Agrobacterium for diagnostic purposes.

  7. Considering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  8. ISCO Grab Sample Ion Chromatography Analytical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ISCO grab samples were collected from river, wastewater treatment plant discharge, and public drinking water intakes. Samples were analyzed for major ions (ppb)...

  9. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  10. Can matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) be more simplified? Application of solventless MSPD sample preparation method for GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of plant essential oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes and shows the analytical capabilities of a new variant of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) with the solventless blending step in the chromatographic analysis of plant volatiles. The obtained results prove that the use of a solvent is redundant as the sorption ability of the octadecyl brush is sufficient for quantitative retention of volatiles from 9 plants differing in their essential oil composition. The extraction efficiency of the proposed simplified MSPD method is equivalent to the efficiency of the commonly applied variant of MSPD with the organic dispersing liquid and pressurized liquid extraction, which is a much more complex, technically advanced and highly efficient technique of plant extraction. The equivalency of these methods is confirmed by the variance analysis. The proposed solventless MSPD method is precise, accurate, and reproducible. The recovery of essential oil components estimated by the MSPD method exceeds 98%, which is satisfactory for analytical purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant DNA sequencing for phylogenetic analyses: from plants to sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Susana S; Forrest, Laura L

    2011-01-01

    DNA sequences are important sources of data for phylogenetic analysis. Nowadays, DNA sequencing is a routine technique in molecular biology laboratories. However, there are specific questions associated with project design and sequencing of plant samples for phylogenetic analysis, which may not be familiar to researchers starting in the field. This chapter gives an overview of methods and protocols involved in the sequencing of plant samples, including general recommendations on the selection of species/taxa and DNA regions to be sequenced, and field collection of plant samples. Protocols of plant sample preparation, DNA extraction, PCR and cloning, which are critical to the success of molecular phylogenetic projects, are described in detail. Common problems of sequencing (using the Sanger method) are also addressed. Possible applications of second-generation sequencing techniques in plant phylogenetics are briefly discussed. Finally, orientation on the preparation of sequence data for phylogenetic analyses and submission to public databases is also given.

  12. Plant Cytokinesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smertenko, Andrei; Assaad, Farhah; Baluška, František; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Buschmann, Henrik; Drakakaki, Georgia; Hauser, Marie Theres; Janson, Marcel; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu; Moore, Ian; Müller, Sabine; Murata, Takashi; Otegui, Marisa S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Rasmussen, Carolyn; Schmit, Anne Catherine; Šamaj, Jozef; Samuels, Lacey; Staehelin, L.A.; Damme, Van Daniel; Wasteneys, Geoffrey; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Plant cytokinesis is orchestrated by a specialized structure, the phragmoplast. The phragmoplast first occurred in representatives of Charophyte algae and then became the main division apparatus in land plants. Major cellular activities, including cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle trafficking,

  13. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  14. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  15. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  16. Poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    A large number of plants can cause adverse effects when ingested by animals or people. Plant toxicity is due to a wide diversity of chemical toxins that include alkaloids, glycosides, proteins and amino acids. There are several notable toxic plants for which a specific chemical responsible for toxicity has not been determined. There are many examples of species differences in terms of their sensitivity to intoxication from plants. Pets, such as dogs and cats, and people, especially children, are frequently exposed to the same toxic plants due to their shared environments. On the other hand, livestock are exposed to toxic plants that are rarely involved in human intoxications due to the unique environments in which they are kept. Fortunately, adverse effects often do not occur or are generally mild following most toxic plant ingestions and no therapeutic intervention is necessary. However, some plants are extremely toxic and ingestion of small amounts can cause rapid death. The diagnosis of plant intoxication can be challenging, especially in veterinary medicine where a history of exposure to a toxic plant is often lacking. Analytical tests are available to detect some plant toxins, although their diagnostic utility is often limited by test availability and timeliness of results. With a few notable exceptions, antidotes for plant toxins are not available. However, general supportive and symptomatic care often is sufficient to successfully treat a symptomatic patient.

  17. Autoluminescent plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krichevsky

    Full Text Available Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  18. Autoluminescent plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Meyers, Benjamin; Vainstein, Alexander; Maliga, Pal; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2010-11-12

    Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  19. Electronic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-11-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants' "circuitry" has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.

  20. A suicide attempt by intoxication with Taxus baccata leaves and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, analysis of patient serum and different plant samples: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobusiak-Prokopowicz, Małgorzata; Marciniak, Anna; Ślusarczyk, Sylwester; Ściborski, Krzysztof; Stachurska, Aneta; Mysiak, Andrzej; Matkowski, Adam

    2016-08-30

    Taxus (yew) is one of the most frequently reported plants causing potentially fatal outcome when taken incidentally or for suicidal reasons. A fast and reliable method of detection of poisonous compounds or their metabolites is critical in life-saving procedures in cases of yew ingestion. Previously, several chromatographic analytical procedures have been described usually taking longer than one hour of total analysis time. In this report we describe a suicide case study and an ad hoc developed fast method of detection and quantitation of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol - the main taxane metabolite in the blood plasma from the patient as well as the determination of major taxine components in the plant material (Taxus baccata). At present, there is no reasonable alternative for mass spectrometry that could match its high sensitivity and accuracy, and Multiple Reaction Monitoring could be adequate and useful mass spectrometry technique in analyzing and identification of plants material compounds that cause severe poisoning in humans. In the reported case, intensive cardiac care together with the astuteness of the treating physicians not only saved the patient's life, but also allowed for his complete recovery and return to work. The development of ultra fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry UFLC-MS/MS method provides a fast means to confirm yew alkaloids and their metabolite in various material. The applied analytical procedure allows early detection of main metabolite in patient material as well as comparing to those extracted from the plant. In our study, the taxanes remained undetected, probably due to the time elapsing from the patient admittance and collection of plasma. In cases like those reported in this study, retaining the gastric material should be obligatory to confirm the ingestion of yew. The possibility of using this approach in detection of native taxine compounds in human plasma remains to be verified.

  1. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves.

  2. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  3. Autoluminescent Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Meyers, Benjamin; Vainstein, Alexander; Maliga, Pal; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstra...

  4. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  5. Sampling Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cassava in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yaninek, J.S.; Baumgaertner, J.; Gutierrez, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Density-specific sampling plans were developed under African conditions for the exotic spider mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), a serious pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta. The within-plant distribution of Mononychellus tanajoa was found to favour new foliage, regardless of time of planting or plant age. Consequently, the first developed leaf near the top of the foliage was selected as the sampling unit and related to whole plant populations of M. tanajoa. The relationship between the mi...

  6. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  7. Development of a robust method for isolation of shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC) from fecal, plant, soil and water samples from a leafy greens production region in California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooley, Michael B; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G; Mandrell, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    ...)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis...

  8. Methods in Plant Foliar Volatile Organic Compounds Research

    OpenAIRE

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, N.; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant?plant and plant?insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas...

  9. Key instrumentation in BWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laendner, Alexander; Stellwag, Bernhard; Fandrich, Joerg [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes water chemistry surveillance practices at boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The key instrumentation in BWR plants consists of on-line as well as off-line instrumentation. The chemistry monitoring and control parameters are predominantly based on two guidelines, namely the VGB Water Chemistry Guidelines and the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines. Control parameters and action levels specified in the VGB guideline are described. Typical sampling locations in BWR plants, chemistry analysis methods and water chemistry data of European BWR plants are summarized. Measurement data confirm the high quality of reactor water of the BWRs in Europe. (orig.)

  10. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  11. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  12. Plant Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Predny, Mary Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Allergic reactions are caused by an overactive immune system response to a foreign substance such as pollen, dust, or molds. This publication goes over the common plants that cause allergies and ways to prevent allergies while gardening.

  13. Carbohydrate microarrays in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangel, Jonatan U; Pedersen, Henriette L; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Ahl, Louise I; Salmean, Armando Asuncion; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, Mads H; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities.

  14. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high......Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  15. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton

    2010-01-01

    Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...

  16. Simultaneous determination of plant growth regulators in environmental samples using chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission matrix fluorescence: experimental study on the prediction quality of second-order calibration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiang-Dong; Wu, Hai-Long; Nie, Chong-Chong; Yan, Xiu-Fang; Li, Yuan-Na; Wang, Jian-Yao; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-01-15

    In this work, with the purpose of developing an effective and inexpensive method, excitation-emission matrix fluorescence data and second-order calibration method based on the self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition (SWATLD) algorithm were combined for simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid methyl ester (NAAME) in environmental samples, i.e. soil and sewage samples. In order to investigate the prediction quality of the proposed method, different strategies, such as taking spectroscopic measurements in the presence of different matrix interferents and at different fluorescence spectrophotometers, were introduced to build calibration models and comparisons among them were done subsequently. The root-mean-square error of prediction and t-test were used to compare different SWATLD-based calibration models. The limits of detection obtained for NOA and NAAME were 0.36-0.95 ng mL(-1) and 1.32-2.69 ng mL(-1), respectively, for different models. Such a chemometrics-based protocol may possess great potential to be extended as a promising alternative for more practical applications in environment monitoring and for the design of small intelligent and field-portable analytical instruments that rely on statistical discrimination, not complete instrumental separation, of the target analytes even in the presence of unknown and uncalibrated interferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., preparation, and analysis of sludge samples shall be accomplished according to Method 105 in appendix B of... may use Method 105 of appendix B and the procedures specified in this section. (1) A sludge test shall... be sampled according to paragraph (c)(1) of this section, sludge charging rate for the plant shall be...

  18. An Abecedary of Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kenneth O., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The vocabulary of sampling is examined in order to provide a clear understanding of basic sampling concepts. The basic vocabulary of sampling (population, probability sampling, precision and bias, stratification), the fundamental grammar of sampling (random sample), sample size and response rate, and cluster, multiphase, snowball, and panel…

  19. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  20. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  1. PlantDB – a versatile database for managing plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruissem Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in plant science laboratories often involves usage of many different species, cultivars, ecotypes, mutants, alleles or transgenic lines. This creates a great challenge to keep track of the identity of experimental plants and stored samples or seeds. Results Here, we describe PlantDB – a Microsoft® Office Access database – with a user-friendly front-end for managing information relevant for experimental plants. PlantDB can hold information about plants of different species, cultivars or genetic composition. Introduction of a concise identifier system allows easy generation of pedigree trees. In addition, all information about any experimental plant – from growth conditions and dates over extracted samples such as RNA to files containing images of the plants – can be linked unequivocally. Conclusion We have been using PlantDB for several years in our laboratory and found that it greatly facilitates access to relevant information.

  2. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  3. transgenic plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been initiated in this area by the Global Pest. Resistance Management Programme located at. MSU. Through effective resistance management training, pesticide use patterns change, and the effective lift: span of pesticides and host plant resistance technology increases. Effective resistance management can mean reduced.

  4. Poisonous plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decontamination using activated charcoal within the first 2 hours of ingestion and with supportive measures (see Table 1). Antidotes are only of potential value in the treatment of plants containing cardiac glycosides and those that present with cholinergic and anticholinergic toxidromes. The authors of this article identified ...

  5. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  6. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  7. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  8. Site and plant species are important determinants of the Methylobacterium community composition in the plant phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Claudia; Ramette, Alban; Frances, Lisa; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Vorholt, Julia A

    2010-06-01

    The plant phyllosphere constitutes a habitat for numerous microorganisms; among them are members of the genus Methylobacterium. Owing to the ubiquitous occurrence of methylobacteria on plant leaves, they represent a suitable target for studying plant colonization patterns. The influence of the factor site, host plant species, time and the presence of other phyllosphere bacteria on Methylobacterium community composition and population size were evaluated in this study. Leaf samples were collected from Arabidopsis thaliana or Medicago truncatula plants and from the surrounding plant species at several sites. The abundance of cultivable Methylobacterium clearly correlated with the abundance of other phyllosphere bacteria, suggesting that methylobacteria constitute a considerable and rather stable fraction of the phyllosphere microbiota under varying environmental conditions. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was applied to characterize the Methylobacterium community composition and showed the presence of similar communities on A. thaliana plants at most sites in 2 consecutive years of sampling. A substantial part of the observed variation in the community composition was explained by site and plant species, especially in the case of the plants collected at the Arabidopsis sites (50%). The dominating ARISA peaks that were detected on A. thaliana plants were found on other plant species grown at the same site, whereas some different peaks were detected on A. thaliana plants from other sites. This indicates that site-specific factors had a stronger impact on the Methylobacterium community composition than did plant-specific factors and that the Methylobacterium-plant association is not highly host plant species specific.

  9. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William P; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the preparation of extracts from plants using organic solvents, with emphasis on common problems encountered and methods for their reduction or elimination. In addition to generally applicable extraction protocols, methods are suggested for selectively extracting specific classes of plant-derived compounds, and phytochemical procedures are presented for the detection of classes of compounds encountered commonly during extraction, including selected groups of secondary metabolites and interfering compounds. Successful extraction begins with careful selection and preparation of plant samples and thorough review of the appropriate literature for suitable protocols for a particular class of compounds or plant species. During the extraction of plant material, it is important to minimize interference from compounds that may co-extract with the target compounds, and to avoid contamination of the extract, as well as to prevent decomposition of important metabolites or artifact formation as a result of extraction conditions or solvent impurities.

  10. Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the microbial load on 17 randomly selected plant samples from 60 ethnobotanically collected medicinal plants from five local markets in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Method: The pour plate method was used to cultivate serially diluted portions of the medicinal plant samples investigated.

  11. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  12. Sampling and P-sampling expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the hyperfinite representation of functions and generalized functions this paper develops a rigorous version of the so-called `delta method' approach to sampling theory. This yields a slightly more general version of the classical WKS sampling theorem for band-limited functions.

  13. How Sample Size Affects a Sampling Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Siegel, Murray H.

    2009-01-01

    If students are to understand inferential statistics successfully, they must have a profound understanding of the nature of the sampling distribution. Specifically, they must comprehend the determination of the expected value and standard error of a sampling distribution as well as the meaning of the central limit theorem. Many students in a high…

  14. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Chorionic villus sampling Chorionic villus sampling E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... It's been added to your dashboard . Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test . It’s used to ...

  15. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  16. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  17. Samples 9 (2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeitskreis Studium Populärer Musik e.V. (ASPM)

    2010-01-01

    SCHWERPUNKTTHEMA. SAMPLING IM HIPHOP Gastherausgeber: Oliver Kautny und Adam Krims. Oliver Kautny: Talkin´ All That Jazz - Ein Plädoyer für die Analyse des Sampling im HipHop (Editorial). Adam Krims: Sampling in Scholarship (english editorial). Mark Katz: Sampling before Sampling. The Link Between DJ and Producer. Sascha Klammt aka Quasi Modo: Das Sample - eine einzigartige Momentaufnahme als Basis für eine neue Komposition. Detlev Rick aka DJ Rick Ski: Die Entstehung des A...

  18. Sample size for morphological traits of pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Facco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size (i.e., number of plants required to accurately estimate the average of morphological traits of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. and to check for variability in sample size between evaluation periods and seasons. Two uniformity trials (i.e., experiments without treatment were conducted for two growing seasons. In the first season (2011/2012, the seeds were sown by broadcast seeding, and in the second season (2012/2013, the seeds were sown in rows spaced 0.50 m apart. The ground area in each experiment was 1,848 m2, and 360 plants were marked in the central area, in a 2 m × 2 m grid. Three morphological traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter were evaluated 13 times during the first season and 22 times in the second season. Measurements for all three morphological traits were normally distributed and confirmed through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Randomness was confirmed using the Run Test, and the descriptive statistics were calculated. For each trait, the sample size (n was calculated for the semiamplitudes of the confidence interval (i.e., estimation error equal to 2, 4, 6, ..., 20% of the estimated mean with a confidence coefficient (1-? of 95%. Subsequently, n was fixed at 360 plants, and the estimation error of the estimated percentage of the average for each trait was calculated. Variability of the sample size for the pigeonpea culture was observed between the morphological traits evaluated, among the evaluation periods and between seasons. Therefore, to assess with an accuracy of 6% of the estimated average, at least 136 plants must be evaluated throughout the pigeonpea crop cycle to determine the sample size for the traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter in the different evaluation periods and between seasons. 

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Plant-Derived Samples by Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difficult gasification, poor stability. [21, 22]. FAB. Carbohydrates, metallo-organic compounds, proteins, nonvolatiles. [23, 24]. LSI. Carbohydrates, metallo-organic compounds, proteins, nonvolatiles. [25, 26]. MALDI. Proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids. [27, 28]. ESI. Thermal instability, polar molecules, nonvolatile, proteins, ...

  20. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  1. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  2. Sampling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    A basic knowledge of the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and a set of only eight sampling unit operations is all the practical sampler needs to ensure representativeness of samples extracted from all kinds of lots: production batches, - truckloads, - barrels, sub-division in the laboratory, sampling...... in nature and in the field (environmental sampling, forestry, geology, biology), from raw materials or manufactory processes etc. We here can only give a brief introduction to the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) and these eight Sampling Unit Operations (SUO’s). Always respecting FSP and invoking only...

  3. 9 Microbiological quality of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992. The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% of these were creepers. The results also showed that 57% of plants acquired in organic cultivation systems and having fungal infections were pilous plants. However, it was noted in the determination of fecal coliforms that all the samples had infections lower than the maximum established limit. Since medicinal plants are often used in natura, there is no need to maintain a higher microbiological quality.

  4. 7 CFR 58.227 - Sampling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling device. 58.227 Section 58.227 Agriculture...

  5. 40 CFR 141.703 - Sampling locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... receive Cryptosporidium treatment credit for bank filtration under § 141.173(b) or § 141.552(a), as... treatment credit for the bank filtration under § 141.717(c). (e) Multiple sources. Systems with plants that... the analysis of the sample. (c) Systems that recycle filter backwash water must collect source water...

  6. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  7. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  8. Diffuse symbioses: roles of plant-plant, plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in structuring the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Schlatter, Daniel C; Otto-Hanson, Lindsey; Kinkel, Linda L

    2014-03-01

    A conceptual model emphasizing direct host-microbe interactions has dominated work on host-associated microbiomes. To understand plant-microbiome associations, however, broader influences on microbiome composition and functioning must be incorporated, such as those arising from plant-plant and microbe-microbe interactions. We sampled soil microbiomes associated with target plant species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Lespedeza capitata, Lupinus perennis) grown in communities varying in plant richness (1-, 4-, 8- or 16-species). We assessed Streptomyces antagonistic activity and analysed bacterial and Streptomyces populations via 454 pyrosequencing. Host plant species and plant richness treatments altered networks of coassociation among bacterial taxa, suggesting the potential for host plant effects on the soil microbiome to include changes in microbial interaction dynamics and, consequently, co-evolution. Taxa that were coassociated in the rhizosphere of a given host plant species often showed consistent correlations between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) relative abundance and Streptomyces antagonistic activity, in the rhizosphere of that host. However, in the rhizosphere of a different host plant species, the same OTUs showed no consistency, or a different pattern of responsiveness to such biotic habitat characteristics. The diversity and richness of bacterial and Streptomyces communities exhibited distinct relationships with biotic and abiotic soil characteristics. The rhizosphere soil microbiome is influenced by a complex and nested array of factors at varying spatial scales, including plant community, plant host, soil edaphics and microbial taxon and community characteristics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 9) Microbiological quality of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa; João Paulo Ramos Costa; Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim; Anna Christina de Almeida; Ernane Ronie Martins

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992). The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% ...

  10. Report on New Sunshine Program-supported undertakings for fiscal 1997. Development of hot water power plant and deep-seated geothermal resources sampling/exploiting technologies; 1997 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu, shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu, shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Reported are the results of researches conducted in fiscal 1997. In the field of PTSD (Pressure, Temperature, Spinner flowmeter, fluid Density) well logging, the high-temperature performance of a memory type PT (Pressure, Temperature) well logger is confirmed in a demonstration test. As for the S-probe, modification is effected for the reduction of the outside diameter from 70mm to 56mm, and tests are conducted in real wells. As for the D-probe, a laboratory test is conducted and then the probe behaves as predicted. In the field of PCT (Pressure, Chemical, Temperature) monitoring, the sampler is subjected to an on-site test in Italy, when water is successfully sampled out of the well. In the field of scale monitoring technique, deep-seated fluid is collected and examined, and the scale deposition rate in the deep-seated fluid is determine. For the study of production control technology with respect to scale prevention and removal, an Mg-Si scale synthesis test is conducted in the temperature range of 100-300degC, and it is found that the solubility of scale decreases with a rise in temperature. 19 refs., 93 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Choosing the best plant for the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Cappellini, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    DNA extracted from ancient plant remains almost always contains a mixture of endogenous (that is, derived from the plant) and exogenous (derived from other sources) DNA. The exogenous 'contaminant' DNA, chiefly derived from microorganisms, presents significant problems for shotgun sequencing......, whenever multiple samples are available, it is most economical to sequence the least contaminated sample. We present an assay based on quantitative real-time PCR which estimates the relative amounts of fungal and bacterial DNA in a sample in comparison to the endogenous plant DNA. Given a collection....... In some samples, more than 90% of the recovered sequences are exogenous, providing limited data relevant to the sample. However, other samples have far less contamination and subsequently yield much more useful data via shotgun sequencing. Given the investment required for high-throughput sequencing...

  12. Sampling and P-sampling expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider instead a non-standard approach to sampling theory. The hyperfinite representation of functions and generalized functions has been studied in an earlier paper [2], and the same notation and conventions will be used here. In particular,. PcNI denotes a given even infinite hypernatural number, 4 И ...

  13. Reducing toxicity chemicals plant protection products

    OpenAIRE

    Litvishko, Valery; Myaskovskaya, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The samples of microencapsulated pesticide have been investigated in acute experiments on laboratory animals. The results of the research have determined that microencapsulation can reduce toxicity of plant protection chemicals.

  14. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eMuller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these ‘urban plantings’ are typically designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant ‘ecological values’ by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban centre of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region over two, six week sampling periods characterised by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation, plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity.Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly - likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  15. Genetic Sample Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  16. Genetic Sample Inventory - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico from 2010-2015. The collection includes samples from...

  17. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniani, Stefano; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Wales, David J.; Frenkel, Daan

    2014-07-01

    The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  18. Mold Testing or Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards.

  19. Chorionic villus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003406.htm Chorionic villus sampling To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have ...

  20. Sampling on Quasicrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Grepstad, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    We prove that quasicrystals are universal sets of stable sampling in any dimension. Necessary and sufficient density conditions for stable sampling and interpolation sets in one dimension are studied in detail.

  1. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  2. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  3. Sampling efficiency for species composition assessments using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey to determine the sampling efficiency of the wheel-point method, using the nearest plant method, to assess species composition (using replicate similarity related to sampling intensity, and total sampling time) was conducted on three plot sizes (20 x 20m, 30 x 30m, 40 x 40m) at two sites in a semi-arid savanna.

  4. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  5. IAEA Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives for this presentation are to describe the method that the IAEA uses to determine a sampling plan for nuclear material measurements; describe the terms detection probability and significant quantity; list the three nuclear materials measurement types; describe the sampling method applied to an item facility; and describe multiple method sampling.

  6. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  7. Aerosol sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquelier, Donald A.

    2004-02-10

    A system for sampling air and collecting particulate of a predetermined particle size range. A low pass section has an opening of a preselected size for gathering the air but excluding particles larger than the sample particles. An impactor section is connected to the low pass section and separates the air flow into a bypass air flow that does not contain the sample particles and a product air flow that does contain the sample particles. A wetted-wall cyclone collector, connected to the impactor section, receives the product air flow and traps the sample particles in a liquid.

  8. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  9. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  10. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  11. Engineering the plant rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant natural products are low molecular weight compounds playing important roles in plant survival under biotic and abiotic stresses. In the rhizosphere, several groups of plant natural products function as semiochemicals that mediate the interactions of plants with other plants, animals and

  12. A sample article title

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdul Latif Khan

    2012-10-23

    Oct 23, 2012 ... tenuazonic acid) they secrete affecting directly or indirectly seed germination. Elliott (2003) reported that high vigour index resulted in higher total plant weight and yields also improved. By improving the vigour index with. CF of endophytic, we can improve our yield in worst condition like salinity, drought and ...

  13. Sample Set (SE): SE55 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available analyzed phytochemical accumulation during development of the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using liquid chromatogra...phy-mass spectrometry in samples covering many growth stages and organs. We also ob

  14. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  15. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  16. Fast mixing hyperdynamic sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Sminchisescu, Cristian; Triggs, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Special issue on ECCV'02 papers; International audience; Sequential random sampling (‘Markov Chain Monte-Carlo') is a popular strategy for many vision problems involving multi-modal distributions over high-dimensional parameter spaces. It applies both to importance sampling (where one wants to sample points according to their ‘importance' for some calculation, but otherwise fairly) and to global-optimization (where one wants to find good minima, or at least good starting points for local mini...

  17. Hyperdynamics Importance Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Sminchisescu, Cristian; Triggs, Bill

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Sequential random sampling (‘Markov Chain Monte-Carlo') is a popular strategy for many vision problems involving multimodal distributions over high-dimensional parameter spaces. It applies both to importance sampling (where one wants to sample points according to their ‘importance' for some calculation, but otherwise fairly) and to global optimization (where one wants to find good minima, or at least good starting points for local minimization, regardless of fairness)....

  18. Laboratory Sampling Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Barium  Beryllium  Cadmium  Chromium  Cobalt  Copper  Iron  Lead  Magnesium  Manganese  Molybdenum  Potassium  Nickel...paper or MCE filters Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Cadmium Chromium(Total) Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Manganese Molybdenum...Sampling Equipment Selection Guidea Matrix Sampling Device Image Device-Specific Guidance Sample Type Comments L iq ui ds Automatic sampler ASTM D

  19. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  20. [Mercury pollution investigation in predominant plants surrounding Shenzhen Qingshuihe municipal solid waste incineration plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Wang, Jun-Jian; Hong, Yuan; Zhao, Kang-Sai; Zeng, Hui

    2009-09-15

    In order to investigate the effects of mercury emission from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) on the surrounding plants and soils, the mercury concentrations were examined in the plant samples including leaves and stems and the soil samples around Shenzhen Qingshuihe MSWI Plant. Results show that, these plants are significantly polluted by mercury, the mercury concentrations of the plant leaves are 0.030 9-0.246 7 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.094 8 mg x kg(-1), among the local prominent plants, the mercury concentrations in the leaves are in the order of: Acacia confuse > Litsea rotundifolia > Acacia mangium > Acacia auriculaeformis > Schima superb > Ilex asprella. The mercury concentrations of the plant stems are 0.007 4-0.119 6 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.041 7 mg x kg(-1). For the same plant, the mercury concentration in its leaf correlates positively with that in its stem, but presents little correlation with that in the soil where it grows. Under the direction of the dominant wind, the concentration of smoke diffusion is often influenced by the distance from the stack and the difference of terrain. The mercury concentrations of the plant leaves and stems vary almost in accordance with spatial heterogeneity patterns of smoke diffusion. These results demonstrate that the interaction of the smoke and plant leaves play the leading role in the mercury exchange between plants and environment.

  1. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  2. Sample Differentiation: Cocaine Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, L D; Liu, R H

    1991-12-01

    Since the analyses of drug samples in crime laboratories are often associated with investigations, potential differentiations of test samples are frequently requested and explored. Cocaine sample differentiation requires the determination of synthetic or natural origin. Synthetic samples are characterized by the presence of optical isomers, certain diastereoisomers and other by-products, and chemical residues used in synthesis. Samples derived from a natural origin (coca leaves) are characterized by the presence of certain natural products or their derivatives that are carried through the overall process and by residual chemicals reflecting the treatment procedures. Various approaches and analytical data available in the literature concerning the differentiation of cocaine samples are reviewed. Each sample must carry its own "signature"; however, true sample "individualization" cannot be accomplished using the technologies commonly available and used in crime laboratories, and is not usually needed. Alternatively, "classifying" cocaine samples in certain categories or groups can be accomplished routinely and often provides adequate information for investigatory purposes. Copyright © 1991 Central Police University.

  3. Assessment Of Local Tropical Plants For Phytoremediation Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum maximum) and Water Leaf (Talinum triangulare) local plants under normal environmental conditions in remediating soil contaminated with a Nigerian crude oil sample. Composite soil sample obtained by mixing equal weight in ...

  4. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sixteen Nigerian medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our evaluation of plants from the Nigerian ethnobotany,sixteen extracts from fourteen medicinal plants were evaluated for toxicity and inhibition of tumour cell growth using human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD) cell line. The plant samples were extracted by maceration in methanol at room temperature and were ...

  5. Industrial Hygiene Sampling Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    transport . g. Field blank tubes will be submitted with each set of samples. If the number of samples in a set exceeds 10, then submit at the rate of one...2 Gelman PSPJ037 (For PAH) 37 2 Membrana ’ - PVC 37 5 Gelman 66467 37 5 Nuclepore 361850 Filter only 240810 Pad only Swinnex Cassette 13 - Millipore

  6. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  7. Sampling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  8. Extraterrestrial Samples at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the curation of extraterrestrial samples at NASA Johnson Space Center is shown. The topics include: 1) Apollo lunar samples; 2) Meteorites from Antarctica; 3) Cosmic dust from the stratosphere; 4) Genesis solar wind ions; 5) Stardust comet and interstellar grains; and 5) Space-Exposed Hardware.

  9. Gaussian Boson Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Craig S.; Kruse, Regina; Sansoni, Linda; Barkhofen, Sonja; Silberhorn, Christine; Jex, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Boson sampling has emerged as a tool to explore the advantages of quantum over classical computers as it does not require universal control over the quantum system, which favors current photonic experimental platforms. Here, we introduce Gaussian Boson sampling, a classically hard-to-solve problem that uses squeezed states as a nonclassical resource. We relate the probability to measure specific photon patterns from a general Gaussian state in the Fock basis to a matrix function called the Hafnian, which answers the last remaining question of sampling from Gaussian states. Based on this result, we design Gaussian Boson sampling, a #P hard problem, using squeezed states. This demonstrates that Boson sampling from Gaussian states is possible, with significant advantages in the photon generation probability, compared to existing protocols.

  10. Sample pretretment in microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.

    2003-01-01

    When a sample, e.g. from a patient, is processed using conventional methods, the sample must be transported to the laboratory where it is analyzed, after which the results is sent back. By integrating the separate steps of the analysis in a micro total analysis system (μTAS), results can......: Sample preparation → DNA amplification → DNA analysis. The overall goal of the project is integration of as many as possible of these steps. This thesis covers mainly pretreatment in a microchip. Some methods for sample pretreatment have been tested. Most conventional is fluorescence activated cell sort...... be obtained fast and better. Preferably with all the processes from sample to signal moved to the bedside of the patient. Of course there is still much to learn and study in the process of miniaturization. DNA analysis is one process subject to integration. There are roughly three steps in a DNA analysis...

  11. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Plant Hormones, Auxins, in Biotechnologically Cultured Products of Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    HIDEYO, SUZUKI; CHUZO, SUGA; TEIJIRO, MORIMOTO; MASATOSHI, HARADA; National Institute Hygienic Sciences; Bioscience Research Laboratory, Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd.; Bioscience Research Laboratory, Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd.; National Institute Hygienic Sciences

    1991-01-01

    The biotechnologically cultured cells of Coptis plant and Lithospermum plant were analyzed for the residual levels of plant hormones, especially of auxins, 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA). The procedures of clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reversed-phase column were studied. 0.1 n sodium hydroxide extracts of samples were successively partitioned between water and ether. Two solvent mixtures of water-acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid ...

  13. A Cost Analysis Study of the Radiography Program at Middlesex Hospital Using Shock's Analysis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Weymouth

    Federal and state governments want to decrease payments for medical education, and other payers are trying to restrict payouts to direct and necessary patient care services. Teaching hospitals are increasing tuition and fees, reducing education budgets and, in many instances, closing education programs. Hospital administrators are examining the…

  14. New Jersey 2002 High Resolution Orthophotography (MrSID format) submission for Middlesex, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color infrared (CIR) orthophotography of New Jersey in State Plane NAD83 Coordinates, U.S. Survey Feet. The digital orthophotography was produced at a scale...

  15. 76 FR 33777 - Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Middlesex County, CT; Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... climate change. Public Meetings We will give the public an opportunity to provide input at public meetings... public, including opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and.... The predominant public uses on refuge lands are wildlife observation and photography. There are...

  16. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle consists of Neoproterozoic and Permian gneisses and granites of the Gander and Avalon terranes, Silurian metasedimentary rocks of the Merrimack terrane, and Silurian to Devonian metasedimentary rocks of uncertain origin. The Avalon terrane rocks crop out within the Selden Neck block, and the Gander terrane rocks crop out within the Lyme dome. The Silurian to Devonian rocks crop out between these two massifs. Previous mapping in the Old Lyme quadrangle includes the work by Lawrence Lundgren, Jr. Lundgren's work provides an excellent resource for rock descriptions and detailed modal analyses of rock units that will not be duplicated in this current report. New research that was not covered in detail by Lundgren is the focus of this report and includes (1) evaluation of the rocks in the core of the Lyme dome in an effort to subdivide units in this area; (2) structural analysis of foliations and folds in and around the Lyme dome; (3) geochronology of selected units within the Lyme dome; and (4) analysis of joints and the fracture properties of the rocks.

  17. Microfluidic devices for sample clean-up and screening of biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays an important role in the separation and identification of analytes from raw samples (e.g. plant extracts, blood), but the whole analytical process is tedious, difficult to automate and time consuming. To overcome these drawbacks, the concept of μTAS (miniaturized total

  18. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  19. Effects of diversity and identity of the neighbouring plant community on the abundance of arthropods onindividual ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostenko, O.; Grootemaat, S.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of plant community can greatly affect the abundance and diversity of arthropods associated to that community, but can also influence the composition or abundance of arthropods on individual plants growing in that community. We sampled arthropods and recorded plant size of individual

  20. Contributions to sampling statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Pier; Ranalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the ITACOSM 2013 Conference, held in Milan in June 2013. ITACOSM is the bi-annual meeting of the Survey Sampling Group S2G of the Italian Statistical Society, intended as an international  forum of scientific discussion on the developments of theory and application of survey sampling methodologies and applications in human and natural sciences. The book gathers research papers carefully selected from both invited and contributed sessions of the conference. The whole book appears to be a relevant contribution to various key aspects of sampling methodology and techniques; it deals with some hot topics in sampling theory, such as calibration, quantile-regression and multiple frame surveys, and with innovative methodologies in important topics of both sampling theory and applications. Contributions cut across current sampling methodologies such as interval estimation for complex samples, randomized responses, bootstrap, weighting, modeling, imputati...

  1. Measuring bitterbrush seed production on plants with variable crown density...complete counts per plant suggested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald W. Seegrist; Donald L. Neal; Richard L. Hubbard

    1966-01-01

    A sampling study was made of the number of bitterbrush seeds per trap from plots in northeastern California. The count per trap had a large variation for each plant. This variation was not reduced to an acceptable low level by grouping the seed traps according to their position relative to the plant crown. In the absence of additional information, it is recommended...

  2. Sample quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Charles A; Wagner, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Sample Quality Criteria (SQC) is the initial step in the scientific approach to representative sampling. It includes the establishment of sampling objectives, Decision Unit (DU), and confidence. Once fully defined, these criteria serve as input, in addition to material properties, to the Theory of Sampling for developing a representative sampling protocol. The first component of the SQC establishes these questions: What is the analyte(s) of concern? What is the concentration level of interest of the analyte(s)? How will inference(s) be made from the analytical data to the DU? The second component of the SQC establishes the DU, i.e., the scale at which decisions are to be made. On a large scale, a DU could be a ship or rail car; examples for small-scale DUs are individual beans, seeds, or kernels. A well-defined DU is critical because it defines the spatial and temporal boundaries of sample collection. SQC are not limited to a single DU; they can also include multiple DUs. The third SQC component, the confidence, establishes the desired probability that a correct inference (decision) can be made. The confidence level should typically correlate to the potential consequences of an incorrect decision (e.g., health or economic). The magnitude of combined errors in the sampling, sample processing and analytical protocols determines the likelihood of an incorrect decision. Thus, controlling error to a greater extent increases the probability of a correct decision. The required confidence level directly affects the sampling effort and QC measures.

  3. Inference for Noisy Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In the current work, some well-known inference procedures including testing and estimation are adjusted to accommodate noisy data that lead to nonidentically distributed sample.  The main two cases addressed are the Poisson and the normal distributions. Both one and two sample cases are addressed.  Other cases including the exponential and the Pareto distributions are briefly mentioned.  In the Poisson case, the situation when the sample size is random is mentioned.

  4. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  5. Chemometrics and chromatographic fingerprints to classify plant food supplements according to the content of regulated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Sokeng Djiogo, C A; Courselle, P

    2017-09-05

    Plant food supplements are gaining popularity, resulting in a broader spectrum of available products and an increased consumption. Next to the problem of adulteration of these products with synthetic drugs the presence of regulated or toxic plants is an important issue, especially when the products are purchased from irregular sources. This paper focusses on this problem by using specific chromatographic fingerprints for five targeted plants and chemometric classification techniques in order to extract the important information from the fingerprints and determine the presence of the targeted plants in plant food supplements in an objective way. Two approaches were followed: (1) a multiclass model, (2) 2-class model for each of the targeted plants separately. For both approaches good classification models were obtained, especially when using SIMCA and PLS-DA. For each model, misclassification rates for the external test set of maximum one sample could be obtained. The models were applied to five real samples resulting in the identification of the correct plants, confirmed by mass spectrometry. Therefore chromatographic fingerprinting combined with chemometric modelling can be considered interesting to make a more objective decision on whether a regulated plant is present in a plant food supplement or not, especially when no mass spectrometry equipment is available. The results suggest also that the use of a battery of 2-class models to screen for several plants is the approach to be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srienc, Friedrich (Lake Elmo, MN); Somers, David A. (Roseville, MN); Hahn, J. J. (New Brighton, MN); Eschenlauer, Arthur C. (Circle Pines, MN)

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  7. Plant Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  8. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  9. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  10. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  11. Sample Return Robot Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Challenge requires demonstration of an autonomous robotic system to locate and collect a set of specific sample types from a large planetary analog area and...

  12. Open port sampling interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J

    2017-04-25

    A system for sampling a sample material includes a probe which can have an outer probe housing with an open end. A liquid supply conduit within the housing has an outlet positioned to deliver liquid to the open end of the housing. The liquid supply conduit can be connectable to a liquid supply for delivering liquid at a first volumetric flow rate to the open end of the housing. A liquid exhaust conduit within the housing is provided for removing liquid from the open end of the housing. A liquid exhaust system can be provided for removing liquid from the liquid exhaust conduit at a second volumetric flow rate, the first volumetric flow rate exceeding the second volumetric flow rate, wherein liquid at the open end will receive sample, liquid containing sample material will be drawn into and through the liquid exhaust conduit, and liquid will overflow from the open end.

  13. Open port sampling interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2018-01-16

    A system for sampling a sample material includes a probe which can have an outer probe housing with an open end. A liquid supply conduit within the housing has an outlet positioned to deliver liquid to the open end of the housing. The liquid supply conduit can be connectable to a liquid supply for delivering liquid at a first volumetric flow rate to the open end of the housing. A liquid exhaust conduit within the housing is provided for removing liquid from the open end of the housing. A liquid exhaust system can be provided for removing liquid from the liquid exhaust conduit at a second volumetric flow rate, the first volumetric flow rate exceeding the second volumetric flow rate, wherein liquid at the open end will receive sample, liquid containing sample material will be drawn into and through the liquid exhaust conduit, and liquid will overflow from the open end.

  14. Stardust Sample Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Catalog summarizes the samples examined in the course of the Preliminary Examination (PE) Team (PET) of the Stardust Mission to comet Wild 2, and the results of...

  15. Roadway sampling evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has traditionally required that all sampling : and testing of asphalt mixtures be at the Contractors production facility. With recent staffing cuts, as : well as budget reductions, FDOT has been cons...

  16. UFA Auction Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 1984 January - 2002 June, personnel from NMFS/PIFSC/FRMD/FMB/FMAP and Hawaii Department of Aquatic Resources (DAR) conducted port sampling at the United...

  17. Sample Encapsulation Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Science Mission Directorate is currently considering various sample cache and return missions to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. These missions involve the use...

  18. Mini MAX - Medicaid Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To facilitate wider use of MAX, CMS contracted with Mathematica to convene a technical expert panel (TEP) and determine the feasibility of creating a sample file for...

  19. Interlaboratory Comparetive Studies of Soil/Plant Analysis Methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The information on analytical techniques that are used for soil and plant analyses in different agricultural laboratories of Kenya was gathered and compiled in table forms. Performance of six laboratories was compaired for different elements and parameters of soil and plant samples. Chemical analysis of identical samples ...

  20. Dissolution actuated sample container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.

    2013-03-26

    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  1. Two phase sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Zahoor; Hanif, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The development of estimators of population parameters based on two-phase sampling schemes has seen a dramatic increase in the past decade. Various authors have developed estimators of population using either one or two auxiliary variables. The present volume is a comprehensive collection of estimators available in single and two phase sampling. The book covers estimators which utilize information on single, two and multiple auxiliary variables of both quantitative and qualitative nature. Th...

  2. Sample size for beginners.

    OpenAIRE

    Florey, C D

    1993-01-01

    The common failure to include an estimation of sample size in grant proposals imposes a major handicap on applicants, particularly for those proposing work in any aspect of research in the health services. Members of research committees need evidence that a study is of adequate size for there to be a reasonable chance of a clear answer at the end. A simple illustrated explanation of the concepts in determining sample size should encourage the faint hearted to pay more attention to this increa...

  3. Plant dermatitis: Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Teik Jin Goon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational plant exposure on the skin is fairly common. Plant products and extracts are commonly used and found extensively in the environment. Adverse reactions to plants and their products are also fairly common. However, making the diagnosis of contact dermatitis from plants and plant extracts is not always simple and straightforward. Phytodermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by a plant. The clinical patterns may be allergic phytodermatitis, photophytodermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, pharmacological injury, and mechanical injury. In this article, we will focus mainly on allergy contact dermatitis from plants or allergic phytodermatitis occurring in Asia.

  4. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  5. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  6. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  7. Recommended protocols for sampling macrofungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Mueller; John Paul Schmit; Sabine M. Hubndorf Leif Ryvarden; Thomas E. O' Dell; D. Jean Lodge; Patrick R. Leacock; Milagro Mata; Loengrin Umania; Qiuxin (Florence) Wu; Daniel L. Czederpiltz

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses several issues regarding reommended protocols for sampling macrofungi: Opportunistic sampling of macrofungi, sampling conspicuous macrofungi using fixed-size, sampling small Ascomycetes using microplots, and sampling a fixed number of downed logs.

  8. Nonuniform sampling by quantiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, D Levi; Sonstrom, Reilly E; Rovnyak, Virginia G; Rovnyak, David

    2018-02-13

    A flexible strategy for choosing samples nonuniformly from a Nyquist grid using the concept of statistical quantiles is presented for broad classes of NMR experimentation. Quantile-directed scheduling is intuitive and flexible for any weighting function, promotes reproducibility and seed independence, and is generalizable to multiple dimensions. In brief, weighting functions are divided into regions of equal probability, which define the samples to be acquired. Quantile scheduling therefore achieves close adherence to a probability distribution function, thereby minimizing gaps for any given degree of subsampling of the Nyquist grid. A characteristic of quantile scheduling is that one-dimensional, weighted NUS schedules are deterministic, however higher dimensional schedules are similar within a user-specified jittering parameter. To develop unweighted sampling, we investigated the minimum jitter needed to disrupt subharmonic tracts, and show that this criterion can be met in many cases by jittering within 25-50% of the subharmonic gap. For nD-NUS, three supplemental components to choosing samples by quantiles are proposed in this work: (i) forcing the corner samples to ensure sampling to specified maximum values in indirect evolution times, (ii) providing an option to triangular backfill sampling schedules to promote dense/uniform tracts at the beginning of signal evolution periods, and (iii) providing an option to force the edges of nD-NUS schedules to be identical to the 1D quantiles. Quantile-directed scheduling meets the diverse needs of current NUS experimentation, but can also be used for future NUS implementations such as off-grid NUS and more. A computer program implementing these principles (a.k.a. QSched) in 1D- and 2D-NUS is available under the general public license. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. AND/OR Importance Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces AND/OR importance sampling for probabilistic graphical models. In contrast to importance sampling, AND/OR importance sampling caches samples in the AND/OR space and then extracts a new sample mean from the stored samples. We prove that AND/OR importance sampling may have lower variance than importance sampling; thereby providing a theoretical justification for preferring it over importance sampling. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates that AND/OR importance sampling is ...

  10. A protocol for sampling vascular epiphyte richness and abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Gradstein, S.R.; Nadkarni, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sampling of epiphytes is fraught with methodological difficulties. We present a protocol to sample and analyse vascular epiphyte richness and abundance in forests of different structure (SVERA). Epiphyte abundance is estimated as biomass by recording the number of plant components in a range of

  11. Adaptive cluster sampling: An efficient method for assessing inconspicuous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea M. Silletti; Joan Walker

    2003-01-01

    Restorationistis typically evaluate the success of a project by estimating the population sizes of species that have been planted or seeded. Because total census is raely feasible, they must rely on sampling methods for population estimates. However, traditional random sampling designs may be inefficient for species that, for one reason or another, are challenging to...

  12. Ethics and sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetti, Peter; Wolf, Leslie E; Segal, Mark R; McCulloch, Charles E

    2005-01-15

    The belief is widespread that studies are unethical if their sample size is not large enough to ensure adequate power. The authors examine how sample size influences the balance that determines the ethical acceptability of a study: the balance between the burdens that participants accept and the clinical or scientific value that a study can be expected to produce. The average projected burden per participant remains constant as the sample size increases, but the projected study value does not increase as rapidly as the sample size if it is assumed to be proportional to power or inversely proportional to confidence interval width. This implies that the value per participant declines as the sample size increases and that smaller studies therefore have more favorable ratios of projected value to participant burden. The ethical treatment of study participants therefore does not require consideration of whether study power is less than the conventional goal of 80% or 90%. Lower power does not make a study unethical. The analysis addresses only ethical acceptability, not optimality; large studies may be desirable for other than ethical reasons.

  13. Interactive Sample Book (ISB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker; Guglielmi, Michel

    2009-01-01

    supervisor Torben A. Lenau. Inspiration to use smart materials Interactive textiles are still quite an unknown phenomenon to many. It is thus often difficult to communicate what kind of potentials lie within these materials. This is why the ISB project was started, as a practice based research project...... and senses in relation to integrated decoration and function primarily to indoor applications. The result of the project will be a number of interactive textiles, to be gathered in an interactive sample book (ISB), in a similar way as the sample books of wallpapers one can take home from the shop and choose...... from. In other words, it is a kind of display material, which in a simple manner can illustrate how different techniques and smart materials work. The sample book should display a number of possibilities where sensor technology, smart materials and textiles are mixed to such an extent that the textile...

  14. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  15. Strategic Sample Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Tillio, Alfredo; Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2017-01-01

    is double logconvex, as with normal noise. The results are applied to the analysis of strategic sample selection by a biased researcher and extended to the case of uncertain and unanticipated selection. Our theoretical analysis offers applied research a new angle on the problem of selection in empirical......What is the impact of sample selection on the inference payoff of an evaluator testing a simple hypothesis based on the outcome of a location experiment? We show that anticipated selection locally reduces noise dispersion and thus increases informativeness if and only if the noise distribution...

  16. Sample size for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florey, C D

    1993-05-01

    The common failure to include an estimation of sample size in grant proposals imposes a major handicap on applicants, particularly for those proposing work in any aspect of research in the health services. Members of research committees need evidence that a study is of adequate size for there to be a reasonable chance of a clear answer at the end. A simple illustrated explanation of the concepts in determining sample size should encourage the faint hearted to pay more attention to this increasingly important aspect of grantsmanship.

  17. Quantum private data sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, David; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2009-08-01

    We present a novel quantum communication protocol for "Private Data Sampling", where a player (Bob) obtains a random sample of limited size of a classical database, while the database owner (Alice) remains oblivious as to which bits were accessed. The protocol is efficient in the sense that the communication complexity per query scales at most linearly with the size of the database. It does not violate Lo's "no-go" theorem for one-sided twoparty secure computation, since a given joint input by Alice and Bob can result in randomly different protocol outcomes. After outlining the main security features of the protocol, we present our first experimental results.

  18. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  19. Determination of Sample Size

    OpenAIRE

    Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2003-01-01

    There is a particular importance of determining a basic minimum required ‘n’ size of the sample to recognize a particular measurement of a particular population. This article has highlighted the determination of an appropriate size to estimate population parameters.

  20. Drafting Work Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic mechanical drawing. (The course is based on the entry level of an assistant drafter.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  1. Optimal Sampling and Interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhawat, Hanumant

    2012-01-01

    The main objective in this thesis is to design optimal samplers, downsamplers and interpolators (holds) which are required in signal processing. The sampled-data system theory is used to fulfill this objective in a generic setup. Signal processing, which includes signal transmission, storage and

  2. The evolutionary root of flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .].

  3. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  4. Flow Analysis and Sorting of Plant Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Šimková, Hana; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Čížková, Jana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-10-10

    Analysis and sorting of plant chromosomes (plant flow cytogenetics) is a special application of flow cytometry in plant genomics and its success depends critically on sample quality. This unit describes the methodology in a stepwise manner, starting with the induction of cell cycle synchrony and accumulation of dividing cells in mitotic metaphase, and continues with the preparation of suspensions of intact mitotic chromosomes, flow analysis and sorting of chromosomes, and finally processing of the sorted chromosomes. Each step of the protocol is described in detail as some procedures have not been used widely. Supporting histograms are presented as well as hints on dealing with plant material; the utility of sorted chromosomes for plant genomics is also discussed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  6. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...... to quantify plant-integrated, real-time emissions of methane and nitrous oxides. Two mobile cavity ring-down spectroscopy sampling devices were used to record downwind gas concentrations emitted from a municipal WWTP situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. This plant is equipped to remove biological nitrogen...... in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant...

  7. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  8. Petrographic Analysis of Cores from Plant 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    ER D C TR -X X- D R AF T Petrographic Analysis of Cores from Plant 42 E n gi n ee r R es ea rc h a n d D ev el op m en t C en te r...Air Force Plant 42, were logged in as CMB No. 160143-1 to 160143-13, were subjected to an in-depth analysis consisting of visual and petrographic...Struc- tures Laboratory was requested to perform an analysis on concrete core samples extracted from Air Force Plant 42. A total of 13 cores were

  9. Radiological analyses of Marshall Islands environmental samples, 1974--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Cua, F.T.

    1977-12-12

    Results are reported from the radiological analysis of environmental samples collected in the Marshall Islands during 1974 through 1976. Most of the samples were collected on or near the Bikini Atoll and included plants, soil, fish, catchment water, and sediments, with emphasis on local marine and terrestrial food items. Data are presented from ..gamma.. spectral analysis and the content of /sup 90/Sr and transuranic elements in the samples.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 19F SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.

    2009-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked by Liquid Waste Operations to characterize Tank 19F closure samples. Tank 19F slurry samples analyzed included the liquid and solid fractions derived from the slurry materials along with the floor scrape bottom Tank 19F wet solids. These samples were taken from Tank 19F in April 2009 and made available to SRNL in the same month. Because of limited amounts of solids observed in Tank 19F samples, the samples from the north quadrants of the tank were combined into one Tank 19F North Hemisphere sample and similarly the south quadrant samples were combined into one Tank 19F South Hemisphere sample. These samples were delivered to the SRNL shielded cell. The Tank 19F samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Where analytical methods yielded additional contaminants other than those requested by the customer, these results were also reported. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on detection values of 1E-04 {micro}Ci/g for most radionuclides and customer desired detection values of 1E-05 {micro}Ci/g for I-129, Pa-231, Np-237, and Ra-226. While many of the target detection limits, as specified in the technical task request and task technical and quality assurance plans were met for the species characterized for Tank 19F, some were not met. In a number of cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TANK 18F SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Click, D.; Diprete, D.

    2009-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked by Liquid Waste Operations to characterize Tank 18F closure samples. Tank 18F slurry samples analyzed included the liquid and solid fractions derived from the 'as-received' slurry materials along with the floor scrape bottom Tank 18F wet solids. These samples were taken from Tank 18F in March 2009 and made available to SRNL in the same month. Because of limited amounts of solids observed in Tank 18F samples, the samples from the north quadrants of the tank were combined into one North Tank 18F Hemisphere sample and similarly the south quadrant samples were combined into one South Tank 18F Hemisphere sample. These samples were delivered to the SRNL shielded cell. The Tank 18F samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Where analytical methods yielded additional contaminants other than those requested by the customer, these results were also reported. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were 1E-04 {micro}Ci/g for most radionuclides and customer desired detection values of 1E-05 {micro}Ci/g for I-129, Pa-231, Np-237, and Ra-226. While many of the minimum detection limits, as specified in the technical task request and task technical and quality assurance plans were met for the species characterized for Tank 18F, some were not met due to spectral interferences. In a number of cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  12. Leaf miner and plant galler species richness on Acacia: relative importance of plant traits and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairstow, Katy A; Clarke, Kerri L; McGeoch, Melodie A; Andrew, Nigel R

    2010-06-01

    Diversity patterns of herbivores have been related to climate, host plant traits, host plant distribution and evolutionary relationships individually. However, few studies have assessed the relative contributions of a range of variables to explain these diversity patterns across large geographical and host plant species gradients. Here we assess the relative influence that climate and host plant traits have on endophagous species (leaf miners and plant gallers) diversity across a suite of host species from a genus that is widely distributed and morphologically variable. Forty-six species of Acacia were sampled to encapsulate the diversity of species across four taxonomic sections and a range of habitats along a 950 km climatic gradient: from subtropical forest habitats to semi-arid habitats. Plant traits, climatic variables, leaf miner and plant galler diversity were all quantified on each plant species. In total, 97 leaf mining species and 84 plant galling species were recorded from all host plants. Factors that best explained leaf miner richness across the climatic gradient (using AIC model selection) included specific leaf area (SLA), foliage thickness and mean annual rainfall. The factor that best explained plant galler richness across the climatic gradient was C:N ratio. In terms of the influence of plant and climatic traits on species composition, leaf miner assemblages were best explained by SLA, foliage thickness, mean minimum temperature and mean annual rainfall, whilst plant gall assemblages were explained by C:N ratio, %P, foliage thickness, mean minimum temperature and mean annual rainfall. This work is the first to assess diversity and structure across a broad environmental gradient and a wide range of potential key climatic and plant trait determinants simultaneously. Such methods provide key insights into endophage diversity and provide a solid basis for assessing their responses to a changing climate.

  13. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  14. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  15. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  16. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  17. Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlemann, Gunther; Ökmen, Bilal; Zhu, Wenjun; Sharon, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are among the dominant causal agents of plant diseases. To colonize plants and cause disease, pathogenic fungi use diverse strategies. Some fungi kill their hosts and feed on dead material (necrotrophs), while others colonize the living tissue (biotrophs). For successful invasion of plant organs, pathogenic development is tightly regulated and specialized infection structures are formed. To further colonize hosts and establish disease, fungal pathogens deploy a plethora of virulence factors. Depending on the infection strategy, virulence factors perform different functions. While basically all pathogens interfere with primary plant defense, necrotrophs secrete toxins to kill plant tissue. In contrast, biotrophs utilize effector molecules to suppress plant cell death and manipulate plant metabolism in favor of the pathogen. This article provides an overview of plant pathogenic fungal species and the strategies they use to cause disease.

  18. Sampling system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2017-03-07

    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  19. Steered transition path sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R; Weare, Jonathan

    2012-06-21

    We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods.

  20. application of morpho-anatomical traits of maize plant to quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    districts, representing 3 seed companies' distribution network. The samples were planted and evaluated .... Application of morpho-anatomical traits of maize plant to quality control assurance. 363 distribution and sales of seeds are ... to give a plant population of 53,333 plants per hectare. Standard agronomic and cultural.

  1. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  2. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  3. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  4. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Statistically Valid Planting Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1961-01-01

    More than 100 million tree seedlings are planted each year in Latin America, and at least ten time'that many should be planted Rational control and development of a program of such magnitude require establishing and interpreting carefully planned trial plantings which will yield statistically valid answers to real and important questions. Unfortunately, many...

  6. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  7. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  8. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  9. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  10. Insect-plant Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, L.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    Half of all insect species are dependent on living plant tissues, consuming about 10% of plant annual production in natural habitats and an even greater percentage in agricultural systems, despite sophisticated control measures. Plants are generally remarkably well-protected against insect attack,

  11. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses such

  12. Plants and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  13. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  14. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  15. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    closely linked with the discovery and characterization of plant hormones, and has facilitated our understanding of plant growth and development. Furthermore, the ability to grow plant cells and tissues in culture and to control their development forms the basis of many practical applications in agriculture, horticulture indus-.

  16. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Do plant hedge mating bets using sex change? This article addresses these and other evolutionary questions about plant gender. The Modular Nature of Plants. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the German literary genius immortalised for such triumphs as The Tragedy of Doctor Faust, was also a natural scientist. He believed ...

  17. Plant ozone injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

  18. Analysis of Metal Content of Samples of Gloriosa Superba L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The plant material and soil were collected from two different locations - polluted and unpolluted. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples (whole plant and soil) followed by ... polluted area contained Cu (7.5 – 13.0 ppm), Cr (1.4 − 1.9 ppm) and Ni (0.3 − 2.0 ppm), all of which exceeded ...

  19. Stress in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietz, D.; Tietz, A.

    1982-08-01

    Originally, the stress theory has been developed for humans. However, it can be generalised and also applied to plants. A variety of natural and environmental stress factors may affect the development and growth of plants. In the field of plant breeding, stress research is also of economic significance. In green-house plant cultivation for instance, the breeding of new species requiring less cultivation work will contribute to saving some of the today so precious energy. In developing countries, crop increase and the cultivation of plants on hitherto non-arable land is an invaluable contribution to safeguarding the food for the growing world population.

  20. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...

  1. Epigenetic performers in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Lv, Shaolei; Meng, Yijun

    2010-08-01

    Epigenetic research is at the forefront of plant biology and molecular genetics. Studies on higher plants underscore the significant role played by epigenetics in both plant development and stress response. Relatively recent advances in analytical methodology have allowed for a significant expansion of what is known about genome-wide mapping of DNA methylation and histone modifications. In this review, we explore the different modification patterns in plant epigenetics, and the key factors involved in the epigenetic process, in order to illustrate various putative mechanisms. Experimental technology to exploit these modifications, and proposed focus areas for future plant epigenetic research, are also presented.

  2. Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkar, HPS.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

  3. Samples and Sampling Protocols for Scientific Investigations | Joel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from sampling, through sample preparation, calibration to final measurement and reporting. This paper, therefore offers useful information on practical guidance on sampling protocols in line with best practice and international standards. Keywords: Sampling, sampling protocols, chain of custody, analysis, documentation ...

  4. Plants that attack plants: molecular elucidation of plant parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Obligate parasitic plants in the family Orobanchaceae, such as Striga and Orobanche (including Phelipanche) spp., parasitize important crops and cause severe agricultural damage. Recent molecular studies have begun to reveal how these parasites have adapted to hosts in a parasitic lifecycle. The parasites detect nearby host roots and germinate by a mechanism that seems to have evolved from a conserved germination system found in non-parasites. The development of a specialized infecting organ called a haustorium is a unique feature of plant parasites and is triggered by host compounds and redox signals. Newly developed genomic and genetic resources will facilitate more rapid progress toward a molecular understanding of plant parasitism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    OpenAIRE

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathoge...

  6. The comparison of pollen abundance in air and honey samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Šaulienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey as a food has long been used in human nutrition and is still popular. Honey is important because of its therapeutic, prophylactic and strengthening value. Pollen is one of the most decisive components that ensure the quality and type of honey. Modern society becomes more and more sensitive to airborne pollen. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the composition of allergenic plant pollen in natural honey. For this purpose, we studied and compared pollen abundance in honey and air samples collected in Lithuania. Standard methods for pollen investigation in air and honey were used in this study. The botanical diversity of pollen identified in honey and air samples indicates 10 morphotypes: 8 of woody plants and 2 of herbaceous plants, in both the honey and air samples. Salix pollen counts in the honey were found to be highest among airborne pollen from May to September. The anemophilous allergenic pollen constituted 44 % of the total pollen detected in the honey.

  7. Comparison of kriging interpolation precision between grid sampling scheme and simple random sampling scheme for precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Houlong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sampling methods are important factors that can potentially limit the accuracy of predictions of spatial distribution patterns. A 10 ha tobacco-planted field was selected to compared the accuracy in predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties by using ordinary kriging and cross validation methods between grid sampling and simple random sampling scheme (SRS. To achieve this objective, we collected soil samples from the topsoil (0-20 cm in March 2012. Sample numbers of grid sampling and SRS were both 115 points each. Accuracies of spatial interpolation using the two sampling schemes were then evaluated based on validation samples (36 points and deviations of the estimates. The results suggested that soil pH and nitrate-N (NO3-N had low variation, whereas all other soil properties exhibited medium variation. Soil pH, organic matter (OM, total nitrogen (TN, cation exchange capacity (CEC, total phosphorus (TP and available phosphorus (AP matched the spherical model, whereas the remaining variables fit an exponential model with both sampling methods. The interpolation error of soil pH, TP, and AP was the lowest in SRS. The errors of interpolation for OM, CEC, TN, available potassium (AK and total potassium (TK were the lowest for grid sampling. The interpolation precisions of the soil NO3-N showed no significant differences between the two sampling schemes. Considering our data on interpolation precision and the importance of minerals for cultivation of flue-cured tobacco, the grid-sampling scheme should be used in tobacco-planted fields to determine the spatial distribution of soil properties. The grid-sampling method can be applied in a practical and cost-effective manner to facilitate soil sampling in tobacco-planted field.

  8. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  9. Aquatic plant control research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ghio, E.G. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States). Hydro Generation Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

  10. An Evolutionary Robotics Approach to the Control of Plant Growth and Motion: Modeling Plants and Crossing the Reality Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahby, Mostafa; Hofstadler, Daniel Nicolas; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The self-organizing bio-hybrid collaboration of robots and natural plants allows for a variety of interesting applications. As an example we investigate how robots can be used to control the growth and motion of a natural plant, using LEDs to provide stimuli. We follow an evolutionary robotics...... approach where task performance is determined by monitoring the plant's reaction. First, we do initial plant experiments with simple, predetermined controllers. Then we use image sampling data as a model of the dynamics of the plant tip xy position. Second, we use this approach to evolve robot controllers...

  11. Evaluation of Some Heavy Metals in Aerial Parts of Wild Rice Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-13

    upper parts of wild rice plant in three locations (Gure, Kagoro, and Kaduna) of Kaduna state. HNO3-H2O2 was used to digest the plant samples and analyzed using AA320N model Atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

  12. Repeated judgment sampling: Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Muller-Trede

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the boundaries of the recent result that eliciting more than one estimate from the same person and averaging these can lead to accuracy gains in judgment tasks. It first examines its generality, analysing whether the kind of question being asked has an effect on the size of potential gains. Experimental results show that the question type matters. Previous results reporting potential accuracy gains are reproduced for year-estimation questions, and extended to questions about percentage shares. On the other hand, no gains are found for general numerical questions. The second part of the paper tests repeated judgment sampling's practical applicability by asking judges to provide a third and final answer on the basis of their first two estimates. In an experiment, the majority of judges do not consistently average their first two answers. As a result, they do not realise the potential accuracy gains from averaging.

  13. Sampling the Hydrogen Atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the electron is an objectively real particle orbiting at very near to light speed. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms associated with orbiting bodies can be considered as being af- fected by relativity. This leads to a model for the atom in which the stable electron orbits are associated with orbital velocities where Gamma is n /α , leading to the idea that it is Gamma that is quantized and not angular momentum as in the Bohr and other models. The model provides a mechanism which leads to quantization of energy levels within the atom and also provides a simple mechanical explanation for the Fine Struc- ture Constant. The mechanism is closely associated with the Sampling theorem and the related phenomenon of aliasing developed in the mid-20th century by engineers at Bell labs.

  14. Spatial distribution of ochratoxin A in vineyard and sampling design to assess must contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battilani, Paola; Barbano, Carlo; Rossi, Vittorio; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Pietri, Amedeo

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the spatial variability of ochratoxin A (OTA) in vineyards and to define a reliable sampling protocol for bunches in order to assess OTA content before harvesting. In 2002, two vineyards with 'Negroamaro' and 'Sangiovese' grape varieties were chosen in Southern Italy. The same sampling design was applied to both vineyards. Ten plants were collected from the X-shaped path of the whole vineyard (plants 1 through 10) and 10 plants from the two central cross-perpendicular lines (plants 11 through 20). Bunches harvested from plants 1 through 10 were numbered progressively, weighed, and crushed separately, and bunches obtained from plants 11 through 20 were crushed plant by plant. Juices obtained were analyzed for OTA content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Then, a simulated approach for sampling was applied, following randomized and systematic designs. High and random variability was observed in OTA content both among bunches and among plants in the two vineyards, independent of contamination level. Simulated sampling design markedly influenced the assessment of must contamination. The best results were obtained when sampling involved one bunch per plant, in a predefined position, from at least 10 plants. Estimated means, obtained with different sampling designs, did not differ significantly from calculated mean OTA content. If the true contamination in a vineyard is 2 microg kg(-1), the limit fixed in Europe for OTA content in must and wine, the range of OTA content assessed sampling one bunch in the central position of 10 plants should lie between 2.9 and 1.4. The accuracy could be considered acceptable.

  15. Reassessing apoptosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.

  16. Toxic proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  18. Multielement plant tissue analysis using ICP spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T H; de Bang, T C; Laursen, K H; Pedas, P; Husted, S; Schjoerring, J K

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissue analysis is a valuable tool for evaluating the nutritional status and quality of crops and is widely used for scientific and commercial purposes. The majority of plant analyzes are now performed by techniques based on ICP spectrometry such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) or ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These techniques enable fast and accurate measurements of multielement profiles when combined with appropriate methods for sample preparation and digestion. This chapter presents state-of-the-art methods for digestion of plant tissues and subsequent analysis of their multielement composition by ICP spectrometry. Details on upcoming techniques, expected to gain importance within the field of multielement plant tissue analysis over the coming years, are also provided. Finally, attention is given to laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) for multielement bioimaging of plant tissues. The presentation of the methods covers instructions on all steps from sampling and sample preparation to data interpretation.

  19. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  20. 76 FR 31171 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Establishing a Category of Plants for Planting Not Authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... May 27, 2011 Part III Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 Importation of Plants for Planting; Establishing a Category of Plants for Planting Not Authorized... / Friday, May 27, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health...

  1. Monitoring of biogas test plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    individual acids based on test set validations. The average statistics assessing prediction performance, accuracy (slope) and precision (explained variance r2), were both 0.92, which must be considered excellent for this type of significantly heterogeneous systems. The meso- to full-scale feasibility has......-scale biogas test plant implementation of process analytical technologies (PAT) to develop multivariate calibration/prediction models for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. A 150 L bioreactor was fitted with a recurrent loop at which NIR spectroscopy and attendant reference sampling were carried out. In all...

  2. Sampling approaches for extensive surveys in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, J C; Ferris, H

    1992-12-01

    Extensive surveys of the frequency and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes over large geographic areas provide useful data of unknown reliability. Time, cost, and logistical constraints may limit the sampling intensity that can be invested at any survey site. We developed a computer program to evaluate the probability of detection and the reliability of population estimates obtained by different strategies for collecting one sample of 10 cores from a field. We used data from two fields that had been sampled systematically and extensively as the basis for our analyses. Our analyses indicate that, at least for those two fields, it is possible to have a high probability of detecting the presence of nematode species and to reliably estimate abundance, with a single 10-core soil sample from a field. When species were rare or not uniformly distributed in a field, the probability of detection and reliability of the population estimate were correlated with the distance between core removal sites. Increasing the prescribed distance between cores resulted in the composite sample representing a wider range of microenvironments in the field.

  3. Sample collection, biobanking, and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahsman, Maurice J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.; de Wildt, Saskia N.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric pharmacokinetic studies require sampling of biofluids from neonates and children. Limitations on sampling frequency and sample volume complicate the design of these studies. In addition, strict guidelines, designed to guarantee patient safety, are in place. This chapter describes the

  4. Beat sampling accuracy in estimating spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations and injury on juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2004-08-01

    The use of a standardized beat sampling method for estimating spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae), densities on a widely used evergreen ornamental plant species, Juniperus chinensis variety 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae), was examined. There was a significant positive relationship between total spruce spider mite densities and spider mite densities from beat sampling on juniper. The slope and intercept of the relationship may be used by pest managers to predict total spider mite densities on plants from beat sample counts. Beat sampling dramatically underestimates the total number of spider mites on a foliage sample. The relationships between spruce spider mite feeding injury and spider mite density estimates from beat sampling juniper foliage and total spider mite counts on foliage were also examined. There was a significant positive relationship between spruce spider mite density as estimated from beat sampling and injury to the plants. There was a similar positive relationship between the total number of spruce spider mites and injury to the plants, suggesting that a pest manager could use beat sampling counts to estimate plant injury and related thresholds. These findings have important implications to decision-making for spruce spider mite control, especially as it relates to threshold levels and determining rates of predator releases. Further assessment of the effectiveness of beat and other sampling methods across multiple spider mite- host plant associations needs to be examined to enable pest managers to select sampling plans that are feasible and reliable.

  5. Variable Sampling Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey, S.; Aronstein, David L.; Dean, Bruce H.; Lyon, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an optical system (for example, a telescope) is limited by the misalignments and manufacturing imperfections of the optical elements in the system. The impact of these misalignments and imperfections can be quantified by the phase variations imparted on light traveling through the system. Phase retrieval is a methodology for determining these variations. Phase retrieval uses images taken with the optical system and using a light source of known shape and characteristics. Unlike interferometric methods, which require an optical reference for comparison, and unlike Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors that require special optical hardware at the optical system's exit pupil, phase retrieval is an in situ, image-based method for determining the phase variations of light at the system s exit pupil. Phase retrieval can be used both as an optical metrology tool (during fabrication of optical surfaces and assembly of optical systems) and as a sensor used in active, closed-loop control of an optical system, to optimize performance. One class of phase-retrieval algorithms is the iterative transform algorithm (ITA). ITAs estimate the phase variations by iteratively enforcing known constraints in the exit pupil and at the detector, determined from modeled or measured data. The Variable Sampling Mapping (VSM) technique is a new method for enforcing these constraints in ITAs. VSM is an open framework for addressing a wide range of issues that have previously been considered detrimental to high-accuracy phase retrieval, including undersampled images, broadband illumination, images taken at or near best focus, chromatic aberrations, jitter or vibration of the optical system or detector, and dead or noisy detector pixels. The VSM is a model-to-data mapping procedure. In VSM, fully sampled electric fields at multiple wavelengths are modeled inside the phase-retrieval algorithm, and then these fields are mapped to intensities on the light detector, using the properties

  6. Hormesis and plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Edward J. [Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Pleasant Street, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Blain, Robyn B. [Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Pleasant Street, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A database has been developed that demonstrates experimental evidence of hormesis. It includes information from a broad range of biological models, including plants, and information on study design, dose-response features, and physical/chemical properties of the agents. An assessment of plant hormetic dose responses is presented based on greater than 3000 plant endpoints. Plant hormetic dose responses were observed for numerous endpoints including disease incidence, reproductive indices, mutagenic endpoints, various metabolic parameters, developmental processes, and a range of growth indicators. Quantitative features of these dose responses typically display a maximum stimulatory response less than two-fold greater than controls and a width of the stimulatory response usually less than 10-fold in dose range. The database establishes that hormetic dose responses commonly occur in plants, are broadly generalizable, and have quantitative features similar to hormetic dose responses found for animals. - Hormesis commonly occurs within plant species.

  7. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  9. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  10. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight......, three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...

  11. [Genetic engineering in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarly, Y

    1992-11-01

    Until recent years, plant genetic was involved in heredity studies through the analysis of segregations in progenies after crossing. New potentiality arose as genetic tools with the use of dissociated plant elements, transforming and cultivating them in vitro. When plants are regenerated from manipulated tissues, new structures of varieties (clones) new genotypes (transgenic plants) and new regulations of genes expression (vitrovariants) open new ways for plant genetic engineering. Progressively these technological tools are integrated in the methods of plant breeding. Yet all possible consequences of these new types of heredity and of these new genetic structures must be evaluated. As first priority the analysis of possible incidences in the field of food, nutrition and health gives the basis for diagnostics and organisations aiming to avoid the release of genotypes which could have unwanted effects.

  12. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight......, three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...

  13. Ecology of plant volatiles: taking a plant community perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierik, Ronald; Ballaré, Carlos L; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-08-01

    Although plants are sessile organisms, they can modulate their phenotype so as to cope with environmental stresses such as herbivore attack and competition with neighbouring plants. Plant-produced volatile compounds mediate various aspects of plant defence. The emission of volatiles has costs and benefits. Research on the role of plant volatiles in defence has focused primarily on the responses of individual plants. However, in nature, plants rarely occur as isolated individuals but are members of plant communities where they compete for resources and exchange information with other plants. In this review, we address the effects of neighbouring plants on plant volatile-mediated defences. We will outline the various roles of volatile compounds in the interactions between plants and other organisms, address the mechanisms of plant neighbour perception in plant communities, and discuss how neighbour detection and volatile signalling are interconnected. Finally, we will outline the most urgent questions to be addressed in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Optimizing Sampling Efficiency for Biomass Estimation Across NEON Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, H. H.; Meier, C. L.; Spencer, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the course of 30 years, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will measure plant biomass and productivity across the U.S. to enable an understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle responses to ecosystem change drivers. Over the next several years, prior to operational sampling at a site, NEON will complete construction and characterization phases during which a limited amount of sampling will be done at each site to inform sampling designs, and guide standardization of data collection across all sites. Sampling biomass in 60+ sites distributed among 20 different eco-climatic domains poses major logistical and budgetary challenges. Traditional biomass sampling methods such as clip harvesting and direct measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) involve collecting and processing plant samples, and are time and labor intensive. Possible alternatives include using indirect sampling methods for estimating LAI such as digital hemispherical photography (DHP) or using a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. These LAI estimations can then be used as a proxy for biomass. The biomass estimates calculated can then inform the clip harvest sampling design during NEON operations, optimizing both sample size and number so that standardized uncertainty limits can be achieved with a minimum amount of sampling effort. In 2011, LAI and clip harvest data were collected from co-located sampling points at the Central Plains Experimental Range located in northern Colorado, a short grass steppe ecosystem that is the NEON Domain 10 core site. LAI was measured with a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. The layout of the sampling design included four, 300 meter transects, with clip harvests plots spaced every 50m, and LAI sub-transects spaced every 10m. LAI was measured at four points along 6m sub-transects running perpendicular to the 300m transect. Clip harvest plots were co-located 4m from corresponding LAI transects, and had dimensions of 0.1m by 2m. We conducted regression analyses

  15. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir; Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian; Asie Shojaii; Mehri Abdollahi Fard

    2011-01-01

    To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), diabetes mellitus, plant (herb), Iran, patie...

  16. Plant Protection Research Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Allsopp, N.; W. D. Stock

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the mycorrhizal status of plants growing in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa was undertaken to assess the range of mycorrhizal types and their dominance in species characteristic of this region. Records were obtained by ex­amining the root systems of plants growing in three Cape lowland vegetation types, viz. West Coast Strandveld, West Coast Renosterveld and Sand Plain Lowland Fynbos for mycorrhizas, as well as by collating literature records of mycorrhizas on plants gro...

  17. Bioassay of Plant Growth Regulator Activity on Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    I COPY AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PROGRAM .q TECHNICAL REPORT A-90-7 >AD-A226 125 BIOASSAY OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR ACTIVITY ON AQUATIC PLANTS... Plant Growth Regulator Activity on Aquatic Plants 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lembi, Carole A.; Netherland, Michael D. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14...OF THIS PAGE 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continued). Aquatic plants Hydrilla Bensulfuron methyl Paclobutrazol Bioassay Plant growth regulator Eurasian

  18. SPACE VEHICLE POWER PLANTS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPACECRAFT, POWER SUPPLIES), (*POWER SUPPLIES, SPACECRAFT), ENERGY CONVERSION, BATTERY COMPONENTS, ELECTRIC BATTERIES, SOLAR CELLS, NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS , SPACEBORNE, MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS, ELECTROSTATICS, SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

  19. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  20. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.