WorldWideScience

Sample records for samples nuclide analysis

  1. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  2. Sampling of soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples by k{sub 0} standardization method using short lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Kanzaki, Chinatsu; Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, and Mn contents in geochemical and cosmochemical samples were analyzed by both k{sub 0} standardization INAA and conventional INAA by a comparison method. The contents of Mg, Al, and Mn by k{sub 0} method were consistent with recommended values and ones by comparison methods. For Ti and V their values are slightly higher than recommended ones. The values by k{sub 0} method were reliable within {+-}10%. (author)

  4. Combination of digital autoradiography and alpha track analysis to reveal the distribution of definite alpha- and beta-emitting nuclides in contaminated samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, I. [Lomonosov MSU (Russian Federation); Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky GEOKHI RAS (Russian Federation); Shiryaev, A. [Frumkin IPCE RAS (Russian Federation); Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, S.; Ivanov, I. [PA Mayak (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Digital autoradiography using Imaging Plate is commonly employed for searching 'hot' particles in the contaminated soil, sediment and aerosol probes. However digital radiography images combined with Alpha Track radiography data could provide much more information about micro-distribution of different alpha- and beta- nuclides. The discrimination method to estimate the distribution of radionuclides that are the main contributors to the total radioactivity ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am) has been developed on the case of artificial reservoir V-17 (PA 'Mayak'). The bottom sediments and hydrobionts probes collected from V-17 along with the standards of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 241}Am have been exposed for a short time (15 min) using a stack of 3 Imaging Plates (Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System, Perkin Elmer). The attenuation of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) intensity from layer to layer of the Imaging Plates depends on the type and energy of radiation. Integrated approach using PSL attenuation in the samples and standards (digital radiography) along with Alpha Track radiography and gamma-spectroscopy of the preparation was used to estimate the contribution of the main nuclides in specific parts of contaminated samples. The observation of the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs activity maxima could help to find the phases which are responsible for preferential sorption of the nuclides. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. The method study for nuclide analysis of waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The principle of waste drum nuclide analysis system and the principle of the detector chosen are introduced. The linear attenuation coefficient and mass attenuation coefficient of five environmental medium (water, soil, red brick, concrete and sands) have been measured with γ transmission method simulative equipment. The absorption coefficient and nuclide activity of three measuring conditions (collimation-columnar source, un-collimation-columnar source, and un-collimation-rotation-drum source) have been calculated

  6. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  7. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.; Kunz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for 239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed delayed neutrons

  8. Applications of short lived nuclides in activation analysis, problems and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, F [Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Short lived nuclides or isomeric transitions, respectively would have some advantages over long lived ones. Although we published a paper concerning a germanium-determination in iron meteorites some years ago, only few laboratories use this technique, the main reason being that the high matrix activity disturbs the measurement of energy-spectra. A multichannel analyzer in the time sequence mode enables Li-8 determination by a purely instrumental method which is therefore used more frequently. In the time sequence mode much higher counting rates up to 10 - 50 MHz are processed then by taking energy-spectra. This is the reason why activation analysis with short lived isomeric states is seldom applied when counting rate and pulse height are to be detected simultaneously. Exceptional difficulties are encountered in measurement of samples activated by a reactor pulse. Further difficulties arise from the fact that an optimal expelling time depends on the half life of the nuclide, and is more critical if the half life is short and the full width half maximum of the reactor pulse is small. Commercial Ge-Li-detectors can be used only at low counting rates, so that samples with high matrix activities cannot be measured. Modifying the electronic system enables registration of samples with high matrix activities. For short lived nuclides emitting hard beta-rays, e.g. B-12 or Li-8, a Cerenkov-detector is optimal. These problems are discussed in examples. (author)

  9. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti Corcuera, R.; Moraes Cunha, M. de; Jayanthi, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  10. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Martian surface: constraints for sample recovery and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects such as cosmic ray tracks can provide information on the surface history of Mars. A recent overview on developments in cosmogenic nuclide research for historical studies of predominantly extraterrestrial materials was published previously. The information content of cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects produced in the Martian surface is based on the different ways of interaction of the primary galactic and solar cosmic radiation (GCR, SCR) and the secondary particle cascade. Generally the kind and extent of interactions as seen in the products depend on the following factors: (1) composition, energy and intensity of the primary SCR and GCR; (2) composition, energy and intensity of the GCR-induced cascade of secondary particles; (3) the target geometry, i.e., the spatial parameters of Martian surface features with respect to the primary radiation source; (4) the target chemistry, i.e., the chemical composition of the Martian surface at the sampling location down to the minor element level or lower; and (5) duration of the exposure. These factors are not independent of each other and have a major influence on sample taking strategies and techniques

  11. A comprehensive fuel nuclide analysis at the reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenz, H.J.; Koch, L.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of spent fuel can be determined by various methods. They rely partially on different information. Therefore the synopsis of the results of all methods permits a detection of systematic errors and their explanation. Methods for determining the masses of fuel nuclides at the reprocessing input point range from pure calculations (shipper data) to mere experimental determinations (volumetric analysis). In between, a mix of ''fresh'' experimental results and ''historical'' data is used to establish a material balance. Deviations in the results obtained by the individual methods can be attributed to the information source, which is unique for the method in question. The methodology of the approach consists of three steps: by paired comparison of the operator analysis (usually volumetric or gravimetric) with remeasurements the error components are determined on a batch-by-batch basis. Using the isotope correlation technique the operator data as well as the remeasurements are checked on an inter-batch basis for outliers, precision and bias. Systematic errors can be uncovered by inter-lab comparison of remeasurements and confirmed by using historical information. Experience collected during the reprocessing of LWR fuel at two reprocessing plants prove the flexibility and effectiveness of this approach. An example is presented to demonstrate its capability in detecting outliers and determining systematic errors. (author)

  12. Prototype of an expert system to help nuclide identification in gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, Kasi Annapurna; Corcuera, Raquel Paviotti; Oliveira, Gina Maira B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development and use of IDENT, prototype of an expert system that helps the researcher to identify radionuclides in gamma-ray spectroscopy. Normally the method adopted by the researcher is iterative, time consuming and becomes complicated in the analysis of large and complex gamma-ray spectra. The present expert system is based on the knowledge transmitted by expert and specialists in this area and the results show that it is helpful for researches who perform nuclide identification through gamma-ray spectroscopy. The gamma-ray spectrum of a material sample with about 140 peaks would take about a week or two be analysed by a specialist. The same task can be done in a few minutes using this expert system. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  13. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1978-04-01

    An approach to extend the present ORNL sensitivity program to include functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field is developed. An adjoint equation for the nuclide field was derived previously by using generalized perturbation theory; the present derivation makes use of a variational principle and results in the same equation. The physical significance of this equation is discussed and compared to that of the time-dependent neutron adjoint equation. Computational requirements for determining sensitivity profiles and uncertainties for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density vector are developed within the framework of the existing FORSS system; in this way the current capability is significantly extended. The development, testing, and use of an adjoint version of the ORIGEN isotope generation and depletion code are documented. Finally, a sample calculation is given which estimates the uncertainty in the plutonium inventory at shutdown of a PWR due to assumed uncertainties in uranium and plutonium cross sections. 8 figures, 4 tables

  14. Application of the activation analysis using the method of retarded fission neutrons counting for the determination of some fissionable nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A system for the detection and counting of delayed neutrons which allows the analysis of some fissile and fertile nuclides, in samples of milligram size, was developed. This was applied for the analysis of natural uranium and thorium and also for determining the 235 U/ 238 U ratio in non-irradiated samples which contain uranium with different degrees of enrichment in 235 U. The spectrum of activated neutrons was varied in order to discriminate the nuclides, by covering or not the sample with a material (cadmium or boron) able to absorb low energy neutrons. Determination of 235 U/ 238 U ratios, through the number of delayed neutrons, was made by drawing a calibration curve using standards ranging from 0.5% to 93% on 235 U; the accuracy of the method was also examined. In a first step, conditions for a simultaneous and non-destructive analysis of uranium and thorium were developed. The interference between these two nuclides was studied, using simulated samples. Real samples were provided by Nuclemon and IAEA. For samples with uranium concentration in the range of percentages and thorium concentration of some ppm, uranium interferes in the determination of thorium through the non-destructive analytical method. For this case, a fast and quantitative chemical method was studied which allows for the separation of thorium from uranium before the determination of throrium concentration by counting the delayed fission neutrons. It was found that the results obtained by both destructive and non-destructive methods are very consistent and can be considered statistically equivalent within a confidence level of 95%. (Author) [pt

  15. An Evaluation Method for Activation Analysis using Pre-evaluated Contribution of Nuclides with Impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gee Suck [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclides in radiation facilities become unstable from nuclear reaction. It emits residual radiation to be stable. Some unstable nuclides remain after operation in the material. It continuously emits the radiation, which has a harmful effect to worker when they try maintenance and plant decommissioning. It is known that residual radiation from impurity occupies a large portion of the radiation dose. If impurity concentration is higher than expectation, the effects of residual radiation could be underestimated. Therefore, estimation of residual radiation is repeatedly calculated according to impurity concentration. In this study, an approach estimating the activation was proposed using pre-evaluated nuclide's contribution to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker. In this study, in order to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker, activation analysis method based on pre-evaluated nuclide contribution was proposed. This method was verified using concreate activation problem, which is located in nuclear power plant. The results show that our proposed method has good agreement with Bateman equation.

  16. GAUSS VIII: a computer program for the nuclide activity analysis of γ-ray spectra from GE semiconductor spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, M.H.; Helmer, R.G.; McCullagh, C.M.

    1985-12-01

    A description is given of a computer program, GAUSS VII, which has been written to determine nuclide or isotopic activities from γ-ray spectra from GE semiconductor spectrometers. The preliminary portion of the program can determine the energy- and width-calibration equations, locate individual peaks and define ''peak regions'' that are significantly above the local spectral background. The user may edit these lists of peaks and regions. Each peak region is fitted with one or more components in which the peaks are represented by a Gaussian function or a Gaussian with one or two additive exponential tails on the low-energy side and one on the high-energy side. A step-like background function can be used with each component. The program will automatically recycle to add one or more components to a region if needed to improve the fit. The γ-ray energies and intensities are computed from the resulting Gaussian positions and peak areas. From a comparison of these peak energies and the γ-ray energies for various nuclides in a nuclide library, the nuclides that may be present are identified. The user may edit this nuclide list. The program identifies secondary γ rays that should be present for these nuclides and obtains peak areas for them, if the areas are not already available. All of the peak areas are then analyzed to obtain the best nuclidic activities. The peak areas for any one nuclide and those for nuclides that have interfering lines are analyzed in one least-squares ft. Nuclides whose activities are essentially 0, and peaks which cannot be accounted for are removed from the analysis. Besides the nuclidic activities, a peak-by-peak summary is provided. This program is intended to analyze large groups of spectra as well as an individual spectrum

  17. Trace elements of coal, coal ashes and fly ashes by activation analysis with shor-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Sarac, I.; Grass, F.

    1981-01-01

    On irradiation with neutrons, some of the interesting trace elements in coal, coal ash and fly ash produce short-lived nuclides which may be determined - together with some of the matrix elements - by activation analysis. This enables the characterization of samples. To find out the distribution of elements in the gaseous or aerosol exhaust of fossil-fired power plants, the authors simulated the combustion in a quartz apparatus containing a cold trap, using the combustion temperature (780 deg C) employed for the standard ash determination. High Se values were found in the cold trap deposits of black coal from Poland. Halogens were also found in the deposits. (authors)

  18. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seokon; Yoon, Kanghwa; Soo, Moonjin; Lee, Byoungil; Kim, Jeongin [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons.

  19. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seokon; Yoon, Kanghwa; Soo, Moonjin; Lee, Byoungil; Kim, Jeongin

    2013-01-01

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H 2 O 2 and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons

  20. Natural radio-nuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorin, O.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the presence of radio-nuclides in Switzerland's drinking water. The article describes research done into the natural radioactivity to be found in various drinking water samples taken from the public water supply in the Canton of Grisons in eastern Switzerland. The various natural nuclides to be expected are listed and the methods used to take the samples are described. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of sketches showing the geographical distribution of the nuclide samples. Diagrams of the cumulative frequency of the quantities of nuclides found are presented, as are such diagrams for the yearly radioactive doses that the population is exposed to. The results and their consequences for the water supply are discussed in detail and further investigations to be made in the region are proposed

  1. Actinide nuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the analysis of isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium, in air and deposition samples taken at our laboratory site 10 km north of Munich, subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. Uranium-234, 237 U, 238 U, 239 Np, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 242 Cm have been identified and upper limits of detection have been established for 241 Am and 244 Cm. Deposition and air concentration values are discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Interlaboratory comparison of environmental relevant nuclides with spinach powder as sample medium; Vergleichspruefung mit Spinatpulver als Probenart fuer umweltrelevante Nuklide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Tait, D. [Max Rubner-Institut, Kiel (Germany). Leitstelle fuer Boden, Bewuchs, Futtermittel und Nahrungsmittel pflanzlicher und tierischer Herkunft

    2014-01-20

    Spinach is cited as a representative medium for leafy vegetables in the Integrated Measurement and Information System for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity (IMIS) in Germany. Fresh spinach, however, is not suitable in interlaboratory comparisons on the determination of spiked radionuclides because of the difficulties in homogeneously distributing the radionuclides and attaining a known specific activity in the samples. In contrast, spinach powder is finely milled, so that homogeneous distribution and known specific activities of the nuclides are more readily achievable. For this interlaboratory comparison spinach powder was mixed with the pure beta emitter Sr-90 and the gamma-emitting nuclides I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137. After homogenization samples were dispatched to 77 laboratories from Germany and other European countries (59 in Germany, 5 in Switzerland, 4 each in the UK and Austria, and one each in France, Italy, the Netherlands, Ireland and Luxembourg). In addition to the added nuclides participants had to determine the natural radionuclide K-40. The participants were instructed to use a fast method for the determination of dry matter (DM). To check the homogeneity of the nuclide distribution 14 samples of the labeled spinach powder were randomly selected and analyzed in the Coordinating Laboratory for the Surveillance of Radioactivity in the Environment of the Max Rubner-Institute (MRI). According to DIN 13528:2005 the samples showed sufficient homogeneity of the added nuclides. For the evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) determined reference values for the the specific activities (Bq per kg DM) of the gamma emitters. The values with the expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were as follows: I-131: 181 ± 6 Bq/kg; Cs-134: 34.4 ± 1.1 Bq/kg; Cs-137: 11.1 ± 0.4 Bq/kg; K-40: 1240 ± 40 Bq/kg. Since a reference value of the PTB for the specific activity of Sr-90 was not available the general average

  3. Actinide nuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (West Germany))

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the analysis of isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium, in air and deposition samples taken at our laboratory site 10 km north of Munich, subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. Uranium-234, {sup 237}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 242}Cm have been identified and upper limits of detection have been established for {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm. Deposition and air concentration values are discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  5. Optimization of irradiation decay and counting times in nuclear activation analysis using short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    This work describes a method and outlines a procedure for optim- ization of an activation analysis with respect to the experimental times, irradiation time, t(subi), decay time and counting time. The method is based on the 'minimum relative standard deviation criterion', and specially designed for the use on short-lived nuclides. A computer program, COMB1, is written in the BASIC language in order to make the calculations easier and faster. It is intended to be understandable, and easily applicable on a computer of modest size. Time and cost are important factors, especially for routine analysis on a service basis. In such cases one can often allow a controlled reduction in the analysis quality (through a higher relative standard deviation). The procedure outlined can therefore help find acceptable conditions by calculation of the 'best practical' (or reasonable) experimental time values, and the minimum number of accumulation cycles necessary to fulfil the requirements given. (Auth.)

  6. Validation of spent nuclear fuel nuclide composition data using percentage differences and detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2017-06-15

    Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.

  7. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1990-11-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO{sub 3}, and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and {sup 55}Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m{sup 2} sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 {plus minus} 20, for Sr 80 {plus minus} 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 {plus minus} 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: {sup 239+240}Pu, 2.58; {sup 238}Pu, 1.40; {sup 238}U, 0.65; {sup 234}U, 0.67; {sup 90}Sr, 7600; and {sup 55}Fe, 990 {mu}Bqm{sup -3}. With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.).

  8. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO 3 , and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and 55 Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10 5 m 3 of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m 2 sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 ± 20, for Sr 80 ± 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 ± 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: 239+240 Pu, 2.58; 238 Pu, 1.40; 238 U, 0.65; 234 U, 0.67; 90 Sr, 7600; and 55 Fe, 990 μBqm -3 . With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.)

  9. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical basis for neutron-activation analysis measuring nuclides with a half-life of second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Ichimura, Shigeju; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-01-01

    An analytical basis for a neutron-activation analysis (NAA) for measuring nuclides of second-order half-lives produced by the (n, γ) reaction has been studied using a neutron-activation analysis facility (PN-3) of JRR-3M. The NAA facility, comprising a fast pneumatic irradiation system and a high count-rate gamma-ray spectrometer, is able to automatically conduct NAA with short-lived nuclides. Basic experimental conditions, such as a high count-rate gamma-ray measurement, the effects of irradiation-capsule material and the stability of the neutron flux, were examined. The analytical sensitivities and detection limits for 20 elements of which activated radionuclide having half-lives from 0.7 to 100 s were obtained. Scandium, In, Dy and Hf were elements having the highest analytical sensitivity, with detection limits down to 4.2 to 14 ng. Fluorine, which is difficult to determine by other methods, can be detected at above 530 ng. Analytical applications of NAA with short-lived nuclides have been carried out for F, Se, Sc, Hf, In and Dy in various materials, including reference materials. The accuracy, precision and detection limits of NAA with short-lived nuclides have been evaluated. (author)

  11. VRF ("Visual RobFit") — nuclear spectral analysis with non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasche, George; Coldwell, Robert; Metzger, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A new application (known as "VRF", or "Visual RobFit") for analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra has been developed using non-linear fitting techniques to fit full-spectrum nuclide shapes. In contrast to conventional methods based on the results of an initial peak-search, the VRF analysis method forms, at each of many automated iterations, a spectrum-wide shape for each nuclide and, also at each iteration, it adjusts the activities of each nuclide, as well as user-enabled parameters of energy calibration, attenuation by up to three intervening or self-absorbing materials, peak width as a function of energy, full-energy peak efficiency, and coincidence summing until no better fit to the data can be obtained. This approach, which employs a new and significantly advanced underlying fitting engine especially adapted to nuclear spectra, allows identification of minor peaks that are masked by larger, overlapping peaks that would not otherwise be possible. The application and method are briefly described and two examples are presented.

  12. Librarian driven analysis with graphic user interface for nuclides quantification by gamma spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashov, V.S. E-mail: vlkondra@cdrewu.edu; Rothenberg, S.J.; Petersone, I

    2001-09-11

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma-ray line(s). An a priori determined list of nuclides is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of the database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma-ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma-energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by ICRP.

  13. Analysis of nuclide transport under natural convection and time dependent boundary condition using TOUGH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javeri, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    After implementation of TOUGH2 at GRS in summer 91, it was first used to analyse the gas transport in a repository for the nuclear waste with negligible heat generation and to verify the results obtained with ECLIPSE/JAV 92/. Since the original version of TOUGH2 does not directly simulate the decay of radionuclide and the time dependent boundary conditions, it is not a appropriate tool to study the nuclide transport in a porous medium/PRU 87, PRU 91/. Hence, in this paper some modifications are proposed to study the nuclide transport under combined influence of natural convection diffusion, dispersion and time dependent boundary condition. Here, a single phase fluid with two liquid components is considered as in equation of state model for water and brine/PRU 91A/.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Nuclide Importance to One-Group Neutron Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Yoshikane

    2001-01-01

    The importance of nuclides is useful when investigating nuclide characteristics in a given neutron spectrum. However, it is derived using one-group microscopic cross sections, which may contain large errors or uncertainties. The sensitivity coefficient shows the effect of these errors or uncertainties on the importance.The equations for calculating sensitivity coefficients of importance to one-group nuclear constants are derived using the perturbation method. Numerical values are also evaluated for some important cases for fast and thermal reactor systems.Many characteristics of the sensitivity coefficients are derived from the derived equations and numerical results. The matrix of sensitivity coefficients seems diagonally dominant. However, it is not always satisfied in a detailed structure. The detailed structure of the matrix and the characteristics of coefficients are given.By using the obtained sensitivity coefficients, some demonstration calculations have been performed. The effects of error and uncertainty of nuclear data and of the change of one-group cross-section input caused by fuel design changes through the neutron spectrum are investigated. These calculations show that the sensitivity coefficient is useful when evaluating error or uncertainty of nuclide importance caused by the cross-section data error or uncertainty and when checking effectiveness of fuel cell or core design change for improving neutron economy

  15. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  16. Analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sediments by GC/ECD generated by nuclide {sup 63}Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Katia A.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O. V., E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic organic compounds resistant to environmental degradation. Besides, POPs bioaccumulation with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) under the Stockholm Convention on POPs is a program that enables collection of comparable monitoring data from all regions of the world to assess the effectiveness in minimizing human and environmental exposure to POPs. The scope of this work is to develop and validate a method for the extraction and determination of POPs in sediments collected at Billings dam locate in São Paulo Metropolitan City. The compounds studied in this work are: Aldrin (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}C{sub l6}), DDD (C{sub 14}H{sub 10}C{sub l4}), DDE (C{sub 14}H{sub 8}Cl{sub l4)}, DDT (C{sub 14}H{sub 9}C{sub l5}), Dieldrin (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}C{sub l6}O), Endrin (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}Cl{sub 6}O) and Heptachlor (C{sub 10}H{sub 5}C{sub l7}). This work use the QuEChERS extraction method (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) for sediment samples and the analysis of the compounds were carried out by gas chromatography with the electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources {sup 63}Ni within carrier gas N{sub 2}. The electrons produced in this process are collected, create an amplified current, and generating the chromatographic peak. The recovery of this method obtained values between 57% and 65% and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values are between 1 and 4%. Details of the analytical method beside quantitative analyses data are presented in this work. (author)

  17. Analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sediments by GC/ECD generated by nuclide 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Katia A.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic organic compounds resistant to environmental degradation. Besides, POPs bioaccumulation with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) under the Stockholm Convention on POPs is a program that enables collection of comparable monitoring data from all regions of the world to assess the effectiveness in minimizing human and environmental exposure to POPs. The scope of this work is to develop and validate a method for the extraction and determination of POPs in sediments collected at Billings dam locate in São Paulo Metropolitan City. The compounds studied in this work are: Aldrin (C 12 H 8 C l6 ), DDD (C 14 H 10 C l4 ), DDE (C 14 H 8 Cl l4) , DDT (C 14 H 9 C l5 ), Dieldrin (C 12 H 8 C l6 O), Endrin (C 12 H 8 Cl 6 O) and Heptachlor (C 10 H 5 C l7 ). This work use the QuEChERS extraction method (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) for sediment samples and the analysis of the compounds were carried out by gas chromatography with the electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources 63 Ni within carrier gas N 2 . The electrons produced in this process are collected, create an amplified current, and generating the chromatographic peak. The recovery of this method obtained values between 57% and 65% and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values are between 1 and 4%. Details of the analytical method beside quantitative analyses data are presented in this work. (author)

  18. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  19. An analysis of the correlation between dust storms in Korea and 137Cs nuclide concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo-won; Kim, Jeong-hun; Shin, Sang-hwa; Hwang, Joo-ho

    2008-01-01

    Dust storms occur in Korea during spring time when fine dust is blown in from the far western regions of western China and Mongolia. A fine powdery dust is blown up into the sky and enters the upper reaches of the atmosphere where it is carried easterly across China then slowly falls to the ground on the Korean peninsula and Japan. The dust originates mostly in the Gobi dessert of China, as well as the yellow earth regions in the middle and upper streams of the Yellow river in China. Previous studies on dust storms have been limited to following or estimating their courses, distribution and frequency, or distribution of the heavy metals they transmit. However, since radionuclides exist in the dust, they must also exist in the dust storms. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of :1 37 Cs nuclide concentration based on a count of annual dust storm occurrence in the city of Suwon, South Korea and assessed seasonal differences of 137 Cs nuclide concentration

  20. Analysis of neonicotinoids by gas chromatography coupled to nuclide 63Ni - Electron Capture Detector - GC/ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Crepaldi, Caike; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several reports have been published discussing reduction in bee population which polymerizes cultures around the world this phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The phenomenon describes the lack of worker honeybees in the colony despite having pups and food. The causes of this problem are unknown but there are studies that claim that reduction of population of bees is linked to poisoning through insecticides specifically neonicotinoids. Among this type of pesticide are imidacloprid (C 9 H 10 ClN 5 O 2 ), clothianidin (C 6 H 8 ClN 5 O 2 S) and thiamethoxam (C 8 H 10 ClN 5 O 3 S). This paper presents the analysis of neonicotinoids - clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam - by the technique of gas chromatography coupled to nuclide 63 Ni electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The electron capture detector (ECD) is a gas chromatography detector that has been used for the detection of organic halogens, nitriles, nitrates and organometallic compounds. The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources 63 Ni within carrier gas N 2 . The electrons produced in this process are collected and create a current that are amplified and generates a chromatographic peak. Methodology and details of the analysis are present in this work. (author)

  1. Analysis of neonicotinoids by gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni - Electron Capture Detector - GC/ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Crepaldi, Caike; Bustillos, Oscar V., E-mail: priscilaoamaral@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio.leao@usp.br, E-mail: marceloredigolo@gmail.com, E-mail: caike1995@gmail.com, E-mail: ovega@ipen.bremails [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several reports have been published discussing reduction in bee population which polymerizes cultures around the world this phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The phenomenon describes the lack of worker honeybees in the colony despite having pups and food. The causes of this problem are unknown but there are studies that claim that reduction of population of bees is linked to poisoning through insecticides specifically neonicotinoids. Among this type of pesticide are imidacloprid (C{sub 9}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}), clothianidin (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}S) and thiamethoxam (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 3}S). This paper presents the analysis of neonicotinoids - clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam - by the technique of gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The electron capture detector (ECD) is a gas chromatography detector that has been used for the detection of organic halogens, nitriles, nitrates and organometallic compounds. The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources {sup 63}Ni within carrier gas N{sub 2}. The electrons produced in this process are collected and create a current that are amplified and generates a chromatographic peak. Methodology and details of the analysis are present in this work. (author)

  2. Setting up of Nuclide GRAF-3S spark source mass spectrometer for the analysis of high purity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.; Murugaiyan, P.; Soni, K.S.; Venkateswarlu, Ch.

    1975-01-01

    A spark source mass spectrometer model GRAF-35 manufactured by the Nuclide Corporation, U.S.A., was set up for analysis of nuclear-grade and high purity materials. The main difficulty with its successful operation was to achieve and maintain the required level of vacuum i.e. less than 2X10 -8 torr in the magnetic analyser region. With 100 1/s ion pump, the required vacuum could be achieved, but the spectrometer required periodical baking which minimises the life of the instrument. The pumping system was replaced by Ultek Boostivac pump - a combination of ion pump (150 1/s) and a titanium sublimation pump (1000 1/sec speed for condensable vapours) which eliminated baking as the necessary level of vacuum could be easily achieved whenever required. Results of the analysis of zone-refined indium and uranium for trace impurities are given. (M.G.B.)

  3. Determination of radio nuclides for some local foodstuffs in Republic of Yemen by using gamma rays spectral analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maqtary, K.; Murshid, M.; Bazohair, A.; Al-Zuhairy, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study is considered as the first research study on locally produced consumed food in the Republic of Yemen. The objective of this study is to measure concentration of radio nuclides 137 Cs and 40 K In food samples produced in Yemen. Twenty two local foodstuffs samples were collected from provinces. The mar IBB, Hudiadah and Lahj, due to the massive crops production. Gamma spectroscopy consist of high purity germanium (HPGe) detector with resolution of 2.11 KeV at 1332 ke v energy which related to 6 0Co isotope. The detector is interfaced to two amplifiers and multichannel analyzer (mca). the maximum concentration of 13C s was found in garden pea samples brought from Lahj province 13± 1.5 Bq/kg. The minimum concentration was found in wheat samples brought from Them ar province 2.5± 0.2 Bq/Kg. The maximum concentration of 4 0K was found in garden pea samples brought from Lahj. 1000±15 Bq/kg. The minimum concentration was in forage sorghum samples brought from Hudaidah 40±1.5 Bq/kg. The studies samples are radiological safe and okay for human consumption. (author)

  4. Nuclear constants for activation analysis of some nuclides and comparison with experimentally measured values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.; Trkov, A.; Smodis, B.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis requires a knowledge of the values for the Westcott g factors, the resonance integral I 0 and 2200 ms -1 cross section σ 0 for the (n, γ) reaction, Q 0 defined as the ratio I 0 /σ 0 and the effective resonance energy E-bar r . The required constants can be calculated from the JEF 2.2 evaluated nuclear data files. A sensitivity study was carried out to investigate the influence of the spectral parameter α on E-bar r . The sensitivity of I 0 to temperature due to Doppler broadening was also investigated. The results obtained were compared to those reported in the literature. Further, the calculated parameters were then applied to the analysis of a number of standard samples. (author)

  5. Quantitative portable gamma-spectroscopy sample analysis for non-standard sample geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing a portable spectroscopy system, a quantitative method for analysis of samples containing a mixture of fission and activation products in nonstandard geometries was developed. This method was not developed to replace other methods such as Monte Carlo or Discrete Ordinates but rather to offer an alternative rapid solution. The method can be used with various sample and shielding configurations where analysis on a laboratory based gamma-spectroscopy system is impractical. The portable gamma-spectroscopy method involves calibration of the detector and modeling of the sample and shielding to identify and quantify the radionuclides present in the sample. The method utilizes the intrinsic efficiency of the detector and the unattenuated gamma fluence rate at the detector surface per unit activity from the sample to calculate the nuclide activity and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). For a complex geometry, a computer code written for shielding applications (MICROSHIELD) is utilized to determine the unattenuated gamma fluence rate per unit activity at the detector surface. Lastly, the method is only applicable to nuclides which emit gamma-rays and cannot be used for pure beta or alpha emitters. In addition, if sample self absorption and shielding is significant, the attenuation will result in high MDA's for nuclides which solely emit low energy gamma-rays. The following presents the analysis technique and presents verification results using actual experimental data, rather than comparisons to other approximations such as Monte Carlo techniques, to demonstrate the accuracy of the method given a known geometry and source term. (author)

  6. Quantitative portable gamma spectroscopy sample analysis for non-standard sample geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enghauser, M.W.; Ebara, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizing a portable spectroscopy system, a quantitative method for analysis of samples containing a mixture of fission and activation products in nonstandard geometries was developed. The method can be used with various sample and shielding configurations where analysis on a laboratory based gamma spectroscopy system is impractical. The portable gamma spectroscopy method involves calibration of the detector and modeling of the sample and shielding to identify and quantify the radionuclides present in the sample. The method utilizes the intrinsic efficiency of the detector and the unattenuated gamma fluence rate at the detector surface per unit activity from the sample to calculate the nuclide activity and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). For a complex geometry, a computer code written for shielding applications (MICROSHIELD) is utilized to determine the unattenuated gamma fluence rate per unit activity at the detector surface. Lastly, the method is only applicable to nuclides which emit gamma rays and cannot be used for pure beta emitters. In addition, if sample self absorption and shielding is significant, the attenuation will result in high MDA's for nuclides which solely emit low energy gamma rays. The following presents the analysis technique and presents verification results demonstrating the accuracy of the method

  7. Nuclide content in reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Certain corrosion and fission products of importance in reactor waste management cannot be measured by gammaspectrometric techniques. In this study, a method is suggested by which the occurence of such nuclides can be quantitatively related to suitable gamma-emitters of similar origin. The method is tested by statistical analysis on the waste data recorded from two Swedish nuclear power plants. As this method is not applicable for Carbon-14, this nuclide was measured directly in spent ion exchange resins from three Finnish and Swedish power plants. (author)

  8. Measurement of radioactive nuclides present in soil samples of district Ganderbal of Kashmir Province for radiation safety purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroz A. Mir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of radioactive elements in the residential area is very important from different points of view especially for human health. The aim of present survey was focused on determining the current radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from some areas of the Ganderbal district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. “Can technique” has been employed for the measurement of radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from under study areas. The Uranium concentration in these soil samples where estimated by using the fission track registration technique (using LR-115 plastic track detectors.The uranium concentration was found to varies between 2.03 and 3.52 ppm. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to vary from 5.05 to 21.89 m Bq kg−1 h−1. Radium concentration in soil samples varies from 6.43 to 18.89 Bq kg−1. The calculated values of Uranium concentration in these soil/rock samples are quite lower than the risk level. Radon and radium values found in these samples are also lower than that of optimum value. Hence these areas can be considered as risk free zones from human health point of view.

  9. Toward detection of supernova event near the earth based on high-resolution analysis of cosmogenic nuclide 10Be in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, S.; Suganuma, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Cosmic rays react with substances in the Earth's atmosphere and form cosmogenic nuclides. The flux would abruptly increase with nearby supernova or terrestrial magnetic events such as reversal or excursion of terrestrial magnetism. The Earth must have been exposed to cosmic ray radiation for as long as 10 Ma, if any, by nearby supernova activities (Kataoka et al., 2014). Increased and prolonged activity of cosmic rays would affect Earth's climate through forming greenhouse gases and biosphere through damaging DNA. Therefore, interests have been growing as to whether and how past supernova events have ever left any fingerprints on them. However, detection of nearby supernova is still under debate (e.g., Knie et al., 2004) To detect long-term record of past supernova activities, we utilize cosmogenic nuclide 10Be because of its short residence time (1-2yr) in the atmosphere, simple transport process, and adequate half-life (1.36 kyr) which is nearly equivalent to the duration of present-day deep water circulation. Sediment samples collected from the equatorial western Pacific (706-825 kyr in age) were finely powdered and decomposed by mixed acids (HNO3, HF, and HClO4). Authigenic phase was also separated from bulk powders by leaching with a weak acid. Because quantitative separation of Be from samples is essential toward high-quality 10Be analysis, both Be-bearing fractions were applied to optimized anion exchange chromatography for Be separation, and Be abundance was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The 10Be abundance (10Be/9Be ratios) were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. The authigenic phase showed temporal curve that is similar to that of bulk samples (Suganuma et al., 2012), reflecting the influence of relative paleo-intensity and utility of authigenic method. Increased data set in terms of sampling interval (density) and total age range would allow us to judge whether it could detect past supernova activities and how it appears when

  10. Chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Y.; Horiguchi, T.; Yamada, M.

    1980-01-01

    In this chart, four colors are use to classify nuclides according to their half-lives. The different symbols are also to show the decay modes and their percentage in each nuclide. Four tables are provided on the back of the chart. Table 1 is the ordinary periodic Table. Table 2 provides fundamental constants used for nuclear physics. Tables 3 lists the physical constants (mean density, ionization potential, melting point, and boiling point) of all elements. Table 4 provides the gamma-ray intensity standards. Half-lives, energy, relative intensity, and intensity per decay are list for 33 nuclides. (J.P.N.)

  11. Radiochemical analysis of radio-nuclides in sea water collected near Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Sugiura, Y

    1955-01-01

    A radiochemical analysis of sea water containing fission materials collected near Bikini Atoll in June, 1954, was performed. The sea water was boiled with hydrochloric acid, iron and lanthanum salts each 5 mg as Fe and La were added to it. They were precipitated as hydroxide, which was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride was extracted with ethyl ether. The remaining solution was evaporated to dryness and the residue was dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Using the latter solution the group separation was done with cation exchanger resins.

  12. Analysis of monazite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartiwa Sumadi; Yayah Rohayati

    1996-01-01

    The 'monazit' analytical program has been set up for routine work of Rare Earth Elements analysis in the monazite and xenotime minerals samples. Total relative error of the analysis is very low, less than 2.50%, and the reproducibility of counting statistic and stability of the instrument were very excellent. The precision and accuracy of the analytical program are very good with the maximum percentage relative are 5.22% and 1.61%, respectively. The mineral compositions of the 30 monazite samples have been also calculated using their chemical constituents, and the results were compared to the grain counting microscopic analysis

  13. Analysis of Residual Nuclide in a ACM and ACCT of 100-MeV proton beamline By measurement X-ray Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Min; Yun, Sang-Pil; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The proton beam is provides to users as various energy range from 20 MeV to 100 MeV. After protons generated from the ion source are accelerated to 100 MeV and irradiated to target through bending magnet and AC magnet. At this time, relatively high dose X-ray is emitted due to collision of proton and components of beamline. The generated X-ray is remaining after the accelerator is turned off and analyzing residual nuclides through the measurement of X-ray spectrum. Then identify the components that are the primary cause of residual nuclides are detected form the AC magnet(ACM) and associated components (ACCT). Analysis of the X-ray spectrum generated form the AC magnet(ACM) and AC current transformer(ACCT) of 100 MeV beamline according to the proton beam irradiation, most of the residual nuclides are identified it can be seen that emission in the stainless steel by beam loss.

  14. NNDC Chart of Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center has recently developed an interactive chart of nuclides, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/, that provides nuclear structure and decay data. Since its implementation, it has proven to be one of the most popular web products. The information presented is derived from the ENSDF and Nuclear Wallet Card databases. Experimentally known nuclides are represented by a cell in chart with the number of neutrons on the horizontal axis and the number of protons on the vertical axis. The color of the cell is used to indicate the ground state half-life or the ground state predominant decay mode. (author)

  15. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  16. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  17. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-01-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76 Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76 Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76 Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  18. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  19. WWW chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Zhou Chunmei; Zhuang Youxiang; Zhao Zhixiang; Golashvili, T.V.; Chechev, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    WWW chart of the nuclides was established on the basis of the latest evaluations of nuclear structure and decay data. By viewing WWW chart of the nuclides, one can retrieve the fundamental data of nuclide such as atomic mass, abundance, spin and parity; the decay mode, branching ratio, half-life and Q-value of radioactive nuclide, energy and intensity of strong γ-ray, etc. The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of WWW chart of the nuclides is: http://myhome.py.gd.cn/chart/index,asp

  20. Behavior of nuclides at plasma melting of TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Adachi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Arc plasma heating technique can easily be formed at super high temperature, and can carry out stable heating without any effect of physical and chemical properties of the wastes. By focussing to these characteristics, this technique was experimentally investigated on behavior of TRU nuclides when applying TRU wastes forming from reprocessing process of used fuels to melting treatment by using a mimic non-radioactive nuclide. At first, according to mechanism determining the behavior of TRU nuclides, an element (mimic nuclide) to estimate the behavior was selected. And then, to zircaloy with high melting point or steel can simulated to metal and noncombustible wastes and fly ash, the mimic nuclide was added, prior to melting by using the arc plasma heating technique. As a result, on a case of either melting sample, it was elucidated that the nuclides hardly moved into their dusts. Then, the technique seems to be applicable for melting treatment of the TRU wastes. (G.K.)

  1. NUCLIDES 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclides have many applications in agriculture, medicine, industry and research. For basic information on such radioactive materials, the Chart of the Nuclides has proved to be an indispensable tool for obtaining data on radionuclides and working out qualitatively decay schemes and reaction paths. These Charts are, however, of limited use when one requires quantitative information on the decaying nuclide and its daughters. This was the motivation for the development of the NUCLIDES 2000 software package. The radioactive decay data used in NUCLIDES 2000 is based on the Joint Evaluated File (Jeff) version 2.2. The present version of the program contains decay data on approximately 2700 radionuclides. (authors)

  2. Recalculation of measured fuel nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and concentration ratios of heavy fuel nuclides determined in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research Rossendorf on the basis of destructive burnup measurements are compared with the results of microburnup calculations. The possibility is discussed to improve the results by taking into account the spectral characteristics at the positions of the measuring samples. (author)

  3. Considerations on the activity concentration determination method for low-level waste packages and nuclide data comparison between different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    In low-level waste disposal, acceptable activity concentration limits are regulated for individual nuclides and groups of nuclides according to the conditions of each disposal site. Such regulated limits principally concern total alpha and beta /gamma activity as well as nuclides such as C-14, Ni-63, and Pu-238 which are long-lived and difficult to measure (hereinafter referred to as difficult-to-measure nuclides). Before waste packages are transported to the disposal site, the activities or activity concentrations of the regulated nuclides and groups of nuclides in the waste packages must be assessed and declared. A generally applicable theoretical method to determine these activities is lacking at present. Therefore, to meet this requirement, for NPP waste each country independently samples actual waste and carries out radiochemical analyses on these samples. The activity concentrations of difficult-to-measure nuclides are then determined by statistical correlation of the measured data between difficult-to-measure nuclides and Co-60 and Cs-137 which are measurable from outside the waste packages (hereinafter referred to as key nuclides). This method is called 'Scaling Factor Method'. It is widely adopted as a method for determining the activity concentrations of the limited nuclides in low-level waste packages from NPP, and it is also approved by responsible authorities in the respective country. In the past, each country independently determined scaling factors based on measurements on samples from the local NPPs. In the first part of this study, the possibility of an international scaling factor assessment using a database integrating data from different countries was studied by comparing radiochemical analysis data between Germany, Japan, and the United States. These countries have accumulated a large number of those nuclide data required to determine scaling factors. Statistical values such as correlation coefficients change with an accumulation of data. In

  4. Trace element analysis of environmental samples by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki; Shozugawa, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple γ-ray detection method has been proved to be a high-resolution and high-sensitivity method in application to nuclide quantification. The neutron prompt γ-ray analysis method is successfully extended by combining it with the γ-ray detection method, which is called Multiple prompt γ-ray analysis, MPGA. In this review we show the principle of this method and its characteristics. Several examples of its application to environmental samples, especially river sediments in the urban area and sea sediment samples are also described. (author)

  5. Analysis of metal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez T, J.J.; Lopez M, J.; Sandoval J, A.R.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    An elemental analysis, metallographic and of phases was realized in order to determine the oxidation states of Fe contained in three metallic pieces: block, plate and cylinder of unknown material. Results are presented from the elemental analysis which was carried out in the Tandem Accelerator of ININ by Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The phase analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction which allowed to know the type of alloy or alloys formed. The combined application of nuclear techniques with metallographic techniques allows the integral characterization of industrial metals. (Author)

  6. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  7. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  8. PIXE analysis of thin samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Ildiko; Koltay, Ede; Szabo, Gyula; Laszlo, S.; Meszaros, A.

    1985-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) multielemental analysis of thin film samples are reported. Calibration methods of K and L X-lines are discussed. Application of PIXE analysis to aerosol monitoring, multielement aerosol analysis is described. Results of PIXE analysis of samples from two locations in Hungary are compared with the results of aerosol samples from Scandinavia and the USA. (D.Gy.)

  9. Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radioactive Nuclides in NORM Samples - Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radionuclides in raw materials and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Jang, Mee; Kim, Chang-Jong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun-Sik [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It has established the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' in Korea, since 2011, to protect the public from natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and their by-products. The increasing concerns regarding the radioactivity of those materials therefore dictate many demands for the radioactive analysis for them. There are several methods to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides, such as {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and so on, through a radiochemical analysis using an alpha spectrometer, mass spectrometer and liquid scintillation counter. However, gamma-ray spectroscopy still has an effect on the assessment of radioactive concentration for these nuclides and their progenies. To adapt a gamma spectrometer to the determination of natural radionuclides, the feasibility of their analysis methods should be first verified and validated with respect to accuracy and time and cost constraints. In general, one of the well-known processes in analyzing uranium with a gamma spectrometer is an indirect measurement using the secular equilibrium state with their progenies in a sample. This method, however, demands the time elapsed about 3 weeks to reach the equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn and the sufficient integrity of a sample bottle to prevent the leakage of radon isotopes which is a form of noble gas. The simple and quick method is to directly measure a full energy absorption peak of 186.2 keV from {sup 226}Ra without the secular equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn in the common sample bottle. However, this direct measurement also has difficulties about the interference with a full energy absorption peak of 185.7 keV from {sup 235}U. In this study, direct measurement with the interference correction technique, which uses several reference peaks for gamma-rays from {sup 235}U and {sup 234}Th, and indirect measurement, which means the identification of {sup

  10. Emanation thermal analysis. Principle of the method, preparation of samples and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Pentinghaus, H.J.

    1993-12-01

    Principles of the title method are outlined and the sample preparation procedures and instrumental designs are described. The publication is divided into chapters as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) Sample labelling: (II.1) Introducing parent nuclides as a source of inert gas in solid; Distribution of inert gas in the sample; (II.2) Introducing inert gases without parent nuclides (using the recoil effect of nuclear reactions and using ion bombardment); (II.3) Choice of the suitable labelling technique; (III) Equipment for emanation thermal analysis: (III.1) Inert gas detection and measurement of inert gas release rate; (III.2) System of carrier gas flow and stabilization; (IV) Determination of the optimal conditions for radon release rate measurement; (V) Example of ETA measurement. (P.A.). 1 tab., 10 figs. 5 refs

  11. Trace determination of uranium and thorium in biological samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedik, Ljudmila; Repinc, Urska; Byrne, Anthony R.; Stegnar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) is an excellent method for determining uranium and thorium; it offers unique possibilities for their ultratrace analysis using selective radiochemical separations. Regarding the favourably sensitive nuclear characteristics of uranium and of thorium with respect to RNAA, but the different half-lives of their induced nuclides, two different approaches were used. In the first approach uranium and thorium were determined separately via 239 U, 239 Np and 233 Pa. In the second approach these elements were 239 239 233 determined simultaneously in a single sample using U and/or Np and Pa. Isolation of induced nuclides was based on separation by extraction and/or anion exchange chromatography. Chemical yields were measured in each sample aliquot using added 235 U, 238 Np and 231 Pa radioisotopic tracers. (author)

  12. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  13. Radioactive kryptonates in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''radioactive Kryptonates'' is used for substances into which atoms or ions of the radioactive nuclide 85 Kr are incorporated. The basis of the use of radioactive Kryptonates in analytical chemistry is that during a chemical reaction the crystalline lattice of the kryptonated carrier is destroyed, the carrier consumed, and the radioactive krypton released (radio-release method). Analysis can be made with a calibration curve or by comparison with a standard. Radio-release methods with the aid of radioactive Kryptonates as analytical reagents are very useful for the analysis of environmental samples, e.g. for the determination of air pollutants (ozone, sulphur dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, mercury); and water pollutants (oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide). (author)

  14. Basic study on neutron activation analysis measuring short-lived nuclides (half-lives 0.7 to 100 s) using JRR-3M NAA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Ichimura, Shigeju; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-11-01

    Analytical basis for neutron activation analysis (NAA) measuring nuclides of second order half-life produced by (n, γ) reaction has been studied using a neutron activation analysis facility of JRR-3M. Basic experimental conditions such as high count rate gamma-ray measurement, effects of irradiation capsule material and stability of neutron flux were examined. The analytical sensitivities and detection limits for 20 elements of which activated radionuclides have half-lives from 0.7 to 100 s were obtained. Scandium, Hf, Dy and In were elements having the highest analytical sensitivity, with detection limits down to 4.2 to 14 ng. Fluorine, of which determination by other methods is difficult, can be detected in more than 530 ng. Determination of ppm levels of F in silicon nitride powder using a single and cyclic activation methods were performed. Accuracy and precision for F determination were verified by analyzing reference materials of Opal Glass (NIST SRM91) and Oyster Tissue (NIST SRM1566a). The relationship between the detection limit of F and Al contents was also clarified. Analytical applications of high sensitive elements such as Se, Sc, Hf, In and Dy in various materials, including reference materials, were also examined and the accuracy, precision and detection limits of the present method were evaluated. (author)

  15. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  16. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  17. Library correlation nuclide identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, William R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel nuclide identification algorithm, Library Correlation Nuclide Identification (LibCorNID), is proposed. In addition to the spectrum, LibCorNID requires the standard energy, peak shape and peak efficiency calibrations. Input parameters include tolerances for some expected variations in the calibrations, a minimum relative nuclide peak area threshold, and a correlation threshold. Initially, the measured peak spectrum is obtained as the residual after baseline estimation via peak erosion, removing the continuum. Library nuclides are filtered by examining the possible nuclide peak areas in terms of the measured peak spectrum and applying the specified relative area threshold. Remaining candidates are used to create a set of theoretical peak spectra based on the calibrations and library entries. These candidate spectra are then simultaneously fit to the measured peak spectrum while also optimizing the calibrations within the bounds of the specified tolerances. Each candidate with optimized area still exceeding the area threshold undergoes a correlation test. The normalized Pearson's correlation value is calculated as a comparison of the optimized nuclide peak spectrum to the measured peak spectrum with the other optimized peak spectra subtracted. Those candidates with correlation values that exceed the specified threshold are identified and their optimized activities are output. An evaluation of LibCorNID was conducted to verify identification performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. LibCorNID has been shown to perform well compared to standard peak-based analyses

  18. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1987-01-01

    Many countries are presently concerned with problems relating to the safe disposal of nuclear waste containing various levels of transuranium nuclides. In this context, a review on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the environment studied at Kanazawa University in Japan is presented. About 17 years ago, a high degree of accumulation of 239 Pu in the surface soil of Nagasaki was found in the Nishiyama area, where 'black rain' occured just after the nuclear bomb explosion. The introduction of newly developed radiochemical methods and instrumentation has enabled studies to be carried out on environmental plutonium isotopes, americium-241 and more recently neptunium-237 with respect to distribution depth profile, variation with time and relationship with organic materials. Valuable information has been obtained on the basis of samples collected from various locations in Japan, including surface soil, sea and lake sediments, atmospheric aerosol, water from the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean, and from material related with the 'Bikini Event' of 1954. (orig.)

  19. Nuclide transfer test device in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The device comprises a pressure-proof vessel having a perforated port, a compression vessel having a sample-containing chamber with circumferential walls having a plurality of small holes being gastightly engaged to the perforated port, a mechanically pressurizing means for vertically compressing the compression chamber, a pressurizing gas supply system for supplying a pressurizing gas to compress the soil specimen in a lateral direction and a sample water-supply system for supplying sample water to the sample containing chamber. The soil sample is pressurized so that the sample water is caused to permeate by isotropic pressure due to equilibrium of vertical compression by mechanical force and lateral compression by the pressurizing gas. The transfer state of radioactive nuclides in the soil can be tested easily in a state where the sample water is caused to permeate in a vertical direction in parallel, to simulate an actual processing circumstance. Namely, since the sample water is caused to permeate to the soil sample in the pressure-proof vessel, a desired test can easily be conducted in a restricted space without undergoing influences of the kind and the dose rate of the radioactive nuclides. (N.H.)

  20. Analysis of cement solidified product and ash samples and preparation of a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Ken-ichiro; Haraga, Tomoko; Shimada, Asako; Kameo, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2010-08-01

    Simple and rapid analytical methods for radionuclides in low-level radioactive waste have been developed by the present authors. The methods were applied to simulated solidified products and actual metal wastes to confirm their usefulness. The results were summarized as analytical guide lines. In the present work, cement solidified product and ash waste were analyzed followed by the analytical guide lines and subjects were picked up and solved for the application of the analytical guide lines to these wastes. Pulverization and homogenization method for ash waste was improved to prevent a contamination since the radioactivity concentrations of the ash samples were relatively high. Pre-treatment method was altered for the cement solidified product and ash samples taking account for their high concentration of Ca. Newly, an analytical method was also developed to measure 129 I with a dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. In the analytical test based on the improved guide lines, gamma-ray emitting nuclides, 60 Co and 137 Cs, were measured to estimate the radioactivity of the other alpha and beta-ray emitting nuclides. The radionuclides assumed detectable, 3 H, 14 C, 36 Cl, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, and alpha-ray emitting nuclides, were analyzed with the improved analytical guide lines and their applicability for cement solidified product and ash samples were confirmed. Additionally a cement solidified product sample was evaluated in terms of the homogeneity and the radioactivity concentrations in order to prepare a reference material for radiochemical analysis. (author)

  1. Halogenated pesticide analysis in orange juice by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with "6"3Ni nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manhani, Kelly C.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O.V.; Mendes, Cristiana de A.; Lacerda, João P.A. de; Silva, Jorge L. da; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has been gain space in the market of orange juice in the last years. For the exportation of this product to keep growing, its quality of this product must be ensured by putting in force more strict legislations and custom barriers, in order to improve the well-being and health of the population. In this work were analyzed four orange juices brands produced in the State of São Paulo. It was quantified the acaricide known as Dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol) widely used to combat the Citrusleprosis virus, transmitted by mites to the citrus culture. This pesticide was chosen due to its importance in the production of orange in large scale and their indiscriminate use may pose risks to humans and of environment. The analytical technique applied was gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the "6"3Ni nuclide. This beta (β) radiation source ionizes the carrier gas (N_2), generating an electron current that forms the baseline. The analites pass through the detector and capture electrons, generating the analytical signal that is proportional to the concentration of analite. The sample preparation was done by QuEChERS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) found were 0.005 and 0.025 mg kg"-"1 respectively. The applied methodology was efficient and presented excellent analytical sensitivity for the pesticide Dicofol, being that of four samples analyzed, only in one was found concentration of 0.03 mg kg"-"1, above the LOQ, however below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) for fruits (0.1 mg kg"-"1) established by Codex alimentarius. (author)

  2. Halogenated pesticide analysis in orange juice by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with {sup 63}Ni nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhani, Kelly C.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O.V.; Mendes, Cristiana de A.; Lacerda, João P.A. de; Silva, Jorge L. da, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: kmanhani@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CQMA/IPEN-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Química e Meio Ambiente; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo (LAQ- CQuim/IPT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análises Químicas

    2017-11-01

    Brazil has been gain space in the market of orange juice in the last years. For the exportation of this product to keep growing, its quality of this product must be ensured by putting in force more strict legislations and custom barriers, in order to improve the well-being and health of the population. In this work were analyzed four orange juices brands produced in the State of São Paulo. It was quantified the acaricide known as Dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol) widely used to combat the Citrusleprosis virus, transmitted by mites to the citrus culture. This pesticide was chosen due to its importance in the production of orange in large scale and their indiscriminate use may pose risks to humans and of environment. The analytical technique applied was gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the {sup 63}Ni nuclide. This beta (β) radiation source ionizes the carrier gas (N{sub 2}), generating an electron current that forms the baseline. The analites pass through the detector and capture electrons, generating the analytical signal that is proportional to the concentration of analite. The sample preparation was done by QuEChERS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) found were 0.005 and 0.025 mg kg{sup -1} respectively. The applied methodology was efficient and presented excellent analytical sensitivity for the pesticide Dicofol, being that of four samples analyzed, only in one was found concentration of 0.03 mg kg{sup -1}, above the LOQ, however below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) for fruits (0.1 mg kg{sup -1}) established by Codex alimentarius. (author)

  3. Environmental sampling for trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Often too little attention is given to the sampling before and after actual instrumental measurement. This leads to errors, despite increasingly sensitive analytical systems. This is one of the first books to pay proper attention to representative sampling. It offers an overview of the most common techniques used today for taking environmental samples. The techniques are clearly presented, yield accurate and reproducible results and can be used to sample -air - water - soil and sediments - plants and animals. A comprehensive handbook, this volume provides an excellent starting point for researchers in the rapidly expanding field of environmental analysis. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of the gas outlets of the nuclear power plants relation between nuclides determined by gamma-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalik, J.

    2008-01-01

    The National Radiation Protection Institute is interested in the long-time study of the noble gases outlets of nuclear power plants. One of the causes of monitoring the gas outlet is independent assessment of the influence nuclear power plant on the environment. Result of this analysis confirms the correlation between 88 Kr and 85m Kr in all technological compartments. Except the internal flue of the first production unit, the high correlation coefficient was determined between 88 Kr - 135 Xe and 85m Kr - 135 Xe. The analysis presented by this paper suggests that the highest correlation coefficient was always reached between 88 Kr and 85 mKr. Its values approached to 1. Similar results were confirmed between 85m Kr - 135 Xe and 88 Kr - 1 35 Xe. As far as the ratio of the specific activity concerns, we found certain congruence between 2006 and 2007. (authors)

  5. Post-irradiation analysis of an ISOLDE lead-bismuth target: Stable and long-lived noble gas nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leya, I., E-mail: Ingo.Leya@space.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Grimberg, A. [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Isotope Geochemistry, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); David, J.-C. [CEA/Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Schumann, D.; Neuhausen, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 117, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Noah, E. [University of Geneva, Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    We measured the isotopic concentrations of long-lived and stable He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes in a sample from a lead-bismuth eutectic target irradiated with 1.0 and 1.4 GeV protons. Our data indicate for most noble gases nearly complete release with retention fractions in the range of percent or less. Higher retention fractions result from the decay of long-lived radioactive progenitors from groups 1, 2, or 7 of the periodic table. From the data we can calculate a retention fraction for {sup 3}H of 2–3%. For alkaline metals we find retention fractions of about 10%, 30%, and 50% for Na, Rb, and Cs, respectively. For the alkaline earth metal Ba we found complete retention. Finally, the measured Kr and Xe concentrations indicate that there was some release of the halogens Br and I during and/or after the irradiation.

  6. Decay and Transmutation of Nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Aarnio, Pertti A

    1999-01-01

    We present a computer code DeTra which solves analytically the Bateman equations governing the decay, build-up and transmutation of radionuclides. The complexity of the chains and the number of nuclides are not limited. The nuclide production terms considered include transmutation of the nuclides inside the chain, external production, and fission. Time dependent calculations are possible since all the production terms can be re-defined for each irradiation step. The number of irradiation steps and output times is unlimited. DeTra is thus able to solve any decay and transmutation problem as long as the nuclear data i.e. decay data and production rates, or cross sections, are known.

  7. Process and device for monitoring active and highly active liquids for specific nuclides, particularly in the primary coolant of boiling water and pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paffrath; Haag; Hanstein, W.

    1986-01-01

    The invention provides for a direct continuous measurement of amounts of activity or concentration and the automatic execution of analysis cycles for specific nuclides, which occur depending on the continuously determined total gamma value. The continuously determined total gamma values in a first measuring circuit are used to decide the frequency of sampling, the volume of samples, the measuring times, the doses of separating chemicals and the sample remnants. These parameters are provided for the control of the execution of an analysis cycle for specific nuclides occurring in a second measuring circuit. (orig./HP) [de

  8. GET electronics samples data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovinazzo, J.; Goigoux, T.; Anvar, S.; Baron, P.; Blank, B.; Delagnes, E.; Grinyer, G.F.; Pancin, J.; Pedroza, J.L.; Pibernat, J.; Pollacco, E.; Rebii, A.

    2016-01-01

    The General Electronics for TPCs (GET) has been developed to equip a generation of time projection chamber detectors for nuclear physics, and may also be used for a wider range of detector types. The goal of this paper is to propose first analysis procedures to be applied on raw data samples from the GET system, in order to correct for systematic effects observed on test measurements. We also present a method to estimate the response function of the GET system channels. The response function is required in analysis where the input signal needs to be reconstructed, in terms of time distribution, from the registered output samples.

  9. Quartz analysis in gravimetric sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rex, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the methods employed in the assessment of quartz exposure is provided. The principles and some of the problems associated with each method is discussed. The methods reviewed include wet chemical methods, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption of which the latter two methods are deemed appropriate for analysing quartz on personal gravimetric collected samples. The implications of combining area samples collected over a six month period, and performing only a single quartz analysis rather than separate analyses, are considered. Finally, various options open to mines with regard to their involvement with quartz analysis are also briefly discussed. 35 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Determination of gold and silver in geological standard samples MGI by instrument neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Huijiuan; Zhou; Yunlu

    1987-01-01

    Gold and silver in geological standard samples MGI were determined by instrument neutron activation analysis. The various interferences of nuclides were considered. Corrected factors of the geometry in different positions have been determined. Using the geological standard sample MGM and radiochemical separation neutron activation method as reference, the reliability of this method is proved. Gold content in samples is 0.4-0.009 g/t, silver content is 9-0.3 g/t. Standard deviation is less than 3.5%, the precision of the measurement is 4.8-11.6%

  11. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, Tor

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered

  12. Nuclides for radiotherapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, R.Y.; Blattmann, H.

    1986-02-01

    With the emergence of new, biological vehicles of great organ specificity (e.g. steroid hormones, antibodies) the concept of systemic tumor therapy with the aid of radiotherapeutica has gained new momentum. In order to assess the options open for optimal adaptation of the radiation properties to the pharmacocinetics of a vehicle, a search was done to identify potentially useful therapeutic radionuclides. Main criteria for selection were half life, low gamma-yield and stable daughter nuclide. The resulting possibilities fall into 4 categories: 1) alpha-emitters (At-211); 2) beta/sup -/-emitters that can be prepared in a carrierfree fashion (P-32, S-35, As-77, Y-90, Ag-111, Pm-149, Tb-161, Lu-177), 3) beta/sup -/-emitters with carrier added (Pd-109, Pr-142, Gd-159, Er-169, Tm-172, Yb-175, Re-188, Ir-194, Pt-197) and 4) electron capture nuclides, emitting Auger-cascades (Cr-51, Ga-67, Ge-71, Br-77, Ru-97, Sb-119, I-123, Cs-129, Nd-140, Er-165, Ta-177, Hg-197, Tl-201). Among the 4th group some well known, diagnostically used nuclides are found. Their therapeutic use necessitates the precise localisation in or very near the genetic material of the cell to be killed; only there the destructive power of the very short range Auger-electrons can be used. For each of the selected nuclides a summary of decay data, possibilities of preparation and chemical reactivity for labelling of vehicles is given. (author)

  13. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  14. Transuranium analysis methodologies for biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessman, R.A.; Lee, K.D.; Curry, B.; Leventhal, L.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the most abundant transuranium nuclides in the environment (i.e., plutonium and, to a lesser extent, americium) are available. There is a lack of procedures for doing sequential analysis for Np, Pu, Am, and Cm in environmental samples, primarily because of current emphasis on Pu and Am. Reprocessing requirements and waste disposal connected with the fuel cycle indicate that neptunium and curium must be considered in environmental radioactive assessments. Therefore it was necessary to develop procedures that determine all four of these radionuclides in the environment. The state of the art of transuranium analysis methodology as applied to environmental samples is discussed relative to different sample sources, such as soil, vegetation, air, water, and animals. Isotope-dilution analysis with 243 Am ( 239 Np) and 236 Pu or 242 Pu radionuclide tracers is used. Americium and curium are analyzed as a group, with 243 Am as the tracer. Sequential extraction procedures employing bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)orthophosphoric acid (HDEHP) were found to result in lower yields and higher Am--Cm fractionation than ion-exchange methods

  15. XRF analysis of mineralised samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedali, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Software now supplied by instrument manufacturers has made it practical and convenient for users to analyse unusual samples routinely. Semiquantitative scanning software can be used for rapid preliminary screening of elements ranging from Carbon to Uranium, prior to assigning mineralised samples to an appropriate quantitative analysis routine. The general quality and precision of analytical results obtained from modern XRF spectrometers can be significantly enhanced by several means: a. Modifications in preliminary sample preparation can result in less contamination from crushing and grinding equipment. Optimised techniques of actual sample preparation can significantly increase precision of results. b. Employment of automatic data recording balances and the use of catch weights during sample preparation reduces technician time as well as weighing errors. * c. Consistency of results can be improved significantly by the use of appropriate stable drift monitors with a statistically significant content of the analyte d. A judicious selection of kV/mA combinations, analysing crystals, primary beam filters, collimators, peak positions, accurate background correction and peak overlap corrections, followed by the use of appropriate matrix correction procedures. e. Preventative maintenance procedures for XRF spectrometers and ancillary equipment, which can also contribute significantly to reducing instrument down times, are described. Examples of various facets of sample processing routines are given from the XRF spectrometer component of a multi-instrument analytical university facility, which provides XRF data to 17 Canadian universities. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  16. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soti, Zsolt [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond [Nucleonica GmbH, c/o European Commission, Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  17. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  18. Water hyacinth : the suitable aquatic weed for radioactive nuclide absorption in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalermsuk, Somporn; Jungpattanawadee, Komgrid; Tongrong, Thanachai

    2003-06-01

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by aquatic weeds in Khon Kaen Province. The best aquatic weed would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities in natural water resources. Seven kinds of aquatic weeds in the same site were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450 οC. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of aquatic weeds. According to this study, water hyacinth, from seven aquatic weeds, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The water hyacinth with 30 cm leaves in length can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  19. Sampling methodology and PCB analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominelli, N.

    1995-01-01

    As a class of compounds PCBs are extremely stable and resist chemical and biological decomposition. Diluted solutions exposed to a range of environmental conditions will undergo some preferential degradation and the resulting mixture may differ considerably from the original PCB used as insulating fluid in electrical equipment. The structure of mixtures of PCBs (synthetic compounds prepared by direct chlorination of biphenyl with chlorine gas) is extremely complex and presents a formidable analytical problem, further complicated by the presence of PCBs as contaminants in oils to soils to water. This paper provides some guidance into sampling and analytical procedures; it also points out various potential problems encountered during these processes. The guidelines provided deal with sample collection, storage and handling, sample stability, laboratory analysis (usually gas chromatography), determination of PCB concentration, calculation of total PCB content, and quality assurance. 1 fig

  20. Multielemental analysis of milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Al-Dayel; Jameel Al-Hefne; Didarul A Chowdhury; Turki Al-Ajyan

    2002-01-01

    Milk is a basic food since it provides essential nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals, Vitamins, enzymes). In fact, in formula milk essential elements have been usually added in order to satisfy nutritional requirements. However, too high additions of these elements can produce detrimental effects on human health. More important, milk can also constitute a source of exposure to toxic elements, especially dangerous for infants. Method is presented for the multielemental analysis of a wide range of elements in milk samples. The aim of this work is the development of a multielemental method for the analysis of major, minor and trace essential and toxic elements in milk. Several milk samples with different origins were collected from the Saudi Arabia markets and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). For preparation of the samples for analysis, they were digested by closed vessel microwave digestion system with H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 . About 40 elements were determined. A reference material was analysed for the validation of the proposed method. (Author)

  1. International chart of the nuclides. 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golashvili, T.V.; Kupriyanov, V.M.; Lbov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The International Chart of Nuclides - 2001 has been developed taking into account the data obtained in 1998-2001. Unlike widespread nuclide charts the present Chart of Nuclides contains EVALUATED values of the main characteristics. These values are supplied with the standard deviations. (author)

  2. Development of detection method for individual environmental particles containing alpha radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Konomi; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial radioactive nuclides have been emitted from various sources and have fallen on the surface of the earth as fine particles. Although the characterization of the individual fallout particles is very important, their analysis is difficult. The purpose of this study is to develop a new detection method for individual objective particles containing radioactive nuclides in the environment. The soil or sediment sample was confined in a plastic film and the locations of objective particles were identified with alpha tracks created in a solid-state detectors (BARYOTRAK, Fukuvi Chemical, Ltd) stuck to the both sides of the plastic film. A piece of the film containing the objective particle was cut with a nitrogen laser for following individual particle analysis. This procedure allowed us to detect the objective particle from innumerable number of particles in the environment and characterize the individual particles. (author)

  3. Nuclides and isotopes. Twelfth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This explanatory booklet was designed to be used with the Chart of the Nuclides. It contains a brief history of the atomic theory of matter: ancient speculations, periodic properties of elements (Mendeleev table), radioactivity, early models of atomic structure, the Bohr atom, quantum numbers, nature of isotopes, artificial radioactivity, and neutron fission. Information on the pre-Fermi (natural) nuclear reactor at Oklo and the search for superheavy elements is given. The booklet also discusses information presented on the Chart and its coding: stable nuclides, metastable states, data display and color, isotopic abundances, neutron cross sections, spins and parities, fission yields, half-life variability, radioisotope power and production data, radioactive decay chains, and elements without names. The Periodic Table of the Elements is appended. 3 figures, 3 tables

  4. Sampling and Analysis for Assessment of Body Burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1964-01-01

    A review of sampling criteria and techniques and of sample processing methods for indirect assessment of body burdens is presented. The text is limited to the more recent developments in the field of bioassay and to the nuclides which cannot be readily determined in the body directly. A selected bibliography is included. The planning of a bioassay programme should emphasize the detection of high or unusual exposures and the concentrated study of these cases when detected. This procedure gives the maximum amount of data for the dosimetry of individuals at risk and also adds to our scientific background for an understanding of internal emitters. Only a minimum of effort should be spent on sampling individuals having had negligible exposure. The chemical separation procedures required for bioassay also fall into two categories. The first is the rapid method, possibly of low accuracy, used for detection. The second is the more accurate method required for study of the individual after detection of the exposure. Excretion, whether exponential or a power function, drops off rapidly. It is necessary to locate the exposure in time before any evaluation can be made, even before deciding if the exposure is significant. One approach is frequent sampling and analysis by a quick screening technique. More commonly, samples are collected at longer intervals and an arbitrary level of re-sampling is set to assist in the detection of real exposures. It is probable that too much bioassay effort has gone into measurements on individuals at low risk and not enough on those at higher risk. The development of bioassay procedures for overcoming this problem has begun, and this paper emphasizes this facet of sampling and sample processing. (author) [fr

  5. Chemical concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide from solutions with low salt background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, Yu.S.; Ter-Akop'yan, G.M.; Popeko, A.G.; Drobina, T.P.; Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experiments on further concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide, the concentrates of which form the Cheleken geothermal brines have been obtained, are presented. The conclusions are drown about the chemical nature of a new spontaneously fissionable nuclide. It is a chalcophile element which copreipitates with sulphides of copper, lead, arsenic and mercury from weakly acid solutions. The behaviour of the new nuclide in sulphide systems in many respects is similar to the behaviour of polonium, astatine and probably of bismuth. The most probable stable valence of the new nuclide varies from +1 up to +3. The data available on the chemical behaviour of the new nuclide as well as the analysis over contamination by spontaneously fissionable isotopes permit to state that the new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide does not relate to the known isotopes

  6. Constraining local subglacial bedrock erosion rates with cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig, Christian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Reitner, Jürgen; Reindl, Martin; Bichler, Mathias; Vockenhuber, Christof; Akcar, Naki; Schlüchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The constant buildup of cosmogenic nuclides, most prominently 10Be, in exposed rock surfaces is routinely employed for dating various landforms such as landslides or glacial moraines. One fundamental assumption is that no cosmogenic nuclides were initially present in the rock, before the event to be dated. In the context of glacially formed landscapes it is commonly assumed that subglacial erosion of at least a few meters of bedrock during the period of ice coverage is sufficient to remove any previously accumulated nuclides, since the production of 10Be ceases at a depth of 2-3 m. Insufficient subglacial erosion leads to overestimation of surface exposure ages. If the time since the retreat of the glacier is known, however, a discordant concentration of cosmogenic nuclides delivers information about the depth of subglacial erosion. Here we present data from proglacial bedrock at two sites in the Alps. Goldbergkees in the Hohe Tauern National Park in Austria and Gruebengletscher in the Grimsel Pass area in Switzerland. Samples were taken inside as well as outside of the glaciers' Little Ice Age extent. Measured nuclide concentrations are analyzed with the help of a MATLAB model simulating periods of exposure or glacial cover of user-definable length and erosion rates.

  7. Determination of traces of lithium in biological, environmental and metal samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.Y.; Tseng, C.L.; Lo, J.M.; Yang, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Lithium in environmental, biological and metal samples was determined by neutron activation analysis via the 6 Li(n,α)T and 16 O(T,n) 18 F reactions. The samples were converted to aqueous solutions either by dissolution or by digestion and their aliquots were irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 2 h. The irradiated sample solution, was placed in a ZrO 2 column on which the 18 F nuclide was adsorbed. Most of the coexisting nuclides 24 Na, 82 Br, 38 Cl, 64 Cu, etc. were separated by elution with pH 1proportional3 solution. The column was subjected to a Ge(Li) detector for γ-ray spectrometry. The lithium content in the sample was estimated from the 18 F activity obtained. The matrix effect can be eliminated by either strong dilution of the samples in aqueous medium or by the method of standard addition. Lithium can be determined with high precision and accuracy in sub-ppm samples. (orig.) [de

  8. [Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment--distribution and behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb originated from fallout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, A; Miyagawa, N; Miyanaga, N

    1984-07-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95Zr and 95Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis.

  9. Simultaneous determination of actinide and strontium nuclides by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.

    1999-01-01

    A relatively fast and simple separation procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and strontium radionuclides. Most of the isotopes of these elements are long-lived, pure alpha and beta emitters regarded as 'difficult to determine' ones in the literature. Our major goal was to develop a combined procedure capable for the analysis of all these nuclides in the same sample aliquot so that correlations can be revealed without the errors arising due to inhomogeneity of samples when the radionuclides are determined from different sub-samples. The combined procedure has the advantage that sample destruction becomes simpler and faster, too. The chemical procedure consists of co-precipitations for the pre-concentration of groups of chemically similar elements and extraction chromatographic separations for the purification of individual elements. By means of pre-concentration relatively big samples can be treated offering the possibility of low activity measurements that cannot be performed by analysing small sample amounts. Pre-concentration techniques were always chosen in order to improve the selectivity of the following separation steps. (authors)

  10. Measurements of transuranium nuclides in the environment at the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Gessellschaft fuer Strehlen-und Umweltforschung mbH, Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Work on environmental transuranium nuclides at the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen-und Umweltforschung mbH, Munich, is briefly described and standard needs are discussed. Fallout plutonium measurements in air dust and precipitation samples started in 1970/1971. The procedure is outlined and results are presented as annual mean and sum values, respectively. Since 1973, transuranium nuclides in primary coolant, stack effluent air and waste-water samples from nuclear power stations are measured. Nuclides detected are 239 240 Pu, 238 Pu and/or 241 Am, 242 Cm and 244 Cm. Examples of alpha particle spectra are given. Needs for standards in environmental transuranium analysis are discussed. (author)

  11. Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-L.; Light, W.B.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-temperature dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs

  12. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  13. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, S.; Sihombing, E.; Hamzah, A.; Rochidi; Hery, P.S.; Hartaman, S.; Iman, J.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  14. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion.

  15. Venus Suface Sampling and Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort is developing the technology to transfer particulate samples from a Venus drill (being developed by Honeybee Robotics in a Phase 2 Small Business...

  16. Measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Meteorites are rocks and pieces of iron-nickel alloy which fall to earth from time to time. They were formed about 4.6 billion years ago when our solar system was started. Thus it has been said that meteorites are the Rosetta stones of our solar system. We use the long-lived radioactive nuclides produced by cosmic ray bombardment, to study the history of the meteorites and also the history of the cosmic rays. When we have these historical facts in our hads, we hope we will be able to understand better how the solar system works, and how it got started. We can also learn more about the nature and origin of the cosmic rays. The accelerator mass spectrometry method helps not only reduce sample size, in most cases by two or three orders of magnitude, but opens another set of cosmogenic nuclides which have not been measured yet. Already 10 Be (t/sub 1/2 = 1.6 x 10 6 y), 36 Cl (3.0 x 10 5 y) and 129 I (1.6 x 10 7 y) in meteorites have been measured by accelerator mass spectrometry [3, 4, 7, 10]. Possible new candidates for measurement in extraterrestrial materials are 26 Al (7.2 x 10 5 y), 41 Ca (1.3 x 10 5 y), 60 Fe (approx. 10 5 y) and 59 Ni (7.6 x 10 4 y). We hope also to measure 146 Sm (1.0 x 10 8 y) and 92 Nb

  17. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a reference inhomogeneous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, T.; Athens National Technical University, Athens; Tzika, F.; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark experiment was performed for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of a large inhomogeneous sample. The reference sample was developed in-house and consisted of SiO 2 matrix and an Al-Zn alloy 'inhomogeneity' body. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to derive appropriate correction factors for neutron self-shielding during irradiation as well as self-attenuation of gamma rays and sample geometry during counting. The large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) results were compared against reference values and the trueness of the technique was evaluated. An agreement within ±10% was observed between LSNAA and reference elemental mass values, for all matrix and inhomogeneity elements except Samarium, provided that the inhomogeneity body was fully simulated. However, in cases that the inhomogeneity was treated as not known, the results showed a reasonable agreement for most matrix elements, while large discrepancies were observed for the inhomogeneity elements. This study provided a quantification of the uncertainties associated with inhomogeneity in large sample analysis and contributed to the identification of the needs for future development of LSNAA facilities for analysis of inhomogeneous samples. (author)

  18. A nuclear data library for activity determinations of selected nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baard, J.H.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the GAMLIB 1-5 library, which is used in the calculation of the activity of radionuclides present in the gamma-ray spectra of irradiated neutron fluence detectors. The library contains all constants needed to calculate the activity for reactions normally applied in neutron fluence determinations, performed in irradiation experiments in the HFR. It also contains the nuclide constants for the activity calculation of gamma-ray measurements of U and Pu samples. The library consists of two kinds of tables, the first containing gamma-ray energies and gamma-ray emission probabilities with their uncertainties and the nuclide code, the other the nuclide code, decay constant, gamma -ray energies and gamma-ray emission probabilities. No cross-section data are stored in this library. All the relevant dat of the Nuclear Data Guide (Dordrecht, Kluwer 1989) have been used as base for this library. Other data have been obtained from recent literature. This library comprises 155 nuclides and 1115 gamma-ray energies. (author). 9 refs

  19. Comparative analysis of metal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Sandoval J, A.R.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Metal wastes were analysed to establish its origin with respect to a set of pieces. The elemental analysis was realized using the PIXE technique (Proton induced X-ray emission). Results are presented. (Author)

  20. Automated sample analysis and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Settle, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation Project is developing an automated chemical analysis system to address the current needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). These needs focus on the remediation of large amounts of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored, buried and still being processed at numerous DOE sites. This paper outlines the advantages of the system under development, and details the hardware and software design. A prototype system for characterizing polychlorinated biphenyls in soils is also described

  1. Elemental analysis in bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, N.I.; Hossain, S.M.; Basunia, S.; Miah, R.U.; Rahman, M.; Sikder, D.H.; Chowdhury, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of rare earths and other elements have been determined in the bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples and the standards soil-5, soil-7, coal fly ash and pond sediment were prepared and simultaneously irradiated for short and long time at the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor facility of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka. The maximum thermal neutron flux was of the order of 10 13 n x cm -2 x s -1 . After irradiation the radioactivity of the product nuclides was measured by using a high resolution high purity germanium detector system. Analysis of γ-ray spectra and quantitative analysis of the elemental concentration were done via the software GANAAS. It has been possible to determine the concentration level of 27 elements including the rare earths La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb and uranium and thorium. (author)

  2. Programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae and ashing analysis: A decrement solution for nuclide and heavy metal disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingxue [Life Science and Engineering College, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Dong, Faqin, E-mail: fqdong@swust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Nie, Xiaoqin [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Sun, Shiyong [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Wei, Hongfu; Luo, Lang; Xiang, Sha; Zhang, Gege [Life Science and Engineering College, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A programmed gradient descent biosorption process was designed. • The adsorption and bioaccumulation quantity of strontium ions by yeast cell were measured. • The decrement of biosorbents after biosorption by ashing was analyzed. • A technological flow process of decrement solution for waste disposal was proposed. - Abstract: One of the waste disposal principles is decrement. The programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae regarding bioremoval and ashing process for decrement were studied in present research. The results indicated that S. cerevisiae cells showed valid biosorption for strontium ions with greater than 90% bioremoval efficiency for high concentration strontium ions under batch culture conditions. The S. cerevisiae cells bioaccumulated approximately 10% of strontium ions in the cytoplasm besides adsorbing 90% strontium ions on cell wall. The programmed gradient descent biosorption presented good performance with a nearly 100% bioremoval ratio for low concentration strontium ions after 3 cycles. The ashing process resulted in a huge volume and weight reduction ratio as well as enrichment for strontium in the ash. XRD results showed that SrSO{sub 4} existed in ash. Simulated experiments proved that sulfate could adjust the precipitation of strontium ions. Finally, we proposed a technological flow process that combined the programmed gradient descent biosorption and ashing, which could yield great decrement and allow the supernatant to meet discharge standard. This technological flow process may be beneficial for nuclides and heavy metal disposal treatment in many fields.

  3. Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis of Heterogeneous Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Tzika, F.

    2018-01-01

    A Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) technique was developed for non-destructive analysis of heterogeneous bulk samples. The technique incorporated collimated scanning and combining experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations for the identification of inhomogeneities in large volume samples and the correction of their effect on the interpretation of gamma-spectrometry data. Corrections were applied for the effect of neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation, geometrical factor and heterogeneous activity distribution within the sample. A benchmark experiment was performed to investigate the effect of heterogeneity on the accuracy of LSNAA. Moreover, a ceramic vase was analyzed as a whole demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. The LSNAA results were compared against results obtained by INAA and a satisfactory agreement between the two methods was observed. This study showed that LSNAA is a technique capable to perform accurate non-destructive, multi-elemental compositional analysis of heterogeneous objects. It also revealed the great potential of the technique for the analysis of precious objects and artefacts that need to be preserved intact and cannot be damaged for sampling purposes. (author)

  4. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  5. Chemical analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the analytical methodology used in geochemical exploration has been based on molecular absorption, atomic absorption, and ICP-AES, ICPMAS etc. Detection limit and precision are factors in the choice of methodology in search of metallic ores and are related to the accuracy of data. A brief outline of the various chemical analysis techniques explaining essentially the basics of measurement principles and instrumentation is discussed

  6. Platinum determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis with special reference to the spectral interference of Sc-47 on the platinum indicator nuclide Au-199

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfassi, Z.B.; Probst, T.U.; Rietz, B.

    1998-01-01

    A method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is developed for the determination of platinum by the Au-199 daughter of Pt-199 in the presence of the spectral interference from the Sc-47 daughter of Ca-47. The contributions of the Pt and Ca signals to the integral 157-161 keV peak we...... separated by calculating the number of disintegrations due to the Sc-47 from the signal of her parent Ca-47 at 1297.1 keV gamma-ray. The method was used to calculate the trace concentrations of Pt in air samples, collected on filters, (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  7. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  8. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Projected development of nuclear power up to the year 2000 entails a substantial increase in the number of nuclear power reactors, of irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and of various other supporting facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this period, transuranium elements, especially plutonium, will be produced in substantial quantities as by-products of the fission process and for use as fuel in present and future nuclear power reactors; these elements will have other peaceful applications as well. Growing world-wide interest and a natural desire to protect man and his environment have led to increasing concern in public, scientific and governmental sectors about the, release of such radionuclides into the environment. Although releases of transuranium nuclides from existing nuclear facilities can be controlled to very low levels, it is essential, in view of their long half-lives and high relative radiotoxicities, that their fate in the environment be understood well enough to permit associated potential impacts to be assessed and hence effective control to be provided. Extensive studies for many years have investigated the distribution and behaviour of these elements and potential detriments resulting from their release to the environment. More recently, scientists have begun to make projections for evaluating the degree of control necessary if such materials are to enter the complex chain of commercial activities associated with nuclear power production

  9. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklidinventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortman, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrale Technisch-Wissenschaftliche Betriebseinheit Radiochemie Muenchen (RCM)

    2014-01-15

    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  12. Radioactive nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kaoru; Hoshi, Michio.

    1993-09-01

    There are several radioactive nuclides in the living environment, such as those existing since the creation of the earth, those coming from experimental nuclear explosions, and radiations of the cosmic rays. A lesson on these radioactive nuclides was considered useful for understanding the place of nuclear technology, and have been made on the title of 'Radioactive Nuclides in the Living Environment' in the general course of the Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. When the curriculum of the general course was modified in 1993, the lesson was left in a changed form. Thus, the textbook of the lesson is presented in this report. The contents are natural and artificial radioactive nuclides in the living environment and where they have come from etc. (author)

  13. Local tissue distribution of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Conventional tissue-section autoradiography of alpha-emitting actinide elements may require prohibitively long exposure times. Neutron-induced or fission-track autoradiography can be used for fissile nuclides such as 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu to circumvent this difficulty. The detection limit for these nuclides is about 4 x 10 -13 (weight fraction). This paper describes a specific technique for determining their microdistribution with histologically stained tissue sections

  14. Radiochemical analysis of phosphorus in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk samples in a perchloric acid and nitric acid mixture, addition of zinc hold-back carrier, precipitation of phosphorus as ammonium phospho molybdate (A.M.P.) and sample counting in a Geiger-Mueller detector. The analysis sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to phosphorus analyses in commercial milk samples. (author)

  15. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  16. Completely non-destructive elemental analysis of bulky samples by PGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oura, Y.; Nakahara, H.; Sueki, K.; Sato, W.; Tomizawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    A new non-destructive method is proposed for the elemental analysis of bulk samples. It is essentially a combination of PGA and NAA by a single neutron irradiation, and allows determinations of elemental contents of both major and minor constituents relative to that of some reference element. Major elements and some trace elements such as B, Sm, and Gd are mostly determined by the measurement of prompt gamma rays emitted when a bulky sample in its original form, namely, without any reduction of the sample size, is placed in the beam of neutrons guided from a nuclear reactor. Minor elements are then determined by the off-line measurements of gamma rays emitted from the radioactive nuclides produced within the sample by neutron capture reactions. As the radioactivity remaining in the sample becomes negligibly small after a few weeks cooling, the proposed method will be most usefully applied for the elemental analysis of bulky precious samples such as archaeological samples, and arts and crafts. In this presentation, applicability of the method will be demonstrated for porcelain and bronze samples. (author)

  17. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Zilliacus, R.; Kaistila, M.

    1983-06-01

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  19. Analysis of the radioactive aerosols sampled with Lepestok respirators during work in the Chernobyl' NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, L.I.; Polevov, V.N.; Borisov, N.B.; Basmanov, P.I.

    1989-01-01

    Aerosols sampled with Lepestok type respirators in the Chernobyl' NPP region following the accident were analysed by gamma-spectroscopic and optical-radiographic methods and nuclide ratio of the aerosol sediment after respirators usage were determined. Parameters of the sampled gamma-active aerosol particles were obtained. ref. 1; tabs. 3

  20. Nuclides 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides on CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Nuclides 2000' software package is an electronic chart of the nuclides, available on CD-ROM for Microsoft Windows operating systems, which offers extensive basic information on physics and radiology of the familiar nuclides. Moreover, 'Nuclides 2000' contains codes for a number of applications which allow the required data to be computed quickly and reliably by means of interactive user guidance. The data and codes are supplemented by information in the format of contributions on the history of radioactivity and radiochemistry, and on subjects of interest in physics, such as C-14 dating and the generation of Ti-44 in a supernova, and by a link collection of Internet addresses. As a detailed database, 'Nuclides 2000' can be used for teaching, research, and for practical applications. (orig.) [de

  1. Nitrate Waste Treatment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Terrence Kerwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-05

    This plan is designed to outline the collection and analysis of nitrate salt-bearing waste samples required by the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (Permit).

  2. The MacNuclide nuclear data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Advance in technology have produced intriguing tools that can be applied to problems in nuclear science. Information management in nuclear science is an example of how technology is not quickly exploited. The U.S. Department of Energy supports an extensive program to evaluate published nuclear properties and store them in an electronic data base. Much of the evaluation effort has focused on producing the journal Nuclear Data Sheets and the publication Table of Isotopes. Although the electronic data base can itself be a valuable source of information, the software used to access is was designed using decades-old technologies. The authors of this paper have developed a novel data-base management system for nuclear properties. The application is known as MacNuclide. It is a nuclear data-base environment that uses the highly interactive and intuitive windowing environmentsof desk-top computers. The environment is designed around that image of the chart of nuclides. Questions are posed to the data base by placing constraints on properties and defining collections of nuclides to be used in data-base seraches. Results are displayed either as a simple list of nuclides that meet the imposed constraints or as a color chart of nuclides

  3. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru

    1981-09-01

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3 He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  4. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data...

  5. Preparation of tracing source layer in simulation test of nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yingjie; Ni Shiwei; Li Weijuan; Yamamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Komiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI on safety assessment for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive waste, a laboratory simulation test of nuclide migration was carried out, in which the undisturbed loess soil column sampled from CIRP' s field test site was used as testing material, three nuclides, Sr-85, Cs-137 and Co-60 were used as tracers. Special experiment on tracing method was carried out, which included measuring pH value of quartz sand in HCl solution, determining the eligible water content of quartz sand as tracer carrier, measuring distribution uniformity of nuclides in the tracing quartz sand, determining elution rate of nuclides from the tracing quartz sand and detecting activity uniformity of tracing source layer. The experiment results showed that the tracing source layer, in which fine quartz sand was used as tracer carrier, satisfied expected requirement. (1 fig.)

  6. Uranium-233 analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, R.A.; Ballou, J.E.; Case, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two liquid scintillation techniques were compared for 233 U analysis: a two-phase extraction system (D2EHPA) developed by Keough and Powers, 1970, for Pu analysis; and a single-phase emulsion system (TT21) that holds the total sample in suspension with the scintillator. The first system (D2EHPA) was superior in reducing background (two- to threefold) and in accommodating a larger sample volume (fivefold). Samples containing > 50 mg/ml of slats were not extracted quantitatively by D2EHPA

  7. Utilizing Monte-Carlo radiation transport and spallation cross sections to estimate nuclide dependent scaling with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J.

    2010-12-01

    possible sampling altitude), the apparent attenuation lengths become 171 g/cm2, 174 g/cm2 and 165 g/cm2 respectively, a difference of +/-5%. Based on this preliminary data, there may be up to 6% error in production rate scaling. Proton spallation is a small, yet important component of spallation events. This data will be also be presented along with the neutron results. While the differences between attenuation length for individual nuclides are small at sea-level, they are systematic and exacerbate with altitude. Until now, there has been no numeric analysis of this phenomenon, therefore the global scaling schemes for CNs have been missing an aspect of physics critical for achieving close agreement between empiric calibration data and physics based models. [1] T. J. Dunai, "Cosmogenic Nuclides: Principles, Concepts and Applications in the Earth Surface Sciences", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010 [2] D. Lal, Annual Rev of Earth Planet Sci, 1988, p355-388 [3] J. Gosse and F. Phillips, Quaternary Science Rev, 2001, p1475-1560 [4] F. Phillips et al.,(Proposal to the National Science Foundation), 2003 [5] K. Nishiizumi etal., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009, p2163-2176 [6] R. C. Reedy, personal com.

  8. Forensic analysis of a smuggled HEU sample interdicted in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Hutcheon, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A sample of HEU was seized in Rousse, Bulgaria on May 29, 1999, at a border crossing between Bulgaria and Romania. A search of the suspect's vehicle uncovered a lead canister hidden in the car trunk. The initial examination of the contents by Bulgarian scientists indicated that the sample was indeed HEU, and subsequently arrangements were made for a U.S. team of nuclear forensics scientists from several national laboratories to conduct a thorough examination. This report gives a summary of the results. The HEU sample was contained in a glass ampoule that was embedded in a yellow wax, and in turn the wax filled the inside of the cylindrical lead container. A broad set of techniques was used to examine both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Our general experimental approach has been previously described at meetings of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG), but this case represents the application of the most diverse set of nuclear forensic measurements for an actual seized sample. Analysis of the HEU itself included particle characterization, stoichiometry, impurity elements, residual nuclides, age-dating, and U and Pu isotopics. Measurements by XRD, SEM, and TEM show that sample is mostly U3O8, with minor amounts of two other phases. The powder is extremely fine-grained (160 nm mean) and quite uniform in size. Most grains (95%) are equidimensional, with the remainder rod-or plate-shaped. The U is 72.7% U-235 with a high U-236 abundance of 12.1%. The sample is reprocessed, reactor-irradiated material. The original U enrichment was 90% and the irradiation burned up about 50% of the initial U-235. Pu is present at a very low-level (3 ppb); the Pu-239 abundance is 82% with 240/239=0.12. Three fission products were detected at low levels, giving unambiguous evidence of fuel recycling. The total impurity content is about 600 ppmw (mostly S, Cl, Fe, and Br), which we interpret as indicating a batch processing operation because the

  9. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  10. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of 241 Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the 241 Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for 244 Cm analysis

  11. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Board issued Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) which noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In response, the US Department of Energy, in May 1996, issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan's objectives, concentrating on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks for near term core sampling and analysis, which along with sampling and analysis of other non-High Priority tanks, could provide the scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and.measure safety related phenomenology of the waste. When the analysis results of the High Priority and other-tank sampling were reviewed, it was expected that a series of 12 questions, 9 related to safety issues and 3 related to planning for the disposal process, should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. This report discusses the execution of the Implementation Plan and the results achieved in addressing the questions. Through sampling and analysis, all nine safety related questions have been answered and extensive data for the three disposal planning related questions have been collected, allowing for key decision making. Many more tanks than the original 28 High Priority tanks identified in the Implementation Plan were sampled and analyzed. Twenty-one High Priority tanks and 85 other tanks were core sampled and used to address the questions. Thirty-eight additional tanks were auger

  12. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  13. Soil nuclide distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Beals, D.I.; Thibault, D.H.; O'Connor, P.

    1984-12-01

    Environmental assessments of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analysis of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the disposal vault, the buffer and backfill, the plutonic rock, and the consolidated and unconsolidated overburden use models requiring distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the geological and man-made materials. This report presents element-specific soil distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions, based on a detailed survey of the literature. Radioactive elements considered were actinium, americium, bismuth, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, iodine, lead, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, plutonium, polonium, protactinium, radium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, terbium, thorium, tin, uranium and zirconium. Stable elements considered were antimony, boron, cadmium, tellurium and zinc. Where sufficient data were available, distribution coefficients and their distributions are given for sand, silt, clay and organic soils. Our values are recommended for use in assessments for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  14. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  15. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1; Nuklidinventariet i SFR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered.

  16. Determination of uranium and thorium by neutron activation analysis applied to fossil samples dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Kinoshita, Angela; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-01-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating is based on the fact that ionizing radiation can create stable free radicals in insulating materials, like tooth enamel and bones. The concentration of these radicals - determined by ESR - is a function of the dose deposed in the sample along the years. The accumulated dose of radiation, called Archaeological Dose, is produced by the exposition to environmental radiation provided by U, Th, K and cosmic rays. If the environmental dose rate in the site where the fossil sample is found is known, it is possible to convert this dose into the age of the sample. The annual dose rate coming from the radioactive elements present in the soil and in the sample itself can be calculated by determining the U, Th and K concentration. Therefore, the determination of the dose rate depends on the concentration of these main radioactive elements. Neutron Activation Analysis has the sensitivity and the accuracy necessary to determine U, Th and K with this objective. Depending on the composition of the sample, the determination of U and Th can be improved irradiating the sample inside a Cd capsule, reducing the thermal neutron incidence on the sample and, therefore, diminishing the activation of possible interfering nuclides. In this study the optimal irradiation and counting conditions were established for U and Th determination in fossil teeth and soil. (author)

  17. Isotope dilution analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.; Korenova, Z.; Klas, J.; Klehr, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis has been used for the determination of several trace elements - especially metals - in a variety of environmental samples, including aerosols, water, soils, biological materials and geological materials. Variations of the basic concept include classical IDA, substoichiometric IDA, and more recently, sub-superequivalence IDA. Each variation has its advantages and limitations. A periodic chart has been used to identify those elements which have been measured in environmental samples using one or more of these methods. (author)

  18. Chart of the nuclides - Strasbourg 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Data were compiled for a nuclide chart over the last two years. The compilation is complete to the end of September 1990. The chart includes about 30000 data. Decay modes are represented by colours. Announcement capabilities and prices are given. (G.P.) 3 refs

  19. Analysis of inelastic neutron scattering cross-sections to 2{sup +} states in even mass palladium nuclides. Final report. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, A

    1994-09-01

    Starting from experimental {gamma}-ray emission cross sections, measured recently at IRMM Geel, the (n, n`) cross sections for the isolated states are derived. The neutron energy range is extended from the reaction threshold up to 1.3 MeV, when cascade {gamma}-ray emissions complicate the analysis. In the case of Pd-110 it was possible to deduce the (n, n`) excitation function from the experimental data up to a neutron energy of 3.3 MeV. The experimental cross sections are corrected for anisotropy of {gamma}-ray emission. The analysis of the cross sections is carried out by compound nucleus reaction theory and vibrational excitations. The coupled channels code ECIS88 is used. The theoretical description of the experimental data for the first and second 2+ states is accurate; without doing any special adjustments of parameters. (orig.).

  20. Analysis of reactor-neutrino spectra fully based on gross theory of beta-decay emphasizing the special role of odd-odd FP nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Takahiro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor antineutrino (νe) spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu samples under neutron irradiation by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs). Considering the special role of the odd(Z)-odd(N) FPs in spectrum-shaping, we utilized the experimentally-known spin-parity of each odd-odd FP through the treatment proposed by Nakata, Tachibana and Yamada. Owing to this treatment, the consistency between calculated and experimental spectra was remarkably improved in a way expected from the nature of the gross theory of β-decay.

  1. Analysis of submicrogram samples by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, D J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (USA). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    1990-12-20

    Procedure have been developed to increase the sensitivity of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) so that cosmic-dust samples weighing only 10{sup -9}-10{sup -7} g are routinely analyzed for a sizable number of elements. The primary differences from standard techniques are: (1) irradiation of the samples is much more intense, (2) gamma ray assay of the samples is done using long counting times and large Ge detectors that are operated in an excellent low-background facility, (3) specially prepared glass standards are used, (4) samples are too small to be weighed routinely and concentrations must be obtained indirectly, (5) sample handling is much more difficult, and contamination of small samples with normally insignificant amounts of contaminants is difficult to prevent. In spite of the difficulties, INAA analyses have been done on 15 cosmic-dust particles and a large number of other stratospheric particles. Two-sigma detection limits for some elements are in the range of femtograms (10{sup -15} g), e.g. Co=11, Sc=0.9, Sm=0.2 A particle weighing just 0.2 ng was analyzed, obtaining abundances with relative analytical uncertainties of less than 10% for four elements (Fe, Co, Ni and Sc), which were sufficient to allow identification of the particle as chondritic interplanetary dust. Larger samples allow abundances of twenty or more elements to be obtained. (orig.).

  2. NON-CONVENTIONAL PET NUCLIDES: PRODUCTION AND IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical cyclotrons are now commonly used for the production of PET nuclides by the (pn) reaction. These devices are typically capable of delivering 10-15 MeV protons beams at sufficiently high intensity for timely production of β+ decaying nuclides. Non-conventional PET nuclides have emerged recently and offers new opportunities for diagnostic and therapy drug discovery. In this paper, we will review the production capabilities for such nuclides at Washington University Medical Schoo...

  3. Atmospheric dust contribution to budget of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles. The Mount Cameroon volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, E.; Chabaux, F. J.; Innocent, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles is developed today for constraining time scale of soil and weathering profile formation (e.g., Chabaux et al., 2008). These studies require the understanding of U-series nuclides sources and fractionation in weathering systems. For most of these studies the impact of aeolian inputs on U-series nuclides in soils is usually neglected. Here, we propose to discuss such an assumption, i.e., to evaluate the impact of dust deposition on U-series nuclides in soils, by working on present and paleo-soils collected on the Mount Cameroon volcano. Recent Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic analyses performed on these samples have indeed documented significant inputs of Saharan dusts in these soils (Dia et al., 2006). We have therefore analyzed 238U-234U-230Th nuclides in the same samples. Comparison of U-Th isotopic data with Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data indicates a significant impact of the dust input on the U and Th budget of the soils, around 10% for both U and Th. Using Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of Saharan dusts given by Dia et al. (2006) we estimate U-Th concentrations and U-Th isotope ratios of dusts compatible with U-Th data obtained on Saharan dusts collected in Barbados (Rydell H.S. and Prospero J.M., 1972). However, the variations of U/Th ratios along the weathering profiles cannot be explained by a simple mixing scenario between material from basalt and from the defined atmospheric dust pool. A secondary uranium migration associated with chemical weathering has affected the weathering profiles. Mass balance calculation suggests that U in soils from Mount Cameroon is affected at the same order of magnitude by both chemical migration and dust accretion. Nevertheless, the Mount Cameroon is a limit case were large dust inputs from continental crust of Sahara contaminate basaltic terrain from Mount Cameroon volcano. Therefore, this study suggests that in other contexts were dust inputs are lower, or the bedrocks more concentrated in U and Th

  4. Sampling and analysis of 100 Area springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report is submitted in fulfillment of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-30-01, submit a report to EPA and Ecology evaluating the impact to the Columbia River from contaminated springs and seeps as described in the operable unit work plans listed in M-30-03. Springs, seeps, sediments, and the Columbia River were sampled for chemical and radiological analyses during the period September 16 through October 21, 1991. A total of 26 locations were sampled. Results of these analyses show that radiological and nonradiological contaminants continue to enter the Columbia River from the retired reactor areas of the 100 Area via the springs. The primary contaminants in the springs are strontium-90, tritium, and chromium. These contaminants were detected in concentrations above drinking water standards. Analysis of total organic carbon were run on all water samples collected; there is no conclusive evidence that organic constituents are entering the river through the springs. Total organic carbon analyses were generally higher for the surface water than for the springs. The results of this study will be used to develop a focused, yet flexible, long-term spring sampling program. Analysis of Columbia River water samples collected at the Hanford Townsite (i.e., downstream of the reactor areas) did not detect any Hanford-specific contaminants

  5. Quantitative analysis of untreated bio-samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Matsuda, K.

    1999-01-01

    A standard-free method of quantitative analysis for untreated samples has been developed. For hair samples, measurements were performed by irradiating with a proton beam a few hairs as they are, and quantitative analysis was carried out by means of a standard-free method developed by ourselves. First, quantitative values of concentration of zinc were derived, then concentration of other elements was obtained by regarding zinc as an internal standard. As the result, values of concentration of sulphur for 40 samples agree well with the average value for a typical Japanese and also with each other within 20%, and validity of the present method could be confirmed. Accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results with those obtained by the usual internal standard method, too. For the purpose of a surface analysis of a bone sample, a very small incidence angle of the proton beam was used, so that both energy loss of the projectile and self-absorption of X-rays become negligible. As the result, consistent values of concentration for many elements were obtained by the standard-free method

  6. Urine sample preparation for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowy, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-10-01

    Sample preparation for both environmental and more importantly biological matrices is a bottleneck of all kinds of analytical processes. In the case of proteomic analysis this element is even more important due to the amount of cross-reactions that should be taken into consideration. The incorporation of new post-translational modifications, protein hydrolysis, or even its degradation is possible as side effects of proteins sample processing. If protocols are evaluated appropriately, then identification of such proteins does not bring difficulties. However, if structural changes are provided without sufficient attention then protein sequence coverage will be reduced or even identification of such proteins could be impossible. This review summarizes obstacles and achievements in protein sample preparation of urine for proteome analysis using different tools for mass spectrometry analysis. The main aim is to present comprehensively the idea of urine application as a valuable matrix. This article is dedicated to sample preparation and application of urine mainly in novel cancer biomarkers discovery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  8. Nuclear techniques for analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The main purposes of this meeting were to establish the state-of-the-art in the field, to identify new research and development that is required to provide an adequate framework for analysis of environmental samples and to assess needs and possibilities for international cooperation in problem areas. This technical report was prepared on the subject based on the contributions made by the participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  9. Neutron activation analysis of sediment core samples of Lake Erhai in southern China and a Salt Lake in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yoshitsugu; Miura, Masahiro; Moriyasu, Yuki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is in the verification of the hypothesis that the long-lived nuclide ratio of Th/Sc in the deposit sample dug up in the lake with the hinterland of the granite quality is the index of a past change of precipitation and of the event such as earthquakes. As a preceding step the relation between an environmental change and a climate change was studied by the measuring result of the ratio of Th/Sc by the neutron activation analysis about the digging core sample of the Nepalese Katmandu basin (For the past 700,000 years) and the core sample (For 40,000 years and 8,000 years of the past) in Lake Biwa. (H. Katsuta)

  10. ZZ REAC-2, Nuclide Activation and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Flux library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group fluxes, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Cross Section library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group cross section, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Decay Data library: Format: special format, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). REAC2 calculates the change in composition of materials in a radiation field and related activation quantities. It is best suited to problems where many variables (e.g. materials, facilities or locations within facilities, power histories) are to be investigated. Where very accurate results are needed, the user must access the accuracy of the cross section base (e.g. source, flux weighting) as in the use of any neutronics code. REAC2 consists of three programs - SREAC, SLSTCOM, and SLIB. SREAC calculates the transmutation of nuclides in a radiation field. SLSTCOM reads the output file produced by SREAC and produces listings of

  11. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-01-01

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 97 Mo, and 90 Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the 99 Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup

  12. Trace metals analysis in molybdenite mineral sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar, Praveen Kumar; Pitre, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    DC polarography and other related techniques, viz., DPP and DPASV have been successfully used for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in molybdenite mineral sample. The polarograms and voltammograms of sample solution have been recorded in 0.1 M (NH 4 ) 2 tartrate supporting electrolyte at two different pH values i.e., 2.7±0.1 and 9.0±0.1. The results indicate the presence of Cu 2+ , Mo 6+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , In 3+ , Fe 3+ and W 6+ metal ions in the sample. For the determination of tungsten(VI), 11 M HCl has been used as supporting electrolyte. Tungsten(VI) produces a well defined wave/peak with E 1/2 /Ep=-0.42V/-0.48V vs SCE in 11 M HCl. The quantitative analysis by the method of standard addition shows the mineral sample to have the following composition, Cu 2+ ( 14.83), Mo 6+ (253.70), Cd 2+ (41.36), Ni 2+ (16.08), In 3+ (3.06), Fe 3+ (83.00)and W 6+ (4.14 )mg/g of the sample. Statistical treatment of the observed voltammetric data reveals high accuracy and good precision of determination. The observed voltammetric results are comparable with those obtained using AAS method. (author)

  13. Overview of Task 4 nuclide transport data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A multi-year program plan is presented to collect the necessary data on nuclide sorption-desorption interactions with geologic media. Detailed activities which need to be performed in each of the six subtasks are described. The general areas in which each subcontractor performed work in FY 77 were presented in the overview. Detailed technical discussions of each subcontractor's work will be presented in ensuing presentations

  14. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  15. Apparatus for eliminating electrodeposition of radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Ichiro; Ishibe, Tadao; Matsunaga, Masaaki; Konuki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Minoru; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional device for eliminating by radioactive nuclides electrodeposition, a liquid containing radioactive nuclides is electrolyzed under a presence of non-radioactive heavy metals and removing radioactive nuclides by electrodepositing them together with the heavy metals. Two anode plates are opposed in an electrolysis vessel of this device. A plurality (4 to 6) of cathode plates are arranged between the anodes in parallel with them and the cathode surfaces opposed to the anodes are insulated. Further, such a plurality of cathode plates are grouped into respective units. Alternatively, the anode plate is made of platinum-plated titanium material and the cathode plate is made of stainless steel. In the thus constituted electrodeposition eliminating device, since the cathode surface directed to the anodes on both ends are insulated, all of electric current from the anode reach the core cathode after flowing around the cathodes at both ends. As a result, there is no substantial difference in the flowing length of the electrolyzing current to each of the cathodes and these is neither difference in the electrodeposition amount. The electrodeposited products are adhered uniformly and densely to the electrodes and, simultaneously, Co-60 and Mn-54, etc. are also electrodeposited. (I.S.)

  16. Removal of round off errors in the matrix exponential method for solving the heavy nuclide chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2005-01-01

    Many nodal codes for core simulation adopt the micro-depletion procedure for the depletion analysis. Unlike the macro-depletion procedure, the microdepletion procedure uses micro-cross sections and number densities of important nuclides to generate the macro cross section of a spatial calculational node. Therefore, it needs to solve the chain equations of the nuclides of interest to obtain their number densities. There are several methods such as the matrix exponential method (MEM) and the chain linearization method (CLM) for solving the nuclide chain equations. The former solves chain equations exactly even when the cycles that come from the alpha decay exist in the chain while the latter solves the chain approximately when the cycles exist in the chain. The former has another advantage over the latter. Many nodal codes for depletion analysis, such as MASTER, solve only the hard coded nuclide chains with the CLM. Therefore, if we want to extend the chain by adding some more nuclides to the chain, we have to modify the source code. In contrast, we can extend the chain just by modifying the input in the MEM because it is easy to implement the MEM solver for solving an arbitrary nuclide chain. In spite of these advantages of the MEM, many nodal codes adopt the chain linearization because the former has a large round off error when the flux level is very high or short lived or strong absorber nuclides exist in the chain. In this paper, we propose a new technique to remove the round off errors in the MEM and we compared the performance of the two methods

  17. Recoil Reactions in Neutron-Activation Analysis. The Szilard-Chalmers Effect Applied in the Analysis of Biological Samples; II. Transfer of Activities from Container Material to Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D

    1965-01-15

    The present investigation consists of two parts. The one part concerns the application of the Szilard-Chalmers effect in the separation of activities from neutron-irradiated biological material. The nuclides As-76, Au-198, Br-82, Ca-47, Cd-115, Cl-38, Co-60, Cr-51, Cs-134, Cu-64, Fe-59, Mg-27, Mo-99, Na-24, P-32, Rb-86, Se-75 and Zn-65 were extracted from either liver tissue, whole blood or muscle tissue. The extractions were made in water, 0.1 N HCl, 1 N HCl or conc. HCl respectively. The nuclides belonging to the alkali metals together with Br and Cl, were found present in the water and hydrochloric extracts to 96 per cent or more. In the conc. HCl extracts, the greater part of the nuclides were recovered to 90 per cent or more. The enrichment of the different nuclides obtained in the Szilard-Chalmers process was investigated as follows. After extraction of the nuclides from the irradiated material the solution obtained was divided into two parts, one of which was reactivated. The specific activities of the nuclides in the two solutions were then compared, thus giving the enrichment factor In one case, the residue of organic material after extraction was reactivated and the activity compared to the initial one. The effect of dilution together with the application of short irradiation periods favouring higher yield was investigated in the separation of Fe-59 from whole blood samples irradiated in frozen conditions. The other part of the investigation concerns an estimation of the amounts of the activities originating from polyethylene and quartz containers transferred to container surface due to the recoil effect in the thermal neutron-capture process, thus causing contamination of the sample. The universal range-energy relationship given by Lindhard and Scharff has been applied in these calculations. As regards containers with impurities in the ppm region, the amounts of activities transferred owing to this effect were found to be quite negligible. However, when

  18. Microextraction sample preparation techniques in biomedical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szultka, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-11-01

    Biologically active compounds are found in biological samples at relatively low concentration levels. The sample preparation of target compounds from biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food matrices is one of the most time-consuming steps in the analytical procedure. The microextraction techniques are dominant. Metabolomic studies also require application of proper analytical technique for the determination of endogenic metabolites present in biological matrix on trace concentration levels. Due to the reproducibility of data, precision, relatively low cost of the appropriate analysis, simplicity of the determination, and the possibility of direct combination of those techniques with other methods (combination types on-line and off-line), they have become the most widespread in routine determinations. Additionally, sample pretreatment procedures have to be more selective, cheap, quick, and environmentally friendly. This review summarizes the current achievements and applications of microextraction techniques. The main aim is to deal with the utilization of different types of sorbents for microextraction and emphasize the use of new synthesized sorbents as well as to bring together studies concerning the systematic approach to method development. This review is dedicated to the description of microextraction techniques and their application in biomedical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  20. Measurement of Natural Radioactive Nuclide Concentrations and the Dose Estimation of Workers Originated from Radon in Manganese Ore Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.A.; Hassan, N.M.; Blasy, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese ore is widely used in many industries. Such as ore contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If this ore contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore it is important to determine the radioactive nuclides in this ore. Also the regulation of radon concentration at workplaces has gained an accentuated importance in all countries. Nevertheless, at this time there is no globally accepted workplace protocol that sets out safe radon concentration values. In this study the radon concentration measured by using an Alpha Guard radon monitor, the equilibrium factor which was greater than the value given in literature, effective radiation dose, which are necessary for the exact estimation of the radiation dose originating from radon. The regulation of radon concentration at workplaces has gained an accentuated importance in all countries. Approach: The natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) contents of manganese ore samples collected from Umm Bogma, southwest Sinai and from the mountain access Hamid South Eastern Desert, Egypt have been determined by low background spectroscopy using hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector. Results: The mean activities due to the three radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) were found to be 1500±65, 490±65 and 364±45 Bqkg -1 , respectively. The absorbed dose rate due to the natural radioactivity in samples under investigation ranged from 1522±45 → 1796±43 nGyh -1 . The radium equivalent activity varied from 3807±114→ 4446±133 Bqkg -1 .The representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples are also estimated. Conclusion: The results of this assessment obtained by the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, have indicated that the levels of natural radioactivity were lower than the international recommended limits.

  1. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory's many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory's boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department

  2. Analysis of polonium-210 in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Luciana; Cunha, Ieda Irma Lamas

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the polonium levels in food products. The analysis procedure consisted of acid leaching of the samples, solution evaporation, addition of hydrochloric acid, spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disk counting by alpha spectroscopy. The method was applied in reference materials and in foodstuffs, resulting in the following values: tea samples 0.4 to 1.7 Bq/unit; fish = 0.17 to 0.40 Bq/Kg, fruits = 0.048 to 0.067 Bq/kg, vegetables = 0.12 to 0.31 Bq/kg, cereal = 0.036 to 0.042 Bq/kg and legumes = 0.024 to 0.51 Bq/kg. The results are very important for public health due to the possible effects to the human organism by the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. (author)

  3. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAURICELLA, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility

  4. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm -2 . Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures

  5. WIS decontamination factor demonstration test with radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive Waste Incineration System (WIS) with suspension combustion is noticed as effective volume reduction technology of low level radiactive wastes that are increasing every year. In order to demonstrate the decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter used on WIS, this test has been carried out with the test facilities as joint research of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Miscellaneous combustible waste and power resin, to which 5 nuclides (Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-137) were added, were used as samples for incineration. As the result of the test, it was verified that Decontamination Factor (DF) of the single stage ceramic filter was usually kept over 10 5 for every nuclide, and from the results of above DF, over 10 8 is expected for real commercial plant as a total system. Therefore, it is realized that the off-gas clean up system of the WIS composed of only single stage of ceramic filter is capable of sufficiently efficient decontamination of exhaust gas to be released to stack. (author)

  6. Comparative test on nuclide migration in aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Zhao Yingjie; Wu Qinghua; Wang Zhiming; Hao Janzhong; Ji Shaowei; Guo Liangtian; Guo Zhiming

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the influence of different tracer source layer material on nuclide migration behavior, the comparative test on stable elements Sr, Nd and Ce migration in aerated loess zone was carried out using loess and arenaceous quartz as the tracer source layer materials respectively. The test lasted 470 days. During the test, four times of sampling were done. The testing results indicate that under artificial sprinkling of 5 mm/h and 3 h/d, Nd and Ce not only in loess tracer source layer but also in arenaceous quartz tracer source layer did not obviously downwards migrated. Concentration peak of Sr for loess layer migrated down about 15 cm in 470 d (mass center moved down about 10 cm) but for arenaceous quartz layer the concentration peak of Sr did not obviously migrated down (mass center moved down about 2.7 cm). The test results show that very thin arenaceous quartz layer with thickness of 7 mm is also able to shield unsaturated water flow obviously. This is the main reason why the nuclides in arenaceous quartz layer migrate down slowly

  7. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  8. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Anawar, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  9. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  10. Sample collection and sample analysis plan in support of the 105-C/190-C concrete and soil sampling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis in support of the 105-C water tunnels and 190-C main pumphouse concrete and soil sampling activities. These analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials to support the decontamination and disposal activities

  11. Status of determining transuranic nuclides speciation in aqueous solution with laser spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun; Chen Xi; Long Haoqi; Zeng Jishu; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge about speciation of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution is a basis for understanding the chemical and migration behavior of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution. The speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration is complicated in near neutral aqueous solutions, including change of oxidation state, complexation and colloid generation, etc. The concentrations of transuranium in near neutral aqueous solution usually below the sensitivity range of method such as conventional absorption spectroscopy. The radioactive analysis method has a very low detection limits for radionuclides, however, it wouldn' t allow the direct measurement of the transuranic species. In contrast with these methods, laser spectroscopy is an ideal method with high sensitivity, and non-contact and non-destructive for determining the speciation of transuranic nuclides. This paper summarizes the status and application of LIPAS (Laser-induced Photoacoustic Spectrometry), LIBD (Laser-induced Breakdown Detection) and TRLFS (Time-resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectrometry) to determine the speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration in aqueous solutions. (authors)

  12. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-03-05

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  13. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan's objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  14. Nuclide-specific monitoring of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.; Neu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the end of the seventies the Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg ist operating two radioaerosol monitoring stations at the border in the opposite of foreign nuclear power plants. Since the end of the eighties six similar monitoring stations were built up for measuring activity in breathing air in the common environment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A special filtersystem allows measuring the activity concentration of up to 99 nuclides. The measuring system was optimized by advanced PC-technology, a multitasking operating system and a special software for users and gamma-spectroscopy. These increased the average availability of all monitoring stations to 96% in 1996. (orig.) [de

  15. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented

  16. Ergonomic analysis of radiopharmaceuticals samples preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Luciene Betzler C.; Santos, Isaac Luquetti dos; Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Rebelo, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The doses of radioisotopes to be administrated in patients for diagnostic effect or therapy are prepared in the radiopharmacological sector. The preparation process adopts techniques that are aimed to reduce the exposition time of the professionals and the absorption of excessive doses for patients. The ergonomic analysis of this process contributes in the prevention of occupational illnesses and to prevent risks of accidents during the routines, providing welfare and security to the involved users and conferring to the process an adequate working standard. In this context it is perceived relevance of studies that deal with the analysis of factors that point with respect to the solution of problems and for establishing proposals that minimize risks in the exercise of the activities. Through a methodology that considers the application of the concepts of Ergonomics, it is searched the improvement of the effectiveness or the quality and reduction of the difficulties lived for the workers. The work prescribed, established through norms and procedures codified will be faced with the work effectively carried through, the real work, shaped to break the correct appreciation, with focus in the activities. This work has as objective to argue an ergonomic analysis of samples preparation process of radioisotopes in the Setor de Radiofarmacia do Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). (author)

  17. Monitoring of Radio-nuclides in the Vicinities of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants in 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Vartti, V.-P.; Mattila, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.

    2000-03-01

    The monitoring of radioactive substances round Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 2002-2004 in accordance with the regular environmental monitoring programmes. Altogether, some 1000 samples are analysed annually from the terrestrial and aquatic environs of the two power plants. Trace amounts of activation products originating from airborne releases from the local power plants were detected in several air and deposition samples taken from the close vicinities of the power plants. At Loviisa, observations were made in two; at Olkiluoto in three aerosol samples during the reporting period. Except for the naturally occurring beryllium-7, the concentrations of all radionuclides in the air samples were very low; from few microbequerels to few tens of microbequerels per cubic metre. A similar pattern was tenable for the deposition samples as well. The activity concentrations of cobalt-60 of local origin were at their highest 0.3 bequerels per square metre in one sample taken from Loviisa and in one sample taken from Olkiluoto. No traces of local discharge nuclides were detected in foodstuffs, drinking water or garden products. In mushrooms and wild berries picked up in 2004 from the Loviisa area, only Chernobyl-derived caesium isotopes and natural potassium-40 were detected. Local discharge nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms, sinking matter and sediments, which effectively accumulate radioactive substances. Besides tritium originating from local discharges, the most significant artificial radionuclide in the samples taken from the aquatic environs of the power plants was still caesium-137 originating from the Chernobyl accident (potassium-40 is a naturally occurring radionuclide). Elevated tritium concentrations were more frequent in the water samples from Loviisa. In indicator organisms and sinking matter, the observed concentrations of local discharge nuclides were generally somewhat higher and

  18. Data analysis for steam generator tubing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, C.V.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generators program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC's mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report provides a description of the application of advanced eddy-current neural network analysis methods for the detection and evaluation of common steam generator tubing flaws including axial and circumferential outer-diameter stress-corrosion cracking and intergranular attack. The report describes the training of the neural networks on tubing samples with known defects and the subsequent evaluation results for unknown samples. Evaluations were done in the presence of artifacts. Computer programs are given in the appendix

  19. Analysis of mercury in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoester, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility to determine mercury in sub-ppm levels in biological samples has been studied through neutron activation analysis , using as standards aliquots of mercury nitrate solution, deposited on treated cellulose with thio acetamide and ammonia. Sample and standards were irradiated simultaneously in quartz ampoules during 8 hours at a flux of 5 x 10 13 n/cm 2 s and were counted in a hyper pure germanium detector after 4 weeks of decay. Corrections were made for the interference of 75 Se in the 279 keV photopeak used in the determination. The results obtained for the reference materials IAEA-H-8(horse kidney), IAEA-M A-A2(fish flesh) and IAEA-M A-A-1(cope pod homogenate) were (0.91±0.07), (0.56±0.02) and (0.17±0.02) ppm, versus certified values of (0.91±0.08), (0.47±0.02) and (0.28±0.01) ppm respectively. (EMR). 54 refs., 8 app

  20. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglan, N. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon (France); Kim, S.B. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Cossonnet, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME/LMRE, Orsay (France); Croudace, I.W.; Warwick, P.E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Fournier, M. [IRSN/DG/DMQ, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Galeriu, D. [IFIN-HH, Horia-Hulubei, Inst. Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Momoshima, N. [Kyushu University, Radioisotope Ctr., Fukuoka (Japan); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  1. Sample container for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersmacher, B.; Verheijke, M.L.; Jaspers, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The sample container avoids contaminating the sample substance by diffusion of foreign matter from the wall of the sample container into the sample. It cannot be activated, so that the results of measurements are not falsified by a radioactive container wall. It consists of solid carbon. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Several requirements made on the quality of nuclide-specific gamma radiation measuring rigs with germanium detectors for nuclear power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    The measuring set-ups are used for nuclide-specific analysis of all samples from nuclear power plants, i.e. solid, liquid, or gaseous. Depending on the nature of the sample, various requirements made by ordinances and guidelines discussed in detail must be met, relating to emission monitoring, environmental monitoring, system monitoring, room air monitoring, and contamination monitoring. The state-of-the-art is shown emphasizing the resolution and the evaluation scheme. Experience gained in the control of such systems is reported on in brief. The quality of in-service inspections is discussed. (orig./PW) [de

  3. The analysis study of plutonium in the environmental sample by mass spectrum combined with isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jun; Fu Zhonghua; Mao Xingen; Meng Fanben

    2004-01-01

    The technology of the rhenium filament carbonization was used to increase the ionization efficiency in this paper. The plutonium in the environmental sample was analyzed by Mass Spectrum combined with isotope dilution. Analysis of the 239 Pu blank in the process: The analysis of 239 Pu from the chemical process was carried out in order to establish the influence of the 239 Pu introduced from the process. The analysis results were shown in Table 1 sample 1 was not gone through the process, sample 2 and sample 3 were gone through the process. It was clear that there was no influence of the 239 Pu from the process within the deviation. Results and Discussions: The environmental samples which were dealed with the chemical method were prepared the sample of mass spectrum, The atomic ratio of the 239 Pu and 242 Pu in the environmental samples was measured by Mass Spectrum. The atomic ratio in the tracer 242 Pu was 0.01476±0.00007.The results for nuclide content in environment were given in Table 2. The content of 239 Pu in the tracer was high, so the existing of 239 Pu in the environmental samples can be determined by the changing of the atomic ratio of 242 Pu to 239 Pu. It was clear that there was 239 Pu in the environmental samples except the cypress leaves-2 and the pine leaves-3 within the deviation, and the content of 239 Pu were given in Table 2. Conclusion: a. Plutonium was separated and purified from the impurity by the anion-exchange and the electrodeposition, it was possible to provide the eligible mass spectrum sample. b. The measurement of plutonium in the environmental samples was not influenced by the flow of the background in the experiment. c. As the technology of the rhenium carbonization was used to increase the ionization efficiency, the content of plutonium which was about 10 -13 g in the environmental sample could be quantitatively analyzed by Mass Spectrum combined with isotope dilution. (authors)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of 127I and 129I environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeishi, Minoru; Namiki, Atsushi; Ishida, Junichiro; Iwai, Makoto

    1987-01-01

    The analytical method of 127 I and 129 I in environmental samples has been studied and the background levels of these nuclides in soils, seaweeds and milk were measured. The analytical method consists of the combustion technique and neutron activation analysis (N.A.A.). The iodine was separated from samples by ignition at about 1,000 deg C in a quartz combustion apparatus with an oxygen and a nitrogen stream, and was absorbed by small amounts of active charcoal. The iodine was then purified through the carbontetrachloride extraction method and the PdI 2 decomposition method. Irradiation was conducted by JRR-4 (n th : 8 x 10 13 n/cm 2 · sec) for 40 min. After irradiation, the iodine was purified by the solvent extraction method same as pre-irradiation extraction. Each activity of 126 I and 130 I, which was produced by 127 I(n,2n) 126 I and 129 I(n,γ) 130 I reaction respectively, was measured by γ-spectrometry using a Ge-detector. The lower detection limits of 129 I by this method were 4 x 10 -7 Bq/g for dry soil, 7 x 10 -8 Bq/g for fresh seaweeds and 7 x 10 -6 Bq/l for fresh milk, respectively. The relative standard deviation of 129 I measurements in soil and milk were less than 10 %. (author)

  5. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  6. Final Sampling and Analysis Plan for Background Sampling, Fort Sheridan, Illinois

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... This Background Sampling and Analysis Plan (BSAP) is designed to address this issue through the collection of additional background samples at Fort Sheridan to support the statistical analysis and the Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA...

  7. Impact of burnable absorber Gd on nuclide composition for VVER-440 fuel (Gd-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Chrapciak, V.

    2010-01-01

    The latest version of Russian fuel VVER-440 includes burnable absorber in 6 pins. In this article is impact of burnable absorber on nuclide composition and criticality analyzed. In part 1 was analyzed whole burnup interval 0-50 MWd/kgU. In present part 2 are detailed analysis only for first cycle (burnup 0-10 MWd/kgU). (Authors)

  8. Method of estimating the sensitivity of a calculated nuclide vector to deviations in initial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1998-12-01

    The application of perturbation theory algorithms in modelling of nuclides transmutation is considered. The perturbation theory is used to construct the analytical technique of sensitivity analysis. It is shown that such algorithms have to be used in modelling of lifetime performance of nuclear power installations with the Monte Carlo method. The present approach differs from others by consistent use of analytical methods. (author)

  9. Graphics based PC analysis of alpha spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    New personal computer (PC) software performs interactive analysis of alpha spectra using EGA graphics. Spectra are collected with a commercial MCA board and analyzed using the software described here. The operator is required to approve each peak integration area before analysis proceeds. Sample analysis can use detector efficiencies or spike yields or both. Background corrections are made and upper limit values are calculated when specified. Nuclide identification uses a library of up to 64 nuclides with up to 8 alpha lines for each nuclide. Any one of 32 subset libraries can be used in an analysis. Analysis time is short and is limited by interaction with the operator, not by calculation time. Utilities include nuclide library editing, library subset editing, energy calibration, efficiency calibration, and background update

  10. Modelling indoor exposure to natural radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Daschil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Radon enters buildings from several sources primarily from building materials and from the soil or rocks that underlie or surround building fundaments. A multicompartment model was developed which describes the fate of radon and attached or free radon decay products in a model room by a set of linear time-dependent differential equations. Time-dependent coefficients allow to model temporal parameter changes, e.g. the opening of windows, or a sudden pressure drop leading to enhanced exhalation. While steady-state models were used to study the effect of parameter changes on steady state nuclide concentrations, the time-dependent models provided additional information on the time scale of these changes. (author)

  11. Stream sediment sampling and analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.L.; Voris, P.V.; Headington, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    The objectives were to sample and analyze sediments from upstream and downstream locations (relative to the Goodyear Atomic plant site) of three streams for selected pollutants. The three streams sampled were the Scioto River, Big Beaver Creek, and Big Run Creek. Sediment samples were analyzed for EPA's 129 priority pollutants (Clean Water Act) as well as isotopic uranium ( 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U) and technetium-99

  12. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  13. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  14. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in soils: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Fowler, E.B.

    1976-01-01

    The literature is reviewed to ascertain the degree of movement and the distribution patterns for transuranic and uranium nuclides in soils. Typical plutonium and uranium profiles are presented and an attempt is made to identify unique characteristics causing deviation from an ideal distribution pattern. By far most of the distribution observations are with plutonium and little is reported for uranium and other transuranic nuclides

  15. Representative process sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julius, Lars Petersen; Esbensen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    (sampling variances) can be reduced greatly however, and sampling biases can be eliminated completely, by respecting a simple set of rules and guidelines provided by TOS. A systematic approach for description of process heterogeneity furnishes in-depth knowledge about the specific variability of any 1-D lot...

  16. A sampling algorithm for segregation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henshall John

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods for detecting Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL without markers have generally used iterative peeling algorithms for determining genotype probabilities. These algorithms have considerable shortcomings in complex pedigrees. A Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC method which samples the pedigree of the whole population jointly is described. Simultaneous sampling of the pedigree was achieved by sampling descent graphs using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. A descent graph describes the inheritance state of each allele and provides pedigrees guaranteed to be consistent with Mendelian sampling. Sampling descent graphs overcomes most, if not all, of the limitations incurred by iterative peeling algorithms. The algorithm was able to find the QTL in most of the simulated populations. However, when the QTL was not modeled or found then its effect was ascribed to the polygenic component. No QTL were detected when they were not simulated.

  17. Tank 241-BY-105 rotary core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-BY-105 (BY-105)

  18. WRAP Module 1 sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the methodology to sample, screen, and analyze waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility. This includes Low-Level Waste, Transuranic Waste, Mixed Waste, and Dangerous Waste

  19. WRAP Module 1 sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-03-24

    This document provides the methodology to sample, screen, and analyze waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility. This includes Low-Level Waste, Transuranic Waste, Mixed Waste, and Dangerous Waste.

  20. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.

    1970-01-01

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target ( 238 U and 232 Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 10 25 neutrons /cm 2 . Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 10 10 atoms of 257Fm, which is 10 2 times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., : 254 Cf, 251 Cf, 255 -Es, and 250 Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of 298 114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  1. Contribution of some food categories on intakes of U, Th and other nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of radiation dose in human from radioactive 232 Th, 238 U, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr are important because those nuclides are the largest contributors to committed internal doses. A market basket study was conducted to clarify the food pathways of the nuclides in Japanese subjects. Foodstuffs of 336 were purchased from markets in the vicinity of Mito-City during 1994-1995. Statistical consumption data were used for collection of the food samples. Thorium-232, 238 U, and stable isotope ( 133 Cs) in eighteen food groups were determined by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Radioisotopes ( 137 Cs) was analyzed by γ-spectrometry. Stable strontium ( 88 Sr) was also analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Big contributors to the nuclide intakes in Japanese were as follows: 232 Th fishes and shellfishes (44%) and green vegetables (11%); 238 U seaweeds (50%) and fishes and shellfishes (26%); 88 Sr seaweeds (53%) and fishes and shellfishes (14%); 137 Cs mushrooms (17%), fishes and shell fishes (15%), milk products (11%), meats (9%), and potatoes (7%). The food categories of oil and fats, eggs and cooked meals were minor contributors in those nuclides. Dietary intake studies by using eighteen or more food categories should be effective procedure to resolve critical food and critical pathway for Japanese. Furthermore, critical pathways of radionuclides could be estimated by the analyses of stable isotopes. (author)

  2. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, R W; Hulet, E K [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 10{sup 25} neutrons /cm{sup 2}. Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 10{sup 10} atoms of 257Fm, which is 10{sup 2} times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., :{sup 254}Cf, {sup 251}Cf, {sup 255}-Es, and {sup 250}Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of {sup 298}114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  3. Direct analysis of radionuclides-96 samples simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, there has been a tremendous interest in two areas of concern in nuclear counting and radioactivity waste disposal. The first is the reduction of radioactive waste, in particular the reduction in the amount of or the development of environmentally safe scintillation cocktails. The second is the development of a simple method of quantitating large numbers of samples (thousands/day) in a short period of time (minutes). These two areas of concern have been addressed with the development of the Matrix 96 direct beta counter. This new instrumental technique is capable of quantitating 96 samples simultaneously in the microplate format (8 x 12, 96 sample) on a solid support WITHOUT the use of any cocktails, vials, and is non-destructive to the sample. The use of this technique for the following biomedical applications, DNA dot blots, cell proliferation (3H thymidine), receptor binding, chromium cytotoxicity assays, and protein assays will be discussed in detail. The data from both the conventional beta and gamma counter will be correlated and compared to the new Matrix 96 direct beta counter. This new technique provides a convenient method of addressing the concerns of reducing radioactive waste and provides a method of quantitating a large number of samples, accurately in a short period of time (96 at a time)

  4. Tank 10H Saltcake Core Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-01-01

    In support of Low-Curie Salt (LCS) process validation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) has undertaken a program of tank characterization, including salt sampling. As part of this initiative, they sampled the surface and subsurface of Tank 10H saltcake using a series of three 12-inch long sample tubes. These tubes each contain 1-foot long segments of the saltcake from one location, representing the top three feet of saltcake. The primary objective of the characterization that will be useful to the selection and processing of the next waste tanks. Most important is the determination of the Cs-137 concentration and liquid retention properties of Tank 10H saltcake to confirm acceptability of processing. Additional chemical analyses are performed to provide information on salt elemental, ionic, and radiological composition to aid in assessment of the suitability of processing drained and dissolved material and in refining the information in the waste characterization system (WCS)

  5. Analysis of arsenical metabolites in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli; Drobna, Zuzana; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J

    2009-11-01

    Quantitation of iAs and its methylated metabolites in biological samples provides dosimetric information needed to understand dose-response relations. Here, methods are described for separation of inorganic and mono-, di-, and trimethylated arsenicals by thin layer chromatography. This method has been extensively used to track the metabolism of the radionuclide [(73)As] in a variety of in vitro assay systems. In addition, a hydride generation-cryotrapping-gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the quantitation of arsenicals in biological samples. This method uses pH-selective hydride generation to differentiate among arsenicals containing trivalent or pentavalent arsenic.

  6. Elemental analysis of samples of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Sandoval J, R.A.; Aspiazu F, J.; Villasenor S, P.; Lugo L, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Applying the PIXE technique (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) it was analyzed the purity of the samples that will be used to measure the production section of X rays with Li and B beams. It is not necessary to determine the concentrations of the pollutant elements. (Author)

  7. PIXE - Analysis for environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.

    1980-04-01

    The usefulness and accuracy of PIXE as an analytical tool in the study of trace elements in environmental samples of the Brazilian Cerrado are discussed. The report lists actual and forthcoming publications resulting from the study. The mechanism of exchange of elements in solution in water to aerosols has been investigated. For details of the procedure the reader is referred to an earlier report

  8. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  9. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won

    1991-01-01

    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  10. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  11. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  12. Fission-nuclide concentrations of ambient aerosol separated by size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csepregi, T.; Kovacs, L.; Maschek, I.; Szterjopulos, K.

    1984-01-01

    Examinations were carried on the radionuclides in aerosol deposited on filters of an air-conditioning plant with high air flow rate. For nuclide concentration of ambient air qualitative and quantitative analyses were made by gamma spectrometry. Methods have been developed for sample preparation, size fractionation by sedimentation technique and measurement of air flow. The collected aerosol particles was separated into five size fractions from 1 to 5 μm and the aerosol fractions were analysed. The mass/size distribution of the particles processed by sedimentation has been compared with that of the ambient aerosol separated by a slot impactor Hungarian type. Because the aggregation caused by the resuspensationtechnique would be assumed, electronmicrophotos were made on processed and unprocessed aerosols. On the basis of them the particle aggregation may be negligible. Otherwise, the derivation of concentration needs to know the exact air volume. For this aim the technical parameters of the aerodynamic system have also been measured in two different ways. The paper reports on the size dependence of fission products originating from the present global late fallout for a two years monitoring period. The results are compared with the daily beta activity concentration of aerosol samples taken by an other sampling unit. (Author)

  13. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sreenivas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb 204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb 206 and Pb 207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  14. Analysis of PAH in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeufel, J.; Weisweiler, W.

    1994-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil samples is described. Carbon dioxide mixed with a small amount of methanol is used for solvent. The results are compared with those obtained by a classical extraction method (that means with the use of organic liquids). The extracted PAH from both procedures can be separated by HPLC and analyzed with UV- and fluorescence detection. (orig.) [de

  15. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Alexei J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of sequence evolution are provided and tree-based models suitable for both within- and between-species sequence data are implemented. Results BEAST version 1.4.6 consists of 81000 lines of Java source code, 779 classes and 81 packages. It provides models for DNA and protein sequence evolution, highly parametric coalescent analysis, relaxed clock phylogenetics, non-contemporaneous sequence data, statistical alignment and a wide range of options for prior distributions. BEAST source code is object-oriented, modular in design and freely available at http://beast-mcmc.googlecode.com/ under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusion BEAST is a powerful and flexible evolutionary analysis package for molecular sequence variation. It also provides a resource for the further development of new models and statistical methods of evolutionary analysis.

  16. Exomars 2018 Rover Pasteur Payload Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Andre; Bacher, M.; Ball, A.; Barcos, O.; Bethge, B.; Gaubert, F.; Haldemann, A.; Kminek, G.; Lindner, R.; Pacros, A.; Rohr, T.; Trautner, R.; Vago, J.

    The ExoMars programme is a joint ESA-NASA program having exobiology as one of the key science objectives. It is divided into 2 missions: the first mission is ESA-led with an ESA orbiter and an ESA Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) demonstrator, launched in 2016 by NASA, and the second mission is NASA-led, launched in 2018 by NASA including an ESA rover and a NASA rover both deployed by a single NASA EDL system. For ESA, the ExoMars programme will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies in support of the European ambitions for future exploration missions, as outlined in the Aurora Declaration. The ExoMars 2018 ESA Rover will carry a comprehensive and coherent suite of analytical instruments dedicated to exobiology and geology research: the Pasteur Payload (PPL). This payload includes a selection of complementary instruments, having the following goals: to search for signs of past and present life on Mars and to investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. The ExoMars Rover will travel several kilometres searching for sites warranting further investigation. The Rover includes a drill and a Sample Preparation and Distribution System which will be used to collect and analyse samples from within outcrops and from the subsurface. The Rover systems and instruments, in particular those located inside the Analytical Laboratory Drawer must meet many stringent requirements to be compatible with exobiologic investigations: the samples must be maintained in a cold and uncontaminated environment, requiring sterile and ultraclean preparation of the instruments, to preserve volatile materials and to avoid false positive results. The value of the coordinated observations suggests that a significant return on investment is to be expected from this complex development. We will present the challenges facing the ExoMars PPL, and the plans for sending a robust exobiology laboratory to Mars in 2018.

  17. Cosmogenic nuclides principles, concepts and applications in the earth surface sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dunai, Tibor J

    2010-01-01

    This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and...

  18. Sampling and Analysis Plan for PUREX canyon vessel flushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, C.N.

    1995-01-01

    A sampling and analysis plan is necessary to provide direction for the sampling and analytical activities determined by the data quality objectives. This document defines the sampling and analysis necessary to support the deactivation of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility vessels that are regulated pursuant to Washington Administrative Code 173-303

  19. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for fiscal year (FY) 1994 water sampling activities for the uranium mil tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona. This sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders to be implemented in FY94

  20. PIXE analysis applied to characterized water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela S.; Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Medeiros, Geiza; Sampaio, Camilla; Martorell, Ana Beatriz Targino; Gouvea, Stella; Cunha, Kenya Moore Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Araxa, in Brazil, is a naturally high background area located in the State of Minas Gerais with a population of about 93 672 people. Araxa is historical city famous for its mineral water sources and mud from Termas de Araxa spa, which have been used for therapeutic, and recreation purposes. Other important aspect of economy of the city are mining and metallurgic industries. In the Araxa area is located the largest deposit of pyrochlore, a niobium mineral, and also a deposit of apatite, a phosphate mineral both containing Th and U associated to crystal lattice. The minerals are obtained from open pit mines, the minerals are processed in industrial also located in city of Araxa, these plants process the pyrochlore and apatite to obtain the Fe-Nb alloy and the concentrate of phosphate, respectively. Studies were developed in this area to assessment the occupational risk of the workers due to exposure to dust particles during the routine working, however very few studies evaluated the water contamination outside the mines in order to determine the metal (stables elements) concentrations in water and also the concentrations of the radionuclides in water. This paper presents the previous results of a study to identify and determine the concentrations of metals (stables elements) and radionuclides in river around the city. The water from these rivers is used as drinking water and irrigation water. The water samples were collected in different rivers around the Araxa city and the samples were analyzed using PIXE technique. A proton beam of 2 MeV obtained from the van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was used to induce the characteristic X-rays. S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ba, Pb and U were identified in the mass spectrum of the samples. The elemental mass concentrations were compared using a non-parametric statistical test. The results of the statistical test showed that the elemental mass concentrations did not present the same distribution. These results indicated

  1. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  2. Geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masanobu; Umetsu, Kohei; Sugimoto, Miyabi; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Yamazaki, Hideo; Nakagawa, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in metropolitan areas located in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive contamination of environmental samples, including soil and biological materials, was analyzed. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from Fukushima City were 122000, 11500 and 14000 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 129000, 11000 and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, for the three nuclides respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites ranged from 240 to 101000, 28 to 26200, and 14 to 33700 Bq/kg, respectively. In Higashiosaka City, it began to detect those radioactive nuclides in the atmospheric airborne dust from 25th March. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb were detected on 18th April 2011. Biological samples collected from Tokyo Bay were studied. The maximum concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs detected in the biological samples were 12.2 and 19.2 Bq/kg, which were measured in goby. 131 I was not detected in the biological samples however, trace amounts of the short half-life nuclide 110m Ag were found in the shellfish samples. (author)

  3. 1999 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1999_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  4. 1997 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sample Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1997_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis (BSA) program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office....

  5. 1998 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1998_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  6. Square chart of nuclides with the best coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuying

    2001-01-01

    It analyzes upper limiting feature of even Z=60-82 in different charts of nuclides. It has illustrated that the break line of upper limiting Z=60-82 in the chart of nucleus with proton number Z and neutron number N, parameters Z and H (=N-Z), two new parameters S(=2Z-N) and H, and parameters K (=S-H) and H, in proper order, it shows that the break line trends from the left lower to the right upper, the line alternates with horizontal and vertical, and the line trends from the right lower to the left upper. Here it finds that the square chart of nuclides places the middle among these charts. It shows that nuclei distribution is concentrated, so are scope of whole region of nuclides in the different charts of nuclides

  7. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste

  8. Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance

  9. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  10. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINN, R.; SCHLYER, D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical

  11. Novel Sample-handling Approach for XRD Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Feldman, S.; Vaniman, D.; Bryson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sample preparation and sample handling are among the most critical operations associated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These operations require attention in a laboratory environment, but they become a major constraint in the deployment of XRD instruments for robotic planetary exploration. We are developing a novel sample handling system that dramatically relaxes the constraints on sample preparation by allowing characterization of coarse-grained material that would normally be impossible to analyze with conventional powder-XRD techniques.

  12. Influence of sampling depth and post-sampling analysis time on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples taken at water depth and at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours post-sampling. It was observed that the total and faecal coliform bacteria were significantly higher in the 3 m water depth samples than in the surface water samples (ANOVA, F = 59.41, 26.751, 9.82 (T.C); 46.41, 26.81, ...

  13. Analysis of aerosol samples in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, P.; Navarrete, M.; Ramirez, A.; Avila, P.

    2000-01-01

    Total solid particles and 9 metals potentially hazardous for health were determined in Mexico City dwellings by gravimetry and X-ray fluorescence techniques, respectively. Monitoring was performed in spring and winter, on districts covering center, northeast, southeast and southwest of the City. Results show that, in general, the average concentration of metallic contaminants have increased with time and, in the particular case of lead it is higher than the indicative WHO maximum level. The total solid particles figures are also above the U.S. norm of 75 μg.m -3 . Results obtained in samples taken in the same dwelling at different seasons show that lead was not present in a measurable concentration all the time. It seems to exist a correlation between the increase in lead and the increase in total solid particles whose distribution pattern in Mexico City follows wind directions. Another relevant correlation seems to exist between lead concentration and the rate of combustion of fuel in the transport system, which varies with the zone and the season. (author)

  14. Catalogue of gamma rays from radionuclides ordered by nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, L.P.; Andersson, P.; Sheppard, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    A catalogue of about 28500 gamma-ray energies from 2338 radionuclides is presented. The nuclides are listed in order of increasing (A,Z) of the daughter nuclide. In addition the gamma-ray intensity per 100 decays of the parent (if known) and the decay half-life are given. All data are from a computer processing of a recent ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) file. (authors)

  15. [The fate of nuclides in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 221-U Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugg, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed to be conducted to support the evaluation of alternatives for the final disposition of the 221-U Facility. This SAP will describe general sample locations and the minimum number of samples required. It will also identify the specific contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) and the required analysis. This SAP does not define the exact sample locations and equipment to be used in the field due to the nature of unknowns associated with the 221-U Facility

  17. Neutron activation analysis for antimetabolites. [in food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Determination of metal ion contaminants in food samples is studied. A weighed quantity of each sample was digested in a concentrated mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and perchloric acids to affect complete solution of the food products. The samples were diluted with water and the pH adjusted according to the specific analysis performed. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis, polarography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The solid food samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analysis for increased sensitivity and lower levels of detectability. The results are presented in tabular form.

  18. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 216-A-29 Ditch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1998-06-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines procedures to be used for collecting and handling samples to be obtained from the 216-A-29 Ditch, and identifies requirements for field and laboratory measurements. The sampling strategy describes here is derived from a Data Quality Objectives workshop conducted in January 1997 to support sampling to assure worker safety during construction and to assess the validity of a 1988 ditch sampling campaign and the effectiveness of subsequent stabilization. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activities is to characterize soil contamination in the vicinity of a proposed road over the 216-A-29 Ditch

  19. Large scale sample management and data analysis via MIRACLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Block, Ines; List, Markus; Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig

    Reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPAs) allow sensitive quantification of relative protein abundance in thousands of samples in parallel. In the past years the technology advanced based on improved methods and protocols concerning sample preparation and printing, antibody selection, optimization...... of staining conditions and mode of signal analysis. However, the sample management and data analysis still poses challenges because of the high number of samples, sample dilutions, customized array patterns, and various programs necessary for array construction and data processing. We developed...... a comprehensive and user-friendly web application called MIRACLE (MIcroarray R-based Analysis of Complex Lysate Experiments), which bridges the gap between sample management and array analysis by conveniently keeping track of the sample information from lysate preparation, through array construction and signal...

  20. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 1. Experiments on leys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of 134 Cs and 85 Sr during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout. The aim was to get a description of the relative transfer to the harvest products of new clover-grass leys and old grass leys after initial depositions of tracer nuclides at different times during the growth period. The reduction in transfer with time, from deposition to sampling, depends partly on dilution by growth and partly on fall-off to the ground. The reduction half-time for the nuclide content showed a range 10 - 14 days. The data obtained in the experiments can extend the basis for prediction of the consequences of fallout events at different times to new as well as to old leys in the field

  1. Development of environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Esaka, Fumitaka

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been developing environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards and preparing a clean chemistry laboratory with clean rooms. Methods to be developed are a bulk analysis and a particle analysis. In the bulk analysis, Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer or Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer are used to measure nuclear materials after chemical treatment of sample. In the particle analysis, Electron Probe Micro Analyzer and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer are used for elemental analysis and isotopic analysis, respectively. The design of the clean chemistry laboratory has been carried out and construction will be completed by the end of March, 2001. (author)

  2. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  3. Interactive information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyaskin, V.I.; Kosilov, R.A.; Manturov, G.N.

    2001-01-01

    A brief review is given of a computerized information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains. The main difference between the system presented here and those already in existence is that these evaluated databases of nuclear physics constants are linked to a set of programs, thus enabling analysis of a wide range of problems regarding various nuclear physics applications. (author)

  4. Applicability of neutron activation analysis to geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to geological samples in space is discussed by referring to future space mission programs, by which the extraterrestrial samples are to be delivered to the earth for scientific inspections. It is concluded that both destructive and non-destructive NAA are highly effective in analyzing these samples. (author)

  5. Applicability of neutron activation analysis to geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to geological samples in space is discussed by referring to future space mission programs, by which the extraterrestrial samples are to be delivered to the earth for scientific inspections. It is concluded that both destructive and non-destructive NAA are highly effective in analyzing these samples. (author)

  6. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  7. Multielement methods of atomic fluorescence analysis of enviromental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigin, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A multielement method of atomic fluorescence analysis of environmental samples based on sample decomposition by autoclave fluorination and gas-phase atomization of volatile compounds in inductive araon plasma using a nondispersive polychromator is suggested. Detection limits of some elements (Be, Sr, Cd, V, Mo, Te, Ru etc.) for different sample forms introduced in to an analyzer are given

  8. Analysis of Some Clay Samples from Yauri (Kebbi State), Goronyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of some clay samples presumed to be kaolin obtained from different deposits in Yauri (kebbi state), Goronyo, Munwadata, Atokonyo (Sokoto state), Nigeria was carried out. The samples were subjected to quantitative analysis to determine major and trace constituents using gravimetric, colorimetric, titrimetric and ...

  9. Global metabolite analysis of yeast: evaluation of sample preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Højer-Pedersen, Jesper; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Sample preparation is considered one of the limiting steps in microbial metabolome analysis. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes behave very differently during the several steps of classical sample preparation methods for analysis of metabolites. Even within the eukaryote kingdom there is a vast diversity...

  10. Multi-actinide analysis with AMS for ultra-trace determination and small sample sizes: advantages and drawbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schaefer, Thorsten; Geckeis, Horst [Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    With the abundance sensitivities of AMS for U-236, Np-237 and Pu-239 relative to U-238 at levels lower than 1E-15, a simultaneous determination of several actinides without previous chemical separation from each other is possible. The actinides are extracted from the matrix elements via an iron hydroxide co-precipitation and the nuclides sequentially measured from the same sputter target. This simplified method allows for the use of non-isotopic tracers and consequently the determination of Np-237 and Am-243 for which isotopic tracers with the degree of purity required by ultra-trace mass-spectrometric analysis are not available. With detection limits of circa 1E+4 atoms in a sample, 1E+8 atoms are determined with circa 1 % relative uncertainty due to counting statistics. This allows for an unprecedented reduction of the sample size down to 100 ml of natural water. However, the use of non-isotopic tracers introduces a dominating uncertainty of up to 30 % related to the reproducibility of the results. The advantages and drawbacks of the novel method will be presented with the aid of recent results from the CFM Project at the Grimsel Test Site and from the investigation of global fallout in environmental samples.

  11. International program to improve decay data for transactinium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmer, R.G.; Reich, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    To help meet an identified need for precise decay data, in 1977 the IAEA organized an international Coordinated Research Program (CRP) to measure and evaluate half-lives and γ - and α - emission probabilities for selected transactinium nuclides of importance for reactor technology. The CRP goals were (1) to determine a list of data that needed improvement, (2) to encourage new measurements, and (3) to evaluate the available data. All three phases of this work are now complete. Our participation in this effort has involved the measurement of γ-ray emission probabilities for /sup 232, 233, 235/U, /sup 238, 239, 240, 241/Pu, 229 Th and 233 Pa, as well as participating in the data evaluation. The γ-emission probabilities were determined from the measurement of γ-emission rates with the goal of obtaining uncertainties of less than or equal to 1%. γ measurements were made on calibrated Ge detectors. These calibrations were done by standard methods, generally involving measurements at approx. 60 γ-ray energies from 14 to 2700 keV. The efficiency-calibration functions were assigned uncertainties ranging from 2% below 50 keV to 0.50% from 400 to 1400 keV. The determination of the decay rates of the various sources involved several techniques. The 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 240 Pu samples were calibrated by gross α-emission-rate measurements at NBS. The 235 U sample was taken from an NBS-calibrated spike solution. The 241 Pu and 233 U samples were calibrated by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry based on spikes of the calibrated 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 235 U materials. Some of our results are given, together with a comparison of some present and previous results. 20 refs

  12. Scalability on LHS (Latin Hypercube Sampling) samples for use in uncertainty analysis of large numerical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Nunez Mac Leod, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper deals with the utilization of advanced sampling statistical methods to perform uncertainty and sensitivity analysis on numerical models. Such models may represent physical phenomena, logical structures (such as boolean expressions) or other systems, and various of their intrinsic parameters and/or input variables are usually treated as random variables simultaneously. In the present paper a simple method to scale-up Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) samples is presented, starting with a small sample and duplicating its size at each step, making it possible to use the already run numerical model results with the smaller sample. The method does not distort the statistical properties of the random variables and does not add any bias to the samples. The results is a significant reduction in numerical models running time can be achieved (by re-using the previously run samples), keeping all the advantages of LHS, until an acceptable representation level is achieved in the output variables. (author)

  13. Enhanced AFCI Sampling, Analysis, and Safeguards Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Svoboda

    2009-09-01

    The focus of this study includes the investigation of sampling technologies used in industry and their potential application to nuclear fuel processing. The goal is to identify innovative sampling methods using state of the art techniques that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements. Sampling and analysis of nuclear fuel recycling plant processes is required both to monitor the operations and ensure Safeguards and Security goals are met. In addition, environmental regulations lead to additional samples and analysis to meet licensing requirements. The volume of samples taken by conventional means, can restrain productivity while results samples are analyzed, require process holding tanks that are sized to meet analytical issues rather than process issues (and that create a larger facility footprint), or, in some cases, simply overwhelm analytical laboratory capabilities. These issues only grow when process flowsheets propose new separations systems and new byproduct material for transmutation purposes. Novel means of streamlining both sampling and analysis are being evaluated to increase the efficiency while meeting all requirements for information. This report addresses just a part of the effort to develop and study novel methods by focusing on the sampling and analysis of aqueous samples for metallic elements. It presents an overview of the sampling requirements, including frequency, sensitivity, accuracy, and programmatic drivers, to demonstrate the magnitude of the task. The sampling and analysis system needed for metallic element measurements is then discussed, and novel options being applied to other industrial analytical needs are presented. Inductively coupled mass spectrometry instruments are the most versatile for metallic element analyses and are thus chosen as the focus for the study. Candidate novel means of process sampling, as well as modifications that are necessary to couple such instruments to

  14. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life.

  15. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez R, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  16. Development of radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    A radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement is developed to integrate the established codes and the code system for decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor (FBR). The former are the codes for estimation of radioactivity movement in sodium coolant of fast reactor which are named SAFFIRE, PSYCHE and TTT. The latter code system is to estimate neutron irradiation activity (COSMARD-RRADO). It is paid special attention to keep the consistency of input data used among these codes and also the simplification of their interface. A new function is added to the estimation system, to estimate minor FP inventory caused by the fission of impurities contained in the coolant and slight fuel material attached on the fuel cladding. To check the evaluation system, the system is applied with radioactivity data of the preceding FBR such as BN-350, JOYO and Monju. Agreement between the analysis results and the measurement is well satisfactory. The uncertainty of the code system is within several tens per cent for the activation of primary coolant (Na-22) and factor of 2-4 for the estimation of radioactivity inventory in sodium coolant. (author)

  17. Sampling and sample preparation methods for the analysis of trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Iyengar, V.

    1978-05-01

    The authors attempt to give a most systamtic possible treatment of the sample taking and sample preparation of biological material (particularly in human medicine) for trace analysis (e.g. neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry). Contamination and loss problems are discussed as well as the manifold problems of the different consistency of solid and liquid biological materials, as well as the stabilization of the sample material. The process of dry and wet ashing is particularly dealt with, where new methods are also described. (RB) [de

  18. Sampling, storage and sample preparation procedures for X ray fluorescence analysis of environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    X ray fluorescence (XRF) method is one of the most commonly used nuclear analytical technique because of its multielement and non-destructive character, speed, economy and ease of operation. From the point of view of quality assurance practices, sampling and sample preparation procedures are the most crucial steps in all analytical techniques, (including X ray fluorescence) applied for the analysis of heterogeneous materials. This technical document covers recent modes of the X ray fluorescence method and recent developments in sample preparation techniques for the analysis of environmental materials. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Exploring Technostress: Results of a Large Sample Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jonušauskas, Steponas; Raišienė, Agota Giedrė

    2016-01-01

    With reference to the results of a large sample factor analysis, the article aims to propose the frame examining technostress in a population. The survey and principal component analysis of the sample consisting of 1013 individuals who use ICT in their everyday work was implemented in the research. 13 factors combine 68 questions and explain 59.13 per cent of the answers dispersion. Based on the factor analysis, questionnaire was reframed and prepared to reasonably analyze the respondents’ an...

  20. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3 He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12 C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  1. Theory of sampling: four critical success factors before analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim H

    2015-01-01

    Food and feed materials characterization, risk assessment, and safety evaluations can only be ensured if QC measures are based on valid analytical data, stemming from representative samples. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) is the only comprehensive theoretical framework that fully defines all requirements to ensure sampling correctness and representativity, and to provide the guiding principles for sampling in practice. TOS also defines the concept of material heterogeneity and its impact on the sampling process, including the effects from all potential sampling errors. TOS's primary task is to eliminate bias-generating errors and to minimize sampling variability. Quantitative measures are provided to characterize material heterogeneity, on which an optimal sampling strategy should be based. Four critical success factors preceding analysis to ensure a representative sampling process are presented here.

  2. Improvement of WWW chart of the nuclides interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsutomu; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The booklet 'chart of the nuclides' is issued every 4 years since 1976 from Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The chart of the nuclides for WWW (World Wide Web) was developed in 1999 in order to be available from the Internet browser. The Internet connection speeds, browser functions and JavaScript libraries has, however, progressed at present compared with the Internet technology in those days. In connection with the release of the 2014 edition of the chart of the nuclides, the interface of the WWW chart of the nuclides has been improved by introducing new Internet technologies aiming at enhancing convenience on accessibilities via browsers. We introduced a scrolling screen that would make capabilities of easy screen movement on a map with the addition of the drag scrolling function. Considering smart phone access, the light-weight edition which introduced automatic switch was prepared. The new system results in reduction in access time and usefulness in mobile environment. The method of making figures of the chart was reconsidered due to addition of new decay schemes to the 2014 edition. SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) was adopted so as to make figures easily. It is concluded that the accessibilities of WWW chart of the nuclides are substantially improved from the previous version by introducing the new technologies. (author)

  3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 18F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.

    2010-09-02

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Shine [1]. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL [2]. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results [3] to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL{sub 95%}) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL{sub 95%}) on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL{sub 95%} was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  4. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 19F Floor Sample Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.

    2010-01-01

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  5. Radio nuclides in mineral rocks and beach sand minerals in south east coast, Odisha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Essakki, Chinna; Tripathy, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Mohanty, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primordial and metamorphic mineral rocks of the Eastern Ghats host minerals such as rutile, ilmenite, Silmenite, zircon, garnet and monazite in quartz matrix. The weathered material is transported down to the sea by run-off through Rivers and deposited back in coastal beach as heavy mineral concentrates. The minerals are mined by M/S Indian Rare Earths Ltd at the Chatrapur plant in Odisha coast to separate the individual minerals. Some of these minerals have low level radioactivity and may pose external and internal radiation hazard. The present paper deals with natural Thorium and Uranium in the source rocks with those observed in the coastal deposits. The study correlates the nuclide activity ratios in environmental samples in an attempt to understand the ecology of the natural radio nuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra in environmental context. Further work is in progress to understand the geological process associated with the migration and reconcentration of natural radio-nuclides in the natural high background radiation areas

  6. Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan was the worst nuclear disaster following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Fission products (nuclides) released from the Fukushima plant site since March 12, 2011 had been detected around the northern hemisphere in about two weeks and also in the southern hemisphere about one month later. We report here detailed time series of radioiodine and radiocesium isotopes monitored in a regional network around Taiwan, including one high-mountain and three ground-level sites. Our results show several pulses of emission from a sequence of accidents in the Fukushima facility, with the more volatile 131I released preferentially over 134Cs and 137Cs at the beginning. In the middle of the time series, there was a pronounced peak of radiocesium observed in northern Taiwan, with activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs far exceeding that of 131I during that episode. From the first arrival time of these fission nuclides and their spatial and temporal variations at our sampling sites and elsewhere, we suggest that Fukushima-derived radioactive nuclides were transported to Taiwan and its vicinity via two pathways at different altitudes. One was transported in the free troposphere by the prevailing westerly winds around the globe; the other was transported in the planetary boundary layer by the northeast monsoon wind directly toward Taiwan.

  7. Uncertainty Propagation in Monte Carlo Depletion Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yeong-il; Park, Ho Jin; Joo, Han Gyu; Kim, Chang Hyo

    2008-01-01

    A new formulation aimed at quantifying uncertainties of Monte Carlo (MC) tallies such as k eff and the microscopic reaction rates of nuclides and nuclide number densities in MC depletion analysis and examining their propagation behaviour as a function of depletion time step (DTS) is presented. It is shown that the variance of a given MC tally used as a measure of its uncertainty in this formulation arises from four sources; the statistical uncertainty of the MC tally, uncertainties of microscopic cross sections and nuclide number densities, and the cross correlations between them and the contribution of the latter three sources can be determined by computing the correlation coefficients between the uncertain variables. It is also shown that the variance of any given nuclide number density at the end of each DTS stems from uncertainties of the nuclide number densities (NND) and microscopic reaction rates (MRR) of nuclides at the beginning of each DTS and they are determined by computing correlation coefficients between these two uncertain variables. To test the viability of the formulation, we conducted MC depletion analysis for two sample depletion problems involving a simplified 7x7 fuel assembly (FA) and a 17x17 PWR FA, determined number densities of uranium and plutonium isotopes and their variances as well as k ∞ and its variance as a function of DTS, and demonstrated the applicability of the new formulation for uncertainty propagation analysis that need be followed in MC depletion computations. (authors)

  8. Tank 241-AP-104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser 001 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives and ICD-23. The 222-S Laboratory will receive samples; composite the samples; perform chemical analyses on composite samples; and provide samples to the Waste Treatment Contractor and the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory at the 222-S Laboratory Complex will perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AP-104 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. The Waste Treatment Contractor will perform process verification and waste form qualification tests. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the L and H DQO process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan (Person 2000) and are not within the scope of this SAP. This report provides the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-104

  9. Proteome profiling analysis of human ovarian cancer serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognetti, F.; Citro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry represents a powerful tool in cancer research to discovery of potential bio markers through peak identification from serum profiling. By using high resolution MALDITOF and bioinformatic analysis almost 400 serum sample homogeneously distributed between biopsy confirmed ovarian cancer and high risk serum samples were analyzed. Each serum sample run in duplicate and whole serum sample preparation procedure has been performed by Hamilton Star Robot in order to reduce bias and the replicates with a low Pearson coefficient are removed. After automated reverse phase magnetic beads separation the samples were tested in MALDI-TOF

  10. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) describes planned water sampling activities and provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water sampling in 1994 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Maybell, Colorado. The WSAP identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies at the site. The ground water data will be used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for the ground water and surface water monitoring activities is derived from the EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993) and the proposed EPA standards of 1987 (52 FR 36000). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. This WSAP also includes a summary and the results of water sampling activities from 1989 through 1992 (no sampling was performed in 1993)

  11. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  12. The determination of critical nuclides in PWR waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    A current method for the determination of critical nuclides in the waste streams produced by a nuclear power reactor consists in applying correlation factors or scaling factors between those critical nuclides and so called key radionuclides, which can be easily measured and are representatives for the occurrence of activation products (Co-60) and fission products (Cs-137) in the waste streams. BELGATOM (BA) has developed a code (low level waste Activity Assessment-LLWAA code). The use of the code can clarify the analytical technique lower detection level that has to be achieved for each critical nuclide, in order to accurately measure it's activity in the different types of waste. (1 tab., 1 fig.)

  13. Nuclide inventories of spent fuels from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Okamoto, Tsutomu

    2012-02-01

    Accurate information on nuclide inventories of spent fuels from Light Water Reactors (LWRs) is important for evaluations of criticality, decay heat, radioactivity, toxicity, and so on, in the safety assessments of storage, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal of the spent fuels. So, a lot of lattice burn-up calculations were carried out for the possible fuel specifications and irradiation conditions in Japanese commercial LWRs by using the latest nuclear data library JENDL-4.0 and a sophisticated lattice burn-up calculation code MOSRA-SRAC. As a result, burn-up changes of nuclide inventories and their possible ranges were clarified for 21 heavy nuclides and 118 fission products, which are important from the viewpoint of impacts to nuclear characteristics and nuclear fuel cycle and environment. (author)

  14. Nuclide migration from a bedrock repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.

    1978-08-01

    A study of the migration of radionuclides from a repository for spent, unprocessed fuel is presented. The study makes use of a unidimensional dispersion model developed at BNWL. The results show that a number of nuclides decay significantly during the migration. The doses to future man was calculated in a separate study performed at Studsvik. The dose calculations are based on the activity in-flows, presented in this report, and show that the predominant dose contribution comes from the nuclide radium-226. This nuclide is formed mainly by the decay of uranium-238 which means that the main part of the dose would arise even from a repository for non-irradiated fuel

  15. Production of heavy nuclides in nuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Samuel F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Since the last Plowshare Symposium in 1964 a number of experiments have been carried out to study the production of heavy nuclei by rapid multiple neutron capture in specially designed nuclear devices. These experiments listed below were conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site and data were obtained radiochemically after sample recovery by drillback. The main characteristics of these experiments are 1) higher neutron fluxes than in the early events, 2) a variety of targets, including 238-U, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 243-Am, 232-Th, 3) the occurrence of an interesting 'reversal of the odd-even effect' in the mass yield curves, and 4) the absence of nuclei in the debris with (Z,A) greater than (100,257). Analysis of data from these experiments have led to capture cross sections for neutron-rich uranium isotopes (out to 249-U), and capture-to-fission ratios for the odd-A neutron-rich plutonium isotopes (out to 253-Pu). General studies of the fission process in neutron-rich nuclei have also been undertaken using the data from these experiments. The large amounts of 250Cm and 257Fm made in the recent Hutch experiment ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} and {approx}5 x 10{sup 17} atoms, respectively) make it scientifically exciting, and economically feasible, to mine and recover enough material to produce laboratory targets of these isotopes. These targets would be used in investigations of yet-undiscovered, short-lived isotopes of Fm, Md, and No, as well as the possible production of new isotopes of element 104 and even element 105. (author)

  16. Production of heavy nuclides in nuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, Samuel F.

    1970-01-01

    Since the last Plowshare Symposium in 1964 a number of experiments have been carried out to study the production of heavy nuclei by rapid multiple neutron capture in specially designed nuclear devices. These experiments listed below were conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site and data were obtained radiochemically after sample recovery by drillback. The main characteristics of these experiments are 1) higher neutron fluxes than in the early events, 2) a variety of targets, including 238-U, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 243-Am, 232-Th, 3) the occurrence of an interesting 'reversal of the odd-even effect' in the mass yield curves, and 4) the absence of nuclei in the debris with (Z,A) greater than (100,257). Analysis of data from these experiments have led to capture cross sections for neutron-rich uranium isotopes (out to 249-U), and capture-to-fission ratios for the odd-A neutron-rich plutonium isotopes (out to 253-Pu). General studies of the fission process in neutron-rich nuclei have also been undertaken using the data from these experiments. The large amounts of 250Cm and 257Fm made in the recent Hutch experiment (∼1 x 10 20 and ∼5 x 10 17 atoms, respectively) make it scientifically exciting, and economically feasible, to mine and recover enough material to produce laboratory targets of these isotopes. These targets would be used in investigations of yet-undiscovered, short-lived isotopes of Fm, Md, and No, as well as the possible production of new isotopes of element 104 and even element 105. (author)

  17. Alpha spectrometry of environmental and food samples with photon/electron-rejecting alpha liquid-scintillation (P.E.R.A.L.S.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehringer, M.; Stockli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In environmental and food monitoring radio-nuclides are normally analysed with gamma spectrometry. Routine analysis of cesium nuclides can be realised fast and without much sample preparation. Also a few nuclides of the uranium- and thorium-series can be detected with gamma spectrometry at the low Bq/kg level. 226 Ra, 224 Ra and 228 Ra can be determined via their decay products when secular equilibrium of the sample is reached (e.g. 226 Ra via its daughters 214 Pb and 214 Bi). Alpha spectrometry is the method of choice for the determination of alpha nuclides in the mBq range. The analytes have to be separated from interfering nuclides and quenching parameters prior to the spectrometry. So, the main ask in alpha spectrometry consists in an efficient sample preparation and an alpha/beta discrimination for the spectrometric measurement. Based on the work of Jack McDowell sensitive methods for the analyses of naturally occurring nuclides such as uranium, thorium, polonium and other alpha-nuclides in water, honey and spices were developed and validated [1]. Such techniques enables the tolerance and limit values for radionuclides in food to be controlled in accordance with of the Swiss Ordinance on contaminants and Ingredients (FIV) [2] he method principle is based on a selective extraction of the alpha nuclides rom water samples rsp. from an aqueous extract of mineralized samples. The extractant has also the function of a cocktail in the alpha liquid spectrometry nd therefore the extract can be analysed directly without further clean -up Photon/Electron-Rejecting Alpha-Liquid-Scintillation, P.E.R.A.L..S. [1]). Normally, one liter of water sample is extracted with 5 ml of cocktail to achieve low detection limits. The cocktail phase is separated from the aqueous phase by use of a phase separator for liquid samples. Methods were developed for the analyses of 234 U and 238 U, the thorium nuclides 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th and other alpha nuclides. The achieved

  18. Multielement analysis of aerosol samples by X-ray fluorescence analysis with totally reflecting sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, P.; Knoechel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosole samples on filter support were analyzed using the X-ray flourescence analytical method (Mo excitation) with totally reflecting sample carrier (TXFA). Wet decomposition of the sample material with HNO 3 in an enclosed system and subsequent sample preparation by evaporating an aliquot of the solution on the sample carrier yields detection limits up to 0.3 ng/cm 2 . The reproducibilities of the measurements of the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb lie between 5 and 25%. Similar detection limits and reproducibilities are obtained, when low-temperature oxygen plasma is employed for the direct ashing of the homogenously covered filter on the sample carrier. For the systematic loss of elements both methods were investigated with radiotracers as well as with inactive techniques. A comparison of the results with those obtained by NAA, AAS and PIXE shows good agreement in most cases. For the bromine determination and the fast coverage of the main elements a possibility for measuring the filter membrane has been indicated, which neglects the ashing step. The corresponding detection limits are up to 3 ng/cm 2 . (orig.) [de

  19. The stochastic nuclide transport model for buffer/backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liping; Han Yongguo

    2014-01-01

    Currently, study on nuclide migration law in geological disposal repository of high level waste is assumed buffer/backfill layer to be continuous medium, utilized the continuity equation, equation of state, the equations of motion, etc, formed a set of theory and method to estimate nuclide concentration distribution in buffer/backfill layer, and provided an important basis for nuclide migration rules of repository. However, it is necessary to study the buffer/backfill layer microstructure and subtly describe the pore structure and fracture system of the buffer/backfill layer, and reflect the changes in connectivity and in different directions of the buffer/backfill layer. Through using random field theory, the nuclide transport for the buffer/backfill layer in geological disposal repository of nuclear waste is described in the paper. This paper mainly includes that, t represents the time, ξ t ⊂ Z d = d represents the integer lattice, Z represents collectivity integers, d = l, 2, 3, for instance, d = 2, Z d = {(m, n) : m, n ∈ Z} the state point of ξ t is typically considered to be occupied by the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer, ξ t also represents random set in the diagram of two dimensional integer lattice, namely, t ∈ [0, T], {ξ t ,0 ≤ t ≤ ⊂ T} Consequently, according to the stochastic process obtained above, the changes of the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer or the buffer/backfill laboratory materials in the repository with the time can be known. (authors)

  20. Quantitative analysis of light elements in aerosol samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Reis, M.A.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative PIGE analysis of aerosol samples collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filters was performed by a method that avoids the use of comparative standards. Nuclear cross sections and calibration parameters established before in an extensive work on thick and intermediate samples were employed. For these samples, the excitation functions of nuclear reactions, induced by the incident protons on target's light elements, were used as input for a code that evaluates the gamma-ray yield integrating along the depth of the sample. In the present work we apply the same code to validate the use of an effective energy for thin sample analysis. Results pertaining to boron, fluorine and sodium concentrations are presented. In order to establish a correlation with sodium values, PIXE results related to chlorine are also presented, giving support to the reliability of this PIGE method for thin film analysis

  1. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multielement analysis in small sample amounts of thyroid tissue from Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Bazhanova, N.N.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, thyroid pathologies occurred among children in some regions of belarus. Besides the irradiation of children's thyroids by radioactive iodine and caesium nuclides, toxic elements from fallout are a direct risk to health. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole-based mass spectrometry (Icp-Ms) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA) were used for multielement determination in small amounts (I-10 mg) of human thyroid tissue samples. The accuracy of the applied analytical technique for small biological sample amounts was checked using NIST standard reference material oyster tissue (SRM 1566 b). Almost all essential elements as well as a number of toxic elements such as Cd, Pb, Hg, U etc. Were determined in a multitude of human thyroid tissues by quadrupole-based Icp-Ms using micro nebulization. In general, the thyroid tissue affected by pathology is characterized by higher calcium content. Some other elements, among them Sr, Zn, Fe, Mn, V, As, Cr, Ni, Pb, U, Ba, Sb, were also Accumulated in such tissue. The results obtained will be used as initial material for further specific studies of the role of particular elements in thyroid pathology development

  2. Sampling in forests for radionuclide analysis. General and practical guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, Lasse (Finnish Forest Research Inst. (METLA) (Finland)); Plamboeck, Agneta H. (Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden)); Rantavaara, Aino; Vetikko, Virve (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)); Straalberg, Elisabeth (Inst. Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway))

    2009-01-15

    The NKS project FOREST was established to prepare a guide for sampling in forest ecosystems for radionuclide analysis. The aim of this guide is to improve the reliability of datasets generated in future studies by promoting the use of consistent, recommended practices, thorough documentation of field sampling regimes and robust preparation of samples from the forest ecosystem. The guide covers general aims of sampling, the description of major compartments of the forest ecosystem and outlines key factors to consider when planning sampling campaigns for radioecological field studies in forests. Recommended and known sampling methods for various sample types are also compiled and presented. The guide focuses on sampling practices that are applicable in various types of boreal forests, robust descriptions of sampling sites, and documentation of the origin and details of individual samples. The guide is intended for scientists, students, forestry experts and technicians who appreciate the need to use sound sampling procedures in forest radioecological projects. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in field studies and sampling campaigns, using robust techniques, thereby fostering competence in sampling. (au)

  3. Sampling in forests for radionuclide analysis. General and practical guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, Lasse; Plamboeck, Agneta H.; Rantavaara, Aino; Vetikko, Virve; Straelberg, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The NKS project FOREST was established to prepare a guide for sampling in forest ecosystems for radionuclide analysis. The aim of this guide is to improve the reliability of datasets generated in future studies by promoting the use of consistent, recommended practices, thorough documentation of field sampling regimes and robust preparation of samples from the forest ecosystem. The guide covers general aims of sampling, the description of major compartments of the forest ecosystem and outlines key factors to consider when planning sampling campaigns for radioecological field studies in forests. Recommended and known sampling methods for various sample types are also compiled and presented. The guide focuses on sampling practices that are applicable in various types of boreal forests, robust descriptions of sampling sites, and documentation of the origin and details of individual samples. The guide is intended for scientists, students, forestry experts and technicians who appreciate the need to use sound sampling procedures in forest radioecological projects. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in field studies and sampling campaigns, using robust techniques, thereby fostering competence in sampling. (au)

  4. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Preston, Rose; Akbarzadeh, Mansoor; Bakthiar, Steven

    2000-01-01

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed

  5. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. 3 figures, 2 tables

  6. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. (3 figures, 1 table)

  7. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  8. Synchrotron radiation based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Resarch and Utilization Division (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Condensed Matter Science Division, Sector of Nuclear Science Research (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Synchrotron-radiation (SR) based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various nuclides is reviewed. The details of the measuring system and analysis method are described. Especially, the following two advantages of the current system are described: the detection of internal conversion electrons and the close distance between the energy standard scatterer and the detector. Both of these advantages yield the enhancement of the counting rate and reduction of the measuring time. Furthermore, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of {sup 40}K, {sup 151}Eu, and {sup 174}Yb is introduced to show the wide applicability of this method. In addition to these three nuclides, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of {sup 61}Ni, {sup 73}Ge, {sup 119}Sn, {sup 125}Te, {sup 127}I, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 189}Os has been performed. We continue to develop the method to increase available nuclides and to increase its ease of use. The complementary relation between the time-domain method using SR, such as nuclear forward scattering and the energy-domain methods such as SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy is also noted.

  9. Analysis of environmental samples by roentgen fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hroncova, E.; Ladomersky, J.

    2004-01-01

    We can use it to analyse nearly all elements of solid and liquid samples. The possibility of analysing solid samples in compact shape, in powder or either under shape of fine layers shortens appreciably the total time of analysis, that is in addition to its no destructiveness, the main reason of as a XRF favourite method. (authors)

  10. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodoridis, G; Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been introduced for the extraction of organic compounds from environmental samples. This relatively new extraction technique has now also gained a lot of interest in a broad field of analysis including food, biological and pharmaceutical samples. SPME has a

  11. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, J. Gijs; Konings, Wil N.

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling

  12. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the 384 Day Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    This instruction defines the sampling and analysis activities to be performed in support of the decommissioning of the 384 Day Tanks. The purpose of the sampling is to determine whether a release from the tanks has occurred and the extent of the contamination, if any

  13. Requests from use experience of ORIGEN code. Activity of the working group on evaluation of nuclide generation and depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out through the committee members of the working group on evaluation of nuclide generation and depletion about the demand accuracy of the ORIGEN code which is used widely in various fields of design analysis and evaluation. WG committee asked each organization's ORIGEN user, and obtained the replay from various fields. (author)

  14. Integrated sampling and analysis plan for samples measuring >10 mrem/hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, C.S.

    1992-03-01

    This integrated sampling and analysis plan was prepared to assist in planning and scheduling of Hanford Site sampling and analytical activities for all waste characterization samples that measure greater than 10 mrem/hour. This report also satisfies the requirements of the renegotiated Interim Milestone M-10-05 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (the Tri-Party Agreement). For purposes of comparing the various analytical needs with the Hanford Site laboratory capabilities, the analytical requirements of the various programs were normalized by converting required laboratory effort for each type of sample to a common unit of work, the standard analytical equivalency unit (AEU). The AEU approximates the amount of laboratory resources required to perform an extensive suite of analyses on five core segments individually plus one additional suite of analyses on a composite sample derived from a mixture of the five core segments and prepare a validated RCRA-type data package

  15. Comparison of mass-spectrometry and α-counting in analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irleweck, K.; Pichlmayer, F.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of trace amounts of U and Pu isotopes is of interest in environmental and personal monitoring programmes. Commonly after preconcentration and separation of the radionuclides a proper sample is prepared electrolytically and the measurements are performed by alpha spectrometry. Some investigations on uranium isotopic abundances and on plutonium fallout deposition in soil have been carried out in this way. It is impossible to distinguish between the isotopes 239 Pu and 240 Pu by alpha spectrometry, however, because their α-energies are too close together. Such determinations can only be carried out by mass spectrometry. Specific Pu emissions, e.g. from nuclear production plants, can be discriminated from the global fallout level. Mass spectrometry is the more sensitive method for measuring long-lived nuclides compared with α-spectrometry. In the case of soil analysis, however, Pu detection is obstructed by the high natural uranium content, usually in the range 0.2 to 2.0 ppm which exceeds the trace amounts of plutonium by several orders of magnitude. This work describes a chemical procedure which separates U/Pu sufficiently for alpha spectrometry as well as for mass spectrometry, and compares results of environmental analysis applying both methods. (author)

  16. Migration studies of fission product nuclides in rocks. Pt.5: Diffusion and permeability of nuclide 125I in marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ruiyuan; Gao Hongcheng; Wang Xiangyun

    1996-01-01

    The migration behaviour of nuclide 125 I, as a simulation of the long lived fission product 129 I, in marble is studied in self-designed cells. A series of the most important parameters of diffusion and permeability (e.g., intrinsic diffusion coefficient, dispersion coefficient and interstitial flow velocity, etc.) are determined. Based on the differential equation of the nuclide migration, the distribution function and numerical solution of 125 I in marble are presented. The results show that the migration velocity of 125 I in marble is fast, indicating that it is not suitable to dispose nuclear waste in marble

  17. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (C llr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  19. Development of sample preparation method for honey analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Katsumi; Chiba, Keiko; Sera, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    We developed an original preparation method for honey samples (samples in paste-like state) specifically designed for PIXE analysis. The results of PIXE analysis of thin targets prepared by adding a standard containing nine elements to honey samples demonstrated that the preparation method bestowed sufficient accuracy on quantitative values. PIXE analysis of 13 kinds of honey was performed, and eight mineral components (Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn) were detected in all honey samples. The principal mineral components were K and Ca, and the quantitative value for K accounted for the majority of the total value for mineral components. K content in honey varies greatly depending on the plant source. Chestnuts had the highest K content. In fact, it was 2-3 times that of Manuka, which is known as a high quality honey. K content of false-acacia, which is produced in the greatest abundance, was 1/20 that of chestnuts. (author)

  20. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  1. Remote sampling and analysis of highly radioactive samples in shielded boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpikov, D.A.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Pykhteev, O.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The sampling procedure used for highly radioactive coolant water is associated with high risk of personnel irradiation and uncontrolled radioactive contamination. Remote sample manipulation with provision for proper radiation shielding is intended for safety enhancement of the sampling procedure. The sampling lines are located in an isolated compartment, a shielded box. Various equipment which enables remote or automatic sample manipulation is used for this purpose. The main issues of development of the shielded box equipment intended for a wider ranger of remote chemical analyses and manipulation techniques for highly radioactive water samples are considered in the paper. There were three principal directions of work: Transfer of chemical analysis performed in the laboratory inside the shielded box; Prevalence of computer-aided and remote techniques of highly radioactive sample manipulation inside the shielded box; and, Increase in control over sampling and determination of thermal-hydraulic parameters of the coolant water in the sampling lines. The developed equipment and solutions enable remote chemical analysis in the restricted volume of the shielded box by using ion-chromatographic, amperometrical, fluorimetric, flow injection, phototurbidimetric, conductometric and potentiometric methods. Extent of control performed in the shielded box is determined taking into account the requirements of the regulatory documents as well as feasibility and cost of the technical adaptation of various methods to the shielded box conditions. The work resulted in highly precise determination of more than 15 indexes of the coolant water quality performed in on-line mode in the shielded box. It averages to 80% of the total extent of control performed at the prototype reactor plants. The novel solutions for highly radioactive sample handling are implemented in the shielded box (for example, packaging, sample transportation to the laboratory, volume measurement). The shielded box is

  2. Neutron activation analysis for environmental sample in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Nouchpramool, Sunun; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Sumitra, Tatchai

    2003-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied for the trace elements analysis in environmental samples. Thirty three samples of airborne particulate were collected every week at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) during the period of June 1998 to March 1999. The Ti, I, Mg, Na, V, K, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, As, Sm, Sb, Br, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis utilizing 2 MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The certified reference materials 1632a and 1633a from National Bureau of Standard were select as standard. (author)

  3. Absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Science Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has in use a system of absolute Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Basically, absolute INAA is dependent upon the absolute measurement of the disintegration rates of the nuclides produced by neutron capture. From such disintegration rate data, the amount of the target element present in the irradiated sample is calculated by dividing the observed disintegration rate for each nuclide by the expected value for the disintegration rate per microgram of the target element that produced the nuclide. In absolute INAA, the expected value for disintegration rate per microgram is calculated from nuclear parameters and from measured values of both thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes which were present during irradiation. Absolute INAA does not depend on the concurrent irradiation of elemental standards but does depend on the values for thermal and epithermal neutron capture cross-sections for the target nuclides. A description of the analytical method is presented

  4. Biomass Thermogravimetric Analysis: Uncertainty Determination Methodology and Sampling Maps Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazó, Jose A.; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Ángeles; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the determination of the maximum sampling error and confidence intervals of thermal properties obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TG), including moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. The sampling procedure of the TG analysis was of particular interest and was conducted with care. The results of the present study were compared to those of a prompt analysis, and a correlation between the mean values and maximum sampling errors of the methods were not observed. In general, low and acceptable levels of uncertainty and error were obtained, demonstrating that the properties evaluated by TG analysis were representative of the overall fuel composition. The accurate determination of the thermal properties of biomass with precise confidence intervals is of particular interest in energetic biomass applications. PMID:20717532

  5. BEAMGAA. A chance for high precision analysis of big samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerner, W.; Berger, A.; Haase, O.; Segebade, Chr.; Alber, D.; Monse, G.

    2005-01-01

    In activation analysis of traces in small samples, the non-equivalence of the activating radiation doses of sample and calibration material gives rise to sometimes tolerable systematic errors. Conversely, analysis of major components usually demands high trueness and precision. To meet this, beam geometry activation analysis (BEAMGAA) procedures have been developed for instrumental photon (IPAA) and neutron activation analysis (INAA) in which the activating neutron/photon beam exhibits broad, flat-topped characteristics. This results in a very low lateral activating flux gradient compared to known radiation facilities, however, at significantly lower flux density. The axial flux gradient can be accounted for by a monitor-sample-monitor assembly. As a first approach, major components were determined in high purity substances as well as selenium in a cattle fodder additive. (author)

  6. FISPIN - a computer code for nuclide inventory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstall, R.F.

    1979-10-01

    The code is used for assessment of three groups of nuclides, the actinides, the fission products, and structural materials. The methods of calculation are described, together with the input and output of the code and examples of both. Recommendations are given for the best use of the code. (author)

  7. Retardation of escaping nuclides from a final depository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1977-09-01

    study has been made on retardation of radionuclides in various materials, which could be suited for use in the final repository. A literature survey has shown that except for Cs and Sr very little is known on ion exchange equilibria in ground water surroundings. Measurements were made to determine equilibrium data for Cs, Sr, Eu and U in five natural zeolites, which could be used as filling material. Diffusivities in zeolite particles and bbeds as well as clay beds were also determined. With the aid of these data the function of the ion exchange barrier was investigated. The barrier is so short that the nuclide transport is by diffusion. An 0.2 m barrier of a zeolite will delay Cs and Sr so long that they will decay totally. Am 241 will also be considerably delayed. An 0.2 m clay-quartz barrier will have very little effect on these nuclides. A 1 m clay-quartz barrier will have about the same effect as an 0.2 m zeolite barrier. Most other nuclides have so long lives that they will only be delayed, but not sufficiently long to decay. He rock itself interacts with many of the radionuclides. A simple model has been made to describe the nuclide retardation and dispersion in fissured rock. With the aid of this, tracer experiments in actual underground rock have been analysed

  8. U-Th series nuclides in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of U and Th series nuclides is being conducted on sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Uranium concentrations as a function of depth have been determined, as well as changes in the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. The geochemical behavior of uranium in shelf sediments is discussed

  9. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  10. The analyses of measured nuclide concentration in project ISTC 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article are analyzed experiments for WWER-440 fuel and compared with theoretical results by new version of the SCALE 5 code: nuclide compositions - measurement in Kurchatov institute for 3.6% - measurement in Dimitrovgrad for 3.6% (project ISTC 2670) The focus is on modules TRITON and ORIGEN-S (Authors)

  11. IVO's nuclide removal system takes to the road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    The successful and routine use of IVO's treatment system for the removal of cesium from the evaporator concentrates at the Loviisa WER plant in Finland is described. The system uses a granular inorganic hexacyanoferate-based ion exchanger to separate cesium from liquid radioactive wastes. The compactness of the original systems at Loviisa suggested the development of a transportable unit. A combined nuclide removal system was created which included a highly efficient ultrafiltration unit to separate nearly all particulate material carrying radionuclides, as well as the cesium removal capability. A 20ft long container carrying the removal package was completed in 1994. This NUclide REmoval System (NURES) was used for the first time in January 1995 to purify liquid waste accumulating at training reactors in Estonia and has performed well. As an extension of nuclide removal, a process has been created to recover boron from liquid wastes. A system for boron recovery and nuclide removal has been designed for use at the Paks plant in Hungary. The removal process has been shown to improve the safety of final waste disposal compared with the alternative treatment by cementation because the cesium is very tightly bound into the ion exchange material. (UK)

  12. New trends in sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Maia, Alexandra S; Gonçalves, Virgínia M F; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Environmental samples include a wide variety of complex matrices, with low concentrations of analytes and presence of several interferences. Sample preparation is a critical step and the main source of uncertainties in the analysis of environmental samples, and it is usually laborious, high cost, time consuming, and polluting. In this context, there is increasing interest in developing faster, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Recently, new methods have been developed and optimized in order to miniaturize extraction steps, to reduce solvent consumption or become solventless, and to automate systems. This review attempts to present an overview of the fundamentals, procedure, and application of the most recently developed sample preparation techniques for the extraction, cleanup, and concentration of organic pollutants from environmental samples. These techniques include: solid phase microextraction, on-line solid phase extraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe).

  13. Sample Preparation Report of the Fourth OPCW Confidence Building Exercise on Biomedical Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udey, R. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Corzett, T. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alcaraz, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-03

    Following the successful completion of the 3rd biomedical confidence building exercise (February 2013 – March 2013), which included the analysis of plasma and urine samples spiked at low ppb levels as part of the exercise scenario, another confidence building exercise was targeted to be conducted in 2014. In this 4th exercise, it was desired to focus specifically on the analysis of plasma samples. The scenario was designed as an investigation of an alleged use of chemical weapons where plasma samples were collected, as plasma has been reported to contain CWA adducts which remain present in the human body for several weeks (Solano et al. 2008). In the 3rd exercise most participants used the fluoride regeneration method to analyze for the presence of nerve agents in plasma samples. For the 4th biomedical exercise it was decided to evaluate the analysis of human plasma samples for the presence/absence of the VX adducts and aged adducts to blood proteins (e.g., VX-butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and aged BuChE adducts using a pepsin digest technique to yield nonapeptides; or equivalent). As the aging of VX-BuChE adducts is relatively slow (t1/2 = 77 hr at 37 °C [Aurbek et al. 2009]), soman (GD), which ages much more quickly (t1/2 = 9 min at 37 °C [Masson et al. 2010]), was used to simulate an aged VX sample. Additional objectives of this exercise included having laboratories assess novel OP-adducted plasma sample preparation techniques and analytical instrumentation methodologies, as well as refining/designating the reporting formats for these new techniques.

  14. Protocol for Microplastics Sampling on the Sea Surface and Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač Viršek, Manca; Palatinus, Andreja; Koren, Špela; Peterlin, Monika; Horvat, Petra; Kržan, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic pollution in the marine environment is a scientific topic that has received increasing attention over the last decade. The majority of scientific publications address microplastic pollution of the sea surface. The protocol below describes the methodology for sampling, sample preparation, separation and chemical identification of microplastic particles. A manta net fixed on an »A frame« attached to the side of the vessel was used for sampling. Microplastic particles caught in the cod end of the net were separated from samples by visual identification and use of stereomicroscopes. Particles were analyzed for their size using an image analysis program and for their chemical structure using ATR-FTIR and micro FTIR spectroscopy. The described protocol is in line with recommendations for microplastics monitoring published by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter. This written protocol with video guide will support the work of researchers that deal with microplastics monitoring all over the world. PMID:28060297

  15. Measurement of natural radioactivity and elemental analysis in plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactivity is a major source of worldwide human exposure to ionizing radiation, a fraction of which results from such anthropogenic activities that are not subjected to regulatory radiological safety standards. In addition to being the main source of continuous radiation exposure to the human, soil acts as a medium of migration for transfer of radio nuclides to the biological systems and hence, it is the basic indicator of radiological contamination in the environment. Soil to plant is major pathway for accumulation of radionuclide to human being. The specific metabolic character of the plant species may lead to accumulation of radio-nuclides in their organs which may further depend upon the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. A fraction of these heavy metals in soil can transfer to plant through various metabolic activities occurring in plants. Heavy metal-contaminated soil is one of the widespread global problems. Migration and accumulation of contaminants in the soil-plant system is complex, and assessment models commonly utilize a soil-plant concentration ratio, referred to as a transfer factor (TF), to estimate the transportation of radionuclides through the food chain. This ratio describes the amount of radionuclide expected to enter a plant from soil. (author)

  16. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to the Analysis of NORM Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Peyrés, V.; Mejuto, M.; García-Toraño, E.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to analyze the raw data of gamma-ray spectra of NORM samples and decide if the activity content of a certain nuclide is above or below the exemption limit of 1 Bq/g. The main advantage of using an ANN for this purpose is that for the user no specialized knowledge in the field of gamma-ray spectrometry is necessary. In total a number of 635 spectra consisting of varying activity concentrations, seven different materials and three densities each have been generated by Monte Carlo simulation to provide training material to the ANN. These spectra have been created using the simulation code PENELOPE. Validation was carried out with a number of NORM samples previously characterized by conventional gamma-ray spectrometry with peak fitting

  17. In-air micro-pixe analysis of tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.; Ishii, K.; Komori, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Micro-PIXE is capable of providing spatial distributions of elements in the micro-meter scale and its application to biology is useful to elucidate the cellular metabolism. Since, in this method, a sample target is usually irradiated with proton or α-particle beams in vacuum, beam heating results in evaporation of volatile elements an shrinking of the sample. In order to avoid these side effects, we previously developed a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis for samples of cultured cells. In addition to these, analysis of exposed tissue samples from living subjects is highly desirable in biological and medical research. Here, we describe a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis of such tissue samples. The target samples of exposed tissue slices from a Donryu rat, in which a tumor had been transplanted, were analyzed with proton micro-beams of 2.6 MeV. We report that the shape of cells and the distribution of volatile elements in the tissue sample remain uncharged when using a target preparation based on a freeze-drying method. (author)

  18. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olise, Felix S., E-mail: felix_olise@rushpost.com [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P. [CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A. [IST/CTN: Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear (CTN), EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO{sub 3} levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  19. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO 3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples

  20. Ash contents of foodstuff samples in environmental radioactivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hayano, Kazuhiko; Nonaka, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Statistical data of the ash content in various environmental samples obtained from an environmental radioactivity survey project commissioned by the Japanese government of Science and Technology Agency (at present Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Sciences and Technology) during the past 10 years are expressed for establishing a standard of ash content in environmental samples based on radioactivity analysis. The ash content for some kinds of environmental samples such as dietary food, milk, Japanese radish, spinach, fish, green tea and potato was reviewed in the light of statistical and stochastic viewpoints. For all of the samples reviewed in this paper, the coefficient of variation varied from 4.7% for milk to 36.3% for cabbage. Dietary food and milk samples were reviewed more than 1900 and 1400 samples, respectively. Especially, ash content of dietary food depended mainly on the dietary culture reflected on the period. However it showed an almost invariant distribution within 18.7% of coefficient of variation during the past 10 years. Pretreatment of environmental samples especially ashing processes are important from the viewpoint on environmental radioactivity analysis, which is one of the especial fields in analytical chemistry. Statistical reviewed data obtained in this paper may be useful for sample preparation. (author)

  1. Cosmogenic nuclide production within the atmosphere and long period comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew C.

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays. These high energy particles collide with target nuclei, producing a shower of secondary particles. These secondaries contribute significantly to the radiation background at sea level and in the atmosphere, as well as producing rare cosmogenic nuclides. This contribution is variable over long time scales as astrophysical events change the cosmic ray flux incident on the Earth. Our work re-examines a previously proposed climate effect of increased cosmic ray flux due to galactic location. Although our work does not support this effect, cosmic ray secondaries remain a threat to terrestrial biota. We calculate the cosmogenic neutron flux within the atmosphere as a function of primary spectrum. This work is pivotal in determining the radiation dose due to any arbitrary astrophysical event where the primary spectrum is known. Additionally, this work can be used to determine the cosmogenic nuclide production from such an event. These neutrons are the fundamental source of cosmogenic nuclides within our atmosphere and extraterrestrial matter. We explore the idea that excursions in 14C and 10Be abundances in the atmosphere may arise from direct deposition by long-period comet impacts, and those in 26Al from any bolide. We find that the amount of nuclide mass on large long-period comets entering the Earth's atmosphere may be sufficient for creating anomalies in the records of 14C and 10Be from past impacts. In particular, the estimated mass of the proposed Younger Dryas comet is consistent with its having deposited sufficient isotopes to account for recorded nuclide increases at that time. The 26Al/10Be ratio is much larger in extraterrestrial objects than in the atmosphere, and so, we note that measuring this ratio in ice cores is a suitable further test for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis. This portion of our work may be used to find possible impact events in the geologic record as well as determination of a large

  2. Measurement of soluble nuclide dissolution rates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the potential release behavior of water-soluble radionuclides is the focus of new laboratory spent fuel dissolution studies being planned in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous studies have suggested that maximum release rates for actinide nuclides, which account for most of the long-term radioactivity in spent fuel, should be solubility-limited and should not depend on the characteristics or durability of the spent fuel waste form. Maximum actinide concentrations should be sufficiently low to meet the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) annual release limits. Potential release rates for soluble nuclides such as 99 Tc, 135 Cs, 14 C and 129 I, which account for about 1-2% of the activity in spent fuel at 1,000 years, are less certain and may depend on processes such as oxidation of the fuel in the repository air environment. Dissolution rates for several soluble nuclides have been measured from spent fuel specimens using static and semi-static methods. However, such tests do not provide a direct measurement of fuel matrix dissolution rates that may ultimately control soluble-nuclide release rates. Flow-through tests are being developed as a potential supplemental method for determining the matrix component of soluble-nuclide dissolution. Advantages and disadvantages of both semi-static and flow-through methods are discussed. Tests with fuel specimens representing a range of potential fuel states that may occur in the repository, including oxidized fuel, are proposed. Preliminary results from flow-through tests with unirradiated UO 2 suggesting that matrix dissolution rates are very sensitive to water composition are also presented

  3. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Database on nuclide content of coal and gangue in Chinese coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liao Haitao; Wang Chunhong; Chen Ling; Liu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    The designing ides, structure, interface and basic function of a database are introduced of nuclide content of coal or gangue in Chinese coal mine. The design of the database adopts Sybase database system, and the database has the functions of making inquiries of keyword, classification and statistics, printing, data input which are achieved by using Power builder Language program. At the present, in this database, the data are collected on the radioactivity of natural radionuclide of 2043 coal, gangue and the other relative samples from various coal miners of all over the country. The database will provide the basic data for the environmental impact assessment of Chinese coal energy. (authors)

  5. An in-situ RBS system for measuring nuclides adsorbed at the liquid-solid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K; Yuhara, J; Ishigami, R [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; and others

    1997-03-01

    An in-situ RBS system has been developed in which heavier nuclides adsorbed at the inner surface of a thin lighter window specimen of liquid container in order to determine the rate constants for their sorption and release at the interface. The testing of a thin silicon window of the sample assembly, in which Xe gas of one atmosphere was enclosed, against the bombardment of the probing ion beam has been performed. A desorption behavior of a lead layer adsorbed at the SiO{sub 2} layer of silicon window surface into deionized water has been measured as a preliminary experiment. (author)

  6. 14CO2 analysis of soil gas: Evaluation of sample size limits and sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotte, Anja; Wischhöfer, Philipp; Wacker, Lukas; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 respired from soils or sediments is a valuable tool to identify different carbon sources. The collection and processing of the CO2, however, is challenging and prone to contamination. We thus continuously improve our handling procedures and present a refined method for the collection of even small amounts of CO2 in molecular sieve cartridges (MSCs) for accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analysis. Using a modified vacuum rig and an improved desorption procedure, we were able to increase the CO2 recovery from the MSC (95%) as well as the sample throughput compared to our previous study. By processing series of different sample size, we show that our MSCs can be used for CO2 samples of as small as 50 μg C. The contamination by exogenous carbon determined in these laboratory tests, was less than 2.0 μg C from fossil and less than 3.0 μg C from modern sources. Additionally, we tested two sampling devices for the collection of CO2 samples released from soils or sediments, including a respiration chamber and a depth sampler, which are connected to the MSC. We obtained a very promising, low process blank for the entire CO2 sampling and purification procedure of ∼0.004 F14C (equal to 44,000 yrs BP) and ∼0.003 F14C (equal to 47,000 yrs BP). In contrast to previous studies, we observed no isotopic fractionation towards lighter δ13C values during the passive sampling with the depth samplers.

  7. Multi-element analysis of small biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokita, E.; Cafmeyer, J.; Maenhaut, W.

    1983-01-01

    A method combining PIXE and INAA was developed to determine the elemental composition of small biological samples. The method needs virtually no sample preparation and less than 1 mg is sufficient for the analysis. The method was used for determining up to 18 elements in leaves taken from Cracow Herbaceous. The factors which influence the elemental composition of leaves and the possible use of leaves as an environmental pollution indicator are discussed

  8. Recommended practice for process sampling for partial pressure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, James E.; Ellefson, Robert E.; Raby, Bruce A.; Brucker, Gerardo A.; Waits, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    This Recommended Practice describes and recommends various procedures and types of apparatus for obtaining representative samples of process gases from >10 -2 Pa (10 -4 Torr) for partial pressure analysis using a mass spectrometer. The document was prepared by a subcommittee of the Recommended Practices Committee of the American Vacuum Society. The subcommittee was comprised of vacuum users and manufacturers of mass spectrometer partial pressure analyzers who have practical experience in the sampling of process gas atmospheres

  9. Nanoliter hemolymph sampling and analysis of individual adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyankarage, Sujeewa C; Featherstone, David E; Shippy, Scott A

    2012-05-15

    The fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is an extensively used and powerful, genetic model organism. However, chemical studies using individual flies have been limited by the animal's small size. Introduced here is a method to sample nanoliter hemolymph volumes from individual adult fruit-flies for chemical analysis. The technique results in an ability to distinguish hemolymph chemical variations with developmental stage, fly sex, and sampling conditions. Also presented is the means for two-point monitoring of hemolymph composition for individual flies.

  10. Current trends in sample preparation for cosmetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke

    2017-01-01

    The widespread applications of cosmetics in modern life make their analysis particularly important from a safety point of view. There is a wide variety of restricted ingredients and prohibited substances that primarily influence the safety of cosmetics. Sample preparation for cosmetic analysis is a crucial step as the complex matrices may seriously interfere with the determination of target analytes. In this review, some new developments (2010-2016) in sample preparation techniques for cosmetic analysis, including liquid-phase microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, pressurized liquid extraction, cloud point extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and microwave digestion, are presented. Furthermore, the research and progress in sample preparation techniques and their applications in the separation and purification of allowed ingredients and prohibited substances are reviewed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  12. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for 241 Am, 6569 for 137 Cs, 4535 for 239+240 Pu, 4431 for 90 Sr, 1146 for 238 Pu, 269 for 241 Pu, and 114 each for 239 Pu and 240 Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included

  13. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  14. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, W. Henry; Dzenitis, John M.; Bennet, William J.; Baker, Brian R.

    2014-08-19

    Herein provided are fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis. The fluidics platform is capable of analyzing DNA from blood samples using amplification assays such as polymerase-chain-reaction assays and loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification assays. The fluidics platform can also be used for other types of assays and analyzes. In some embodiments, a sample in a sealed tube can be inserted directly. The following isolation, detection, and analyzes can be performed without a user's intervention. The disclosed platform may also comprises a sample preparation system with a magnetic actuator, a heater, and an air-drying mechanism, and fluid manipulation processes for extraction, washing, elution, assay assembly, assay detection, and cleaning after reactions and between samples.

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  16. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site

  17. Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.C.

    1978-07-01

    The sampling procedures for geothermal fluids and gases include: sampling hot springs, fumaroles, etc.; sampling condensed brine and entrained gases; sampling steam-lines; low pressure separator systems; high pressure separator systems; two-phase sampling; downhole samplers; and miscellaneous methods. The recommended analytical methods compiled here cover physical properties, dissolved solids, and dissolved and entrained gases. The sequences of methods listed for each parameter are: wet chemical, gravimetric, colorimetric, electrode, atomic absorption, flame emission, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, spark source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and emission spectrometry. Material on correction of brine component concentrations for steam loss during flashing is presented. (MHR)

  18. Gamma spectroscopy analysis of archived Marshall Island soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.; Hoffman, K.; Lavelle, K.; Trauth, A.; Glover, S.E.; Connick, W.; Spitz, H.; LaMont, S.P.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four samples of archival Marshall Islands soil were subjected to non-destructive, broad energy (17 keV-2.61 MeV) gamma-ray spectrometry analysis using a series of different high-resolution germanium detectors. These archival samples were collected in 1967 from different locations on Bikini Atoll and were contaminated with a range of fission and activation products, and other nuclear material from multiple weapons tests. Unlike samples collected recently, these samples have been stored in sealed containers and have been unaffected by approximately 50 years of weathering. Initial results show that the samples contained measurable but proportionally different concentrations of plutonium, 241 Am, and 137 Cs, and 60 Co. (author)

  19. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  20. Improved mesh based photon sampling techniques for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relson, E.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Biondo, E. D.

    2013-01-01

    The design of fusion power systems requires analysis of neutron activation of large, complex volumes, and the resulting particles emitted from these volumes. Structured mesh-based discretization of these problems allows for improved modeling in these activation analysis problems. Finer discretization of these problems results in large computational costs, which drives the investigation of more efficient methods. Within an ad hoc subroutine of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, we implement sampling of voxels and photon energies for volumetric sources using the alias method. The alias method enables efficient sampling of a discrete probability distribution, and operates in 0(1) time, whereas the simpler direct discrete method requires 0(log(n)) time. By using the alias method, voxel sampling becomes a viable alternative to sampling space with the 0(1) approach of uniformly sampling the problem volume. Additionally, with voxel sampling it is straightforward to introduce biasing of volumetric sources, and we implement this biasing of voxels as an additional variance reduction technique that can be applied. We verify our implementation and compare the alias method, with and without biasing, to direct discrete sampling of voxels, and to uniform sampling. We study the behavior of source biasing in a second set of tests and find trends between improvements and source shape, material, and material density. Overall, however, the magnitude of improvements from source biasing appears to be limited. Future work will benefit from the implementation of efficient voxel sampling - particularly with conformal unstructured meshes where the uniform sampling approach cannot be applied. (authors)

  1. Analysis report for 241-BY-104 Auger samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-11-10

    This report describes the analysis of the surface crust samples taken from single-shell tank (SST) BY-104, suspected of containing ferrocyanide wastes. This sampling and analysis will assist in ascertaining whether there is any hazard due to combustion (burning) or explosion of these solid wastes. These characteristics are important to future efforts to characterize the salt and sludge in this type of waste tank. This report will outline the methodology and detail the results of analyses performed during the characterization of this material. All analyses were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company at the 222-S laboratory unless stated otherwise.

  2. Analysis report for 241-BY-104 Auger samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of the surface crust samples taken from single-shell tank (SST) BY-104, suspected of containing ferrocyanide wastes. This sampling and analysis will assist in ascertaining whether there is any hazard due to combustion (burning) or explosion of these solid wastes. These characteristics are important to future efforts to characterize the salt and sludge in this type of waste tank. This report will outline the methodology and detail the results of analyses performed during the characterization of this material. All analyses were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company at the 222-S laboratory unless stated otherwise

  3. Multielemental neutron activation analysis of some egyptian cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Soroor, A.; Hassan, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Multielemental analysis of normal, Karnak and sea-water cement samples were performed by neutron activation analysis technique using the (ET-R R-1) reactor for sample irradiation. The Data were collected and analysed by means of the (HPGe) detection system and a Pca computer. A total of 23 elements namely, Na, A1, C 1, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sr, Ba, La, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Ta, Au, Th and U were identified and analysed with concentrations ranging from 1 ppm upto 62% a comparison between the elemental concentrations of the three cement types is given. 2 tabs

  4. Nuclides.net: A computational environment for nuclear data and applications in radioprotection and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Galy, J.; Leutzenkirchen, K.

    2004-01-01

    An interactive multimedia tool, Nuclides.net, has been developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The Nuclides.net 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclides chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The product is particularly suitable for environmental radioprotection and radioecology. (authors)

  5. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, L; Dudkiewicz, A

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility

  6. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, L.; Dudkiewicz, A.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility.

  7. Toxicological Analysis of Some Drugs of Abuse in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Ciobanu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance in the case of an overdose, determining compliance of the treatment. The present paper aims to address the needs of healthcare professionals involved in drugs addiction treatment through systematic presentation of information regarding their toxicological analysis. Basically, it is a tool that help you to select the suitable biological sample and the right collecting time, as well as the proper analysis technique, depending on the purpose of analysis, pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drugs of abuse, available equipment and staff expertise.

  8. Exploring Technostress: Results of a Large Sample Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steponas Jonušauskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the results of a large sample factor analysis, the article aims to propose the frame examining technostress in a population. The survey and principal component analysis of the sample consisting of 1013 individuals who use ICT in their everyday work was implemented in the research. 13 factors combine 68 questions and explain 59.13 per cent of the answers dispersion. Based on the factor analysis, questionnaire was reframed and prepared to reasonably analyze the respondents’ answers, revealing technostress causes and consequences as well as technostress prevalence in the population in a statistically validated pattern. A key elements of technostress based on factor analysis can serve for the construction of technostress measurement scales in further research.

  9. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  10. Sample size determination for mediation analysis of longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haitao; Liu, Suyu; Miao, Danmin; Yuan, Ying

    2018-03-27

    Sample size planning for longitudinal data is crucial when designing mediation studies because sufficient statistical power is not only required in grant applications and peer-reviewed publications, but is essential to reliable research results. However, sample size determination is not straightforward for mediation analysis of longitudinal design. To facilitate planning the sample size for longitudinal mediation studies with a multilevel mediation model, this article provides the sample size required to achieve 80% power by simulations under various sizes of the mediation effect, within-subject correlations and numbers of repeated measures. The sample size calculation is based on three commonly used mediation tests: Sobel's method, distribution of product method and the bootstrap method. Among the three methods of testing the mediation effects, Sobel's method required the largest sample size to achieve 80% power. Bootstrapping and the distribution of the product method performed similarly and were more powerful than Sobel's method, as reflected by the relatively smaller sample sizes. For all three methods, the sample size required to achieve 80% power depended on the value of the ICC (i.e., within-subject correlation). A larger value of ICC typically required a larger sample size to achieve 80% power. Simulation results also illustrated the advantage of the longitudinal study design. The sample size tables for most encountered scenarios in practice have also been published for convenient use. Extensive simulations study showed that the distribution of the product method and bootstrapping method have superior performance to the Sobel's method, but the product method was recommended to use in practice in terms of less computation time load compared to the bootstrapping method. A R package has been developed for the product method of sample size determination in mediation longitudinal study design.

  11. Sampling and chemical analysis of groundwaters from the exploratory boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittwer, C.

    1986-10-01

    As a part of the Nagra geological investigation programme in northern Switzerland, numerous water samples were taken in the Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken, Schafisheim, Kaisten and Leuggern boreholes to obtain information on the chemistry and residence times of deep groundwaters. This report contains a compilation of hydrochemical data, comments on the individual water sampling actions and an evaluation of sample quality with respect to admixing of drilling fluids. The samples were taken from separate test intervals in the sediments and the crystalline rock. After removal of various types of drilling fluids such as mud as well as fresh water or deionised water during a cleaning phase, the samples were taken at the surface or at depth using pressure vessels. The tracers added to the drilling fluids (uranine, m-TFMBA) as well as the tritium content were used for a quantiative estimation of the content of drilling fluid in the samples (contamination). With a view fo further geochemical modelling, the samples were assessed with reference to the effect of contamination on the results of the chemical analyses. A total of 68 water samples were taken from 53 different intervals: - 27 samples had problem-free cleaning phases and were taken with negligible contamination. - 23 samples were taken under difficult conditions. Problems with hydraulic communication around packers, uncertain origin, inaccuracy as to extent of contamination, presence of cement, possible traces of salt from drilling fluid etc. meant that the analyses could only be used with extreme caution or after additional data-processing. - The analysis results from 18 samples will be disregarded due to significant drilling fluid content or because more reliable data are available for the same test interval. (author)

  12. Age determination of meteorites using radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the precise isotope ratios of some refractory elements in meteorites have been reported using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The in situ decay of 182 Hf (T 1/2 =9 Myr), which was produced at the latest nucleosynthesis, is recognized in many meteorites as isotopic anomalies of its daughter isotope, 182 W. The degrees of relative 182 W isotopic deviation in extra-terrestrial and terrestrial silicate samples vary from +0.3% to ±0% related to the size of their parent bodies. One ready interpretation of its correlation is the difference in timing of metal-silicate separation in the parent bodies. Between the earth and meteorite parent bodies, the difference is calculated to be about four times of the half-life of 182 Hf, equivalent to 36 Myr. (author)

  13. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK. Report on Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Klemola, S.; Saxen, R.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Moring, M.

    1994-12-01

    Radionuclide determinations on seventeen field trial test samples were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples, i.e., samples of sea water, grass and biota were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides. 3 H was determined in water, 90 Sr in grass and 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in biota samples. To avoid losses of radionuclides before gamma activity measurements, the sequence of treatments was adjusted considering the unknown radionuclide composition. The radionuclide contents found in the samples were roughly the same or lower than contents in same types of environmental samples in the Northern hemisphere. The ratios of Pu and Am nuclides in two of the biota samples referred to an origin other than the global atmospheric fallout. The work was carried out under Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards. (orig.) (21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.)

  14. Integral test of JENDL-3.2 data by re-analysis of sample reactivity measurements at SEG and STEK facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Sample reactivity measurements, which have been performed at the fast-thermal coupled facilities RRR/SEG and STEK, have been re-analyzed using the JNC route for reactor calculation JENDL-3.2 // SLAROM / CITATION / PERKY. C/E-values of central reactivity worths (CRW) of FP nuclides, structural materials, and standards are given. (author)

  15. DOSEmanPRO - active electronic online personal air sampler for detection of radon progeny long lived alpha nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Using the micro system - technology we developed a online personal air sampler not bigger than a mobile phone, to open a new dimension in personal dosimetry of inhaled radioactive aerosols. The DOSEman PRO containing an internal pump with a continuous air flow of 0.15 I/min sample the radon progeny or other nuclides on a millipore filter with excellent spectroscopic resolution. A 1.5 cm 2 light protected ion-implanted silicon detector analyses the alpha radiation at the filter. This small detector head contains also the pre amplification and pulse processing. The alpha radiation of the radon progeny and the long lived alpha nuclides is analyzed by a 60 channel spectrometer. The energy resolution of the online analyzed filter spectra is in the order of 150 keV. Mechanical and electronic design enables one to distinguish the long lived alpha nuclides from the radon and thoron progeny very easily. Using a special algorithm we correct the influence of the tailing of the radon progeny to the long lived alpha nuclides and take into consideration possible interference in determining the long lived alpha nuclides. Because of the air sampling volume of nearly 10 I/h, the system has a high efficiency. The detection limit by 2 hours sampling time is 0.05 Bq/m 3 alpha nuclide concentration. In a modified device for air sampling especially of long-lived alpha nuclides like uranium, radium or plutonium, the flow rate is increased to 0,3 1/min e.g. during a 10 h sampling period we can detect 0.005 Bq/m 3 in a low radon atmosphere. Assuming increased radon progeny concentration, the statistical error for the long lived alpha nuclides will be higher, but in most of the cases for use in nuclear facilities low radon concentrations are ambient conditions. This concept of an electronic personal air sampler with an alpha spectroscopy offers some outstanding advantages compared to passive dosimeters or off-line alpha air filters: The dose value and the nuclide concentration is

  16. Sample preparation techniques of biological material for isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axmann, H.; Sebastianelli, A.; Arrillaga, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Sample preparation is an essential step in all isotope-aided experiments but often it is not given enough attention. The methods of sample preparation are very important to obtain reliable and precise analytical data and for further interpretation of results. The size of a sample required for chemical analysis is usually very small (10mg-1500mg). On the other hand the amount of harvested plant material from plots in a field experiment is often bulky (several kilograms) and the entire sample is too large for processing. In addition, while approaching maturity many crops show not only differences in physical consistency but also a non-uniformity in 15 N content among plant parts, requiring a plant fractionation or separation into parts (vegetative and reproductive) e.g. shoots and spikes, in case of small grain cereals, shoots and pods in case of grain legumes and tops and roots or beets (including crown) in case of sugar beet, etc. In any case the ultimate goal of these procedures is to obtain representative subsample harvested from greenhouse or field experiments for chemical analysis. Before harvesting an isotopic-aided experiment the method of sampling has to be selected. It should be based on the type of information required in relation to the objectives of the research and the availability of resources (staff, sample preparation equipment, analytical facilities, chemicals and supplies, etc.). 10 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Modern methods of sample preparation for GC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, S.; Janssen, H.-G.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    2009-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of techniques is available for the preparation of (semi-) solid, liquid and gaseous samples, prior to their instrumental analysis by means of capillary gas chromatography (GC) or, increasingly, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC). In the past two decades, a large number

  18. Qualitative Analysis of Plant-Derived Samples by Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Currently, mass spectrometry has become an effective method for the qualitative analysis of plant-derived samples. Precursor and product ions can be obtained by tandem mass spectrometry, supplying rich information for determining the structural formulas of compounds. In this work, we review the optimization of ...

  19. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  20. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.240-94 Section 86.240-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  1. Quantitative analysis of light elements in thick samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    PIGE analysis of thick and intermediate samples is usually performed with the help of standards, but this method gives only good results when the standard is very similar to the sample to be analysed. In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of light elements in thick samples. This method is based on a code that integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For the integration procedure the sample is divided in sublayers, defined by the energy steps that were used to measure accurately the excitation function. This function is used as input. Within each sublayer the stopping power cross-sections may be assumed as constant. With these two conditions the calculus of the contribution of each sublayer for the total yield becomes an easy task. This work presents results for the analysis of lithium, boron, fluorine and sodium in thick samples. For this purpose, excitation functions of the reactions 7 Li(p,p ' γ) 7 Li, 19 F(p,p ' γ) 19 F, 10 B(p,αγ) 7 Be and 23 Na(p,p ' γ) 23 Na were employed. Calculated γ-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds of the referred elements. The agreement is better than 7.5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values used, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role

  2. Performance of a nuclide identification of HYPERGAM on the IAEA 2002 test spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. G.; Jung, N. S.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D.; Park, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    An important part of the γ-ray spectrum analysis software is the ability to identify radionuclides on the spectrum, and to determine activity of each radionuclide. Rapid determination and a low number of missing and false hit are required to the γ-ray spectrum analysis software to be useful. HyperGam has been developed to analyze an HPGe γ-ray spectrum by Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University. Through a series of subsequent studies, the on-line analysis as well as the off-line analysis was possible. In addition, the automatic algorithm of nuclide identification has been developed to identify the peaks on the spectrum considering with yield, efficiency, energy and peak area of the γ-ray line from radionuclide. In this study, the performance of the nuclide identification of HyperGam is tested by using the IAEA 2002 set of test spectra and is compared to the well-known γ-ray spectrum analysis software

  3. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.

    1983-01-01

    A fast method for the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples is described. The method is intended for samples having background concentrations of gold. The method is based on the dissolution of samples with hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia followed by the dissolution of the fluorides with boric acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold is then adsorbed on activated carbon by filtrating the solution through a thin carbon layer. The activity measurements are carried out using a Ge(Li)-detector and a multichannel analyzer. The chemical yields of the separation determined by reirradiation vary between 60 and 90%. The detection limit of the method is 0.2 ng/g gold in rock samples. USGS standard rocks and exploration reference materials are analyzed and the results are presented and compared with literature data. (author)

  4. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, E.

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [fr

  5. Hepatic mitochondrial function analysis using needle liver biopsy samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J J Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. METHODS: An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean. Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n = 6 each showed low coefficient of variation (<10% in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR. Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function.

  6. Enhanced Sampling and Analysis, Selection of Technology for Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, John; Meikrantz, David

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this study includes the investigation of sampling technologies used in industry and their potential application to nuclear fuel processing. The goal is to identify innovative sampling methods using state of the art techniques that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements. This report details the progress made in the first half of FY 2010 and includes a further consideration of the research focus and goals for this year. Our sampling options and focus for the next generation sampling method are presented along with the criteria used for choosing our path forward. We have decided to pursue the option of evaluating the feasibility of microcapillary based chips to remotely collect, transfer, track and supply microliters of sample solutions to analytical equipment in support of aqueous processes for used nuclear fuel cycles. Microchip vendors have been screened and a choice made for the development of a suitable microchip design followed by production of samples for evaluation by ANL, LANL, and INL on an independent basis.

  7. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  8. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  9. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  11. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  12. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  13. Secondary Analysis under Cohort Sampling Designs Using Conditional Likelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Saarela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Under cohort sampling designs, additional covariate data are collected on cases of a specific type and a randomly selected subset of noncases, primarily for the purpose of studying associations with a time-to-event response of interest. With such data available, an interest may arise to reuse them for studying associations between the additional covariate data and a secondary non-time-to-event response variable, usually collected for the whole study cohort at the outset of the study. Following earlier literature, we refer to such a situation as secondary analysis. We outline a general conditional likelihood approach for secondary analysis under cohort sampling designs and discuss the specific situations of case-cohort and nested case-control designs. We also review alternative methods based on full likelihood and inverse probability weighting. We compare the alternative methods for secondary analysis in two simulated settings and apply them in a real-data example.

  14. Controlled sample program publication No. 1: characterization of rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    A description is presented of the methodology used and the geologic parameters measured on several rocks which are being used in round-robin laboratory and nuclide adsorption methodology experiments. Presently investigators from various laboratories are determining nuclide distribution coefficients utilizing numerous experimental techniques. Unfortunately, it appears that often the resultant data are dependent not only on the type of groundwater and rock utilized, but also on the experimentor or method used. The Controlled Sample Program is a WISAP (Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program) attempt to resolve the apparent method and dependencies and to identify individual experimenter's bias. The rock samples characterized in an interlaboratory Kd methodology comparison program include Westerly granite, Argillaceous shale, Oolitic limestone, Sentinel Gap basalt, Conasauga shale, Climax Stock granite, anhydrite, Magenta dolomite and Culebra dolomite. Techniques used in the characterization include whole rock chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical examination, electron microprobe elemental mapping, and chemical analysis of specific mineral phases. Surface areas were determined by the B.E.T. and ethylene glycol sorption methods. Cation exchange capacities were determined with 85 Sr, but were of questionable value for the high calcium rocks. A quantitative mineralogy was also estimated for each rock. Characteristics which have the potential of strongly affecting radionuclide Kd values such as the presence of sulfides, water-soluble, pH-buffering carbonates, glass, and ferrous iron were listed for each rock sample

  15. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  16. Capability of minor nuclide confinement in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Mineo, Hideaki; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide

    1999-01-01

    Experiment with spent fuels has started with the small scale reprocessing facility in NUCEF-BECKY αγ cell. Primary purpose of the experiment is to study the capability of long-lived nuclide confinement both in the PUREX flow sheet applied to the large scale reprocessing plant and also in the PARC (Partitioning Conundrum key process) flow sheet which is our proposal as a simplified reprocessing of one cycle extraction system. Our interests in the experiment are the behaviors of minor long-lived nuclides and the behaviors of the heterogeneous substances, such as sedimentation in the dissolver, organic cruds in the extraction banks. The significance of those behaviors will be assessed from the standpoint of the process safety of reprocessing for high burn-up fuels and MOX fuels. (author)

  17. A GoldSim Model for Colloid Facilitated Nuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-01-01

    Recently several total system performance assessment (TSPA) programs, called 'template' programs, ready for the safety assessment of radioactive waste repository systems which are conceptually modeled have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. It is generally believed that chelating agents (chelators) that could be disposed of together with radioactive wastes in the repository and natural colloids available in the geological media affect on nuclides by enhancing their transport in the geological media. A simple GoldSim module to evaluate such quantitative effects, by which colloid and chelator-facilitated nuclide release cases could be modeled and evaluated is introduced. Effects of the chelators alone are illustrated with the case associated with well pumping scenario in a hypothetical repository system

  18. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  19. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant

  20. Long-term behaviour of radioactive nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Report of recent advances in Europe, regarding the long-term development of radioactive nuclides in the environment. The corresponding scientific findings from three projects - Peace, Landscape and Epora (involving 18 European laboratories) - have been collected together. These projects were managed by the IPSN for the European Commission (DG XII) in the framework of the programme 'Surete de la fission nucleaire' (Nuclear fission safety programme). (author)

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  2. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  3. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B F [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A P [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  4. Calculated nuclide production yields in relativistic collisions of fissile nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Grewe, A.; Jong, M. de [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Zhdanov, S. [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1997-11-01

    A model calculation is presented which predicts the complex nuclide distribution resulting from peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions involving fissile nuclei. The model is based on a modern version of the abrasion-ablation model which describes the formation of excited prefragments due to the nuclear collisions and their consecutive decay. The competition between the evaporation of different light particles and fission is computed with an evaporation code which takes dissipative effects and the emission of intermediate-mass fragments into account. The nuclide distribution resulting from fission processes is treated by a semiempirical description which includes the excitation-energy dependent influence of nuclear shell effects and pairing correlations. The calculations of collisions between {sup 238}U and different reaction partners reveal that a huge number of isotopes of all elements up to uranium is produced. The complex nuclide distribution shows the characteristics of fragmentation, mass-asymmetric low-energy fission and mass-symmetric high-energy fission. The yields of the different components for different reaction partners are studied. Consequences for technical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Method of processing radioactive nuclide-containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Masahide; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo; Suzuki, Kazunori; Todo, Fukuzo; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive nuclides in to a much compact state and facilitate the storage. Method: Liquid wastes such as drain liquids generated from a nuclear power plant at a low density of 1 x 10 -6 - 10 -4 μCi/ml are previously brought into contact with a chelate type ion exchange resin such as of phenolic resin or ion exchange resin to adsorb the radioactive nuclides on the resin and the nuclides are eluted with sulfuric acid or the like to obtain liquid concentrates. The liquid concentrates are electrolyzed in an ordinary electrolytic facility using platinum or the like as the anode, Al or the like as the cathode, under the presence of 1 - 20 g/l of non-radioactive heavy metals such as Co and Ni in the liquid and while adjusting pH to 2 - 8. The electrolysis liquid residue is returned again to the electrolysis tank as it is or in the form of precipitates coagulated with a polymeric floculant. The supernatant liquid upon floculating treatment is processed with the chelate type ion exchange resin into hazardless liquid. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Modelling the reactive-path between pyrite and radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Wu Shijun; Dou Shunmei; Chen Fanrong; Yang Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of redox sensitive nuclides is largely dependent on their valence state. The radionuclides that make the dominant contributions to final dose calculations are redox sensitive. Almost all the radionuclides (except 129 I) have higher mobility at high valence state, and correspond to immobilization at low valence state due to the much lower solubility. Pyrite is an ubiquitous and stable mineral in geological environment, and would be used as a low-cost long time reductant for the immobilization of radionuclides. However, pyrite oxidation is supposed to generate acid, which will enhance the mobility of nuclides. In this paper, the reaction path of the reactions between radionuclides (U, Se and Tc) and pyrite in the groundwater from Wuyi well in Beishan area of China has been simulated using geochemical modeling software. According to the results, pyrite can reduce high valence nuclides to a dinky-level effectively, with the pH slightly increasing under anaerobic condition that is common in deep nuclear waste repositories. (authors)

  7. Transient nuclide release through the bentonite barrier -SKB 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, A.; Widen, H.

    1991-05-01

    A study of near-field radionuclide migration is presented. The study has been performed in the context of the SKB91 study which is a comprehensive performance assessment of disposal of spent fuel. The objective of the present study has been to enable the assessment of which nuclides can be screened out because they decay to insignificant levels already in the near-field of the repository. A numerical model has been used which describes the transient transport of radionuclides through a small hole in a HLW canister imbedded in bentonite clay into a fracture in the rock outside the bentonite. Calculations for more than twenty nuclides, nuclides with both high and low solubility have been made. The effect of sorption in the bentonite backfill is included. The size of the penetration hole was assumed to be constant up to time when the calculations were terminated, 500000 year after the deposition. The mass transport rate is controlled by diffusion. The model is three dimensional. The report describes the geometry of the modelled system, the assumptions concerning the transport resistances at the boundary conditions, the handling of the source term and obtained release curves. (au)

  8. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the 'Mayak' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  9. Dynamic Headspace Sampling as an Initial Step for Sample Preparation in Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnowski, Wojciech; Majchrzak, Tomasz; Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    This work represents a brief summary of the use of dynamic headspace (DHS) as a technique for sample preparation in chromatographic analysis. Despite numerous developments in the area of analyte isolation and enrichment, DHS remains one of the fundamental methods used with GC. In our opinion, interest in this technique will not diminish significantly because it conforms to stipulations of green analytical chemistry. Moreover, DHS fulfills the need for methods that facilitate detection and determination of analytes present at ultratrace levels in complex matrixes. The main focus of this work was placed on the theoretical fundamentals of this method. Also described herein were DHS development, the advantages and disadvantages of this technique compared with other headspace sampling techniques, and selected examples of its applications in food and environmental analyses.

  10. Enhanced spot preparation for liquid extractive sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; King, Richard C.

    2015-09-22

    A method for performing surface sampling of an analyte, includes the step of placing the analyte on a stage with a material in molar excess to the analyte, such that analyte-analyte interactions are prevented and the analyte can be solubilized for further analysis. The material can be a matrix material that is mixed with the analyte. The material can be provided on a sample support. The analyte can then be contacted with a solvent to extract the analyte for further processing, such as by electrospray mass spectrometry.

  11. Automatic sample changer for neutron activation analysis at CDTN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimore Dutra Neto; Oliveira Pelaes, Ana Clara; Jacimovic, Radojko

    2018-01-01

    An automatic sample changer was recently developed and installed in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory. The certified reference material BCR-320R, Channel Sediment, was analysed in order to verify the reliability of the results obtained by NAA, k 0 -standardisation method, using this automatic system during the gamma-ray measurement step. The results were compared to those manually obtained. The values pointed out that the automatic sample changer is working properly. This changer will increase the productiveness of the neutron activation technique applied at Nuclear Technology Development Centre, CDTN/CNEN expanding its competitiveness as an analytical technique in relation to other techniques. (author)

  12. 200 Area TEDF effluent sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaconis, W.C.; Ballantyne, N.A.; Boom, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    This sampling analysis sets forth the effluent sampling requirements, analytical methods, statistical analyses, and reporting requirements to satisfy the State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST4502 for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. These requirements are listed below: Determine the variability in the effluent of all constituents for which enforcement limits, early warning values and monitoring requirements; demonstrate compliance with the permit; and verify that BAT/AKART (Best Available Technology/All know and Reasonable Treatment) source, treatment, and technology controls are being met

  13. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Song, Byung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2011-01-01

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241 Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  14. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  15. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Christopher R.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Arvey, Robert; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupled through solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on the same samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In addition to measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conduct a sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction from sieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rover's robotic arm,

  16. Application of WSP method in analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacho, M.; Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.; Sojak, S.; Krnac, S.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of activity in natural samples is specific especially because of its low level and high background interferences. Reduction of background interferences could be reached using low background chamber. Measurement geometry in shape of Marinelli beaker is commonly used according to low level of activity in natural samples. The Peak Net Area (PNA) method is the world-wide accepted technique for analysis of gamma-ray spectra. It is based on the net area calculation of the full energy peak, therefore, it takes into account only a fraction of measured gamma-ray spectrum. On the other hand, the Whole Spectrum Processing (WSP) approach to the gamma analysis makes possible to use entire information being in the spectrum. This significantly raises efficiency and improves energy resolution of the analysis. A principal step for the WSP application is building up the suitable response operator. Problems are put in an appearance when suitable standard calibration sources are unavailable. It may be occurred in the case of large volume samples and/or in the analysis of high energy range. Combined experimental and mathematical calibration may be a suitable solution. Many different detectors have been used to register the gamma ray and its energy. HPGe detectors produce the highest resolution commonly available today. Therefore they are they the most often used detectors in natural samples activity analysis. Scintillation detectors analysed using PNA method could be also used in simple cases, but for complicated spectra are practically inapplicable. WSP approach improves resolution of scintillation detectors and expands their applicability. WSP method allowed significant improvement of the energetic resolution and separation of "1"3"7Cs 661 keV peak from "2"1"4Bi 609 keV peak. At the other hand the statistical fluctuations in the lower part of the spectrum highlighted by background subtraction causes that this part is still not reliably analyzable. (authors)

  17. Computer programs to make a Chart of the nuclides for WWW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Horiguchi, Takayoshi

    1999-06-01

    Computer programs to make a chart of the nuclides for World Wide Web (WWW) have been developed. The programs make a data file for WWW chart of the nuclides from a data file containing nuclide information in the format similar to ENSDF, by filling unknown half-lives with calculated ones. Then, the WWW chart of the nuclides in the gif format is created from the data file. The programs to make html files and image map files, to select a chart of selected nuclides, and to show various information of nuclides are included in the system. All the programs are written in C language. This report describes the formats of files, the programs and 1998 issue of Chart of the Nuclides made by means of the present programs. (author)

  18. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  19. Deep ground water microbiology in Swedish granite rock and it's relevance for radio-nuclide migration from a Swedish high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1989-03-01

    Data on numbers, species and activity of deep ground water microbial populations in Swedish granite rock have been collected. Specific studies are performed on radio-nuclid uptake on bacteria judge to be probable inhabitants in Swedish nuclear waste repositories. An integrated mobile field laboratory was used for water sampling and for the immediate counting and inoculation of the samples from boreholes at levels between 129 and 860 m. A sampler adapted for the collection of undisturbed samples for gas analysis was used to collect samples for bacterial enumerations and enrichments. The sampler can be opened and closed from the surface at the actual sampling depth. The samples can subsequently be brought to the surface without contact with air and with the pressure at the actual sampling depth. The number of bacteria were determined in samples from the gas sampler when this was possible. Else numbers are determined in the water that is pumped up to the field lab. The average total number of bacteria is 3 x 10 5 bacterial ml -1 . The number of bacteria possible to recover with plate count arrays from 0.10 to 21.9%. (author)

  20. Compatibility grab sampling and analysis plan for fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. Analytical requirements are taken from two revisions of the Compatibility data quality objectives (DQOs). Revision 1 of the DQO (Fowler 1995) listed analyses to be performed to meet both safety and operational data needs for the Compatibility program. Revision 2A of the DQO (Mulkey and Miller 1998) addresses only the safety-related requirements; the operational requirements of Fowler (1995) have not been superseded by Mulkey and Miller (1998). Therefore, safety-related data needs are taken from Mulkey and Miller (1998) and operational-related data needs are taken from Fowler (1995). Ammonia and total alpha analyses are also performed in accordance with Fowler (1998a, 1998b)

  1. Semiautomatic exchanger of samples for carry out neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.; Quintana C, G.; Torres R, C. E.; Mejia J, J. O.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the design methodology and implementation of a semiautomatic exchanger of samples for the Analysis Laboratory by Neutron Activation of the Reactor department is presented. Taking into account the antecedents, the necessities of improvement are described, as well as the equipment that previously contained the Laboratory. The project of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples was developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, with its own technology to increase independence from commercial equipment. Each element of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples is described both in the design phase as construction. The achieved results are positive and encouraging for the fulfillment of the proposed objective that is to increase the capacity of the Laboratory. (Author)

  2. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis on ancient chinese Ru porcelains samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Xiande

    1997-01-01

    Altogether 28 samples, mainly including glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, were analyzed by NAA technique and the contents of 36 elements were compared. The scatter analysis for nine fingerprint-elements indicates that almost all ancient Chinese Ru porcelain samples had nearly identical and long-term stable source of raw materials although they were fired in different kilns, at varying time and with distinct colors, and moreover, the source of raw materials for modern Ru porcelain seems to approach that for ancient one. The close provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is also preliminarily verified. The glaze material of Jingdezhen white porcelain is totally different from all other samples. It shows that the former came from a separate source

  3. Cosmogenic nuclide shielding corrections determined via MCNPX radiation transport and spallation cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    Cosmogenic Nuclides (CNs) are a critical new tool for geomorphology, allowing researchers to date Earth surface events and measure process rates [1]. Prior to CNs, many of these events and processes had no absolute method for measurement and relied entirely on relative methods. Reliable absolute measurement methods impact research constraining ice age extents and provide important climatic data via well constrained erosion rates, etc. [2]. Continuing to improve CN methods is critical for these sciences. Significant progress has been made in the last two decades in refining the method and reducing analytic uncertainties [1,3]. CRONUS-Earth, a collaboration of cosmogenic nuclide researchers, has been developing calibration data and scaling methods to provide a self-consistent platform for use in interpreting nuclide concentration values into geologic data. However, several aspects of the radiation cascade have been exceedingly difficult to measure empirically with either accuracy or spatial extent. One such aspect is the angular distribution of secondary cosmic rays that are energetic enough to produce cosmogenic nuclides via spallation. Researchers studying the angular distribution of such cosmic rays have usually described the distribution as (cos(Θ))^m. Currently, the standard corrections, assume an m of 2.3, which is based on very sparse data sets with very limited spatial and altitude variation [1,4,5]. Researchers using CNs must know the production rate at the sample location, and then make corrections for the portion of the sky that is blocked by nearby topography. If the shielding correction model currently used is too simplistic, this introduces error into the final results. In this study, a Monte Carlo method radiation transport code, MCNPX is used to model the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) radiation impinging on the upper atmosphere and tracks the resulting secondary particles through a model of the Earth's atmosphere. Angle and energy distributions are

  4. Improvements and experience in the analysis of reprocessing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Cricchio, A.; Meester, R. de; Romkowski, M.; Wilhelmi, M.; Arenz, H.J.; Stijl, E. van der; Baeckmann, A. von

    1976-01-01

    Improvements in the analysis of input samples for reprocessing were obtained. To cope with the decomposition of reprocessing input solutions owling to the high radioactivity, an aluminium capsule technique was developed. A known amount of the dissolver solution was weighed into an aluminium can, dried, and the capsule was sealed. In this form, the sample could be stored over a long period and could be redissolved later for the analysis. The isotope correlation technique offers an attractive alternative for measuring the plutonium isotopic content in the dissolver solution. Moreover, this technique allows for consistency checks of analytical results. For this purpose, a data bank of correlated isotopic data is in use. To improve the efficiency of analytical work, four automatic instruments have been developed. The conditioning of samples for the U-Pu isotopic measurement was achieved by an automatic ion exchanger. A mass spectrometer, to which a high vacuum lock is connected, allows the automatic measurement of U-Pu samples. A process-computer controls the heating, focusing and scanning processes during the measurement and evaluates the data. To ease the data handling, alpha-spectrometry as well as a balance have been automated. (author)

  5. Informational analysis for compressive sampling in radar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxiong; Yang, Ke

    2015-03-24

    Compressive sampling or compressed sensing (CS) works on the assumption of the sparsity or compressibility of the underlying signal, relies on the trans-informational capability of the measurement matrix employed and the resultant measurements, operates with optimization-based algorithms for signal reconstruction and is thus able to complete data compression, while acquiring data, leading to sub-Nyquist sampling strategies that promote efficiency in data acquisition, while ensuring certain accuracy criteria. Information theory provides a framework complementary to classic CS theory for analyzing information mechanisms and for determining the necessary number of measurements in a CS environment, such as CS-radar, a radar sensor conceptualized or designed with CS principles and techniques. Despite increasing awareness of information-theoretic perspectives on CS-radar, reported research has been rare. This paper seeks to bridge the gap in the interdisciplinary area of CS, radar and information theory by analyzing information flows in CS-radar from sparse scenes to measurements and determining sub-Nyquist sampling rates necessary for scene reconstruction within certain distortion thresholds, given differing scene sparsity and average per-sample signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Simulated studies were performed to complement and validate the information-theoretic analysis. The combined strategy proposed in this paper is valuable for information-theoretic orientated CS-radar system analysis and performance evaluation.

  6. Analysis of sample γ-spectrometry with mathematic simulating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; He Xijun; Peng Taiping; Yang Gaozhao; Wang Wenchuan; Feng Chun

    2005-01-01

    When a sample contains various energy γ-rays, its peak area records not only the events of optical-electronic effect but also the Compton scattering events of higher energy γ-rays. So the γ-ray intensity conducted by the peak area can not be gained. Using the anti-matrix method, the better results of analysis on the γ-spectrometry can be obtained. (authors)

  7. Thermomagnetic analysis of the initial permeability in magnetite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniquez, J.; Francisco, C. de; Munoz, J.M.; Sanchez, O.

    1987-01-01

    A study on the thermomagnetic analysis of the initial permeability in magnetite samples and its dependence with the sintering conditions is presented. The measurements, for temperatures ranging from liquid nitrogen to the Curie temperature, were performed with the help of a very simple system which is also described here. The experimental results allow us to consider this study as a sensitive test of the sintering conditions (author) 21 refs

  8. [Progress on Determination and Analysis of Zopiclone in Biological Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, C X; Gong, D; Zhang, L P; Zhao, J X

    2017-12-01

    As a new hypnotic, zopiclone is widely used in clinical treatment. There are many methods for determination of zopiclone, including spectrophotometry, chromatography and chromatography mass spectrum, etc. Present paper reviews different kinds of biological samples associated with zopiclone, extraction and purification methods, and determination and analysis methods, which aims to provide references for the relevant research and practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document

  10. Preparation of hair and nail samples for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoble, H.A.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    The method of washing of human hair and nail samples is examined by neutron activation and γ-ray analysis. The amounts of Na, K, Br, Au, Zn, and La that are removed by successive washings determine the optimum number of washing for removing these trace elements as surface contaminants. A total solution contact time with the nails is 5 minutes, and leaching effcts are observed after 6 washings

  11. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S. M.; Itawi, R. K.; Saad, A; Shihab, K. M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi food analysis program (IFAP) the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA techniques. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb, and Br the concentrations of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milk and milk powder. (author)

  12. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S.M.; Itawi, R.K.; Saad, A.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples was determined by NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both natural milk and milk powders. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  14. Toxicological Analysis of Some Drugs of Abuse in Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Marie Ciobanu; Daniela Baconi; Cristian Bălălău; Carolina Negrei; Miriana Stan; Maria Bârcă

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance ...

  15. Analysis of soil samples from OMRE decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, O.D.; Chapin, J.A.; Hine, R.E.; Mandler, J.W.; Orme, M.P.; Soli, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    In order to establish that the present Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) site does not exceed the criteria for radioactive contamination, samples obtained from the remainder of the facility that was not removed such as soil, concrete pads, various structural materials, and the leach pond area were analyzed to determine their radioactive content. The results of the analyses performed on soil samples are presented. Results of this study indicate that the activity at the OMRE decommissioned area is confined to localized areas (i.e., the leach pond area and reactor area). Comparisons of radionuclide concentrations measured in soil taken from the lip of the leach pond with concentrations in soil obtained outside the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site boundaries indicate that the concentration in the soil at the edge of the leach pond is at background levels. The vertical augering technique was determined to be the best approach for obtaining shallow soil samples at the INEL. Selection of this technique was based on ease of operation and analytical results. Less area is disturbed per sample than with the horizontal trenching and coring techniques. The radionuclide analysis of the samples shows the existence of a few regions in the reactor and leach pond areas that were still above INEL release criteria. These regions have been or are being further decontaminated

  16. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding

  17. Improved sampling and analysis of images in corneal confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaldemose, E L; Fontain, F I; Karlsson, P; Nyengaard, J R

    2017-10-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive clinical method to analyse and quantify corneal nerve fibres in vivo. Although the CCM technique is in constant progress, there are methodological limitations in terms of sampling of images and objectivity of the nerve quantification. The aim of this study was to present a randomized sampling method of the CCM images and to develop an adjusted area-dependent image analysis. Furthermore, a manual nerve fibre analysis method was compared to a fully automated method. 23 idiopathic small-fibre neuropathy patients were investigated using CCM. Corneal nerve fibre length density (CNFL) and corneal nerve fibre branch density (CNBD) were determined in both a manual and automatic manner. Differences in CNFL and CNBD between (1) the randomized and the most common sampling method, (2) the adjusted and the unadjusted area and (3) the manual and automated quantification method were investigated. The CNFL values were significantly lower when using the randomized sampling method compared to the most common method (p = 0.01). There was not a statistical significant difference in the CNBD values between the randomized and the most common sampling method (p = 0.85). CNFL and CNBD values were increased when using the adjusted area compared to the standard area. Additionally, the study found a significant increase in the CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method compared to the automatic method (p ≤ 0.001). The study demonstrated a significant difference in the CNFL values between the randomized and common sampling method indicating the importance of clear guidelines for the image sampling. The increase in CNFL and CNBD values when using the adjusted cornea area is not surprising. The observed increases in both CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method of nerve quantification compared to the automatic method are consistent with earlier findings. This study underlines the importance of improving the analysis of the

  18. Electrodeposition as a sample preparation technique for TXRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesel, S.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2000-01-01

    TXRF analysis of trace elements at concentrations in the μg/L range and below in high salt matrices normally requires a number of sample preparation steps that include separation of the salt matrix and preconcentration of the trace elements. A neat approach which allows samples to be prepared straightforwardly in a single step involves the application of electrochemical deposition using the TXRF sample support itself as an electrode. For this work a common three-electrode arrangement (radiometer analytical) with a rotating disc electrode as the working electrode, as is frequently employed in voltametric analysis, has been used. A special electrode tip has been constructed as a holder for the sample carrier which consists of polished glassy carbon. This material has been proven to be suitable for both its electrical and chemical properties. Measurements of the trace elements were performed using the ATOMIKA 8030C TXRF spectrometer, with the option of variable incident angles. In first experiments an artificial sea water matrix containing various trace elements in the μg/L range has been used. Elements such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb deposited on glassy carbon carriers. The deposition can be optimized by controlling the potential of the working electrode with respect to the reference electrode. Metal ions with a suitable standard potential are reduced to the metallic state and plated onto the electrode surface. When deposition is finished the sample carrier is demounted, rinsed with ultra-pure water and measured directly. Deposition yields for the elements under investigation are quite similar, and with an appropriate choice of the reference element, quantification can be achieved directly by internal standardization. The influence of parameters such as time, pH value, and trace element concentration on the deposition yield has been examined, and the results will be presented along with reproducibility studies. (author)

  19. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK/II. Second report on task FIN A 847 of the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.; Klemola, S.

    1995-06-01

    Radionuclide determinations of 35 environmental samples of eight different materials were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides, 90 Sr, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu. In most of the samples the found radionuclide contents were roughly at the same levels as in the same types of environmental samples in the northern hemisphere. However, some samples of grass, moss, lichen and sheep faeces showed exceptionally great contents of radionuclides measured. The maximum contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu were found in the sam individual samples. The ratios of nuclide concentrations in these samples also deviated from ratios in other samples. This referred to an origin of these nuclides other than the global fallout. The work was a continuation to the study carried out under the Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguard. (orig.) (1 ref., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  20. Sample preparation procedure for PIXE elemental analysis on soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, B.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Lekka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed. The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples. (author)

  1. Analysis of the Retained Gas Sample (RGS) Extruder Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    In order for the Retained Gas Sample (RGS) Extruder Assembly to be safely used it was determined by the cognizant engineer that analysis was necessary. The use of the finite-element analysis (FEA) progarm COSMOS/M version 1.71 permitted a quick, easy, and detailed stress analysis of the RGS Extruder Assembly. The FEA model is a three dimensional model using the SHELL4T element type. From the results of the FEA, the cognizant engineer determined that the RGS extruder would be rated at 10,000 lbf and load tested to 12,000 lbf. The respective input and output files for the model are EXTR02.GFM and EXTR02.OUT and can be found on the attached tape

  2. Failure analysis of burst tested fuel tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaprabu, C.; Ramana Rao, S.V.; Srivatsava, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Total Circumferential Elongation (TCE) is an important parameter for evaluation of ductility of the Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes for the PHWR reactors. The TCE values of the fuel tubes were obtained using the burst testing technique. In some lots there is a variation in the values of the TCE. To investigate the reasons for such a large variation in the TCE, samples were selected at appropriate intervals and sectioned at the fractured portion. The surface morphology of the fractured surfaces was examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The morphologies show segregation of elements at specific locations. Energy dispersive spectra was obtained from those segregated particles. According to the magnitude of TCE value the samples were classified into low, intermediate and high ductility. Low ductility samples were found to contain large amount of segregations along the thickness direction of the tube. This forms a brittle region and a path for the easy crack growth along thickness direction. In the case of intermediate samples the segregation occurred in fewer locations compared to low ductile samples and also confined to the circumferential direction of the outside surface of the tube. Due to this, probability of crack formation at the surface of the tube could be high. But crack growth would be slower in the ductile matrix along the thickness direction resulting in the enhancement of TCE value compared to the low ductile sample. In the high ductile samples, the segregations were very scarce and found to be isolated and embedded in the ductile matrix. The mode of failure in these types of samples was found to be purely ductile. Cracks were found to originate solely from the micro voids in the material. As the probability of crack formation and its propagation is low, very high TCE values were observed in these samples. Microstructural observations of fractured surfaces and EDAX analysis was able to identify the

  3. Neogene basin infilling from cosmogenic nuclides (10Be and 21Ne) in Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Caroline; Regard, Vincent; Carretier, Sébastien; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Campos, Eduardo; Brichau, Stéphanie; Lupker, Marteen; Hérail, Gérard

    2017-04-01

    In the hyperarid Atacama Desert, northern Chile, Neogene sediments host copper rich layers (exotic supergene mineralization). Current mines are excavated into relatively thin (production (quickly decreasing with depth) and disintegration (not for 21Ne). Sampling depths are at ˜100 m and at ˜50 m below the desert surface. First, 21Ne gives lower boundaries for upstream erosion rates or local sedimentation rate. These bounds are between 2 and 10 m/Ma, which is quite important for the area. The ratio between the two cosmogenic nuclides indicate a maximum burial age of 12 Ma (minimal erosion rate of 15 m/Ma) and is surprisingly similar from bottom to top, indicating a probable rapid infilling. We finally processed a Monte-Carlo inversion. This inversion helps taking into account the post-deposition muonic production of cosmogenic nuclides. Inversion results is dependent on the muonic production scheme. Interestingly, the similarity in concentrations from bottom to top pleads for quite low production at depth. Our data finally indicates a quick infilling between 12.5 and 10 Ma BP accounting for ˜100 m of deposition (minimum sedimentation rate of 40 m/Ma).

  4. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs.

  5. Progress on multi-nuclide AMS of JAEA-AMS-TONO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Miyake, Masayasu; Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Ohwaki, Yoshio; Nishio, Tomohiro; Sanada, Katsuki; Hanaki, Tatsumi

    2015-10-01

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO (Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Accelerator Mass Spectrometer established at the Tono Geoscience Center) facility has been used for the dating of geological samples. The AMS system is versatile, based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron-type accelerator. Since its establishment in 1997, the AMS system has been used for measurement of carbon-14 (14C) mainly for 14C dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of JAEA's research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Results of the measurement of 14C in soils and plants has been applied to the dating of fault activity and volcanism. Development of beryllium-10 (10Be) and aluminum-26 (26Al) AMS systems are now underway to enhance the capability of the multi-nuclide AMS in studies of dating by cosmogenic nuclides. The 10Be-AMS system has already been used for routine measurements in applied studies and improvements of the measurement technique have been made. Now we plan to fine tune the system and perform test measurements to develop the 26Al-AMS system.

  6. Progress on multi-nuclide AMS of JAEA-AMS-TONO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito-Kokubu, Yoko, E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Matsubara, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Miyake, Masayasu; Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Ohwaki, Yoshio; Nishio, Tomohiro; Sanada, Katsuki [Pesco Corp., Ltd., Toki, Gifu 509-5123 (Japan); Hanaki, Tatsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO (Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s Accelerator Mass Spectrometer established at the Tono Geoscience Center) facility has been used for the dating of geological samples. The AMS system is versatile, based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron-type accelerator. Since its establishment in 1997, the AMS system has been used for measurement of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) mainly for {sup 14}C dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of JAEA’s research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Results of the measurement of {sup 14}C in soils and plants has been applied to the dating of fault activity and volcanism. Development of beryllium-10 ({sup 10}Be) and aluminum-26 ({sup 26}Al) AMS systems are now underway to enhance the capability of the multi-nuclide AMS in studies of dating by cosmogenic nuclides. The {sup 10}Be-AMS system has already been used for routine measurements in applied studies and improvements of the measurement technique have been made. Now we plan to fine tune the system and perform test measurements to develop the {sup 26}Al-AMS system.

  7. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author)

  8. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs

  9. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A; Aguero, A; Pinedo, P

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs.

  10. Analysis of polychlorinated n-alkanes in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F J; Parera, J; Galceran, M T

    2006-10-01

    Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs), also known as chlorinated paraffins (CPs), are highly complex technical mixtures that contain a huge number of structural isomers, theoretically more than 10,000 diastereomers and enantiomers. As a consequence of their persistence, tendency to bioaccumulation, and widespread and unrestricted use, PCAs have been found in aquatic and terrestrial food webs, even in rural and remote areas. Recently, these compounds have been included in regulatory programs of several international organizations, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Union. Consequently, there is a growing demand for reliable methods with which to analyze PCAs in environmental samples. Here, we review current trends and recent developments in the analysis of PCAs in environmental samples such as air, water, sediment, and biota. Practical aspects of sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and detection are covered, with special emphasis placed on analysis of PCAs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The advantages and limitations of these techniques as well as recent improvements in quantification procedures are discussed.

  11. Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Radioactive analysis of samples from spent fuel leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geckeis, H.; Degering, D.; Goertzen, A.; Geyer, F.W.; Dressler, P.

    1995-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term performance of spent fuel during direct disposal, high burnup fuel (50 MWd/kg U) has been exposed to non-buffered brine solutions and to deionized water under static anaerobic conditions at 25 C. The leaching behaviour of several radionuclides has been observed over periods of approximately 500 d. Currently used radiometric methods (α-, β-, γ-spectrometry) were applied to the analysis of sample solutions. Due to its low specific activity, uranium was determined using ICP-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) or laser induced fluorescence spectrometry (LFS). In order to determine radionuclide concentrations without interferences a preceeding radiochemical separation by ion-exchange, solvent-extraction or extraction chromatography was necessary in most cases. The Sc-isotopes 134/137, which are present in a high excess over other γ-emitting nuclides, were separated using the inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdato phosphate (AMP). This step allowed the subsequent γ-spectrometric determination of Am-241, Ag-110m, Ru-106, Sb-125 and Eu-154/155. Activity concentrations of pure β-emitters like Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129 and Pu-241 were determined by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after selective separation using extraction chromatography or solvent extraction. The actinides Am-241, Cm-242/244, Pu-238/239/240 and Np-237 were analysed by α-spectrometry again after selective separation. The direct analysis of uranium by LFS or ICP-MS was hampered by high salt concentrations. Therefore a separation by extraction chromatography turned out to be necessary, too. The analytical procedures used throughout this work are described in detail. (orig.) [de

  12. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. It is written in accordance with requirements identified in Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (Mulkey et al. 1999) and Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program (Fowler 1999). In addition to analyses to support Compatibility, the Waste Feed Delivery program has requested that tank samples obtained for Compatibility also be analyzed to confirm the high-level waste and/or low-activity waste envelope(s) for the tank waste (Baldwin 1999). The analytical requirements to confirm waste envelopes are identified in Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999a) and Data Quality Objectives for RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for High-Level Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999b)

  13. Stratified source-sampling techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995, at a conference on criticality safety, a special session was devoted to the Monte Carlo ''Eigenvalue of the World'' problem. Argonne presented a paper, at that session, in which the anomalies originally observed in that problem were reproduced in a much simplified model-problem configuration, and removed by a version of stratified source-sampling. In this paper, stratified source-sampling techniques are generalized and applied to three different Eigenvalue of the World configurations which take into account real-world statistical noise sources not included in the model problem, but which differ in the amount of neutronic coupling among the constituents of each configuration. It is concluded that, in Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis of loosely-coupled arrays, the use of stratified source-sampling reduces the probability of encountering an anomalous result over that if conventional source-sampling methods are used. However, this gain in reliability is substantially less than that observed in the model-problem results

  14. A multi-nuclide approach to quantify long-term erosion rates and exposure history through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    Cosmogenic nuclides are traditionally used to either determine the glaciation history or the denudation history of the most recent exposure period. A few studies use the cosmogenic nuclides to determine the cumulative exposure and burial durations of a sample. However, until now it has not been...... possible to resolve the complex pattern of exposure history under a fluctuating ice sheet. In this study, we quantify long-term erosion rates along with durations of multiple exposure periods in West Greenland by applying a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to existing 10Be and 26Al....... The new MCMC approach allows us to constrain the most likely landscape history based on comparisons between simulated and measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. It is a fundamental assumption of the model that the exposure history at the site/location can be divided into two distinct regimes: i...

  15. Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides in phosphate rocks and phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K; Yanagisawa, M; Sakurai, J; Sakanoue, M

    1985-10-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides have been studied for 2 phosphate rocks and 7 phosphate fertilizers. Uranium contents were found to be rather high (39-117 ppm) except for phosphate rock from Kola. The uranium series nuclides were found to be in various equilibration states, which can be grouped into following three categories. Almost in the equilibrium state, 238U approximately 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra and 238U greater than 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra. Thorium contents were found to be, in general, low and appreciable disequilibrium of the thorium series nuclides was not observed except one sample. Potassium contents were also very low (less than 0.3% K2O) except for complex fertilizers. Based on the present data, discussions were made for the radiation exposure due to phosphate fertilizers.

  16. Calculation device for amount of heavy element nuclide in reactor fuels and calculation method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Munenari.

    1995-01-01

    When there are two or more origins of deuterium nuclides in reactor fuels, there are disposed a memory device for an amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin in a noted fuel segment at a certain time point, a device for calculating the amount of nuclides for every origin and current neutron fluxes in the noted fuel segment, and a device for separating and then displaying the amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin. Equations for combustion are dissolved for every origin of the deuterium nuclides based on the amount of the deuterium nuclides for every origin and neutron fluxes, to calculate the current amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin. The amount of deuterium nuclides originated from uranium is calculated ignoring α-decay of curium, while the amount of deuterium nuclides originated from plutonium is calculated ignoring the generation of plutonium formed from neptunium. Deuterium nuclides can be measured and controlled accurately for every origin of the reactor fuels. Even when nuclear fuel materials have two or more nationalities, the measurement and control thereof can be conducted for every country. (N.H.)

  17. A new facility for rapid neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Makarewicz, M.; Grass, F.; Casta, J.

    1996-01-01

    Many research groups have undertaken efforts on the utilization of short-lived nuclides in a broad spectrum of neutron activation analysis (NAA) applications. The advantages of these approaches are obvious because the information on the sample can be extracted more rapidly. In addition to its other advantages, NAA can become extremely competitive in price and analysis time. Nevertheless, NAA with short-lived nuclides has not gained broad popularity, perhaps because of some difficulties in accuracy and the availability of suitable irradiation facilities. This report discusses the ASTRA reactor for neutron activation analysis capabilities

  18. Sampling and analysis strategies to support waste form qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Eggett, D.L.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1989-04-01

    As part of the waste acceptance process, waste form producers will be required to (1) demonstrate that their glass waste form will meet minimum specifications, (2) show that the process can be controlled to consistently produce an acceptable waste form, and (3) provide documentation that the waste form produced meets specifications. Key to the success of these endeavors is adequate sampling and chemical and radiochemical analyses of the waste streams from the waste tanks through the process to the final glass product. This paper suggests sampling and analysis strategies for meeting specific statistical objectives of (1) detection of compositions outside specification limits, (2) prediction of final glass product composition, and (3) estimation of composition in process vessels for both reporting and guiding succeeding process steps. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) Complex Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELOY, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) is an analytical laboratory complex on the Hanford Site that was constructed to perform chemical and low-level radiological analyses on a variety of sample media in support of Hanford Site customer needs. The complex is located in the 600 area of the Hanford Site, east of the 200 West Area. Customers include effluent treatment facilities, waste disposal and storage facilities, and remediation projects. Customers primarily need analysis results for process control and to comply with federal, Washington State, and US. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental or industrial hygiene requirements. This document was prepared to analyze the facility for safety consequences and includes the following steps: Determine radionuclide and highly hazardous chemical inventories; Compare these inventories to the appropriate regulatory limits; Document the compliance status with respect to these limits; and Identify the administrative controls necessary to maintain this status

  20. Optimization conditions of samples saponification for tocopherol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aloisio Henrique Pereira; Gohara, Aline Kirie; Rodrigues, Ângela Claudia; Ströher, Gisely Luzia; Silva, Danielle Cristina; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Souza, Nilson Evelázio; Matsushita, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    A full factorial design 2(2) (two factors at two levels) with duplicates was performed to investigate the influence of the factors agitation time (2 and 4 h) and the percentage of KOH (60% and 80% w/v) in the saponification of samples for the determination of α, β and γ+δ-tocopherols. The study used samples of peanuts (cultivar armadillo), produced and marketed in Maringá, PR. The factors % KOH and agitation time were significant, and an increase in their values contributed negatively to the responses. The interaction effect was not significant for the response δ-tocopherol, and the contribution of this effect to the other responses was positive, but less than 10%. The ANOVA and response surfaces analysis showed that the most efficient saponification procedure was obtained using a 60% (w/v) solution of KOH and with an agitation time of 2 h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multivariate survivorship analysis using two cross-sectional samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M E

    1999-11-01

    As an alternative to survival analysis with longitudinal data, I introduce a method that can be applied when one observes the same cohort in two cross-sectional samples collected at different points in time. The method allows for the estimation of log-probability survivorship models that estimate the influence of multiple time-invariant factors on survival over a time interval separating two samples. This approach can be used whenever the survival process can be adequately conceptualized as an irreversible single-decrement process (e.g., mortality, the transition to first marriage among a cohort of never-married individuals). Using data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (Ruggles and Sobek 1997), I illustrate the multivariate method through an investigation of the effects of race, parity, and educational attainment on the survival of older women in the United States.

  2. Multielement neutron activation analysis of underground water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Fujimoto, Yuzo; Ishida, Keiko; Mamuro, Tetsuo.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution and large volume Ge (Li) detectors followed by data processing with an electronic computer was applied to the multielemental analysis to elucidate the chemical qualities of the underground water which has been widely used in the sake brewing industries in Mikage, Uozaki and Nishinomiya districts, called as miyamizu. The evaporated residues of the water samples were subjected to the neutron irradiations in reactor for 1 min at a thermal flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 and for 30 hrs at a thermal flux of 9.3 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .sec -1 or for 5 hrs at a thermal flux of 3.9 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . Thus, 11 elements in the former short irradiation and 38 elements in the latter two kinds of long irradiation can be analyzed. Conventional chemical analysis including atomic absorption method and others are also applied on the same samples, and putting the all results together, some considerations concerning the geochemical meaning of the analytical values are made. (author)

  3. Cosmic-ray-produced stable nuclides: various production rates and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable nuclides, such as 3 He and 4 He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with bromine usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The 130 Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of 130 Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of 15 N, 13 C, and 2 H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of 86 Kr, 134 Xe, and 136 Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles

  4. Notre Dame Nuclear Database: A New Chart of Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Khouw, Timothy; Fasano, Patrick; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. We are creating a database, the Notre Dame Nuclear Database, which can store theoretical and experimental datasets. We place emphasis on storing metadata and user interaction with the database. Users are able to search in addition to the specific nuclear datum, the author(s), the facility where the measurements were made, the institution of the facility, and device or method/technique used. We also allow users to interact with the database by providing online search, an interactive nuclide chart, and a command line interface. The nuclide chart is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We achieve this by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the nuclides and color them accordingly. Search capabilities can be applied dynamically to the chart by using Python to communicate with MySQL, allowing for customization. Users can save the customized chart they create to any image format. These features provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before in a manner that is much easier and fully detailed. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.

  5. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  6. Analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in urban stormwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, Antoine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    A method for benzalkonium analysis has been developed to measure benzalkonium concentration in dissolved and particulate fractions from urban runoff samples. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The dissolved matrix was extracted by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), with cationic exchange and the particles by microwave extraction with acidified methanol. Recovery percentages were closed to 100% for benzalkonium C12 and C14. The protocol was applied to roof runoff samples collected after a roof demossing treatment, and to separative stormwater samples from a 200 ha catchment. The results illustrate an important contamination of the roof runoff, with a maximum concentration close to 27 mg/L during the first rain. The benzalkonium concentration (sum of C12 and C14) stayed high (up to 1 mg/L) even 5 months after the treatment. Benzalkonium concentration measured in stormwaters was low (0.2 μg/L) but with contaminated suspended solids (up to 80 μg/g). - Highlights: ► In France roofs can be treated against moss growth with benzalkonium. ► First LC-MS/MS protocol developed to analyze benzalkonium in urban runoff. ► Dissolved fraction is extracted by cationic exchange, particles with soxwave. ► Roof treatment create a huge contamination of the runoff (>30 mg/L). ► First results showing benzalkonium presence in stormwater. - A protocol for benzalkonium analysis has been developed and adapted to urban runoff, then applied to roof runoff after de-mossing treatment, which represents an important source of benzalkonium in stormwaters.

  7. Validation of activity determination codes and nuclide vectors by using results from processing of retired components and operational waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Klas; Larsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning studies for nuclear power reactors are performed in order to assess the decommissioning costs and the waste volumes as well as to provide data for the licensing and construction of the LILW repositories. An important part of this work is to estimate the amount of radioactivity in the different types of decommissioning waste. Studsvik ALARA Engineering has performed such assessments for LWRs and other nuclear facilities in Sweden. These assessments are to a large content depending on calculations, senior experience and sampling on the facilities. The precision in the calculations have been found to be relatively high close to the reactor core. Of natural reasons the precision will decline with the distance. Even if the activity values are lower the content of hard to measure nuclides can cause problems in the long term safety demonstration of LLW repositories. At the same time Studsvik is processing significant volumes of metallic and combustible waste from power stations in operation and in decommissioning phase as well as from other nuclear facilities such as research and waste treatment facilities. Combining the unique knowledge in assessment of radioactivity inventory and the large data bank the waste processing represents the activity determination codes can be validated and the waste processing analysis supported with additional data. The intention with this presentation is to highlight how the European nuclear industry jointly could use the waste processing data for validation of activity determination codes. (authors)

  8. Nonactivation interaction techniques in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nonactivation interaction analytical methods are based on the interaction processes of nuclear and X-ray radiation with a sample, leading to their absorption and backscattering, to the ionization of gases or excitation of fluorescent X-ray by radiation, but not to the activation of determined elements. From the point of view of environmental analysis, the most useful nonactivation interaction techniques are X-ray fluorescence by photon or charged particle excitation, ionization of gases by nuclear radiation, elastic scattering of charged particles and backscattering of beta radiation. The significant advantage of these methods is that they are nondestructive. (author)

  9. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  10. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  11. Neutron-activation analysis of routine mineral-processing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Eddy, B.; Pearton, D.

    1974-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was applied to a suite of typical mineral-processing samples to establish which elements can be rapidly determined in them by this technique. A total of 35 elements can be determined with precisions (from the counting statistics) ranging from better than 1 per cent to approximately 20 per cent. The elements that can be determined have been tabulated together with the experimental conditions, the precision from the counting statistics, and the estimated number of analyses possible per day. With an automated system, this number can be as high as 150 in the most favourable cases [af

  12. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  13. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  14. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.; Scheler, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  15. Atomic and nuclear parameters of single electron capture decaying nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic and nuclear parameters of the following nuclides which decay by electron capture have been calculated: 37 A r, 41 C a, 49 V , 53 M n, 55 F e,59 N i, 68Ge,82 S r, 97 T c, 118 T e, 131 C s, 137 L a, 140 N d, 157 T b, 165 E r, 193 p t, 194 H g, and 205 P h The evaluation rules are included in the first part of the paper. The values and the associated uncertainties of the following parameters have been tabulated: decay energy, electron capture probabilities, fluorescence yield, electron emission and X-ray emission. (Author) 27 refs

  16. On the measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in cometary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, G.F.; Englert, P.A.J.; Reedy, R.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C.P.; Arnold, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Determinations of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in cometary material will help to define the recent surface history of the comet and its exposure to cosmic rays. In particular, the rates for the removal or mixing of surface material could be studied, and any variations in cosmic-ray intensity implied by the data could be used to infer orbital changes during the last few million years. The measurement of the shorter-lived isotopes poses technical challenges that should be addressed now. The measurement of longer-lived isotopes will be straightforward provided that rates of mass loss are not too high. 46 refs., 2 figs

  17. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102

  18. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102

  19. Alpha-emitting nuclides in commercial fish species caught in the vicinity of Windscale, United Kingdom, and their radiological significance to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Lovett, M.B.; Harvey, B.R.; Ibbett, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of a number of alpha-emitting nuclides have been determined in the tissues of several commercial fish species caught in the vicinity of the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale. All tissues analysed were found to contain 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am, but 242 Cm and 244 Cm could only be reliably detected in the liver samples of some fish. Fish of the same species, but taken from the North Sea, have also been analysed for some naturally occurring alpha-emitting nuclides. Whereas uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) could be detected in bone samples of fish, neither could be reliably detected in samples of muscle: in contrast, 210 Po was readily detected in samples of liver, muscle and bone. Commercial fish fillets from the Irish Sea, including the Windscale area, are also routinely monitored for alpha-emitting nuclides, and their radiological significance to man is briefly discussed. Comments are also made on the significance of the naturally occurring nuclides. (author)

  20. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of volcanic samples: Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, W.H.; Finnegan, D.L.; Crowe, B.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of volcanic emissions have been collected between and during eruptions of both Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes during the last three years. Airborne particles have been collected on Teflon filters and acidic gases on base-impregnated cellulose filters. Chemically neutral gas-phase species are collected on charcoal-coated cellulose filters. The primary analytical technique used is nondestructive neutron activation analysis, which has been used to determine the quantities of up to 35 elements on the different filters. The use of neutron activation analysis makes it possible to analyze for a wide range of elements in the different matrices used for the collection and to learn about the distribution between particles and gas phases for each of the elements

  1. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for the consolidated sludge samples from the canisters and floor of the 105-K East basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for sampling of fuel canister and floor Sludge from the K East Basin to complete the inventory of samples needed for Sludge treatment process testing. Sample volumes and sources consider recent reviews made by the Sludge treatment subproject. The representative samples will be characterized to the extent needed for the material to be used effectively for testing. Sampling equipment used allows drawing of large volume sludge samples and consolidation of sample material from a number of basin locations into one container. Once filled, the containers will be placed in a cask and transported to Hanford laboratories for recovery and evaluation. Included in the present SAP are the logic for sample location selection, laboratory analysis procedures required, and reporting needed to meet the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for this initiative

  3. Exploratory Factor Analysis With Small Samples and Missing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is an extremely popular method for determining the underlying factor structure for a set of variables. Due to its exploratory nature, EFA is notorious for being conducted with small sample sizes, and recent reviews of psychological research have reported that between 40% and 60% of applied studies have 200 or fewer observations. Recent methodological studies have addressed small size requirements for EFA models; however, these models have only considered complete data, which are the exception rather than the rule in psychology. Furthermore, the extant literature on missing data techniques with small samples is scant, and nearly all existing studies focus on topics that are not of primary interest to EFA models. Therefore, this article presents a simulation to assess the performance of various missing data techniques for EFA models with both small samples and missing data. Results show that deletion methods do not extract the proper number of factors and estimate the factor loadings with severe bias, even when data are missing completely at random. Predictive mean matching is the best method overall when considering extracting the correct number of factors and estimating factor loadings without bias, although 2-stage estimation was a close second.

  4. Protocol for sampling and analysis of bone specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.

    2000-01-01

    The iliac crest of hip bone was chosen as the most suitable sampling site for several reasons: Local variation in the elemental concentration along the iliac crest is minimal; Iliac crest biopsies are commonly taken clinically on patients; The cortical part of the sample is small (∼2 mm) and can be separated easily from the trabecular bone; The use of the trabecular part of the iliac crest for trace element analysis has the advantage of reflecting rapidly changes in the composition of bone due to external parameters, including medication. Biopsy studies, although in some ways more difficult than autopsy studies, because of the need to obtain the informed consents of the subjects, are potentially more useful than autopsy studies. Thereby many problems of postmortem migration of elements can be avoided and reliable dietary and other data can be collected simultaneously. Select the subjects among the patients undergoing orthopedic surgery due to any reason other than osteoporosis. Follow an established protocol to obtain bone biopsies. Patients undergoing synergy should fill in the 'Osteoporosis Project Questionnaire Form' including information on lifestyle variables, dietary intakes, the reason for surgery etc. If possible, measure the bone mineral density (BMD) prior to removal of the biopsy sample. However it may not possible to have BMD results on all the subjects because of difficulty of DEXA measurement after an accident

  5. Analysis of hepatitis C viral dynamics using Latin hypercube sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachpute, Gaurav; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2012-12-01

    We consider a mathematical model comprising four coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to study hepatitis C viral dynamics. The model includes the efficacies of a combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin. There are two main objectives of this paper. The first one is to approximate the percentage of cases in which there is a viral clearance in absence of treatment as well as percentage of response to treatment for various efficacy levels. The other is to better understand and identify the parameters that play a key role in the decline of viral load and can be estimated in a clinical setting. A condition for the stability of the uninfected and the infected steady states is presented. A large number of sample points for the model parameters (which are physiologically feasible) are generated using Latin hypercube sampling. An analysis of the simulated values identifies that, approximately 29.85% cases result in clearance of the virus during the early phase of the infection. Results from the χ2 and the Spearman's tests done on the samples, indicate a distinctly different distribution for certain parameters for the cases exhibiting viral clearance under the combination therapy.

  6. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste

  7. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits

  8. Nested sampling as a tool for LISA data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gair, Jonathan R; Feroz, Farhan; Graff, Philip; Hobson, Michael P; Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine; Porter, Edward K

    2010-01-01

    Nested sampling is a technique for efficiently computing the probability of a data set under a particular hypothesis, also called the Bayesian Evidence or Marginal Likelihood, and for evaluating the posterior. MULTINEST is a multi-modal nested sampling algorithm which has been designed to efficiently explore and characterize posterior probability surfaces containing multiple secondary solutions. We have applied the MULTINEST algorithm to a number of problems in gravitational wave data analysis. In this article, we describe the algorithm and present results for several applications of the algorithm to analysis of mock LISA data. We summarise recently published results for a test case in which we searched for two non-spinning black hole binary merger signals in simulated LISA data. We also describe results obtained with MULTINEST in the most recent round of the Mock LISA Data Challenge (MLDC), in which the algorithm was used to search for and characterise both spinning supermassive black hole binary inspirals and bursts from cosmic string cusps. In all these applications, the algorithm found the correct number of signals and efficiently recovered the posterior probability distribution. Moreover, in most cases the waveform corresponding to the best a-posteriori parameters had an overlap in excess of 99% with the true signal.

  9. Nested sampling as a tool for LISA data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gair, Jonathan R [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Feroz, Farhan; Graff, Philip; Hobson, Michael P [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Porter, Edward K, E-mail: jgair@ast.cam.ac.u [APC, UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-05-01

    Nested sampling is a technique for efficiently computing the probability of a data set under a particular hypothesis, also called the Bayesian Evidence or Marginal Likelihood, and for evaluating the posterior. MULTINEST is a multi-modal nested sampling algorithm which has been designed to efficiently explore and characterize posterior probability surfaces containing multiple secondary solutions. We have applied the MULTINEST algorithm to a number of problems in gravitational wave data analysis. In this article, we describe the algorithm and present results for several applications of the algorithm to analysis of mock LISA data. We summarise recently published results for a test case in which we searched for two non-spinning black hole binary merger signals in simulated LISA data. We also describe results obtained with MULTINEST in the most recent round of the Mock LISA Data Challenge (MLDC), in which the algorithm was used to search for and characterise both spinning supermassive black hole binary inspirals and bursts from cosmic string cusps. In all these applications, the algorithm found the correct number of signals and efficiently recovered the posterior probability distribution. Moreover, in most cases the waveform corresponding to the best a-posteriori parameters had an overlap in excess of 99% with the true signal.

  10. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of Brazilian coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, L.T.; Requejo, C.S.

    1982-09-01

    The elements U, Th, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tb, Yb, Lu, Sc, Ta, Hf, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, Ti, V, W, In, Ga, Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Rb, Cs, K, Cl, Br, As, Sb, Au, Ca, Al and Fe were determined in coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, by using both thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations. The irradiation times were 10 minutes and 8 or 16 hours in a position where the thermal neutron flux was about 10 12 n.cm - 2 .s - 1 and 72 non-consecutive hours for epithermal irradiation at a flux of about 10 11 n.Cm - 2 .s - 1 . After the instrumental analysis of the above mentioned elements, Zn and Se were determined with chemical separation. The relative standard deviation of, at least, 4 determinations was about + - 10% for the majority of the results. The coal samples analysed were supplied by: Cia. Estadual da Tecnologia e Saneamento Basico (CETESB-SP), Cia. de Pesquisas e Lavras Minerais (COPELMI-RS), Cia. Carbonifera Urussunga (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Prospera (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Treviso (SC), Cia. Nacional de Mineracao de Carvao do Barro Branco (SC) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ). (Author) [pt

  11. Analysis of Selected Legacy 85Kr Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Legacy samples composed of 85Kr encapsulated in solid zeolite 5A material and five small metal tubes containing a mixture of the zeolite combined with a glass matrix resulting from hot isostatic pressing have been preserved. The samples were a result of krypton R&D encapsulation efforts in the late 1970s performed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These samples were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in mid-FY 2014. Upon receipt the outer shipping package was opened, and the inner package, removed and placed in a radiological hood. The individual capsules were double bagged as they were removed from the inner shipping pig and placed into individual glass sample bottles for further analysis. The five capsules were then x-ray imaged. Capsules 1 and 4 appear intact and to contain an amorphous mass within the capsules. Capsule 2 clearly shows the saw marks on the capsule and a quantity of loose pellet or bead-like material remaining in the capsule. Capsule 3 shows similar bead-like material within the intact capsule. Capsule 5 had been opened at an undetermined time in the past. The end of this capsule appears to have been cut off, and there are additional saw marks on the side of the capsule. X-ray tomography allowed the capsules to be viewed along the three axes. Of most interest was determining whether there was any residual material in the closed end of Capsule 5. The images confirmed the presence of residual material within this capsule. The material appears to be compacted but still retains some of the bead-like morphology. Based on the nondestructive analysis (NDA) results, a proposed path forward was formulated to advance this effort toward the original goals of understanding the effects of extended storage on the waste form and package. Based on the initial NDA and the fact that there are at least two breached samples, it was proposed that exploratory tests be conducted with the breached specimens before opening the three intact

  12. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography: January 1974--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.I.; Christman, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography (Volume II) follows the format of the first bibliography. Nuclides used therapeutically have not been included. References to medical application of the various nuclides of iodine, gallium, and indium have been excluded as being beyond the scope of this bibliography (and to keep its size to manageable proportions). For nuclides having fifteen or fewer references there is no breakdown into subcategories. For the others they have been subdivided as follows: (1) Production methods, (2) Compound syntheses, and (3) Medical uses. The first part of the bibliography contains references of general interest of various types. Where specific nuclides are involved, these references are also cross-indexed to each nuclide. The original reference number is always used for cross-indexing. The nuclide section is arranged in alphabetical order, and within each section alphabetically by first author. The author index lists each reference once for each author, with no indication of cross-referencing given

  13. Multi-pathway model of nuclide transport in fractured media and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Yang Zeping; Li Jinxuan

    2010-01-01

    In order to know the law of nuclide transport in fracture system, the basic differential equations of nuclide transport in fracture and matrix were obtained based on the dual media theory, and the general analytic solutions of nuclide transport in single fractured media with exponential attenuation source in fracture were deduced by Laplace transform, and one-dimensional multi-pathway model of nuclide transport was proposed based on dual media theory and stochastic distribution of fracture parameters. The transport of Th-229, Cs-135 and Se-79 were simulated with this model, the relative concentration of these nuclides in fracture system were predicted. Further more, it was deduced that aperture and velocity can distinctly influence transport of nuclide by comparing with the results which were simulated by single fracture model. (authors)

  14. Sampling and analysis of groundwater colloids. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, M.; Manninen, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this literature study was to give basic information of colloids: their formation, colloid material, sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids. Colloids are commonly refereed to as particles in the size range of 1 nm to 1000 nm. They are defined as a suspension of solid material in a liquid that does not appear to separate even after a long period of time. Colloids can be formed from a variety of inorganic or organic material. Inorganic colloids in natural groundwaters are formed by physical fragmentation of the host rock or by precipitation. The water chemistry strongly controls the stability of colloids. The amount of colloid particles in a solution tends to decrease with the increasing ionic strength of the solution. Increases in pH and organic material tend to increase the stability of colloids. The mobility of colloids in a porous medium is controlled mainly by groundwater movement, sedimentation, diffusion and interception. Factors controlling sampling artefacts are oxygen diffusion: leads to e.g. calcite precipitation, pumping rates and filtering techniques. Efforts to minimise artefact formation should be taken if the scope of the sampling programme is to study the colloid particles. The colloid phase size distribution can be determined by light scattering systems, laser induced break down or by single particle analysis using SEM micrographs. Elemental compositions can be analysed with EDS spectrometry from single colloid particles. Bulk compositions of the colloid phase can be analysed with e.g. ICP-MS analyser. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for groundwater colloid samplings. Recommendations for future work are listed in the conclusions of this report. (orig.)

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  16. Automated Sampling and Extraction of Krypton from Small Air Samples for Kr-85 Measurement Using Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, S.; Hands, J.; Goering, F.; Kirchner, G.; Purtschert, R.

    2015-01-01

    Atom-Trap-Trace-Analysis (ATTA) provides the capability of measuring the Krypton-85 concentration in microlitre amounts of krypton extracted from air samples of about 1 litre. This sample size is sufficiently small to allow for a range of applications, including on-site spot sampling and continuous sampling over periods of several hours. All samples can be easily handled and transported to an off-site laboratory for ATTA measurement, or stored and analyzed on demand. Bayesian sampling methodologies can be applied by blending samples for bulk measurement and performing in-depth analysis as required. Prerequisite for measurement is the extraction of a pure krypton fraction from the sample. This paper introduces an extraction unit able to isolate the krypton in small ambient air samples with high speed, high efficiency and in a fully automated manner using a combination of cryogenic distillation and gas chromatography. Air samples are collected using an automated smart sampler developed in-house to achieve a constant sampling rate over adjustable time periods ranging from 5 minutes to 3 hours per sample. The smart sampler can be deployed in the field and operate on battery for one week to take up to 60 air samples. This high flexibility of sampling and the fast, robust sample preparation are a valuable tool for research and the application of Kr-85 measurements to novel Safeguards procedures. (author)

  17. Generation and Analysis of Constrained Random Sampling Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Random sampling is a technique for signal acquisition which is gaining popularity in practical signal processing systems. Nowadays, event-driven analog-to-digital converters make random sampling feasible in practical applications. A process of random sampling is defined by a sampling pattern, which...... indicates signal sampling points in time. Practical random sampling patterns are constrained by ADC characteristics and application requirements. In this paper, we introduce statistical methods which evaluate random sampling pattern generators with emphasis on practical applications. Furthermore, we propose...... algorithm generates random sampling patterns dedicated for event-driven-ADCs better than existed sampling pattern generators. Finally, implementation issues of random sampling patterns are discussed....

  18. Exact error estimation for solutions of nuclide chain equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachihara, Hidekazu; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The exact solution of nuclide chain equations within arbitrary figures is obtained for a linear chain by employing the Bateman method in the multiple-precision arithmetic. The exact error estimation of major calculation methods for a nuclide chain equation is done by using this exact solution as a standard. The Bateman, finite difference, Runge-Kutta and matrix exponential methods are investigated. The present study confirms the following. The original Bateman method has very low accuracy in some cases, because of large-scale cancellations. The revised Bateman method by Siewers reduces the occurrence of cancellations and thereby shows high accuracy. In the time difference method as the finite difference and Runge-Kutta methods, the solutions are mainly affected by the truncation errors in the early decay time, and afterward by the round-off errors. Even though the variable time mesh is employed to suppress the accumulation of round-off errors, it appears to be nonpractical. Judging from these estimations, the matrix exponential method is the best among all the methods except the Bateman method whose calculation process for a linear chain is not identical with that for a general one. (author)

  19. The clinical application of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Tang Mingdeng; Lin Duanyu; Ni Leichun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application value of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphoma. Methods: 71 cases of patients were diagnosed by pathology as malignant lymphoma, among whom there were 8 cases of Hodgkin disease (HL) and 63 cases of non-Hodgkin disease (NHL). The examinations were performed from 2.5 to 6 hours later after the intravenous injection of 99m Tc-MDP (555-925 MBq). Results: 31 cases were bone-infiltrating lesions, including 3 cases of HL and 28 cases of NHL. The total number of the focus was 103, except 2 cases of bone lack, including 35 foci in vertebral column (34.65%), 30 foci in limb and joint (29.70%), 14 foci in rib (13.86%), 13 foci in elvis (12.0%), 5 foci in skull (4.95%) and 4 foci in sternum (3.96%). Conclusion: The nuclide bone imaging has a high value in the clinical stage, therapeutic observation and prognosis of bone-infiltrating malignant lymphoma. (authors)

  20. Contribution of short-lived nuclides to decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi

    1987-01-01

    Comments are made on the calculation of decay heat, centering on evaluation of average decay energy. It is difficult to obtain sufficiently useful decay diagrams of short lived nucleides. High-energy levels are often missing in inferior decay diagrams, leading to an overestimation of the intensity of beta-rays at low-energy levels. Such an overestimation or underestimation due to the inferiority of a decay diagram is referred to as pandemonium effect. The pandemonium effect can be assessed by means of the ratio of the measured energy of the highest level of the daughter nuclide to the Q β -value of the beta-decay. When a satisfactory decay diagram cannot be obtained, the average decay energy has to be estimated by theoretical calculation. The gross theory for beta-decay proposed by Yamada and Takahashi is employed for the calculation. To carry out the calculation according to this theory, it is required to determine the value for the parameter Q 00 , the lowest energy of the daughter nuclide that meets the selection rule for beta-decay. Currently, Q 00 to be used for this purpose is estimated from data on the energy of the lowest level found in a decay diagram, even if it is inferior. Some examples of calculation of decay heat using the average beta- or gamma-ray energy are shown and compared with measurements. (author)