Sample records for saltwell leak detector

  1. Method for HEPA filter leak scanning with differentiating aerosol detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, B.J.; Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)


    While scanning HEPA filters for leaks with {open_quotes}Off the Shelf{close_quote} aerosol detection equipment, the operator`s scanning speed is limited by the time constant and threshold sensitivity of the detector. This is based on detection of the aerosol density, where the maximum signal is achieved when the scanning probe resides over the pinhole longer than several detector time-constants. Since the differential value of the changing signal can be determined by observing only the first small fraction of the rising signal, using a differentiating amplifier will speed up the locating process. The other advantage of differentiation is that slow signal drift or zero offset will not interfere with the process of locating the leak, since they are not detected. A scanning hand-probe attachable to any NUCON{reg_sign} Aerosol Detector displaying the combination of both aerosol density and differentiated signal was designed. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Standard practice for leaks using the mass spectrometer leak detector in the detector probe mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers procedures for testing and locating the sources of gas leaking at the rate of 1 × 10−7 Pa m3/s (1 × 10−8 Std cm3/s) or greater. The test may be conducted on any device or component across which a pressure differential of helium or other suitable tracer gas may be created, and on which the effluent side of the leak to be tested is accessible for probing with the mass spectrometer sampling probe. 1.2 Two test methods are described: 1.2.1 Test Method A—Direct probing, and 1.2.2 Test Method B—Accumulation. 1.3 Units—The values stated in either SI or std-cc/sec units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents: therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this sta...

  3. Standard practice for atmospheric leaks using a thermal conductivity leak detector

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers procedures for detecting the sources of gas leaking at the rate of 1 × 10–5 Pa m3/s (1 × 10–4 standard cm3/s) or greater. The tests may be conducted on any object that can be pressurized with a tracer gas that is detectable by a thermal conductivity detector. The test sensitivity will vary widely depending on the tracer gas used. 1.2 Units—The values stated in either SI or std-cc/sec units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents: therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Noble Gas Leak Detector for Use in the SNS Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment (United States)

    Barrow, Chad; Huffman, Paul; Leung, Kent; Korobkina, Ekaterina; White, Christian; nEDM Collaboration Collaboration


    Common practice for leak-checking high vacuum systems uses helium as the probing gas. However, helium may permeate some materials at room temperature, making leak characterization difficult. The experiment to find a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM), to be conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, will employ a large volume of liquid helium housed by such a helium-permeable composite material. It is desirable to construct a leak detector that can employ alternative test gases. The purpose of this experiment is to create a leak detector that can quantify the argon gas flux in a high vacuum environment and interpret this flux as a leak-rate. This apparatus will be used to check the nEDM volumes for leaks at room temperature before cooling down to cryogenic temperatures. Our leak detector uses a residual gas analyzer and a vacuum pumping station to characterize the gas present in an evacuated volume. The introduction of argon gas into the system is interpreted as a leak-rate into the volume. The device has been calibrated with NIST certified calibrated leaks and the machine's sensitivity has been calculated using background gas analysis. As a result of the device construction and software programming, we are able to leak-check composite and polyamide volumes This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41042.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Cist; Alan Schutz


    A light-weight, easy to use ground penetrating radar (GPR) system for tracking metal/non-metal pipes has been developed. A pre-production prototype instrument has been developed whose production cost and ease of use should fit important market niches. It is a portable tool which is swept back and forth like a metal detector and which indicates when it goes over a target (metal, plastic, concrete, etc.) and how deep it is. The innovation of real time target detection frees the user from having to interpret geophysical data and instead presents targets as dots on the screen. Target depth is also interpreted automatically, relieving the user of having to do migration analysis. In this way the user can simply walk around looking for targets and, by ''connecting the dots'' on the GPS screen, locate and follow pipes in real time. This is the first tool known to locate metal and non-metal pipes in real time and map their location. This prototype design is similar to a metal detector one might use at the beach since it involves sliding a lightweight antenna back and forth over the ground surface. The antenna is affixed to the end of an extension that is either clipped to or held by the user. This allows him to walk around in any direction, either looking for or following pipes with the antenna location being constantly recorded by the positioning system. Once a target appears on the screen, the user can locate by swinging the unit to align the cursor over the dot. Leak detection was also a central part of this project, and although much effort was invested into its development, conclusive results are not available at the time of the writing of this document. Details of the efforts that were made as a part of this cooperative agreement are presented.

  6. Standard specification for leak detector solutions intended for use on brasses and other copper alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for leak detector solutions suitable for use in checking the leakage of valves, pipes, fittings, joints, and so forth of a pressurized gas system fabricated from brasses and other copper alloys. 1.2 This specification deals with the stress corrosion cracking aspect of leak detector solutions. The effectiveness, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of leak detector solutions are not within the scope of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. In Shop Acceptance Test Report for the SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, S.G.


    The following test report was written for the SY tank farm annulus leak detectors. The test plan used was HNF-4546, Revision 1. The purpose of the test plan was to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation. The test plan set various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality.

  8. Solving Leak Testing Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Sprovieri


    .... InterTech provided two Model 1075 pressure-decay leak detectors to perform the three tests-a leak test at 220 inches of water column, a leak test at 5 inches of water column, and a forward direction...

  9. Development of the Noise-Resistant and Sound Focusing Accessory of Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Spacecraft on Orbit (United States)

    Sun, W.; Yan, R. X.; Sun, L. C.; Shao, R. P.


    Ultrasonic signal produced by the gas leak is so week that it is difficult to detect, and easily interfered. So developing the noise-resistant and sound focusing accessory for the ultrasonic leak detector is very important for improving ultrasonic leak detector sensitivity and noise-resistant capability. Based on the theory analysis of the leak ultrasonic signal reverberation and anacampsis, the 5A06 aluminium alloy and nylon were selected as the material of noise-resistant and sound focusing accessory by calculation and compare. Then the circular cone trumpet structure was design as the accessory main structure, and the nylon expansion port, nylon shrinking port and aluminium alloy expansion port structures were manufactured. The different structure characters were shown by the contrasting experiment. The results indicate that the nylon expansion circular cone trumpet structure has better sound focusing performance and it can improve the testing sound pressure amplitude 10 bigger than the detector without the accessory. And the aluminium alloy expansion circular cone trumpet structure has better noise-resistant ability than others. These conclusions are very important for the spacecraft leak detection and it can provide some references for the design of the noise-resistant and sound focusing structure.

  10. Leak detector PIG for oil pipelines; PIG detector de vazamentos em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Daniel Almeida; Weid, Jean Pierre von der [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Telecomunicacoes; Camerini, Claudio Soligo; Maia, Carlos Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    The leakage detector pig was created with the purpose of detect and locate leakages in a preventive way. The fast detection of small leakages decreases the probability of larger leakages. By means of a differential pressure system based on pressure data acquired through the pig's running, using pressure sensors installed on the pig's vessel, small leakages are identified and its positions registered. This allows a quick intervention at the identified location. The working principle is based on the pressure difference caused by the leakage, which is read by the sensors. The polyurethane cups responsible by the pig's propulsion are of a special kind capable of sealing a constant volume of product among them. So, when the pig passes through a leakage, the pressure in the middle drops compared to those in front and hear, generating a characteristic signal thus permit identification. The first prototype was tested intensively at laboratory facilities, and in a test pipeline showing excellent results locating precisely all the simulated leakages. Defects from different sizes with different flow where simulated and measured. This work has the objective to present the tool, its potential, the test results, to discuss its efficiency in detect and locate leakages and the possibilities for the future. (author)

  11. Chlorofluorocarbon leak detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munday, E.B.


    There are about 590 large coolant systems located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) leaking nearly 800,000 lb of R-114 refrigerant annually (1989 estimate). A program is now under way to reduce the leakage to 325,000 lb/year -- an average loss of 551 lb/year (0.063 lb/h) per coolant system, some of which are as large as 800 ft. This report investigates leak detection technologies that can be used to locate leaks in the coolant systems. Included are descriptions, minimum leak detection rate levels, advantages, disadvantages, and vendor information on the following technologies: bubbling solutions; colorimetric leak testing; dyes; halogen leak detectors (coronea discharge detectors; halide torch detectors, and heated anode detectors); laser imaging; mass spectroscopy; organic vapor analyzers; odorants; pressure decay methods; solid-state electrolytic-cell gas sensors; thermal conductivity leak detectors; and ultrasonic leak detectors.

  12. Impact of high-conductivity n-type anti-debiasing layer on the photoresponse of "leaking" and "non-leaking" FPA elements in photovoltaic MCT-based n-on-p infrared FPA detectors (United States)

    Vasiliev, V. V.; Vishnyakov, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Predein, A. V.; Sabinina, I. V.; Sidorov, Yu. G.; Stuchinsky, V. A.


    Impact of high-conductivity n-type anti-debiasing layer (ADL) on the photoresponse of focal plane array (FPA) elements in mercury-cadmium-tellurium based photovoltaic n-on-p infrared FPA detectors is analyzed via consideration of, first, measured current-voltage characteristics of FPA elements with "leaking" and "non-leaking" array photodiodes and, second, spatial photoresponse profiles measured using FPA elements of both types. A most pronounced manifestation of the parasitic diode with the p-n junction at the absorber layer/ADL interface consists in the emergence of negative photoresponses produced by the "leaking" FPA elements.

  13. ISS Leak Detection and Astrophysics with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate angular resolution and sensitivity. Successful lab demonstration of ISS leak checking, using nitrogen, electron beam, and Lobster x-ray optic. 

  14. Highly sensitive gas leak detector based on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic SF6 sensor. (United States)

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Giglio, Marilena; Chieco, Leonardo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo


    The implementation, performance validation, and testing of a gas-leak optical sensor based on mid-IR quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) spectroscopic technique is reported. A QEPAS sensor was integrated in a vacuum-sealed test station for mechatronic components. The laser source for the sensor is a quantum cascade laser emitting at 10.56 µm, resonant with a strong absorption band of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which was selected as a leak tracer. The minimum detectable concentration of the QEPAS sensor is 2.7 parts per billion with an integration time of 1 s, corresponding to a sensitivity of leak flows in the 10-9 mbar∙l/s range, comparable with state-of-the-art leak detection techniques.

  15. Design of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Gas Leak Tightness Station for the Micromegas Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Gazis, Evangelos; The ATLAS collaboration


    In this work we describe advanced data processing and analysis techniques intended to be used in the gas tightness station at CERN for Quality Assurance and Quality Control of the New Small Wheel Micromegas Quadruplets. We combine two methods: a conventional one based on the Pressure Decay Rate and an alternative-novel one, based on the Flow Rate Loss. A prototype setup has been developed based on a Lock-in Amplifier device and should be operated in conjunction with the gas leak test via the Flow Rate Loss. Both methods have been tested by using emulated leak branches based on specific thin medical needles. The semi-automatic data acquisition, monitoring and processing system is presented also in this work while a more sophisticated environment based on the WinCC-OA SCADA is under development.

  16. Standard test method for determining whether gas-leak-detector fluid solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking of brass alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers an accelerated test method for evaluating the tendency of gas leak detection fluids (LDFs) to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass components in compressed gas service. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Barlat, F; Moon, Y.H.; Lee, M.G.


    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a

  18. Leak detection/verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krhounek, V.; Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic)


    Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) experiments performed as part of a Leak Before Break (LBB) analysis are very briefly summarized. The aim of these experiments was to postulate the leak rates of the coolant. Through-wall cracks were introduced into pipes by fatigue cycling and hydraulically loaded in a test device. Measurements included coolant pressure and temperature, quantity of leaked coolant, displacement of a specimen, and acoustic emission. Small cracks were plugged with particles in the coolant during testing. It is believed that plugging will have no effect in cracks with leak rates above 35 liters per minute. The leak rate safety margin of 10 is sufficient for cracks in which the leak rate is more than 5 liters per minute.

  19. Leak detection aid (United States)

    Steeper, Timothy J.


    A leak detection apparatus and method for detecting leaks across an O-ring sealing a flanged surface to a mating surface is an improvement in a flanged surface comprising a shallow groove following O-ring in communication with an entrance and exit port intersecting the shallow groove for injecting and withdrawing, respectively, a leak detection fluid, such as helium. A small quantity of helium injected into the entrance port will flow to the shallow groove, past the O-ring and to the exit port.

  20. Leaks in pipe networks (United States)

    Pudar, Ranko S.; Liggett, James A.


    Leak detection in water-distribution systems can be accomplished by solving an inverse problem using measurements of pressure and/or flow. The problem is formulated with equivalent orifice areas of possible leaks as the unknowns. Minimization of the difference between measured and calculated heads produces a solution for the areas. The quality of the result depends on number and location of the measurements. A sensitivity matrix is key to deciding where to make measurements. Both location and magnitude of leaks are sensitive to the quantity and quality of pressure measurements and to how well the pipe friction parameters are known. The overdetermined problem (more measurements than suspected leaks) gives the best results, but some information can be derived from the underdetermined problem. The variance of leak areas, based on the quality of system characteristics and pressure data, indicates the likely accuracy of the results. The method will not substitute for more traditional leak surveys but can serve as a guide and supplement.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Romano


    This report details the testing equipment, procedures and results performed under Task 7.2 Sealing Simulated Leaks. In terms of our ability to seal leaks identified in the technical topical report, Analysis of Current Field Data, we were 100% successful. In regards to maintaining seal integrity after pigging operations we achieved varying degrees of success. Internal Corrosion defects proved to be the most resistant to the effects of pigging while External Corrosion proved to be the least resistant. Overall, with limitations, pressure activated sealant technology would be a viable option under the right circumstances.

  2. The Leaking-Toilet Challenge (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    Leaking toilets can cost homeowners big dollars--often before it is even realized. Homeowners do not necessarily hear it leaking. It just does, and when the water bill comes due, it can be a most unpleasant surprise. This article presents a classroom challenge to try to develop leak-detection ideas that would be inexpensive and easily added to…

  3. Natural gas leak mapper (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA


    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  4. Aspects of leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)


    A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant.

  5. Leak test fitting (United States)

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  6. Deconstructing Gender Stereotypes in Leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Bawa Atmadja


    Full Text Available The belief of Balinese people towards leak still survive. Leak is a magic based on durgaism that can transform a person from human to another form, such as apes, pigs, etc. People tend to regard leak as evil. In general, the evilness is constructed in gender stereotypes, so it is identified that leak are always women. This idea is a power game based on the ideology of patriarchy that provides legitimacy for men to dominate women with a plea for social harmony. As a result, women are marginalized in the Balinese society. Women should be aware of so it would provide encouragement for them to make emancipatory changes dialogically. Kepercayaan orang Bali terhadap leak tetap bertahan sampai saat ini. Leak adalah sihir yang berbasiskan durgaisme yang dapat mengakibatkan seseorang bisa merubah bentuk dari manusia ke wujud yang lain, misalnya kera, babi, dll. Leak termasuk magi hitam sehingga dinilai bersifat jelek. Pada umumnya perempuan diidentikkan dengan leak sehingga melahirkan asumsi yang bermuatan steriotip gender bahwa leak = perempuan. Gagasan ini merupakan permainan kekuasaan berbasis ideologi patriarkhi dan sekaligus memberikan legitimasi bagi laki-laki untuk menguasai perempuan dengan dalih demi keharmonisan sosial. Akibatnya, perempuan menjadi termarginalisasi pada masyarakat Bali.  Perempuan harus menyadarinya sehingga memberikan dorongan bagi mereka untuk melakukan perubahan secara dialogis emansipatoris.

  7. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)


    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  8. Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection: A Method to Quantify Total Measurement Uncertainty (United States)

    Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.


    In applications where leak rates of components or systems are evaluated against a leak rate requirement, the uncertainty of the measured leak rate must be included in the reported result. However, in the helium mass spectrometer leak detection method, the sensitivity, or resolution, of the instrument is often the only component of the total measurement uncertainty noted when reporting results. To address this shortfall, a measurement uncertainty analysis method was developed that includes the leak detector unit's resolution, repeatability, hysteresis, and drift, along with the uncertainty associated with the calibration standard. In a step-wise process, the method identifies the bias and precision components of the calibration standard, the measurement correction factor (K-factor), and the leak detector unit. Together these individual contributions to error are combined and the total measurement uncertainty is determined using the root-sum-square method. It was found that the precision component contributes more to the total uncertainty than the bias component, but the bias component is not insignificant. For helium mass spectrometer leak rate tests where unit sensitivity alone is not enough, a thorough evaluation of the measurement uncertainty such as the one presented herein should be performed and reported along with the leak rate value.

  9. Location and repair of air leaks in the ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Gabbard, W.A.; Schaich, C.R.; Yarber, J.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))


    On the basis of partial pressure rate-of-rise and base pressure measurements, it was determined that the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel had an air leak in the low 10{sup -4} mbar-{ell}/s range. Pinpointing this leak by conventional helium leak-checking procedures was not possible, because large portions of the outside of the vessel are covered by the helcial field coils and a structural shell. Various alternative leak-detection schemes that were considered are summarized and their advantages and disadvantages noted. In the method ultimately employed, gun-rubber patches of various sizes ranging from 12.7 by 12.7 cm to 20.3 by 30.5 cm were positioned on the inside surfaces of the vessel and evacuated by the leak detector (LD). After roughly 5% of the surface was inspected in this way, a leak of > 10{sup -5} mbar-{ell}/s was discovered and localized to an area of 5 by 5 cm. Dye penetrant applied to this area disclosed three pinholes. Two small slag pockets were discovered while these points were being ground out. After these were rewelded, no furthered leakage could be found in the repaired area. Global leak rates measured after the machine was reevacuated indicated that this leak was about 30% of the overall leak rate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Validation of Test Methods for Air Leak Rate Verification of Spaceflight Hardware (United States)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.; Mather, Janice L.


    As deep space exploration continues to be the goal of NASAs human spaceflight program, verification of the performance of spaceflight hardware becomes increasingly critical. Suitable test methods for verifying the leak rate of sealing systems are identified in program qualification testing requirements. One acceptable method for verifying the air leak rate of gas pressure seals is the tracer gas leak detector method. In this method, a tracer gas (commonly helium) leaks past the test seal and is transported to the leak detector where the leak rate is quantified. To predict the air leak rate, a conversion factor of helium-to-air is applied depending on the magnitude of the helium flow rate. The conversion factor is based on either the molecular mass ratio or the ratio of the dynamic viscosities. The current work was aimed at validating this approach for permeation-level leak rates using a series of tests with a silicone elastomer O-ring. An established pressure decay method with constant differential pressure was used to evaluate both the air and helium leak rates of the O-ring under similar temperature and pressure conditions. The results from the pressure decay tests showed, for the elastomer O-ring, that neither the molecular flow nor the viscous flow helium-to-air conversion factors were applicable. Leak rate tests were also performed using nitrogen and argon as the test gas. Molecular mass and viscosity based helium-to-test gas conversion factors were applied, but did not correctly predict the measured leak rates of either gas. To further this study, the effect of pressure boundary conditions was investigated. Often, pressure decay leak rate tests are performed at a differential pressure of 101.3 kPa with atmospheric pressure on the downstream side of the test seal. In space applications, the differential pressure is similar, but with vacuum as the downstream pressure. The same O-ring was tested at four unique differential pressures ranging from 34.5 to 137.9 k

  11. Mitigated Transfer Line Leaks that Result in Surface Pools and Spray Leaks into Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEY, B.E.


    This analysis provides radiological and toxicological consequence calculations for postulated mitigated leaks during transfers of six waste compositions. Leaks in Cleanout Boxes equipped with supplemental covers and leaks in pits are analyzed.

  12. High Altitude Aerial Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard T. Wainner; Mickey B. Frish; B. David Green; Matthew C. Laderer; Mark G. Allen; Joseph R. Morency


    The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective and power-efficient advanced standoff sensing technology able to detect and quantify, from a high-altitude (> 10,000 ft) aircraft, natural gas leaking from a high-pressure pipeline. The advanced technology is based on an enhanced version of the Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD) platform developed previously by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI). The RMLD combines a telecommunications-style diode laser, fiber-optic components, and low-cost DSP electronics with the well-understood principles of Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS), to indicate the presence of natural gas located between the operator and a topographic target. The transceiver transmits a laser beam onto a topographic target and receives some of the laser light reflected by the target. The controller processes the received light signal to deduce the amount of methane in the laser's path. For use in the airborne platform, we modified three aspects of the RMLD, by: (1) inserting an Erbium-doped optical fiber laser amplifier to increase the transmitted laser power from 10 mW to 5W; (2) increasing the optical receiver diameter from 10 cm to 25 cm; and (3) altering the laser wavelength from 1653 nm to 1618 nm. The modified RMLD system provides a path-integrated methane concentration sensitivity {approx}5000 ppm-m, sufficient to detect the presence of a leak from a high capacity transmission line while discriminating against attenuation by ambient methane. In ground-based simulations of the aerial leak detection scenario, we demonstrated the ability to measure methane leaks within the laser beam path when it illuminates a topographic target 2000 m away. We also demonstrated simulated leak detection from ranges of 200 m using the 25 cm optical receiver without the fiber amplifier.

  13. Sensors for Fluid Leak Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz


    Full Text Available Fluid leak detection represents a problem that has attracted the interest of researchers, but not exclusively because in industries and services leaks are frequently common. Indeed, in water or gas supplies, chemical or thermal plants, sea-lines or cooling/heating systems leakage rates can cause important economic losses and sometimes, what it is more relevant, environmental pollution with human, animal or plant lives at risk. This last issue has led to increased national and international regulations with different degrees of severity regarding environmental conservation.[...

  14. Stochastic Consequence Analysis for Waste Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEY, B.E.


    This analysis evaluates the radiological consequences of potential Hanford Tank Farm waste transfer leaks. These include ex-tank leaks into structures, underneath the soil, and exposed to the atmosphere. It also includes potential misroutes, tank overflow

  15. Anaerobic polymers as high vacuum leak sealants (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.


    Anaerobic polymers are useful as solventless leak sealants with good vacuum properties at moderate temperatures. Loctite 290 can seal leaks in a range generally encountered in carefully constructed ultrahigh vacuum and high vacuum systems. It was found that small leaks are sealed best under vacuum, whereas large leaks should be sealed at atmospheric pressure. The high-temperature behavior of Loctite 290 is limited by its fast cure, which prevents deep penetration into small leaks; cracking eventually occurs at the entrance to the leak. Repeated thermal cycling to about 300 C is possible, however, provided viscosity, curing time, and leak size are properly matched to ensure penetration into the body of the leak. This may require special formulations for high temperature vacuum applications.

  16. Presidential Leaks: Rhetoric and Mediated Political Knowledge. (United States)

    Erickson, Keith V.


    Argues that presidential leaks constitute rhetorical acts, enabling administrations to exercise a variety of rhetorically potent options not afforded by the public forum. Proposes a typology of presidential leaks and analyzes their rhetorical functions, benefits, and liabilities. (MM)

  17. Hydrogen Leak Detection Sensor Database (United States)

    Baker, Barton D.


    This slide presentation reviews the characteristics of the Hydrogen Sensor database. The database is the result of NASA's continuing interest in and improvement of its ability to detect and assess gas leaks in space applications. The database specifics and a snapshot of an entry in the database are reviewed. Attempts were made to determine the applicability of each of the 65 sensors for ground and/or vehicle use.

  18. Autologous conjunctival resurfacing of leaking filtering blebs. (United States)

    Harris, L D; Yang, G; Feldman, R M; Fellman, R L; Starita, R J; Lynn, J; Chuang, A Z


    To present a case series of a new technique to repair late bleb leaks. Retrospective, noncomparative, consecutive case series. Forty-seven autologous conjunctival resurfacings of late bleb leaks were performed by four surgeons at two institutions. Autologous conjunctival grafts were placed over existing de-epithelialized leaking blebs. Leak-free, Seidel-negative blebs and controlled glaucoma. After a mean follow-up of 14 +/- 12 months, one patient continued to have bleb leak at the last follow-up, and one frank leak resolved with aqueous suppression. Intraocular pressure increased from 6.6 +/- 4.4 mmHg (0.13 glaucoma medications) to 11.9 +/- 4.1 mmHg (0.41 glaucoma medications). Conjunctival resurfacing with autologous tissue is an effective technique to repair late bleb leaks.

  19. Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer, N.; Barber, D.H.; Boucher, P.J. [and others


    This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis.

  20. Autonomous, Cryogenic Leak Detector for Improving Launch Site Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports, spacecrafts for planetary missions, future projects on the moon and mars ? they all need to monitor mission critical propellants. This project...

  1. Autonomous, Cryogenic Leak Detector for Improving Launch Site Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For detecting leakage of cryogenic fluids in spaceport facilities and in spacebound vehicles, this project proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an all-optical...

  2. Measurement of the performance of TGC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Feng Cun Feng; Lu Tai Guo; Sun Yan Sheng; Wang Suo Jie; Yan Zhen; Zhu Cheng Guang


    Shandong University is in charge of the research and production of T9 type TGC (Thin Gap Chamber) detectors for ATLAS experiment. In this paper, the stability and the leak current of the detectors working at 3200 V voltage were measured, and the plateau curves of the detectors were measured too. The counting rate of each channel was measured with same working condition and counting time interval for all the TGC detectors, in order to check the consistency of all signal channels. The performance of T9 type TGC detectors produced by Shandong University has met the requirement of the ATLAS experiment according to the preliminary results of measurement.

  3. Passive Leak Detection Using Commercial Hydrogen Colorimetric Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Element One, Inc. (, a small business with in Boulder, CO, has been developing hydrogen detection technology based upon a highly selective colorimetric indicator. In its native state, the indicator pigment is a pale gray color, but becomes black upon exposure to hydrogen. The colorimetric change can be readily observed by the naked eye without the need for supplemental electronics or other hardware. Recently, the colorimetric indicator was integrated into a pliable, self-adhesive tape that can readily wrap around pneumatic fittings to serve as a hydrogen leak detector. A prototype version of the Element One indicator tape was tested within an NREL hydrogen system and successfully identified the unexpected presence of a small leak; a summary document for this case study is presented in Appendix 1. The tape was subsequently configured into 10-foot rolls as a product prototype that has just recently been commercialized and marketed under the tradename DetecTape(R). Figure 1 shows the commercial version of DetecTape along with an indicator sample in its native state and one that had been exposed to hydrogen. DetecTape is a self-adhesive silicone-based tape impregnated with a proprietary hydrogen-sensitive indicator based on transition metal oxides. A length of the tape can be cut from the roll and stretched by a factor of two or three times around a fitting. Due to the self-adhesive property of the tape, this provides a tight seal around the fitting. The seal is not hermetic, and is not intended to prevent the release of a leaking gas. However, a portion of the hydrogen leaking from a wrapped fitting will pass through the tape and react with the active indicator impregnated within the tape, thereby inducing blackening.

  4. Technical Reviews on the Radioisotope Application for Leak Detection in Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jae Ho


    The previous techniques on the detection of leaks from reservoirs are difficult to identify the leak points and leak pathways in reservoirs. Additionally the complexity and ambiguity of data analysis resulted from them can increase the failures of leak detection. While, The technique using radioisotope as a tracer is considered to be very promising. In the same context, systematic studies led by IAEA are being practiced by organizing the task force team. The detection technique using natural tracer can give information about the age of ground water and the interconnection between ground water and reservoir water and the seepage origin. On the other hand, the one using artificial tracer can identify the leak point in reservoirs directly, in which radioactive cloud migration method and radioactive tracer adsorption method are included. The former is using hydrophilic radioisotope tracer, and the latter adsorptive radioisotope tracer which is emitting gamma ray. The radiotracer are injected at a point of the reservoir near to the bottom. Afterwards, the migration of the radioactive tracer is followed by means of submerged scintillation detectors suspended from boats. Usually {sup 131}I, {sup 82}Br, {sup 46}Sc, and {sup 198}Au etc. can be used as tracer. The point reaching the maximum concentration of tracer corresponds to the leak point in reservoirs.

  5. Fighting the Epidemic of Nuclear Plant Leaks. (United States)

    Udell, Richard A.


    The current epidemic of steam generator tube leaks alone should put to rest the rosy future once envisioned for nuclear power. It is impossible to regulate quality into a nuclear plant; it must be built and designed that way. The economic impact of the leaks is discussed. (RM)

  6. ISOLDE Off-line Gas Leak Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kristoffer Bested


    This study investigates gas injection system of the ISOLDE Off-line separator. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to analysis the composition of the gas. Based on these measurements a contamination of the injected gas is found and a system upgrade is purposed. Furthermore a calibration of the leak rate of the leak valve is made.

  7. Uncommon leaks revealed by low flow anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    TRAVEL FELLOWSHIP. Low flow techniques provide a long duration of reliable anaesthesia at minimal cost. The use of low flows requires a leak free circuit and anaesthetic machine. Should leaks occur during low flow anaesthesia, these will be immediately obvious and rapidly rectified. Anaesthetic machines have been ...

  8. Protecting brazing furnaces from air leaks (United States)

    Armenoff, C. T.; Mckown, R. D.


    Inexpensive inert-atmosphere shielding protects vacuum brazing-furnace components that are likely to spring leak. Pipefittings, gages, and valves are encased in transparent plastic shroud inflated with argon. If leak develops, harmless argon will enter vacuum chamber, making it possible to finish ongoing brazing or heat treatment before shutting down for repair.

  9. Leak Tightness of LHC Cold Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cruikshank, P; Maan, M; Mourier, L; Perrier-Cornet, A; Provot, N


    The cold vacuum systems of the LHC machine have been in operation since 2008. While a number of acceptable helium leaks were known to exist prior to cool down and have not significantly evolved over the last years, several new leaks have occurred which required immediate repair activities or mitigating solutions to permit operation of the LHC. The LHC vacuum system is described together with a summary and timetable of known air and helium leaks and their impact on the functioning of the cryogenic and vacuum systems. Where leaks have been investigated and repaired, the cause and failure mechanism is described. We elaborate the mitigating solutions that have been implemented to avoid degradation of known leaks and minimize their impact on cryogenic operation and LHC availability, and finally a recall of the consolidation program to be implemented in the next LHC shutdown.

  10. Successful Endoscopic Therapy of Traumatic Bile Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Spinn


    Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.

  11. Multichannel leak detection system for electrochemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammed, R.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. (King Fahd Univ. for Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))


    A multichannel leak detection system has been developed to detect any chemical leak during the electrochemical etching process. It gives an audible and a visible warning when there is a leak at any part of the system. This greatly helps in isolating the defective sample quickly. It can be removed during operation, while the etching process continues on other samples. The circuit is built from standard integrated circuits and has its own power supply. Provisions have been made to connect this system to the computer for recording date, time and location of the leaky unetched samples. (author).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael B. Frish; B. David Green; Richard T. Wainner; Francesca Scire-Scappuzzo; Paul Cataldi; Matthew C. Laderer


    This report summarizes work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to advance the state-of-the-art of surveying for leaks of natural gas from transmission and distribution pipelines. The principal project goal was to develop means of deploying on an automotive platform an improved version of the handheld laser-based standoff natural gas leak detector previously developed by PSI and known as the Remote Methane Leak Detector or RMLD. A laser beam which interrogates the air for methane is projected from a spinning turret mounted upon a van. As the van travels forward, the laser beam scans an arc to the front and sides of the van so as to survey across streets and to building walls from a moving vehicle. When excess methane is detected within the arc, an alarm is activated. In this project, we built and tested a prototype Mobile RMLD (MRMLD) intended to provide lateral coverage of 10 m and one lateral scan for every meter of forward motion at forward speeds up to 10 m/s. Using advanced detection algorithms developed as part of this project, the early prototype MRMLD, installed on the back of a truck, readily detected simulated gas leaks of 50 liters per hour. As a supplement to the originally planned project, PSI also participated in a DoE demonstration of several gas leak detection systems at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) during September 2004. Using a handheld RMLD upgraded with the advanced detection algorithms developed in this project, from within a moving vehicle we readily detected leaks created along the 7.4 mile route of a virtual gas transmission pipeline.

  13. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund (United States)

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  14. Remote leak localization approach for fusion machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durocher, Au., E-mail: [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bruno, V.; Chantant, M.; Gargiulo, L. [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Gherman, T. [Floralis UJF Filiale, F-38610 Gières (France); Hatchressian, J.-C.; Houry, M.; Le, R.; Mouyon, D. [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    Highlights: ► Description of leaks issue. ► Selection of leak localization concepts. ► Qualification of leak localization concepts. -- Abstract: Fusion machine operation requires high-vacuum conditions and does not tolerate water or gas leak in the vacuum vessels, even if they are micrometric. Tore Supra, as a fully actively cooled tokamak, has got a large leak management experience; 34 water leaks occurred since the beginning of its operation in 1988. To handle this issue, after preliminary machine protection phases, the current process for leak localization is based on water or helium pressurization network by network. It generally allows the identification of a set of components where the leakage element is located. However, the unique background of CEA-IRFM laboratory points needs of accuracy and promptness out in the leak localization process. Moreover, in-vessel interventions have to be performed trying to minimize time and risks for the persons. They are linked to access conditions, radioactivity, tracer gas high pressure and vessel conditioning. Remote operation will be one of the ways to improve these points on future fusion machines. In this case, leak sensors would have to be light weight devices in order to be integrated on a carrier or to be located outside with a sniffing process set up. A leak localization program is on-going at CEA-IRFM Laboratory with the first goal of identifying and characterizing relevant concepts to localize helium or water leaks on ITER. In the same time, CEA has developed robotic carrier for effective in-vessel intervention in a hostile environment. Three major tests campaigns with the goal to identify leak sensors have been achieved on several CEA test-beds since 2010. Very promising results have been obtained: relevant scenario of leak localization performed, concepts tested in a high volume test-bed called TITAN, and, in several conditions of pressure and temperature (ultrahigh vacuum to atmospheric pressure and 20


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-9IF Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal I-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and drywells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to

  16. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward


    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  17. Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

  18. Endoscopic Management of Gastrointestinal Leaks and Fistulae. (United States)

    Willingham, Field F; Buscaglia, Jonathan M


    Gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae can be serious acute complications or chronic morbid conditions resulting from inflammatory, malignant, or postsurgical states. Endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae represents major progress in the treatment of patients with these complex presentations. The main goal of endoscopic therapy is the interruption of the flow of luminal contents across a gastrointestinal defect. In consideration of the proper endoscopic approach to luminal closure, several basic principles must be considered. Undrained cavities and fluid collections must often first be drained percutaneously, and the percutaneous drain provides an important measure of safety for subsequent endoscopic luminal manipulations. The size and exact location of the leak/fistula, as well as the viability of the surrounding tissue, must be defined. Almost all complex leaks and fistulae must be approached in a multidisciplinary manner, collaborating with colleagues in nutrition, radiology, and surgery. Currently, gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae may be managed endoscopically by using 1 or more of the following modalities: stent placement, clip closure (including through-the-scope clips and over-the-scope devices), endoscopic suturing, and the injection of tissue sealants. In this article, we discuss these modalities and review the published outcomes data regarding each approach as well as practical considerations for successful closure of luminal defects. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CT assessment of anastomotic bowel leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, N. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Atri, M. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)]. E-mail:; Ryan, S. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Haddad, R. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Smith, A. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)


    Aim: To evaluate the predictors of clinically important gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: Ninety-nine patients, 73 with clinical suspicion of anastomotic bowel leak and 26 non-bowel surgery controls underwent CT to investigate postoperative sepsis. Fifty patients had undergone large bowel and 23 small bowel anastomoses. The time interval from surgery was 3-30 days (mean 10 {+-} 5.9 SD) for the anastomotic group and 3-40 days (mean 14 {+-} 11 SD) for the control group (p = 0.3). Two radiologists blinded to the final results reviewed the CT examinations in consensus and recorded the presence of peri-anastomotic air, fluid or combination of the two; distant loculated fluid or combination of fluid and air; free air or fluid; and intestinal contrast leak. Final diagnosis of clinically important anastomotic leak (CIAL) was confirmed at surgery or by chart review of predetermined clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: The prevalence of CIAL in the group undergoing CT was 31.5% (23/73). The CT examinations with documented leak were performed 5-28 (mean; 11.4 {+-} 6 SD) days after surgery. Nine patients required repeat operation, 10 percutaneous abscess drainage, two percutaneous drainage followed by surgery, and two prolonged antibiotic treatment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Of the CT features examined, only peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air was more frequently seen in the CIAL group as opposed to the no leak group (p = 0.04). There was no intestinal contrast leakage in this cohort. Free air was present up to 9 days and loculated air up to 26 days without CIAL. Conclusion: Most postoperative CT features overlap between patients with and without CIAL. The only feature seen statistically more frequently with CIAL is peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air.

  20. CT assessment of anastomotic bowel leak. (United States)

    Power, N; Atri, M; Ryan, S; Haddad, R; Smith, A


    To evaluate the predictors of clinically important gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Ninety-nine patients, 73 with clinical suspicion of anastomotic bowel leak and 26 non-bowel surgery controls underwent CT to investigate postoperative sepsis. Fifty patients had undergone large bowel and 23 small bowel anastomoses. The time interval from surgery was 3-30 days (mean 10+/-5.9 SD) for the anastomotic group and 3-40 days (mean 14+/-11 SD) for the control group (p=0.3). Two radiologists blinded to the final results reviewed the CT examinations in consensus and recorded the presence of peri-anastomotic air, fluid or combination of the two; distant loculated fluid or combination of fluid and air; free air or fluid; and intestinal contrast leak. Final diagnosis of clinically important anastomotic leak (CIAL) was confirmed at surgery or by chart review of predetermined clinical and laboratory criteria. The prevalence of CIAL in the group undergoing CT was 31.5% (23/73). The CT examinations with documented leak were performed 5-28 (mean; 11.4+/-6 SD) days after surgery. Nine patients required repeat operation, 10 percutaneous abscess drainage, two percutaneous drainage followed by surgery, and two prolonged antibiotic treatment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Of the CT features examined, only peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air was more frequently seen in the CIAL group as opposed to the no leak group (p=0.04). There was no intestinal contrast leakage in this cohort. Free air was present up to 9 days and loculated air up to 26 days without CIAL. Most postoperative CT features overlap between patients with and without CIAL. The only feature seen statistically more frequently with CIAL is peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air.

  1. Scanning, standoff TDLAS leak imaging and quantification (United States)

    Wainner, Richard T.; Aubut, Nicholas F.; Laderer, Matthew C.; Frish, Michael B.


    This paper reports a novel quantitative gas plume imaging tool, based on active near-infrared Backscatter Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (b-TDLAS) technology, designed for upstream natural gas leak applications. The new tool integrates low-cost laser sensors with video cameras to create a highly sensitive gas plume imager that also quantifies emission rate, all in a lightweight handheld ergonomic package. It is intended to serve as a lower-cost, higherperformance, enhanced functionality replacement for traditional passive non-quantitative mid-infrared Optical Gas Imagers (OGI) which are utilized by industry to comply with natural gas infrastructure Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) requirements. It addresses the need for reliable, robust, low-cost sensors to detect and image methane leaks, and to quantify leak emission rates, focusing on inspections of upstream oil and gas operations, such as well pads, compressors, and gas plants. It provides: 1) Colorized quantified images of path-integrated methane concentration. The images depict methane plumes (otherwise invisible to the eye) actively interrogated by the laser beam overlaid on a visible camera image of the background. The detection sensitivity exceeds passive OGI, thus simplifying the manual task of leak detection and location; and 2) Data and algorithms for using the quantitative information gathered by the active detection technique to deduce plume flux (i.e. methane emission rate). This key capability will enable operators to prioritize leak repairs and thereby minimize the value of lost product, as well as to quantify and minimize greenhouse gas emissions, using a tool that meets EPA LDAR imaging equipment requirements.

  2. Laser Schlieren System Detects Sounds Of Leaks (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy P.; Alwar, A. Vijayaragavan


    Hostile environments monitored safely and noninvasively. Modified laser schlieren system acts as microphone to detect sounds of leaks remotely. Sensitive to acoustical frequencies above audible range and especially suited for monitoring leaks of high-pressure steam from boilers or chemical vapors from processing equipment. Does not require placement of delicate equipment in harsh environment monitored, and no contact needed with boiler or other unit being monitored. Detects sound waves via variation of index of refraction of air at acoustical frequencies. Used to monitor sound frequencies beyond range of human hearing.

  3. Single-Shell Tank Leak Integrity Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, D. G. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Girardot, C. L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Venetz, T. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)


    This document summarizes and evaluates the information in the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement Interim Milestone M-045-91F Targets completed between 2010 and 2015. 1) Common factors of SST liner failures (M-045-91F-T02), 2) the feasibility of testing for ionic conductivity between the inside and outside of SSTs (M-045-91F-T03, and 3) the causes, locations, and rates of leaks from leaking SSTs (M-045-91F-T04).

  4. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 4, 2013 ... abscesses, interloop and intra-abdominal sepsis and cholangitis, or the later secondary sequelae of biliary cirrhosis, portal hypertension and end-stage liver disease. There is consensus that optimal management of a bile duct injury requires multidisciplinary. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after.

  5. Detecting gas leaks by ultrasonic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Henriksen, Eigil


    The emission of noise in the frequency range 10 kHz to 25.6 kHz from an experimental gas leak in a flanged joint has been experimentally investigated. The overall conclusion is that the emitted noise is almost frequency independent in level within the considered frequency range.A small PC program...

  6. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Leak Detection in a Space Environment (United States)

    Sinko, John E.; Korman, Valentin; Hendrickson, Adam; Polzin, Kurt A.


    A miniature fiber-optic, laser-based, interferometric leak detector is presented for application as a means to detect on-orbit gas leaks. The sensor employs a fiber-coupled modified Michelson interferometer to detect gas leaks by measuring an increase in gas density in the sensing region. Monitoring changes in the fringe pattern output by the interferometer allows for direct measurement of the gas density in the sensing region and, under the assumption of an equation of state, this can be used to obtain a pressure measurement. Measurements obtained over a pressure range from 20 mtorr to 760 torr using a prototypical interferometer on working gases of air, nitrogen, argon, and helium generally exhibit agreement with a theoretical prediction of the pressure increase required before an interference fringe completely moves over the detector. Additional measurements performed on various gases demonstrate the range of detectable species, measuring sub-torr pressure changes in the process. A high-fidelity measurement places the ultimate pressure resolution for this particular sensor configuration in the 10 mtorr range. Time-resolved data prove the capability of this sensor to detect fast gas flow phenomena associated with transients and pressure waves.

  7. REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (United States)

    SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

  8. The leak location package for assessment of the time-frequency correlation method for leak location (United States)

    Faerman, V. A.; Cheremnov, A. G.; Avramchuk, V. S.; Shepetovsky, D. V.


    The paper describes the simplest implementation of a software and hardware package for acoustic correlation leak location and results of its performance assessment for location of water leaks from a metallic pipe in laboratory conditions. A distinctive feature of this leak locator is the use of the software based on the time-frequency correlation analysis of signals, which was proposed in our previous papers. Comparative analysis results are given for the information content of classical and time-frequency cross-correlation functions as obtained during processing of experimental data. The results obtained justify comparatively higher efficiency of a time-frequency cross correlation method to solve the leak location task. Improved efficiency is determined by bandpass filtration embedded into the time-frequency cross-correlation function calculation.


    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  10. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others


    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.


    CERN Multimedia

    Pierluigi Paolucci


    In the second part of 2013 the two main activities of the RPC project are the reparation and maintenance of the present system and the construction and installation of the RE4 system. Since the opening of the barrel, repair activities on the gas, high-voltage and electronic systems are being done in parallel, in agreement with the CMS schedule. In YB0, the maintenance of the RPC detector was in the shadow of other interventions, nevertheless the scaffolding turned out to be a good solution for our gas leaks searches. Here we found eight leaking channels for about 100 l/h in total. 10 RPC/DT modules were partially extracted –– 90 cm –– in YB0, YB–1 and YB–2 to allow for the replacement of FE and LV distribution boards. Intervention was conducted on an additional two chambers on the positive endcap to solve LV and threshold control problems. Until now we were able to recover 0.67% of the total number of RPC electronic channels (1.5% of the channels...


    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedova and M. Dallavalle


    After successful operation during the 2009 LHC run, a number of fixes and improvements were carried out on the DT system the winter shutdown. The main concern was related with the impact of the extensive water leak that happened in October in YE+1. Opening of CMS end-caps allowed the DT crew to check if any Minicrates (containing the first level of readout and trigger electronics) in YB+2 and YB-2 were flooded with water. The affected region from top sectors in YB+2 reaches down to the bottom sectors in YB-2 following the water path in the barrel from end to end. No evidence of water penetration was observed, though the passage of water left oxidation and white streaks on the iron and components. In particular, large signs of oxidation have been seen on the YB-2 MB1 top and bottom stations. Review of the impact in YB+1 remains for future openings of CMS wheels, and at present, effort is focused on setting up the water leak detection system in the detector. Another important issue during this shutd...

  13. Double Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, Dennis J.


    PowerPoint. The objectives of this presentation are to: Describe Effort to Determine Whether Tank AY-102 Leaked; Review Probable Causes of the Tank AY-102 Leak; and, Discuss Influence of Leak on Hanford’s Double-Shell Tank Integrity Program.

  14. 49 CFR 230.64 - Leaks under lagging. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Leaks § 230.64 Leaks under lagging. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall take out of service at once any boiler that has developed a leak under the lagging due to a crack in the shell, or to...

  15. 49 CFR 174.50 - Nonconforming or leaking packages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonconforming or leaking packages. 174.50 Section 174.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... General Operating Requirements § 174.50 Nonconforming or leaking packages. A leaking non-bulk package may...

  16. 1999 Leak Detection and Monitoring and Mitigation Strategy Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHL, P.C.


    This document is a complete revision of WHC-SD-WM-ES-378, Rev 1. This update includes recent developments in Leak Detection, Leak Monitoring, and Leak Mitigation technologies, as well as, recent developments in single-shell tank retrieval technologies. In addition, a single-shell tank retrieval release protection strategy is presented.

  17. Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO₂ gas. (United States)

    Hogan, Justin A; Shaw, Joseph A; Lawrence, Rick L; Larimer, Randal M


    As a component of a multisensor approach to monitoring carbon sequestration sites for possible leaks of the CO₂ gas from underground reservoirs, a low-cost multispectral imaging system has been developed for indirect detection of gas leaks through observations of the resulting stress in overlying vegetation. The imager employs front-end optics designed to provide a full 50° field of view with a small, low-cost CMOS detector, while still maintaining quasi-collimated light through the angle-dependent interference filters used to define the spectral bands. Red and near-infrared vegetation reflectances are used to compute the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and spatial and temporal patterns are analyzed statistically to identify regions of anomalous stress, which are then flagged for closer inspection with in-situ CO₂ sensors. The system is entirely self-contained with an onboard compact computer and is housed in a weather-proof housing to enable extended outdoor deployment.

  18. Particle detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Introduction, interaction of radiation with matter measurement of momentum of charged particles, of energy of e/gamma, hadrons, identification of particles. Design of HEP detectors. Principle of operation and performance of tracking sub-detectors, calorimeters and muon system.

  19. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia


    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  20. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio


    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  1. Fluid pipeline leak detection and location with miniature RF tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Timothy J.


    Sensors locate troublesome leaks in pipes or conduits that carry a flowing medium. These sensors, through tailored physical and geometric properties, preferentially seek conduit leaks or breaches due to flow streaming. The sensors can be queried via transceivers outside the conduit or located and interrogated inside by submersible unmanned vehicle to identify and characterize the nature of a leak. The sensors can be functionalized with other capabilities for additional leak and pipeline characterization if needed. Sensors can be recovered from a conduit flow stream and reused for future leak detection activities.

  2. Method for mapping a natural gas leak (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA


    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formatted into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimposed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  3. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC. (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang


    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. An AEM survey of a leaking landfill


    Beamish, D


    This study presents results obtained from a remarkably small-scale helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey of a closed landfill. The landfill, occupying a former quarry, is situated among shallow, worked-out coal seams (pillar and stall workings) and was located over at least two mineshafts that occupied the quarry floor. The landfill was known to be leaking from an extensive borehole investigation that took place in the 1970’s, when the landfill was active. Redevelopment issues and ...

  5. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate-detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)


    Regulatory Guide 1.45, {open_quotes}Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection Systems,{close_quotes} was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1973, and provides guidance on leak detection methods and system requirements for Light Water Reactors. Additionally, leak detection limits are specified in plant Technical Specifications and are different for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These leak detection limits are also used in leak-before-break evaluations performed in accordance with Draft Standard Review Plan, Section 3.6.3, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break Evaluation Procedures{close_quotes} where a margin of 10 on the leak detection limit is used in determining the crack size considered in subsequent fracture analyses. This study was requested by the NRC to: (1) evaluate the conditional failure probability for BWR and PWR piping for pipes that were leaking at the allowable leak detection limit, and (2) evaluate the margin of 10 to determine if it was unnecessarily large. A probabilistic approach was undertaken to conduct fracture evaluations of circumferentially cracked pipes for leak-rate-detection applications. Sixteen nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants were analyzed to evaluate conditional failure probability and effects of crack-morphology variability on the current margins used in leak rate detection for leak-before-break.

  6. Color Changing Material for Hydrogen Leak Detection (United States)

    Victor, Megan E.


    Kennedy Space Center scientists developed a hydrogen leak sensor utilizing a combination of chemochromic pigment and polymer that can be molded or fiber spun into rigid or flexible shapes such as tape. The sensor turns a dark color when exposed to hydrogen gas. This sensor has proven to be very effective for pinpointing the exact location of leaks in hydrogen gas lines and fittings at launch pads. Kennedy Space Center exclusively licensed this technology to the University of Central Florida (UCF), who also holds patents that are complimentary to KSC's. UCF has bundled the patents and exclusively licensed the portfolio to HySense Technology LLC, a startup company founded by a UCF professor who supports the UCF Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). HySense has fully developed its product (known as Intellipigment"TM"), and currently has five commercial customers. The company recently won the $100,000 first-place award at the CAT5 innovation competition at the Innovation Concourse of the Southeast: Safety & Manufacturing event in Orlando, FL. Commercial production and sales of this technology by HySense Technology will make this leak sensor widely available for use by NASA, DoD, and industries that utilize hydrogen gas.

  7. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines. (United States)

    Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P


    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J


    Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors Introduction Basic Processes Gas ionization by charged particles Primary clusters Cluster size distribution Total number of ion pairs Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity Transport of...

  9. LEAK: A source term generator for evaluating release rates from leaking vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, J.H.


    An interactive computer code for estimating the rate of release of any one of several materials from a leaking tank or broken pipe leading from a tank is presented. It is generally assumed that the material in the tank is liquid. Materials included in the data base are acetonitrile, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, sodium hydroxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuric acid, and uranium hexafluoride. Materials that exist only as liquid and/or vapor over expected ranges of temperature and pressure can easily be added to the data base file. The Fortran source code for LEAK and the data file are included with this report.

  10. Standard practice for leaks using the mass spectrometer leak detector in the inside-Out testing mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers procedures for testing devices that are sealed prior to testing, such as semiconductors, hermetically enclosed relays, pyrotechnic devices, etc., for leakage through the walls of the enclosure. They may be used with various degrees of sensitivity (depending on the internal volume, the strength of the enclosure, the time available for preparation of test, and on the sorption characteristics of the enclosure material for helium). In general practice the sensitivity limits are from 10−10 to 10−6 Pa m3/s (10−9 standard cm3/s to 10−5 standard cm3/s at 0°C) for helium, although these limits may be exceeded by several decades in either direction in some circumstances. 1.2 Two test methods are described: 1.2.1 Test Method A—Test part preparation by bombing. 1.2.2 Test Method B—Test part preparation by prefilling. 1.3 Units—The values stated in either SI or std-cc/sec units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalen...

  11. Hazard Evaluation for the Saltwell Chempump and a Saltwell Centrifugal Pump Design using Service Water for Lubrication and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.


    This report documents results of a preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) covering the existing Crane Chempump and the new salt well pumping design. Three hazardous conditions were identified for the Chempump and ten hazardous conditions were identified for the new salt well pump design. This report also presents the results of the control decision/allocation process. A backflow preventer and associated limiting condition for operation were assigned to one hazardous condition with the new design.

  12. Integrability detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 29, 2015 ... Abstract. In this short review, we present some applications and historical facts about the integrability detectors: Painlevé analysis, singularity confinement and algebraic entropy.

  13. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector (United States)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.


    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  14. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benziger, J. [Chemical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail:; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Goretti, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionale di Gran Sasso (Italy); Harding, E. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ianni, Aldo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionale di Gran Sasso (Italy); Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] (and others)


    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  15. Leak Detection of High Pressure Feedwater Heater Using Empirical Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Song Kyu; Kim, Eun Kee [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang Ha [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Even small leak from tube side or pass partition within the high pressure feedwater heater (HPFWH) causes a significant deficiency in its performance. Plant operation under the HPFWH leak condition for long time will result in cost increase. Tube side leak within HPFWH can produce the high velocity jet of water and it can cause neighboring tube failures. However, most of plants are being operated without any information for internal leaks of HPFWH, even though it is prone to be damaged under high temperature and high pressure operating conditions. Leaks from tubes and/or pass partition of HPFWH occurred in many nuclear power plants, for example, Mihama PS-2, Takahama PS-2 and Point Beach Nuclear Plant Unit 1. If the internal leaks of HPFWH are monitored, the cost can be reduced by inexpensive repairs relative to loss in performance and moreover plant shutdown as well as further tube damages can be prevented.

  16. A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.


    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  17. Dog detectives : sniffer dogs proving indispensable in finding pipeline leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.


    This article reports on the use of dogs to detect leaks in gas pipelines. A project was undertaken by Benoit Oilfield Construction in which dogs were trained to smell mercaptans, the odourant used by pipeline companies for safety and leak detection in natural gas. In the event of a leak, the odourant is released and migrates directly to the soil surface where it can be detected by the dogs. A leak can shut down several wells at once and can result in fines for regulatory non-compliance. If the cost of repair and cleanup is added, leaks can have a major negative financial effect on operations. The pinpointing ability of the dogs is good enough to determine if there is one large leak or several smaller ones. This helps determine if the problem resulted from a manufacturing defect or a bad welder, and thus determine who should pay the associated costs. A trained dog is worth about $11,000. 3 figs.

  18. Design of an Infrared Imaging System for Robotic Inspection of Gas Leaks in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Barber


    Full Text Available Gas detection can become a critical task in dangerous environments that involve hazardous or contaminant gases, and the use of imaging sensors provides an important tool for leakage location. This paper presents a new design for remote sensing of gas leaks based on infrared (IR imaging techniques. The inspection system uses an uncooled microbolometer detector, operating over a wide spectral bandwidth, that features both low size and low power consumption. This equipment is boarded on a robotic platform, so that wide objects or areas can be scanned. The detection principle is based on the use of active imaging techniques, where the use of external IR illumination enhances the detection limit and allows the proposed system to operate in most cases independently from environmental conditions, unlike passive commercial approaches. To illustrate this concept, a fully radiometric description of the detection problem has been developed; CO2 detection has been demonstrated; and simulations of typical gas detection scenarios have been performed, showing that typical industrial leaks of CH4 are well within the detection limits. The mobile platform where the gas sensing system is going to be implemented is a robot called TurtleBot. The control of the mobile base and of the inspection device is integrated in ROS architecture. The exploration system is based on the technique of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM that makes it possible to locate the gas leak in the map.

  19. Verification of International Space Station Component Leak Rates by Helium Accumulation Method (United States)

    Underwood, Steve D.; Smith, Sherry L.


    Discovery of leakage on several International Space Station U.S. Laboratory Module ammonia system quick disconnects (QDs) led to the need for a process to quantify total leakage without removing the QDs from the system. An innovative solution was proposed allowing quantitative leak rate measurement at ambient external pressure without QD removal. The method utilizes a helium mass spectrometer configured in the detector probe mode to determine helium leak rates inside a containment hood installed on the test component. The method was validated through extensive developmental testing. Test results showed the method was viable, accurate and repeatable for a wide range of leak rates. The accumulation method has been accepted by NASA and is currently being used by Boeing Huntsville, Boeing Kennedy Space Center and Boeing Johnson Space Center to test welds and valves and will be used by Alenia to test the Cupola. The method has been used in place of more expensive vacuum chamber testing which requires removing the test component from the system.

  20. Margins in high temperature leak-before-break assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budden, P.J.; Hooton, D.G.


    Developments in the defect assessment procedure R6 to include high-temperature mechanisms in Leak-before-Break arguments are described. In particular, the effect of creep on the time available to detect a leak and on the crack opening area, and hence leak rate, is discussed. The competing influence of these two effects is emphasized by an example. The application to Leak-before-Break of the time-dependent failure assessment diagram approach for high temperature defect assessment is then outlined. The approach is shown to be of use in assessing the erosion of margins by creep.

  1. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing. (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt


    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  2. Optical Detectors (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  3. Vapor Detector (United States)

    Waddell, H. M.; Garrard, G. C.; Houston, D. W.


    Detector eliminates need for removing covers to take samples. Detector is canister consisting of screw-in base and clear plastic tube that contains two colors of silica gel. Monoethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide vapors are visually monitored with canister containing color-changing gels.

  4. Real-time imaging of methane gas leaks using a single-pixel camera. (United States)

    Gibson, Graham M; Sun, Baoqing; Edgar, Matthew P; Phillips, David B; Hempler, Nils; Maker, Gareth T; Malcolm, Graeme P A; Padgett, Miles J


    We demonstrate a camera which can image methane gas at video rates, using only a single-pixel detector and structured illumination. The light source is an infrared laser diode operating at 1.651μm tuned to an absorption line of methane gas. The light is structured using an addressable micromirror array to pattern the laser output with a sequence of Hadamard masks. The resulting backscattered light is recorded using a single-pixel InGaAs detector which provides a measure of the correlation between the projected patterns and the gas distribution in the scene. Knowledge of this correlation and the patterns allows an image to be reconstructed of the gas in the scene. For the application of locating gas leaks the frame rate of the camera is of primary importance, which in this case is inversely proportional to the square of the linear resolution. Here we demonstrate gas imaging at ~25 fps while using 256 mask patterns (corresponding to an image resolution of 16×16). To aid the task of locating the source of the gas emission, we overlay an upsampled and smoothed image of the low-resolution gas image onto a high-resolution color image of the scene, recorded using a standard CMOS camera. We demonstrate for an illumination of only 5mW across the field-of-view imaging of a methane gas leak of ~0.2 litres/minute from a distance of ~1 metre.

  5. Gaseous Detectors (United States)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1363 - Standards for equipment leaks. (United States)


    ... definition. The instrument reading, as determined by the method as specified in § 63.180(b) of subpart H of... equipment leaks. (a) General equipment leak requirements. (1) The provisions of this section apply to... subpart applies to general alternative means of emission limitation. Section 63.179 of subpart H of this...

  8. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)


    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  9. New leak assembly based on fluidic nanochannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Aiqing; Zhao, Yongheng; Wang, Xudi, E-mail: [School of Mechanical and Automobile Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Yu; Wei, Wei; Qiu, Keqiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Dong, Dong [Shanghai Institute of Spacecraft Equipment, Shanghai 201100 (China)


    Fluidic nanochannels with a characteristic dimension of ∼280 nm were fabricated and designed as a leak assembly, where the nanochannels were formed on silicon wafers and enclosed with Pyrex{sup ®} glass. The geometric dimensions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the gas flow conductance of He and other heavy gases (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Ar) was measured, and its uncertainty estimated, by the difference method. The results indicated that the measured flow conductance values were 45% less than the calculated flow conductance values. For helium, molecular flow was shown to occur at pressures ranging from vacuum to atmospheric pressure. As a consequence of the well-defined geometry, the prediction of flow conductance could be achieved for various gas species.

  10. Confidence leak in perceptual decision-making (United States)

    Rahnev, Dobromir; Koizumi, Ai; McCurdy, Li Yan; D’Esposito, Mark; Lau, Hakwan


    We live in a continuous environment in which the visual scene changes on a slow timescale. It has been shown that, to exploit such environmental stability, the brain creates a “continuity field” such that objects seen seconds ago influence the perception of current objects. What is unknown is whether a similar mechanism exists at the level of our metacognitive representations. In three experiments we demonstrate a robust inter-task “confidence leak” that cannot be explained by response priming or attentional fluctuations. Observers’ ability to modulate this confidence leak predicted higher capacity for metacognition as well as greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex. A model based on normative principles from Bayesian inference explained the results by postulating that observers subjectively estimate the perceptual signal strength in a stable environment. These results point to the existence of a novel metacognitive mechanism mediated by regions in prefrontal cortex. PMID:26408037

  11. Pressure Change Measurement Leak Testing Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Jeff M [ORNL; Walker, William C [ORNL


    A pressure change test is a common leak testing method used in construction and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE). The test is known as being a fast, simple, and easy to apply evaluation method. While this method may be fairly quick to conduct and require simple instrumentation, the engineering behind this type of test is more complex than is apparent on the surface. This paper intends to discuss some of the more common errors made during the application of a pressure change test and give the test engineer insight into how to correctly compensate for these factors. The principals discussed here apply to ideal gases such as air or other monoatomic or diatomic gasses; however these same principals can be applied to polyatomic gasses or liquid flow rate with altered formula specific to those types of tests using the same methodology.

  12. Wet-aerosol leakage through simulated containment leak paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    Some types of postulated accidents in a nuclear reactor can result in the formation of radioactive wet aerosols in containment and their subsequent release into the environment. Wet-aerosol leakage was investigated using simulated leak paths for isolation damper valves and airlock door seals. Leakage was calculated from measured uranine concentrations deposited on high-quality filters positioned downstream of the simulated leak paths. Test results indicated that a small fraction of wet aerosols leaked through the simulated isolation damper valves, whereas a large fraction leaked through the simulated airlock door seals. Data on wet-aerosol leakage through containment leak paths are needed to develop and validate models in safety analysis codes. (author)

  13. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  14. MS Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.


    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  15. Emission detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bolozdynya, Alexander I


    After decades of research and development, emission detectors have recently become the most successful instrumentation used in modern fundamental experiments searching for cold dark matter, and are also considered for neutrino coherent scattering and magnetic momentum neutrino measurement. This book is the first monograph exclusively dedicated to emission detectors. Properties of two-phase working media based on noble gases, saturated hydrocarbon, ion crystals and semiconductors are reviewed.

  16. Detectors course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA


    This lecture series on detectors, will give a general, although somewhat compressed, introduction to particle interaction with matter and magnetic fields. Tracking detectors and calorimeters will also be covered as well as particle identification systems. The lectures will start out with a short review of particle interaction with fields and then we will discuss particle detection. At the end some common composite detection systems will be described.

  17. Deployable pressurized cell structure for a micrometeoroid detector (United States)

    Kinard, W. H. (Inventor)


    This disclosure comprises a plurality of individual pressurized cells which are caused to leak in response to a micrometeoroid penetration, the leak being sensed by appropriate instrumentation. The plurality of cells may be rolled into a compact arrangement such that the volume of the micrometeoroid detector is small and therefore readily packed in a payload of a launch vehicle. Once the payload is placed in orbit, the rolled up cells can be released, pressurized and provide a relatively rigid, large surface area for detecting micrometeoroid penetration.


    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli


    During the technical stop, the RPC team was part of the CMS task force team working on bushing replacements in the Endcap cooling system, also validating the repairs in terms of connectivity (HV, LV and signal cables), and gas leak, on RE chambers. In parallel, the RPC team profited from the opportunity to cure several known problems: six chambers with HV problems (1 off + 5 single gaps) were recovered on both gaps; four known HV problems were localized at chamber level; additional temperature sensors were installed on cooling pipes on negative REs; one broken LV module in RE-1 was replaced. During the last month, the RPC group has made big improvements in the operations tools. New trigger supervisor software has substantially reduced the configuration time. Monitoring is now more robust and more efficient in providing prompt diagnostics. The detector has been under central DCS control for two weeks. Improvements have been made to both functionality and documentation and no major problems were found. Beam s...

  19. Air-leak effects on ear-canal acoustic absorbance. (United States)

    Groon, Katherine A; Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Kopun, Judy G; Gorga, Michael P; Neely, Stephen T


    Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1-0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables exhibited consistent dependence on

  20. Resilience to leaking--dynamic systems modeling of information security. (United States)

    Hamacher, Kay


    Leaking of confidential material is a major threat to information security within organizations and to society as a whole. This insight has gained traction in the political realm since the activities of Wikileaks, which hopes to attack 'unjust' systems or 'conspiracies'. Eventually, such threats to information security rely on a biologistic argument on the benefits and drawbacks that uncontrolled leaking might pose for 'just' and 'unjust' entities. Such biological metaphors are almost exclusively based on the economic advantage of participants. Here, I introduce a mathematical model of the complex dynamics implied by leaking. The complex interactions of adversaries are modeled by coupled logistic equations including network effects of econo-communication networks. The modeling shows, that there might arise situations where the leaking envisioned and encouraged by Wikileaks and the like can strengthen the defending entity (the 'conspiracy'). In particular, the only severe impact leaking can have on an organization seems to originate in the exploitation of leaks by another entity the organization competes with. Therefore, the model suggests that leaks can be used as a `tactical mean' in direct adversary relations, but do not necessarily increase public benefit and societal immunization to 'conspiracies'. Furthermore, within the model the exploitation of the (open) competition between entities seems to be a more promising approach to control malicious organizations : divide-et-impera policies triumph here.

  1. Resilience to leaking--dynamic systems modeling of information security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    Full Text Available Leaking of confidential material is a major threat to information security within organizations and to society as a whole. This insight has gained traction in the political realm since the activities of Wikileaks, which hopes to attack 'unjust' systems or 'conspiracies'. Eventually, such threats to information security rely on a biologistic argument on the benefits and drawbacks that uncontrolled leaking might pose for 'just' and 'unjust' entities. Such biological metaphors are almost exclusively based on the economic advantage of participants. Here, I introduce a mathematical model of the complex dynamics implied by leaking. The complex interactions of adversaries are modeled by coupled logistic equations including network effects of econo-communication networks. The modeling shows, that there might arise situations where the leaking envisioned and encouraged by Wikileaks and the like can strengthen the defending entity (the 'conspiracy'. In particular, the only severe impact leaking can have on an organization seems to originate in the exploitation of leaks by another entity the organization competes with. Therefore, the model suggests that leaks can be used as a `tactical mean' in direct adversary relations, but do not necessarily increase public benefit and societal immunization to 'conspiracies'. Furthermore, within the model the exploitation of the (open competition between entities seems to be a more promising approach to control malicious organizations : divide-et-impera policies triumph here.

  2. Resilience to Leaking — Dynamic Systems Modeling of Information Security (United States)

    Hamacher, Kay


    Leaking of confidential material is a major threat to information security within organizations and to society as a whole. This insight has gained traction in the political realm since the activities of Wikileaks, which hopes to attack ‘unjust’ systems or ‘conspiracies’. Eventually, such threats to information security rely on a biologistic argument on the benefits and drawbacks that uncontrolled leaking might pose for ‘just’ and ‘unjust’ entities. Such biological metaphors are almost exclusively based on the economic advantage of participants. Here, I introduce a mathematical model of the complex dynamics implied by leaking. The complex interactions of adversaries are modeled by coupled logistic equations including network effects of econo-communication networks. The modeling shows, that there might arise situations where the leaking envisioned and encouraged by Wikileaks and the like can strengthen the defending entity (the ‘conspiracy’). In particular, the only severe impact leaking can have on an organization seems to originate in the exploitation of leaks by another entity the organization competes with. Therefore, the model suggests that leaks can be used as a `tactical mean’ in direct adversary relations, but do not necessarily increase public benefit and societal immunization to ‘conspiracies’. Furthermore, within the model the exploitation of the (open) competition between entities seems to be a more promising approach to control malicious organizations : divide-et-impera policies triumph here. PMID:23227151

  3. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems. (United States)

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A


    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials.

  4. Leak Path Development in CO2 Wells (United States)

    Torsater, M.; Todorovic, J.; Opedal, N.; Lavrov, A.


    Wells have in numerous scientific works been denoted the "weak link" of safe and cost-efficient CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Whether they are active or abandoned, all wells are man-made intrusions into the storage reservoir with sealing abilities depending on degradable materials like steel and cement. If dense CO2 is allowed to expand (e.g. due to leakage) it will cool down its surroundings and cause strong thermal and mechanical loading on the wellbore. In addition, CO2 reacts chemically with rock, cement and steel. To ensure long-term underground containment, it is therefore necessary to study how, why, where and when leakage occurs along CO2wells. If cement bonding to rock or casing is poor, leak paths can form already during drilling and completion of the well. In the present work, we have mapped the bonding quality of cement-rock and cement-steel interfaces - and measured their resistance towards CO2 flow. This involved a large experimental matrix including different rocks, steels, cement types and well fluids. The bonding qualities were measured on composite cores using micro computed tomography (µ-CT), and CO2 was flooded through the samples to determine leakage rates. These were further compared to numerical simulations of leakage through the digitalized µ-CT core data, and CO2chemical interactions with the materials were mapped using electron microscopy. We also present a new laboratory set-up for measuring how well integrity is affected by downhole temperature variations - and we showcase some initial results. Our work concludes that leak path development in CO2 wells depends critically on the drilling fluids and presflushes/spacers chosen already during drilling and completion of a well. Fluid films residing on rock and casing surfaces strongly degrade the quality of cement bonding. The operation of the well is also important, as even slight thermal cycling (between 10°C and 95°C on casing) leads to significant de-bonding of the annular cement.

  5. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic leak sensor for mechatronic components (United States)

    Sampaolo, A.; Patimisco, P.; Giglio, M.; Calabrese, P. P.; Chieco, L.; Scamarcio, G.; Tittel, F. K.; Spagnolo, V.


    We report the first demonstration of a leak sensor based on a mid-IR quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) spectroscopic technique. A QEPAS sensor was integrated in a vacuum seal test station for mechatronic components. The laser source is a quantum cascade laser emitting at 10.56 μm, resonant with a strong absorption band of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which was selected as target gas for leak detection. The minimum detectable concentration of the QEPAS sensor is 6.9 ppb with an integration time of 1 s. This detection sensitivity allowed to measure SF6 leak flows as low as 3x10-5 standard cm3.

  6. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S


    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  7. Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods (United States)

    Learn about protocols that testers could use to demonstrate that an individual release detection equipment type could meet the performance requirements noted in the federal UST requirements for detecting leaks.

  8. Distributed Leak Detection System Using Structure-Borne Noise Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned spacecraft are vulnerable to air leaks caused by micrometeorite and space debris impact. The ability to detect and quickly locate and mitigate a pressure...

  9. Distributed Leak Detection System Using Structure-Borne Noise Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned spacecraft are vulnerable to air leaks caused by micrometeoroid and space debris impact. The ability to detect and quickly locate and mitigate a pressure...

  10. Leaking Underground Tanks in Rhode Island; LUSTs12 (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset shows the location of storage tanks and associated piping used for petroleum and certain hazardous substances that have experienced leaks as determined...

  11. In-Space Distributed Fiber Optic Hydrogen Leak Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broadband Photonics Inc. proposes development of a patent-pending distributed fiber optic sensor for in-space hydrogen leak detection. Reliable and fast detection of...

  12. The world is polluted with leaked cyber data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Ivan D


    Full Text Available Data breaches are becoming more common and numerous every day, where huge amount of data (corporate and personal) are leaked more frequently than ever. Corporate responses to data breaches are insufficient, when commonly remediation is minimal...

  13. Anastomotic leak after oesophagectomy and stent implantation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Kanatas


    Full Text Available Anastomotic leaks following oesophageal cancer resection have a high mortality. Stents have an established position in the palliation of dysphagia due to malignancy and in treating malignant perforation or fistula. They are increasingly used for benign conditions such as spontaneous oesophageal perforation with encouraging results. In this systematic review we examine the available evidence and attempt to define the role of stents in the management of oesophageal anastomotic leaks after resection for cancer. It is evident from the review that plastic- and metal-covered stents are an effective strategy for the treatment of anastomotic leaks. Vigilance is required as complications such as stent migration and incomplete sealing are not uncommon. Further clinical studies with greater methodological rigor in terms of sample size and study design may confirm that stents have an important contribution to make in the management of oesophageal anastomotic leak.

  14. Duodenal stump leak following a duodenal switch: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Nelson


    Conclusion: Duodenal stump leaks must be diagnosed as early as possible, and treated appropriately with operative intervention. Regardless of the operative technique the key to appropriate treatment is stabilize the patient, repair the duodenal stump, and adequate drainage.

  15. An ultrasonic array sensor for spacecraft leak direction finding. (United States)

    Holland, Stephen D; Roberts, Ron; Chimenti, D E; Song, Jun Ho


    We have developed an ultrasonic array sensor useable for locating air leaks in manned spacecraft and have found that this sensor locates leaks in a 1-m(2) plate to within 2 cm. The sensor consists of a 63-element multiplexed array plus a reference element, all constructed from a single PZT disc and a printed circuit board. Cross-correlations of signals from the array elements with signals from the single reference element provide a measurement of the leak noise passing through the spacecraft skin under the array. A spatial Fourier transform reveals the dominant direction of propagation. Triangulation from multiple sensor locations can be used to find the source of the leak.

  16. Leak in spiral weld in a 16 inches gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo G.; Bona, Jeremias de [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina); Otegui, Jose L. [University of Mar del Plata (Argentina)


    This paper discusses a failure analysis after a leak in the spiral weld of a 16 inches natural gas pipeline, in service since 1974. The leak was the result of the coalescence of two different defects, on each surface of the pipe wall, located in the center of the inner cord of the helical DSAW weld. Fractographic and metallographic studies revealed that the leak was a combination of three conditions. During fabrication of the pipe, segregation in grain boundary grouped in mid weld. During service, these segregations underwent a process of selective galvanic corrosion. One of these volumetric defects coincided with a tubular pore in the outer weld. Pigging of the pipeline in 2005 for cleaning likely contributed to the increase of the leak flow, when eliminating corrosion product plugs. Although these defects are likely to repeat, fracture mechanics shows that a defect of this type is unlikely to cause a blowout. (author)

  17. Treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leak after spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Fang


    Full Text Available Owing to the complexity of spinal surgery, there is a great prevalence of dural tear causing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage. Many studies focused on suture repair for dural tear to stop CSF leak. Now some new treatment strategies have shown a promising effect that is listed as follows: 1 creating watertight dural closure to stop CSF leak with the help of dural substitute material; and 2 retarding CSF leak by changing pressure difference, including reducing the subarachnoid fluid pressure, increasing the epidural space pressure and both. In fact several methods mentioned above are usually combined to treat CSF leak. However, no update review summarized the relevant studies implemented in recent years. In this review, the authors would compare the effects of different dural closure techniques, and introduce the latest treatment methods and mechanisms.

  18. Locating Leaks with TrustRank Algorithm Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luísa Ribeiro; Joaquim Sousa; Alfeu Sa Marques; Nuno E Simões


      This paper presents a methodology to quantify and to locate leaks. The original contribution is the use of a tool based on the TrustRank algorithm for the selection of nodes for pressure monitoring...

  19. Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, Norbert


    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh radiation environment at the LHC without severe compromises in performance. From these developments a number of different applications have spun off, most notably for biomedical imaging. Beyond hybrid pixels, a number of monolithic or semi-monolithic developments, which do not require complicated hybridization but come as single sensor/IC entities, have appeared and are currently developed to greater maturity. Most advanced in terms of maturity are so called CMOS active pixels and DEPFET pixels. The present state in the ...

  20. Robust sensor placement for leak location: analysis and design


    Blesa, Joaquim; Nejjari, Fatiha; Sarrate, Ramon


    In this paper, a nominal sensor placement methodology for leak location in water distribution networks is presented. To reduce the size and the complexity of the optimization problem a clustering technique is combined with the nominal sensor placement methodology. Some of the pressure sensor placement methods for leak detection and location in water distribution networks are based on the pressure sensitivity matrix analysis. This matrix depends on the network demands, which are nondeterminist...

  1. Infrared Camera System for Visualization of IR-Absorbing Gas Leaks (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Immer, Christopher; Cox, Robert


    Leak detection and location remain a common problem in NASA and industry, where gas leaks can create hazardous conditions if not quickly detected and corrected. In order to help rectify this problem, this design equips an infrared (IR) camera with the means to make gas leaks of IR-absorbing gases more visible for leak detection and location. By comparing the output of two IR cameras (or two pictures from the same camera under essentially identical conditions and very closely spaced in time) on a pixel-by-pixel basis, one can cancel out all but the desired variations that correspond to the IR absorption of the gas of interest. This can be simply done by absorbing the IR lines that correspond to the gas of interest from the radiation received by one of the cameras by the intervention of a filter that removes the particular wavelength of interest from the "reference" picture. This can be done most sensitively with a gas filter (filled with the gas of interest) placed in front of the IR detector array, or (less sensitively) by use of a suitable line filter in the same location. This arrangement would then be balanced against the unfiltered "measurement" picture, which will have variations from IR absorption from the gas of interest. By suitable processing of the signals from each pixel in the two IR pictures, the user can display only the differences in the signals. Either a difference or a ratio output of the two signals is feasible. From a gas concentration viewpoint, the ratio could be processed to show the column depth of the gas leak. If a variation in the background IR light intensity is present in the field of view, then large changes in the difference signal will occur for the same gas column concentration between the background and the camera. By ratioing the outputs, the same signal ratio is obtained for both high- and low-background signals, even though the low-signal areas may have greater noise content due to their smaller signal strength. Thus, one

  2. Tank 241-A-105 leak assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Tank 241-A-105 is one of 149 single shell tanks constructed at Hanford to contain and store highly radioactive wastes originating from the processing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Radiation detection and temperature monitoring devices installed beneath the tank indicate that several episodes of leakage of waste from the tank have occurred. The aim of this study was to evaluate the previous estimates and reanalyze the data to provide a more accurate estimate of leakage from the tank. The principal conclusions of this study are as follows: Earlier investigators estimated leakage prior to August 1968 at 5,000 to 15,000 gallons. Their estimate appears reasonable. Leakage while the tank was being sluiced (8/68--11/70) probably exceeded 5,000 gallons, but probably did not exceed 30,000 gallons. Insufficient data are available to be more precise. Cooling water added to the tank during the sprinkling phase (11/70 -- 12/78) was approximately 610,000 gallons. Sufficient heat was generated in the tank to evaporate most, and perhaps nearly all, of this water. Radionuclides escaping into the soil under the tank cannot be estimated directly because of many uncertainties. Based on a range of leakage from 10,000 to 45,000 gallons, assumed compositions, and decayed to 1/1/91, radioactivity under the tank is expected to be in the range of 85,000--760,000 curies. Measured radiation peaks were nearly all located directly below the perimeter of the tank and, except in rare cases, they showed no tendency to spread horizontally. Moreover, the maximum radiation readings detected are a very small fraction of the radiation reading in the tank. This is the basis for the conclusion that the rate of leakage and, most likely, the quantity leaked, was small. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lavanya


    Full Text Available Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure variations are captured and power spectrum is obtained by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method and Filter Diagonalization Method (FDM. The leaks at various positions are simulated and located using these methods and the results are compared. In order to determine the quantity of leak a 2 × 1 fuzzy inference system is created using the upstream and downstream pressure as input and the leak size as the output. Thus a complete leak detection, localization and quantification are done by using only the pressure variations in the pipeline.

  4. Influence of Crack Morphology on Leak Before Break Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilin Zang (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (SE))


    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the deterministic LBB-margins for different pipe systems in a Swedish PWR-plant and using different crack morphology parameters. Results: - The influence of crack morphology on Leak Before Break (LBB) margins is studied. The subject of the report is a number of LBB-submittals to SKI where deterministic LBB-margins are reported. These submittals typically uses a surface roughness of 0.0762 mm (300 microinch) and number of turns equal to zero and an in-house code for the leak rate evaluations. The present report has shown that these conditions give the largest LBB-margins both in terms of the quotient between the critical crack length and the leakage crack size and for the leak rate margin. - Crack morphology parameters have a strong influence on the leak rate evaluations. Using the SQUIRT code and more recent recommendations for crack morphology parameters, it is shown that in many cases the evaluated margins, using 1 gpm as the reference leak rate detection limit, are below the safety factor of 2 on crack size and 10 on leak rate, which is generally required for LBB approval. - The effect of including weld residual stresses on the LBB margins is also investigated. It is shown that for the two examples studied, weld residual stresses were important for the small diameter thin wall pipe whereas it was negligible for the large diameter thick wall pipe which had a self-balanced weld residual stress distribution

  5. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer


    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  6. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions. (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Heath, Garvin A; Cooley, Daniel


    Future energy systems may rely on natural gas as a low-cost fuel to support variable renewable power. However, leaking natural gas causes climate damage because methane (CH 4 ) has a high global warming potential. In this study, we use extreme-value theory to explore the distribution of natural gas leak sizes. By analyzing ∼15 000 measurements from 18 prior studies, we show that all available natural gas leakage data sets are statistically heavy-tailed, and that gas leaks are more extremely distributed than other natural and social phenomena. A unifying result is that the largest 5% of leaks typically contribute over 50% of the total leakage volume. While prior studies used log-normal model distributions, we show that log-normal functions poorly represent tail behavior. Our results suggest that published uncertainty ranges of CH 4 emissions are too narrow, and that larger sample sizes are required in future studies to achieve targeted confidence intervals. Additionally, we find that cross-study aggregation of data sets to increase sample size is not recommended due to apparent deviation between sampled populations. Understanding the nature of leak distributions can improve emission estimates, better illustrate their uncertainty, allow prioritization of source categories, and improve sampling design. Also, these data can be used for more effective design of leak detection technologies.

  7. Operational tank leak detection and minimization during retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.


    This report evaluates the activities associated with the retrieval of wastes from the single-shell tanks proposed under the initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System. This report focuses on minimizing leakage during retrieval by using effective leak detection and mitigating actions. After reviewing the historical data available on single-shell leakage, and evaluating current leak detection technology, this report concludes that the only currently available leak detection method which can function within the most probable leakage range is the mass balance system. If utilized after each sluicing campaign, this method should allow detection at a leakage value well below the leakage value where significant health effects occur which is calculated for each tank. Furthermore, this report concludes that the planned sequence or sluicing activities will serve to further minimize the probability and volume of leaks by keeping liquid away from areas with the greatest potential for leaking. Finally, this report identifies a series of operational responses which when used in conjunction with the recommended sluicing sequence and leak detection methods will minimize worker exposure and environmental safety health risks.

  8. Intelligence Leaks: What Is the Role of the Leak and the Leaker in U.S. Democracy? (United States)


    repository of leaked documents and other artifacts of the millennial cyber-punk set. The obscure website gained global notoriety for the massive...The Christian Science Monitor, July 25, 2013, sec. NEWS. 90 Joe Wiesenthal, “WikiLeaks Blows the Lid off the Sex Parties and Drug Usage Among...the Saudi Royals,” Business Insider, March 7, 2011, the-sex-parties-and- drug -usage-among

  9. Location estimation method of steam leak in pipeline using leakage area analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Oh; Jeon, Hyeong Seop; Son, Ki Sung [Sae An Engineering Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Won [Dept. of Information Communications Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    It is important to have a pipeline leak-detection system that determines the presence of a leak and quickly identifies its location. Current leak detection methods use a acoustic emission sensors, microphone arrays, and camera images. Recently, many researchers have been focusing on using cameras for detecting leaks. The advantage of this method is that it can survey a wide area and monitor a pipeline over a long distance. However, conventional methods using camera monitoring are unable to target an exact leak location. In this paper, we propose a method of detecting leak locations using leak-detection results combined with multi-frame analysis. The proposed method is verified by experiment.

  10. Neutron detector (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN


    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  11. The pump and leak steady-state concept with a variety of regulated leak pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K


    The paper will reflect on how Ussing has affected my own scientific work and how he created much of the framework within which I have been working. I have used five examples: (i) The first description of a 1:1 exchange diffusion was introduced by Ussing in 1947 and has been found to be of great....... This had a major influence on my later description of a swelling-activated Cl- conductance. (ii) The pump-leak steady-state concept for cell volume control was introduced by Krogh in 1946, but it was developed in detail by Leaf and Ussing in 1959. This concept was the basis for me and others, when we later...... to study ion transport across epithelia. A few results on Cl- transport across the operculum epithelium of the small eurohaline fish Fundulus heteroclitus mounted in small Ussing chambers are presented. (v) Shrinkage-activated Na+ conductance and its possible role in isotonic secretion in frog skin glands...

  12. CT and MR image fusion for CSF leak diagnosis (United States)

    Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R.; Maravilla, Kenneth R.


    The diagnosis of CSF leak using MR images alone is difficult due to the inherently poor bony information on MR images. While CT images show bones exquisitely, they lack the soft tissue contrast that is important for detecting CSF leak. For these reasons, CT cisternography has been the preferred modality for CSF leak diagnosis despite its invasiveness. We propose a method to fuse the CT and MR images to combine the complementary information from each modality, which we believe will help with the diagnosis and surgical planning for patients with CSF leak, and potentially reduce/replace the use of CT cisternography. In the first step, the user identifies three roughly corresponding points on both the CT and MR images. A GUI was designed that allows the user to quickly navigate through the images by reslicing the volumes interactively. After finding the CT and MR slices at approximately the same anatomical position, the user places three markers to represent the same spatial location. In the second step, a generalized Procrustes transform is used to compute an initial transformation that aligns the CT and MR, which is then optimized using mutual information maximization. The CT is registered with the MR using the optimal transformation found, and the bony masks determined from thresholding CT intensity are blended with MR images. Initial results suggest that CT/MR fusion images are superior to unprocessed CT and MR images in diagnosing CSF leak, and a formal clinical evaluation is being planned to assess the efficacy of fusion images.

  13. Managing leaks following anterior resections: a new classification system. (United States)

    Shukla, Parul J; Barreto, Savio George; Pandey, Durgatosh; Kanitkar, Gajanan A; Shrikhande, Shailesh V


    Anastomotic leak rates following rectal resections and anastomosis stand at 2.9-15.3%, with an attendant mortality rate of 6- 39.3%. The aim of our study was to identify those patients who had developed an anastomotic leak, and evaluate the indications for re-exploration as well as study the impact of covering colostomies on the subsequent outcome. We analyzed 266 consecutive anterior resections for rectal cancer performed at a single institution between 1st September 2002 and 31st December 2006. Twenty-one anastomotic leaks were encountered in 266 resections. Covering colostomies were performed in 56% (151/266) of the patients. Out of the 21 patients who developed a leak, 9 had a covering colostomy (42.8%). In this group, 3 of patients (33%) could be managed without surgical re-exploration, while all the 12 patients without a covering colostomy had to undergo a reexploration. With our new classification system for anastomotic dehiscence, the clinical decisions appear to follow a predictable pattern. There were 4 deaths (1.5%). However, the mortality rate in the patients undergoing surgical re-exploration for complications was 16.6% (3/18). This large study provides an insight into the potential advantages of covering colostomies wherever indicated following anterior resections. With our new and effective classification system for clinical leaks, the management road map can be simplified and standardized.

  14. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  15. Multielement detector for gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.


    This report describes the results of a study to improve the capabilities of a gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma (GC- MIP) detector system, determine the feasibility of empirical formula determination for simple mixtures containing elements of interest to fossil fuel analysis and, subsequently, explore applications for analysis of the complex mixtures associated with fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that the GC-MIP system is useful as a specific-element detector that provides excellent elemental specificity for a number of elements of interest to the analysis of fossil fuels. It has reasonably good sensitivity for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nickel, and better sensitivity for chlorine and fluorine. Sensitivity is poor for nitrogen and oxygen, however, probably because of undetected leaks or erosion of the plasma tube. The GC-MIP can also provide stoichiometric information about components of simple mixtures. If this powerful technique is to be available for complex mixtures, it will be necessary to greatly simplify the chromatograms by chemical fractionation. 38 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. The fluid-filling system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benziger, J. [Chemical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail:; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Corsi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionale di Gran Sasso (Italy); Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ianni, Aldo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionale di Gran Sasso (Italy); Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] (and others)


    The system for controlled filling of the nested flexible scintillator containment vessels in the Borexino solar neutrino detector is described. The design and operation principles of pressure and shape monitoring systems are presented for gas filling, gas displacement by water, and water displacement by scintillator. System specifications for safety against overstressing the flexible nylon vessels are defined as well as leak-tightness and cleanliness requirements. The fluid-filling system was a major engineering challenge for the Borexino detector.

  17. Leak Propagation Dynamics for the HIE-ISOLDE Superconducting Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ady, M; Kersevan, R; Vandoni, G; Ziemianski, D


    In order to cope with space limitations of existing infrastructure, the cryomodules of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting linac feature a common insulation and beam vacuum, imposing the severe cleanliness standard of RF cavities to the whole cryostat. Protection of the linac vacuum against air-inrush from the three experimental stations through the HEBT (High Energy Beam Transport) lines relies on fast valves, triggered by fast cold cathode gauges. To evaluate the leak propagation velocity as a function of leak size and geometry of the lines, a computational and experimental investigation is being carried out at CERN. A 28 m long tube is equipped with cold-cathode gauges. A leak is opened by the effect of a cutting pendulum, equipped with an accelerometer for data acquisition triggering, on a thin aluminium window. The air inrush dynamics is simulated by Finite Elements fluid dynamics in the viscous regime.

  18. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus with Variable Size Test Chamber (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)


    The present invention is a versatile hermetic seal leak detection apparatus for testing hermetically sealed containers and devices for leaks without the need to create a custom or specially manufactured testing chamber conforming to the dimensions of the specific object under test. The size of the testing chamber may be mechanically adjusted by the novel use of bellows to reduce and optimize the amount of gas space in a test chamber which surrounds the hermetically sealed object under test. The present invention allows the size of the test chamber to be selectively adjusted during testing to provide an optimum test chamber gas space. The present invention may be further adapted to isolate and test specific portions of the hermetically sealed object under test for leaks.

  19. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome: Is Methylene Blue the Silver Bullet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Umbrello


    Full Text Available Background. Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS is a rare disorder characterized by unexplained, recurrent episodes of transient, abrupt increase in endothelial permeability, leading to severe hypotension, generalized edema, and hemoconcentration. Case Report. We report the case of a patient suffering from systemic capillary leak syndrome and present a possible interpretation of the pathophysiology of this condition. Besides the classical triad of hypotension, edema, and hemoconcentration, we recorded increased levels of methemoglobin, an index of NO overproduction. We present a possible interpretation of the pathophysiology of this condition based on the fast and complete reversal of symptoms after methylene blue administration (which opposes NO-induced effects and speculate that increased NO levels could be implicated in the pathophysiology of the capillary leak phase. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? The safety of this treatment and its fluid- and cathecolamine-sparing effect deserve consideration and further research.

  20. WikiLeaks under fire: Is it electronic civil disobedience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Comas Oliver


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the usefulness of the civil disobedience theory to legitimate the e-leaking of secrets, i.e. ethical and electronic disclosure of confidential information. First, the main definitions of offline civil disobedience are reviewed. Liberalism established the dominant set of validity conditions: symbolic, peaceful, responsible, public, constitutionally loyal, etc. We criticize this standpoint thanks to the discursive approach, but also highlighting its prejudices. Second, we analyse whether WikiLeaks meets those classical requirements. Encrypted anonymity, partial decriminalization and limited irresponsibility become acceptable. Regarding publicity, the disobedient visualization of a political conflict can be satisfied without revealing the identity of its participants.

  1. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faidy, C. [EDF SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)


    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  2. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De


    on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based...

  3. Ethical Risks, Informers, Whistleblowers, Leaks and Clamor for Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti


    Full Text Available Leaks and whistleblowers have been increasingly used for the production of large media coverage. Characters like Edward Snowden, Chelsea Manning, Julian Assange and informers of “Operation Car Wash” in Brazil have become not only useful for the process of transparency and accountability, but also signal traps to reporters and newsrooms. In this article, I present the concept of Ethical Risk and I list a number of its forms in contemporary journalistic production, driven by WikiLeaks, Panama Papers and transformations of democratic societies

  4. Esophagojejunal anastomotic leak managed with self expandable metallic stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Madurandagam Annapillai


    Full Text Available Esophagealjejunal anastomotic leak after gastrectomy is a serious surgical emergency with high mortality. This report describes a 57-year-old male with esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer and was managed successfully with self-expandable metallic stent. To our knowledge this is the first such report from India. This case report highlights the need of interdisciplinary coordination in managing this difficult clinical situation. Endotherapy with self-expandable metallic stent (SEM provided twin benefits of improving respiratory embarrassment and the joy of eating. Therapy of such difficult cases must be individualized; however, and SEM stent usage is a viable option

  5. Data analysis protocol for using resistivity array as an early-warning wastewater pond leak detector (United States)

    Typically, holding ponds are used to control runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations. The integrity of these holding ponds has come under increased scrutiny since subsurface leakage has the potential to affect soil and groundwater quality. Traditionally, ponds are monitored by installin...

  6. ISS Leak Detection and Astrophysics with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lobster X-Ray Imaging technology gives high sensitivity and source localization.The project consist of the following:Demonstrate angular resolution and sensitivity....

  7. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  8. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.


    Alpha particle detecting devices are disclosed that have a chamber that can hold a fluid in a tensioned metastable state. The chamber is tuned with a suitable fluid and tension such that alpha emitting materials such as radon and one or more of its decay products can be detected. The devices can be portable and can be placed in areas, such as rooms in dwellings or laboratories and used to measure radon in these areas, in situ and in real time. The disclosed detectors can detect radon at and below 4 pCi/L in air; also, at and below 4,000 pCi/L or 300 pCi/L in water.

  9. Laboratory modelling of geoelectric response of a leaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory modelling of geoelectric response of a leaking underground petroleum storage tank in sand formation. ... Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2004) > ... A crude oil filled metallic cylindrical tank (simulating a typical crude / refined hydrocarbon storage tank) was buried in the sand and pre-impact resistivity measurements ...

  10. Incidence and management of postoperative bile leaks: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bile leaks from the parenchymal transection margin are a major cause of morbidity following major liver resections. The aim of this study was to benchmark the incidence and identify the risk factors for postoperative bile leakage after hepatic resection. Patients and methods: A prospective database of 467 ...

  11. Portable Rapid Test Fuel Tank Leak Detection System (United States)


    the site-specific test parameters and selects the “Start Test” icon . Leak test final results can be obtained in less than 5 hours. 3.0 PROTOTYPE...the reference tube into section lengths of less than 7 feet for shipping, and 3) downsizing the reference tube diameter to reduce weight and for

  12. Analyzing User Awareness of Privacy Data Leak in Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngho Kim


    Full Text Available To overcome the resource and computing power limitation of mobile devices in Internet of Things (IoT era, a cloud computing provides an effective platform without human intervention to build a resource-oriented security solution. However, existing malware detection methods are constrained by a vague situation of information leaks. The main goal of this paper is to measure a degree of hiding intention for the mobile application (app to keep its leaking activity invisible to the user. For real-world application test, we target Android applications, which unleash user privacy data. With the TaintDroid-ported emulator, we make experiments about the timing distance between user events and privacy leaks. Our experiments with Android apps downloaded from the Google Play show that most of leak cases are driven by user explicit events or implicit user involvement which make the user aware of the leakage. Those findings can assist a malware detection system in reducing the rate of false positive by considering malicious intentions. From the experiment, we understand better about app’s internal operations as well. As a case study, we also presents a cloud-based dynamic analysis framework to perform a traffic monitor.

  13. Leaks, Lumps, and Lines: Stigma and Women's Bodies (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.


    Women's bodies have often been positioned in art and popular culture as monstrous or defiled and women's bodily products (e.g., menstrual fluid, breast milk) as disgusting. This framing has led to the stigmatization of aspects of women's bodies (e.g., leaking fluids, lumps of fat, and lines in the skin that indicate aging), especially those…

  14. Dural diverticulum with a symptomatic cerebrospinal fluid leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Armstrong, MD


    Full Text Available A case report of a 63-year-old female patient with a cervical spinal dural diverticulum and intracranial hypotension secondary to a symptomatic CSF leak after minor trauma. The patient responded well after the cervical approach epidural blood patch procedure.

  15. The minimal leak test technique for endotracheal cuff maintenance. (United States)

    Harvie, D A; Darvall, J N; Dodd, M; De La Cruz, A; Tacey, M; D'Costa, R L; Ward, D


    Endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressure management is an essential part of airway management in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. Both under- and over-inflation of the ETT cuff can lead to patient complications, with an ideal pressure range of 20-30 cmH2O defined. A range of techniques are employed to ensure adequate ETT cuff inflation, with little comparative data. We performed an observational cross-sectional study in a tertiary metropolitan ICU, assessing the relationship between the minimal leak test and cuff manometry. Forty-five mechanically ventilated patients, over a three-month period, had ETT cuff manometry performed at the same time as their routine cuff maintenance (minimal leak test). Bedside nurse measurements were compared with investigator measurements. At the endpoint of cuff inflation, 20 of 45 patients (44%) had cuff pressures between 20 and 30 cmH2O; 11 of 45 patients (24%) had cuff pressures analysis demonstrated an association between both patient obesity and female gender requiring less ETT cuff volume (P=0.008 and P analysis. No association was demonstrated between any measured variables and cuff pressures. Inter-operator reliability in performing the minimal leak test showed no evidence of bias between nurse and investigators (Pearson coefficient = 0.897). We conclude the minimal leak test for maintenance of ETT cuffs leads to both over- and under-inflation, and alternative techniques, such as cuff manometry, should be employed.

  16. 40 CFR 63.1255 - Standards: Equipment leaks. (United States)


    ... Periodic Report following the end of the monitoring period for that component, whichever is later. (8... tasks (e.g., weekly, monthly, quarterly, annual) refer to the standard calendar periods unless specified... paragraphs (c)(5) through (9) of this section. (ii) Leak definition. The instrument reading, as determined by...

  17. A statistical analysis on the leak detection performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper attempts to provide a statistical insight on the concepts of leak detection performance of WSNs when deployed on overground and underground pipelines.The approach in the study employs the hypothesis testing problem to formulate a solution on the detection plan.Through the hypothesis test, the maximum ...

  18. Recurrent Transvaginal Leak of Dialysate as a Complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recurrent Transvaginal Leak of Dialysate as a Complication of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Tip Capture by Fallopian Tube after Tubal Occlusion. ... Mini laparotomy and tubal ligation with catheter removal were done and the patient was maintained on hemodialysis until she received a kidney transplant four months later.

  19. Patients with and without Posttransplant Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam


    Full Text Available Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is commonly used in the treatment of younger patients with severe hematological diseases, and endothelial cells seem to be important for the development of several posttransplant complications. Capillary leak syndrome is a common early posttransplant complication where endothelial cell dysfunction probably contributes to the pathogenesis. In the present study we investigated whether the pretreatment serum metabolic profile reflects a risk of posttransplant capillary leak syndrome. We investigated the pretransplant serum levels of 766 metabolites for 80 consecutive allotransplant recipients. Patients with later capillary leak syndrome showed increased pretherapy levels of metabolites associated with endothelial dysfunction (homocitrulline, adenosine altered renal regulation of fluid and/or electrolyte balance (betaine, methoxytyramine, and taurine and altered vascular function (cytidine, adenosine, and methoxytyramine. Additional bioinformatical analyses showed that capillary leak syndrome was also associated with altered purine/pyrimidine metabolism (i.e., metabolites involved in vascular regulation and endothelial functions, aminoglycosylation (possibly important for endothelial cell functions, and eicosanoid metabolism (also involved in vascular regulation. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the pretransplant metabolic status can be a marker for posttransplant abnormal fluid and/or electrolyte balance.

  20. Scrape on Endeavour's robotic arm during oxygen leak repairs (United States)


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A piece of the honeycomb shell around Endeavour's robotic arm has been cut to inspect the arm. A scrape of the shell occurred while work platforms were being installed to gain access to repair the oxygen leak in the Shuttle's mid-body. Launch of Endeavour on mission STS-113 has been postponed until no earlier than Nov. 22.

  1. 40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks. (United States)


    ... implement an instrument leak monitoring program that has been demonstrated to the Administrator as at least equivalent. (g) Owners and operators shall not allow gasoline to be handled in a manner that would result in... recycling devices, such as oil/water separators. ...

  2. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A


    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  3. Leak detection and localization system through acoustics; Sistema de deteccao e localizacao de vazamentos por acustica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio [Aselco Automacao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Acoustic Leak Detection Systems (ALDS) are used on both liquid and gas pipelines as well as multi-phase flow pipelines to detect leaks quickly and provide a means of limiting product loss. The real-time acoustic signal is continuously compared against signature leak profiles for the particular operating and geometric conditions. These profiles were developed from a database established from over 20 years of experimental and field leak tests. This technique not only drastically reduces the false alarm rate, but also significantly improves the sensitivity and leak location accuracy. This system will also detect leaks with shut-in flow (zero flow rate in the pipeline). With the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) it not only improves leak location accuracy, but also allows for continuous leak detection during the loss of communications. (author)

  4. CSNI specialist meeting on leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    On September 1 and 2, 1983, the CSNI subcommittee on primary system integrity held a special meeting in Monterey, California, on the subject of leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping systems. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas, positions, and research results; to identify areas requiring additional research and development; and to determine the general attitude toward acceptance of the leak-before-break concept. The importance of the leak-before-break issue was evidenced by excellent attendance at the meeting and through active participation by the meeting attendees. Approximately 125 people representing fifteen different nations attended the meeting. The meeting was divided into four technical sessions addressing the following areas: Application of Piping Fracture Mechanics to Leak-Before Break, Leak Rate and Leak Detection, Leak-Before-Break Studies, Methods and Results, Current and Proposed Positions on Leak-Before-Break.

  5. Warming barium sulfate improves esophageal leak detection in pig model. (United States)

    Raman, Vignesh; MacGlaflin, Caitlyn E; Moodie, Karen L; Kaiser, Larry R; Erkmen, Cherie P


    Barium esophagograms have poor sensitivity in detecting leaks. We hypothesized that heating barium would decrease viscosity, facilitate extravasation, and enhance its sensitivity in detecting esophageal leaks. We characterized the viscosity of barium at increasing temperatures. We measured the radiopacity of barium at 25°C and 50°C. We determined the smallest diameter defect in esophagus that barium can detect by perforating a porcine esophageal segment with angiocatheters of various diameters, injecting barium at 25°C, and observing extravasation of contrast. We repeated this with barium heated to 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, and 70°C. To determine the ability of barium to detect a staple line leak, we perforated a stapled esophageal segment by air insufflation, injected barium at different temperatures, and monitored extravasation. We used Visipaque, a water-soluble contrast agent, for comparison in all experiments. The viscosity of barium decreased with increasing temperature. The radiopacity of barium did not change with increasing temperature and was higher than that of Visipaque (P barium at 25°C to 1.3 mm at 40°C and 1.1 mm with Visipaque (P barium at 25°C to 80% (P = 0.02) with barium at 40°C. There was no significant difference in sensitivity between barium at 40°C and Visipaque. Barium warmed to 40°C offers the best sensitivity of esophageal leak detection without compromising radiopacity. Barium at 40°C may be the optimum choice for swallow study to detect esophageal leaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leaks in nuclear grade high efficiency aerosol filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scripsick, Ronald Clyde [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    Nuclear grade high efficiency aerosol filters, also known as high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, are commonly used in air cleaning systems for removal of hazardous aerosols. Performance of the filter units is important in assuring health and environmental protection. The filter units are constructed from pleated packs of fiberglass filter media sealed into rigid frames. Results of previous studies on such filter units indicate that their performance may not be completely predicted by ideal performance of the fibrous filter media. In this study, departure from ideal performance is linked to leaks existing in filter units and overall filter unit performance is derived from independent performance of the individual filter unit components. The performance of 14 nuclear grade HEPA filter units (size 1, 25 cfm) with plywood frames was evaluated with a test system that permitted independent determination of penetration as a function of particle size for the whole filter unit, the filter unit frame, and the filter media pack. Tests were performed using a polydisperse aerosol of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate with a count median diameter of 0.2 {mu}m and geometric standard deviation of 1.6. Flow rate and differential pressure were controlled from 1% to 100% of design values. Particle counts were made upstream and downstream of the filter unit with an optical particle counter (OPC). The OPC provided count information in 28 size channels over the particle diameter range from 0.1 to 0.7 μm. Results provide evidence for a two component leak model of filler unit performance with: (1) external leaks through filter unit frames, and (2) internal leaks through defects in the media and through the seal between the media pack and frame. For the filter units evaluated, these leaks dominate overall filter unit performance over much of the flow rate and particle size ranges tested.

  7. Summary of QRL 7-8 Repair and Re-installation Leak Test Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kos, N; CERN. Geneva. TE Department


    This note describes the leak tests that have been performed during the repair and re-installation of QRL sector 7-8 during 2005 and 2006. The leak tests were performed in UX65, where the pipe elements were refurbished before re-installation, and in the tunnel. A variety of leaks have been detected, localised and repaired in the tunnel, including weld defects, accidentally drilled holes and imported leaks in previously tested components.

  8. Assessment of historical leak model methodology as applied to the REDOX high-level waste tank SX-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES, T.E.


    Using the Historical Leak Model approach, the estimated leak rate (and therefore, projected leak volume) for Tank 241-SX-108 could not be reproduced using the data included in the initial document describing the leak methodology. An analysis of parameters impacting tank heat load calculations strongly suggest that the historical tank operating data lack the precision and accuracy required to estimate tank leak volumes using the Historical Leak Model methodology.


    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...


    Undiscovered gas leaks, or fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) pro...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1004 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks. (United States)


    ... individual HAP, VOC or other regulated material individual chemical compound in the stream. For process...)(2) of this section, or monitoring at a different leak definition if the data would indicate the... applicable leak definition for the monitored equipment to determine whether there is a leak or to determine...

  12. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of... § 192.717 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks. Each permanent field repair of a leak on a transmission line must be made by— (a) Removing the leak by cutting out and replacing a...

  13. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-B Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Harlow, Donald G. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States)


    This document identifies 241-B Tank Farm (B Farm) leak cause and locations for the 100 series leaking tank (241-B-107) identified in RPP-RPT-49089, Hanford B-Farm Leak Inventory Assessments Report. This document satisfies the B Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  14. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G.


    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

  15. Massive Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak of the Temporal Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannicola Iannella


    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage of the temporal bone region is defined as abnormal communications between the subarachnoidal space and the air-containing spaces of the temporal bone. CSF leak remains one of the most frequent complications after VS surgery. Radiotherapy is considered a predisposing factor for development of temporal bone CSF leak because it may impair dural repair mechanisms, thus causing inadequate dural sealing. The authors describe the case of a 47-year-old man with a massive effusion of CSF which extended from the posterior and lateral skull base to the first cervical vertebrae; this complication appeared after a partial enucleation of a vestibular schwannoma (VS with subsequent radiation treatment and second operation with total VS resection.

  16. Coil embolization of an anastomotic leak after ascending aorta replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Anders; Andersen, Lars Ib; Haahr, P.E.


    treated aneurysm in the ascending thoracic aorta complicated with an anastomotic leak. If a short prosthesis (6 cm) had been available, the anastomotic leak would have been treated with endovascular repair. In lack of this prosthesis, we were forced to treat the patient with a method not generally......Surgical treatment of diseases of the thoracic aorta (aneurysms, dissections, and ruptures) may be associated with serious postoperative complications. Endovascular repair of thoracic aorta pathology is less invasive and offers a therapeutic alternative in high-surgical-risk patients, particularly...... in the presence of previous surgical repair of the thoracic aorta. The endovascular procedure, however, is almost only possible in the descending thoracic aorta, although advances have also been made in the aortic arch as well as in the ascending aorta with branched stent grafts. We report a case of a surgically...

  17. Propofol lipemia mimicking chyle leak during neck dissection. (United States)

    Vokes, David E; Linskey, Mark E; Armstrong, William B


    Propofol is an intravenous agent used in anesthesia. Lipemia is an uncommon adverse effect of propofol infusion. A patient undergoing neck dissection for recurrent chordoma had intraoperative lipemia develop after prolonged propofol infusion. Lipemia gave blood in the surgical field a milky appearance resembling chyle, but no chyle leak was present. Lipemia was confirmed by drawing a sample of blood and leaving it to stand. Layering of the blood with a milky white upper layer was observed. Analysis of a second sample of blood revealed a high lipemic index. Lipemia is an uncommon adverse effect of propofol infusion, which may give blood a milky appearance and be confused for a chyle leak in a dissected neck. Identification of lipemia is also important because there is a risk of acute pancreatitis, and it may represent the early stage of propofol infusion syndrome.

  18. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G


    A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

  19. 105-KE Isolation Barrier Leak Rate Acceptance Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, K.J.


    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) contains the completed and signed Acceptance Procedure (ATP) for the 105-KE Isolations Barrier Leak Rate Test. The Test Engineer`s log, the completed sections of the ATP in the Appendix for Repeat Testing (Appendix K), the approved WHC J-7s (Appendix H), the data logger files (Appendices T and U), and the post test calibration checks (Appendix V) are included.

  20. Multiple-Feature Extracting Modules Based Leak Mining System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chiang Cho


    mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing.


    Experiments were conducted at the Underground Storage Tank (UST) Test Apparatus Pipeline in which three acoustic sensors separated by a maximum distance of 38.1 m (125 ft) were used to monitor signals produced by 11.4-, 5.7-, and 3.8-L/h (3.0-, 1.5-, and 1.0-gal/h) leaks in th...

  2. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  3. Pathogenesis of vascular leak in dengue virus infection. (United States)

    Malavige, Gathsaurie Neelika; Ogg, Graham S


    Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is the hallmark of severe dengue. Vascular leak typically becomes clinically evident 3-6 days after the onset of illness, which is known as the critical phase. This critical phase follows the period of peak viraemia, and lasts for 24-48 hr and usually shows rapid and complete reversal, suggesting that it is likely to occur as a result of inflammatory mediators, rather than infection of the endothelium. Cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α, which are known to be elevated in the critical phase of dengue, are likely to be contributing factors. Dengue NS1, a soluble viral protein, has also been shown to disrupt the endothelial glycocalyx and thus contribute to vascular leak, although there appears to be a discordance between the timing of NS1 antigenaemia and occurrence of vascular leak. In addition, many inflammatory lipid mediators are elevated in acute dengue viral infection such as platelet activating factor (PAF) and leukotrienes. Furthermore, many other inflammatory mediators such as vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-2 have been shown to be elevated in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever, exerting their action in part by inducing the activity of phospholipases, which have diverse inflammatory effects including generation of PAF. Platelets have also been shown to significantly contribute to endothelial dysfunction by production of interleukin-1β through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and also by inducing production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes. Drugs that block down-stream immunological mediator pathways such as PAF may also be beneficial in the treatment of severe disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, Region 9, 2016 (United States)

    This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and locational information, status of LUST case, operating status of facility, inspection dates, and links to No Further Action letters for closed LUST cases. This database contains 1230 features, with 289 features having a LUST status of open, closed with no residual contamination, or closed with residual contamination.

  5. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich


    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  6. NSRD-10: Leak Path Factor Guidance Using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Estimates of the source term from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility requires that the analysts know how to apply the simulation tools used, such as the MELCOR code, particularly for a complicated facility that may include an air ventilation system and other active systems that can influence the environmental pathway of the materials released. DOE has designated MELCOR 1.8.5, an unsupported version, as a DOE ToolBox code in its Central Registry, which includes a leak-path-factor guidance report written in 2004 that did not include experimental validation data. To continue to use this MELCOR version requires additional verification and validations, which may not be feasible from a project cost standpoint. Instead, the recent MELCOR should be used. Without any developer support and lack of experimental data validation, it is difficult to convince regulators that the calculated source term from the DOE facility is accurate and defensible. This research replaces the obsolete version in the 2004 DOE leak path factor guidance report by using MELCOR 2.1 (the latest version of MELCOR with continuing modeling development and user support) and by including applicable experimental data from the reactor safety arena and from applicable experimental data used in the DOE-HDBK-3010. This research provides best practice values used in MELCOR 2.1 specifically for the leak path determination. With these enhancements, the revised leak-path-guidance report should provide confidence to the DOE safety analyst who would be using MELCOR as a source-term determination tool for mitigated accident evaluations.

  7. Refractory anastomotic bile leaks after orthotopic liver transplantation are associated with hepatic artery disease. (United States)

    DaVee, Tomas; Geevarghese, Sunil K; Slaughter, James C; Yachimski, Patrick S


    Anastomotic bile leaks are common after orthotopic liver transplant (OLT), and standard treatment consists of placement of a biliary endoprosthesis. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for refractory anastomotic bile leaks and to determine the morbidity associated with refractory bile leaks after OLT. Consecutive adult patients who underwent ERCP for treatment of post-OLT biliary adverse events between 2009 and 2014 at a high-volume transplant center were retrospectively identified. A refractory leak was defined as a bile leak that persisted after placement of a plastic biliary endoprosthesis and required repeat endoscopic or surgical intervention. Forty-three subjects met study inclusion criteria. Median age was 57 years, and 36 (84%) subjects were men. Refractory bile leaks were diagnosed in 40% of subjects (17/43). Time-to-event analysis revealed an association between refractory bile leaks and the combined outcome of death, repeat transplant, or surgical biliary revision (hazard ratio, 3.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-11.45; P = .01). Hepatic artery disease was more common with refractory compared with treatment-responsive bile leaks (53% vs 8%, P = .001). Refractory anastomotic bile leaks after liver transplantation are associated with decreased event-free survival. Hepatic artery disease is associated with refractory leaks. Large-scale prospective studies should be performed to define the optimal management of patients at risk for refractory bile leaks. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin


    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  9. Leaking Photons from the HII Region NGC 7538 (United States)

    Luisi, Matteo; Anderson, Loren D.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, Thomas M.; Wenger, Trey


    Using data from the NRAO Green Bank Telescope and the INT Photometric H-Alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS), we analyze the ionizing radiation that is escaping the photo-dissociation region (PDR) boundary of the HII region NGC 7538. We find extended radio continuum and radio recombination line (RRL) emission outside the PDR toward the north and east of the region. This suggests that a non-uniform PDR morphology is affecting the amount of radiation "leaking" through the PDR. We quantify the leaking photon fraction along the line of sight, and use a numerical model to estimate the leaking photon fraction in three dimensions of both radio continuum and H-alpha emission. We detect carbon RRL emission near the PDR and find a decrease in the helium-to-hydrogen ionic abundance ratio with increasing distance from the central position. This indicates a softening of the radiation field within the PDR. Using Herschel Space Observatory data, we create a dust temperature map of the region and show that small dust temperature enhancements to the north and east of NGC 7538 coincide with extended radio emission. We discuss implications for maintaining the ionization of the warm interstellar medium by HII regions.

  10. Annular Air Leaks in a liquid hydrogen storage tank (United States)

    Krenn, AG; Youngquist, RC; Starr, SO


    Large liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA, the DOD, and industrial users. Over time, air may leak into the evacuated, perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Once inside, the extremely low temperatures will cause most of the air to freeze. If a significant mass of air is allowed to accumulate, severe damage can result from nominal draining operations. Collection of liquid air on the outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. Testing and analysis to quantify the thermal conductivity of perlite that has nitrogen frozen into its interstitial spaces and to determine the void fraction of frozen nitrogen within a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture is presented. General equations to evaluate methods for removing frozen air, while avoiding fracture, are developed. A hypothetical leak is imposed on an existing tank geometry and a full analysis of that leak is detailed. This analysis includes a thermal model of the tank and a time-to-failure calculation. Approaches to safely remove the frozen air are analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the most feasible approach is to allow the frozen air to melt and to use a water stream to prevent the outer shell from chilling.

  11. Pleuroperitoneal leak complicating peritoneal dialysis: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, C


    Pressure related complications such as abdominal wall hernias occur with relative frequency in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Less frequently, a transudative pleural effusion containing dialysate can develop. This phenomenon appears to be due to increased intra-abdominal pressure in the setting of congenital or acquired diaphragmatic defects. We report three cases of pleuroperitoneal leak that occurred within a nine-month period at our institution. We review the literature on this topic, and discuss management options. The pleural effusion resolved in one patient following drainage of the peritoneum and a switch to haemodialysis. One patient required emergency thoracocentesis. The third patient developed a complex effusion requiring surgical intervention. The three cases highlight the variability of this condition in terms of timing, symptoms and management. The diagnosis of a pleuroperitoneal leak is an important one as it is managed very differently to most transudative pleural effusions seen in this patient population. Surgical repair may be necessary in those patients who wish to resume peritoneal dialysis, or in those patients with complex effusions. Pleuroperitoneal leak should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pleural effusion, particularly a right-sided effusion, in a patient on peritoneal dialysis.

  12. The Demonstration of a Robotic External Leak Locator on the International Space Station (United States)

    Naids, Adam; Rossetti, Dino; Bond, Tim; Johnson, Brien; Huang, Alvin; Deal, Alexandra; Fox, Katie; Heiser, Michael; Hartman, William; Mikatarian, Ronald


    The International Space Station (ISS) and all currently conceivable future manned spacecraft are susceptible to mission impacts due to fluid/gas leaks to the exterior environment. For example, there is a well-known risk of ammonia leaks from the ISS External Thermal Control System loops and currently no method to locate them. It was, therefore, critical to develop a method for detecting and locating leaks to preserve vehicle health. The Robotic External Leak Locator (RELL) was developed and deployed to the ISS to provide this capability. An on-orbit validation and demonstration was successfully completed in December 2016 and leak locating operations occurred in February 2017. This paper discusses the results of those exercises including measurements of the environment around ISS, detection of the small ammonia leak and implementation of leak locating methodologies.

  13. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.


    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  14. With long, dry summer looming, EPA urges Northwest residents to stop drips and leaks during Fix-a-Leak Week, March 16-23 (United States)

    (Seattle, WA - March 16, 2015) With local snowpack at historic lows, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is inviting Northwest households to make every drop count for Fix-a-Leak Week, March 16 - 23, 2015. The Agency estimates that household leaks wa


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers


    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  16. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.


    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  17. Thermal kinetic inductance detector (United States)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando


    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  18. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force ...

  19. Transpupillary thermotherapy for central serous chorioretinopathy with parafoveal leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xiao


    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the clinical effect of transpupillary thermotherapy(TTTfor the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy(CSCwith parafoveal leaks.METHODS: Twenty-three eyes from nineteen patients with long-standing CSC and parafoveal leaks(50-200μm around the foveawho opted for TTT and observation were enrolled in this study. Eighteen of nineteen patients(23 eyeswere male, fourteen of twenty-three eyes were right eyes. The patients' mean age was 44.00±4.973 years(range from 32-52 years. TTT was performed using 810nm infrared diode laser. All patients underwent Snellen visual acuity measurement(converted to LogMAR for analysisfundus examination, fluorescein angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCT. Follow-up was scheduled at 1, 2, 6mo. RESULTS:Following treatment of TTT, complete resolution of neurosensory detachment on OCT and disappearance of leakage on FFA was seen in fourteen eyes(61%, twenty-one eyes(91%at the 2mo and twenty-three eyes(100%at the 6mo respectively. A total of 74% had ≥3 lines of improvement after 6mo. Success was defined as resolution of neurosensory on OCT and disappearance of leakage on FFA at the 2mo. Failure was defined as no change at the 6mo and no improvement of visual acuity.CONCLUSION:TTT is safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with CSC and parafoveal leaks. It may improve the visual acuity by shortening the persistent serous elevation of the macula.

  20. Gender Inequality at Universities and the ‘Leaking Pipeline’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth; Larsen, Britt Østergaard


    revealed that an increasing percentage of women among university graduates has not resulted in an increasing percentage of women among university academics. This analysis based on data from Aalborg University documents by the use of longitudinal analysis indicates that women have less chance of getting......Research shows that the correlation - the higher the level of academic positions at universities the lower the percentage of women among employees - also applies at Danish universities (Ståhle, 2007). This may be due to a historic back log or merely to a ’Leaking pipeline’, as earlier studies have...

  1. How Perfect Offline Wallets Can Still Leak Bitcoin Private Keys


    Verbücheln, Stephan


    ECDSA has become a popular choice as lightweight alternative to RSA and classic DL based signature algorithms in recent years. As standardized, the signature produced by ECDSA for a pair of a message and a key is not deterministic. This work shows how this non-deterministic choice can be exploited by an attacker to leak private information through the signature without any side channels, an attack first discovered by Young and Yung for classic DL-based cryptosystems in 1997, and how this atta...

  2. Differential Impact of Anastomotic Leak in Patients With Stage IV Colonic or Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Rolff, Hans Christian; Krarup, Peter-Martin


    . PATIENTS: Patients who were diagnosed with stage IV colorectal cancer between 2009 and 2013 and underwent elective resection of their primary tumors were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality depending on the occurrence of anastomotic leak. Secondary outcomes were...... the administration of and time to adjuvant chemotherapy, metastasectomy rate, and risk factors for leak. RESULTS: Of the 774 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who were included, 71 (9.2%) developed anastomotic leaks. Anastomotic leak had a significant impact on the long-term survival of patients with colon...... cancer (p = 0.04) but not on those with rectal cancer (p = 0.91). Anastomotic leak was followed by the decreased administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with colon cancer (p = 0.007) but not in patients with rectal cancer (p = 0.47). Finally, anastomotic leak had a detrimental impact...

  3. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo


    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  4. Study of Internal and External Leaks in Tests of Anode-Supported SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Hagen, Anke


    A planar anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been tested to investigate gas tightness of the electrolyte and the applied seals. Gas leaks reduce the efficiency of the SOFC and it is thus important to determine and minimise them. Probe gases (He and Ar) and a Quadrupole Mass...... difference between the anode and the cathode gas compartment, and can thus be described as diffusion driven. External leaks between the surroundings and the anode, but not the cathode gas compartment was observed. They were influenced by the pressure difference and are thus driven by both concentration...... and pressure gradients. The measured gas leaks deduced from the probe gas experiments and the total leak calculated from the deviation between the Emf defined by the gases and the cell OCV (which contains all gas leaks as well as effects of electronic leaks) were compared. Good agreement between the two...



    methodology known as the Sustainability Management System that will provide a computer modeling platform to track all military assets, including potable...excavation revealed that the leak was under the slab of a building. Further research and development is needed to address location of leaks that may be...underneath building slabs or other surface features. In an actual field application, the lateral and leak may be under a building. 8.6

  6. Optimal pressure sensor placement in water distribution networks minimizing leak location uncertainty


    Nejjari, Fatiha; Sarrate, Ramon; Blesa, Joaquim


    In this paper an optimal sensor placement strategy based on pressure sensitivity matrix analysis and an exhaustive search strategy that maximizes some diagnosis specifications for a water distribution network is presented. An average worst leak expansion distance as a new leak location performance measure has been proposed. This metric is later used to assess the leak location uncertainty provided by a sensor configuration. The method is combined with a clustering technique in order to reduce...

  7. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-A Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.


    This document identifies 241-A Tank Farm (A Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-A-104 and 241-A-105) identified in RPP-ENV-37956, Hanford A and AX Farm Leak Assessment Report. This document satisfies the A Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  8. Hanford Single Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-TX Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, C. L.; Harlow, D> G.


    This document identifies 241-TX Tank Farm (TX Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-TX-107 and 241-TX-114) identified in RPP-RPT-50870, Rev. 0, Hanford 241-TX Farm Leak Inventory Assessment Report. This document satisfies the TX Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  9. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-U Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.


    This document identifies 241-U Tank Farm (U Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-U-104, 241-U-110, and 241-U-112) identified in RPP-RPT-50097, Rev. 0, Hanford 241-U Farm Leak Inventory Assessment Report. This document satisfies the U-Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  10. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-T Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.


    This document identifies 241-T Tank Farm (T Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-T-106 and 241-T-111) identified in RPP-RPT-55084, Rev. 0, Hanford 241-T Farm Leak Inventory Assessment Report. This document satisfies the T Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  11. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-C Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.


    This document identifies 241-C Tank Farm (C Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-C-101 and 241-C-105) identified in RPP-RPT-33418, Rev. 2, Hanford C-Farm Leak Inventory Assessments Report. This document satisfies the C Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  12. Silicon detectors at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, James E. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97405-1274 (United States)], E-mail:; Breidenbach, Martin [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Baltay, Charles [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Frey, Raymond E.; Strom, David M. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97405-1274 (United States)


    Silicon detectors are being developed for several applications in ILC detectors. These include vertex detection, tracking, electromagnetic calorimetry, and forward detectors. The advantages of silicon detector technology have been incorporated into a full detector design, SiD (the Silicon Detector). A brief overview of this effort is presented.

  13. CT findings suggesting anastomotic leak and predicting the recovery period following gastric surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Jung Hoon; Shin, Cheong-Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess diagnostic performance of routine CT for detecting anastomotic leak after gastric surgery, and analyse the relationship between recovery period and CT findings. We included 179 patients who underwent immediate CT and fluoroscopy after gastric surgery. Two reviewers retrospectively rated the possibility of leak on CT using a five-point scale focused on predefined CT findings. They also evaluated CT findings. Patients were categorised as: Group I, leak on fluoroscopy; Group II, possible leak on CT but negative on fluoroscopy; Group III, no leak. We analysed the relationship between recovery period and group. Area under the curve for detecting leak on CT was 0.886 in R1 and 0.668 in R2 with moderate agreement (k = 0.482). Statistically common CT findings for leak included discontinuity, large amount of air-fluid and wall thickening at anastomosis site (p < 0.05). Discontinuity at anastomosis site and a large air-fluid collection were independently associated with leak (p < 0.05). The recovery period including hospitalisation and postoperative fasting period was longer in Group I than Group II or III (p < 0.05). Group II showed a longer recovery period than Group III (p < 0.05). Postoperative routine CT was useful for predicting anastomotic leak using specific findings, and for predicting length of recovery period. (orig.)

  14. Oil spills and gas leaks: environmental response, prevention, and cost recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Testa, Stephen M; Jacobs, James, A


    Oil Spills and Gas Leaks highlights the complex nature of petroleum hydrocarbon fuel extraction methods, the unintended consequences when disasters occur, spill behavior, and environmental impact mitigation...

  15. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-BY and 241-TY Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.


    This document identifies 241-BY Tank Farm (BY Farm) and 241-TY Tank Farm (TY Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-BY-103, 241-TY-103, 241-TY-104, 241-TY-105, and 241-TY-106) identified in RPP-RPT-43704, Hanford BY Farm Leak Assessments Report, and in RPP-RPT-42296, Hanford TY Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the BY and TY Farm portion of the target (T04) in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  16. High-energy detector (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY


    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  17. Chauncey Leake and the development of bioethics in America. (United States)

    Brody, Howard


    Chauncey D. Leake (1896-1978) occupies a unique place in the history of American bioethics. A pharmacologist, he was largely an autodidact in both history and philosophy, and believed that ethics should ideally be taught to medical students by those with philosophical training. After pioneering work on medical ethics during the 1920s, he helped to lay the groundwork for important centers for bioethics and medical humanities at two institutions where he worked, the University of California-San Francisco and the University of Texas Medical Branch-Galveston. Understanding Leake's role in American bioethics requires navigating a number of paradoxes--why he was described respectfully in his time but largely forgotten today; how in the 1920s he could write forward-looking pieces that anticipated many of the themes taken up by bioethics a half-century later, yet played largely a reactionary role when the new bioethics actually arrived; and why he advocated turning to philosophy and philosophers for a proper understanding of ethics, yet appeared often to misunderstand philosophical ethics.

  18. Corrosion Evaluation of Tank 40 Leak Detection Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.I.


    'Leak detection from the transfer lines in the tank farm has been a concern for many years because of the need to minimize exposure of personnel and contamination of the environment. The leak detection box (LDB) is one line of defense, which must be maintained to meet this objective. The evaluation of a failed LDB was one item from an action plan aimed at minimizing the degradation of LDBs. The Tank 40 LDB, which failed in service, was dug up and shipped to SRTC for evaluation. During a video inspection while in service, this LDB was found to have black tubercles on the interior, which suggested possible microbial involvement. The failure point, however, was believed to have occurred in the drain line from the transfer line jacket. Visual, metallurgical, and biological analyses were performed on the LDB. The analysis results showed that there was not any adverse microbiological growth or significant localized corrosion. The corrosion of the LDB was caused by exposure to aqueous environments and was typical of carbon steel pipes in soil environments.'

  19. Non-linear leak currents affect mammalian neuron physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei eHuang


    Full Text Available In their seminal works on squid giant axons, Hodgkin and Huxley approximated the membrane leak current as Ohmic, i.e. linear, since in their preparation, sub-threshold current rectification due to the influence of ionic concentration is negligible. Most studies on mammalian neurons have made the same, largely untested, assumption. Here we show that the membrane time constant and input resistance of mammalian neurons (when other major voltage-sensitive and ligand-gated ionic currents are discounted varies non-linearly with membrane voltage, following the prediction of a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-based passive membrane model. The model predicts that under such conditions, the time constant/input resistance-voltage relationship will linearize if the concentration differences across the cell membrane are reduced. These properties were observed in patch-clamp recordings of cerebellar Purkinje neurons (in the presence of pharmacological blockers of other background ionic currents and were more prominent in the sub-threshold region of the membrane potential. Model simulations showed that the non-linear leak affects voltage-clamp recordings and reduces temporal summation of excitatory synaptic input. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of trans-membrane ionic concentration in defining the functional properties of the passive membrane in mammalian neurons as well as other excitable cells.

  20. Summer program Report : Quality control and Aging study for the GE1/1 detectors in CMS Muon endcap upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, Adithya


    In this report, I summarize the work I did during my tenure in the Summer program. The project started with conducting three quality controls -- gas leak test, High Voltage test and Gas gain test. These are necessary to check if the GE1/1 detectors pass the requirements necessary for its deployment in the CMS. Then, I explain how aging study of the detectors was conducted and how the data was analyzed to ascertain if the detector has undergone aging. Lastly, the ongoing process of setting up a further accelerated aging study within the GEM lab is explained, with some potential difficulties associated with it.

  1. Gastric leaks post sleeve gastrectomy: Review of its prevention and management (United States)

    Abou Rached, Antoine; Basile, Melkart; El Masri, Hicham


    Gastric sleeve gastrectomy has become a frequent bariatric procedure. Its apparent simplicity hides a number of serious, sometimes fatal, complications. This is more important in the absence of an internationally adopted algorithm for the management of the leaks complicating this operation. The debates exist even regarding the definition of a leak, with several classification systems that can be used to predict the cause of the leak, and also to determine the treatment plan. Causes of leak are classified as mechanical, technical and ischemic causes. After defining the possible causes, authors went into suggesting a number of preventive measures to decrease the leak rate, including gentle handling of tissues, staple line reinforcement, larger bougie size and routine use of methylene blue test per operatively. In our review, we noticed that the most important clinical sign or symptom in patients with gastric leaks are fever and tachycardia, which mandate the use of an abdominal computed tomography, associated with an upper gastrointrstinal series and/or gastroscopy if no leak was detected. After diagnosis, the management of leak depends mainly on the clinical condition of the patient and the onset time of leak. It varies between prompt surgical intervention in unstable patients and conservative management in stable ones in whom leaks present lately. The management options include also endoscopic interventions with closure techniques or more commonly exclusion techniques with an endoprosthesis. The aim of this review was to highlight the causes and thus the prevention modalities and find a standardized algorithm to deal with gastric leaks post sleeve gastrectomy. PMID:25320526

  2. Intermediate Term Outcomes of Early Posttrabeculectomy Bleb Leaks Managed by Large Diameter Soft Bandage Contact Lens. (United States)

    Gollakota, SriRamani; Garudadri, Chandra S; Mohamed, Ashik; Senthil, Sirisha


    To study the outcomes of large diameter soft bandage contact lens (BCL) in managing early trabeculectomy bleb leak. Of 972 eyes that underwent fornix-based trabeculectomy between 2011 and 2015, 19 eyes with bleb leak with at least 1 year follow-up were eligible. Bleb leak was conservatively managed using large diameter BCL (≥15.5 mm in diameter). Success was defined as complete, if bleb leak resolved and the intraocular pressure (IOP) was ≥5 and ≤18 mm Hg with no additional antiglaucoma medication and failure if surgical intervention was needed. Mean age (±SD) of subjects was 43.5±11.9 years. Mitomycin C was used in 15/19 eyes. Median time (interquartile range) from trabeculectomy to bleb leak was 9 days (interquartile range: 8 to 19 d). Bleb leak was treated with 15.5 mm BCL in 16 eyes and 17 mm lens in 3 eyes. Bleb leak resolved with BCL in 17 [89.5%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 68.6-97] and 2 eyes (10.5%; 95% CI, 2-31) required bleb resuturing. Mean duration of BCL wear for bleb leak resolution was 23.7±8.9 days. Mean IOP increased from 5.8±2.7 to 12.5±3.1 mm Hg after resolution of bleb leak (P<0.05). At 16 months, complete success probability of trabeculectomy was 89.4% (95% CI, 75.6%-100%). Large diameter BCL was effective in the management of early bleb leak with good intermediate term success for IOP control. We suggest a trial of soft contact lens of appropriate diameter to manage early bleb leaks, before planning any invasive intervention.

  3. Using Decision Trees to Detect and Isolate Simulated Leaks in the J-2X Rocket Engine (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Aguilar, Robert; Figueroa, Fernando F.


    The goal of this work was to use data-driven methods to automatically detect and isolate faults in the J-2X rocket engine. It was decided to use decision trees, since they tend to be easier to interpret than other data-driven methods. The decision tree algorithm automatically "learns" a decision tree by performing a search through the space of possible decision trees to find one that fits the training data. The particular decision tree algorithm used is known as C4.5. Simulated J-2X data from a high-fidelity simulator developed at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and known as the Detailed Real-Time Model (DRTM) was used to "train" and test the decision tree. Fifty-six DRTM simulations were performed for this purpose, with different leak sizes, different leak locations, and different times of leak onset. To make the simulations as realistic as possible, they included simulated sensor noise, and included a gradual degradation in both fuel and oxidizer turbine efficiency. A decision tree was trained using 11 of these simulations, and tested using the remaining 45 simulations. In the training phase, the C4.5 algorithm was provided with labeled examples of data from nominal operation and data including leaks in each leak location. From the data, it "learned" a decision tree that can classify unseen data as having no leak or having a leak in one of the five leak locations. In the test phase, the decision tree produced very low false alarm rates and low missed detection rates on the unseen data. It had very good fault isolation rates for three of the five simulated leak locations, but it tended to confuse the remaining two locations, perhaps because a large leak at one of these two locations can look very similar to a small leak at the other location.

  4. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 μm are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 μm) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its

  5. Leaks in gas pipelines. Leak detection with the aid of GIS and GPS; Leckstellen in Gasrohrnetzen. Aufspueren mit Unterstuetzung durch GIS und GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Detlef; Berteld, Michael [Industrielle Werke Basel (Switzerland)


    The GPS technology has made gas leak detection more efficient. By linking it with the documentation of the Geographic Information System (GIS), gas grid monitoring, long-term planning and also maintenance can be optimized considerably. After successful testing, Industrielle Werke Basel (IWB) introduced the system for their whole gas grid. Apart from cost savings, there was also a significant quality improvement in gas leak detection. (orig.)

  6. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi


    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  7. Kinetics of the valinomycin-induced potassium ion leak from liposomes with potassium thiocyanate enclosed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, M.C.; Gier, J. de; Deenen, L.L.M. van


    The kinetics of the valinomycin-induced K+ leak from egg lecithin liposomes with KCNS enclosed were studied by measuring the initial increase of the leak following the addition of the ionophore. Variation of liposome and valinomycin concentrations enabled a discrimination between the affinity of the

  8. Technical Details of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Leading to Lowered Leak Rate: Discussion of 1070 Consecutive Cases (United States)

    Sasse, Kent C.


    Introduction Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a widely utilized and effective surgical procedure for dramatic weight loss in obese patients. Leak at the sleeve staple line is the most serious complication of this procedure, occurring in 1–3% of cases. Techniques to minimize the risk of sleeve gastrectomy leaks have been published although no universally agreed upon set of techniques exists. This report describes a single-surgeon experience with an approach to sleeve leak prevention resulting in a progressive decrease in leak rate over 5 years. Methods 1070 consecutive sleeve gastrectomy cases between 2012 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient characteristics, sleeve leaks, and percent body weight loss at 6 months were reported for each year. Conceptual and technical changes aimed towards leak reduction are presented. Results With the implementation of the described techniques of the sleeve gastrectomy, the rate of sleeve leaks fell from 4% in 2012 to 0% in 2015 and 2016 without a significant change in weight loss, as depicted by 6-month change in body weight and percent excess BMI lost. Conclusion In this single-surgeon experience, sleeve gastrectomy leak rate has fallen to 0% since the implementation of specific technical modifications in the procedure. PMID:28761766

  9. Technical Details of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Leading to Lowered Leak Rate: Discussion of 1070 Consecutive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Warner


    Full Text Available Introduction. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a widely utilized and effective surgical procedure for dramatic weight loss in obese patients. Leak at the sleeve staple line is the most serious complication of this procedure, occurring in 1–3% of cases. Techniques to minimize the risk of sleeve gastrectomy leaks have been published although no universally agreed upon set of techniques exists. This report describes a single-surgeon experience with an approach to sleeve leak prevention resulting in a progressive decrease in leak rate over 5 years. Methods. 1070 consecutive sleeve gastrectomy cases between 2012 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient characteristics, sleeve leaks, and percent body weight loss at 6 months were reported for each year. Conceptual and technical changes aimed towards leak reduction are presented. Results. With the implementation of the described techniques of the sleeve gastrectomy, the rate of sleeve leaks fell from 4% in 2012 to 0% in 2015 and 2016 without a significant change in weight loss, as depicted by 6-month change in body weight and percent excess BMI lost. Conclusion. In this single-surgeon experience, sleeve gastrectomy leak rate has fallen to 0% since the implementation of specific technical modifications in the procedure.

  10. 40 CFR 60.562-2 - Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. 60... Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry § 60.562-2 Standards: Equipment leaks of VOC. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected facility subject to the provisions of this...

  11. 10 CFR 32.59 - Same: Leak testing of each source. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Leak testing of each source. 32.59 Section 32.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Generally Licensed Items § 32.59 Same: Leak testing of each source. Each person...

  12. Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Subsurface Flow and Transport Resulting from Tank Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.


    Washington River Protection Solutions contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct laboratory experiments and supporting numerical simulations to improve the understanding of water flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface between waste tanks and ancillary facilities at Waste Management Area C. The work scope included two separate sets of experiments: •Small flow cell experiments to investigate the occurrence of potential unstable fingering resulting from leaks and the limitations of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator to predict flow patterns and solute transport behavior under these conditions. Unstable infiltration may, under certain conditions, create vertically elongated fingers potentially transporting contaminants rapidly through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. The types of leak that may create deeply penetrating fingers include slow release, long duration leaks in relatively permeable porous media. Such leaks may have occurred below waste tanks at the Hanford Site. •Large flow experiments to investigate the behavior of two types of tank leaks in a simple layered system mimicking the Waste Management Area C. The investigated leaks include a relatively large leak with a short duration from a tank and a long duration leak with a relatively small leakage rate from a cascade line.

  13. Improving airway segmentation in computed tomography using leak detection with convolutional networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, J.P.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Setio, A.A.A.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.; Ginneken, B. van; Ciompi, F.


    We propose a novel method to improve airway segmentation in thoracic computed tomography (CT) by detecting and removing leaks. Leak detection is formulated as a classification problem, in which a convolutional network (ConvNet) is trained in a supervised fashion to perform the classification task.

  14. Minimally invasive treatment of vesicourethral leak after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe our experience with a minimally invasive approach for persistent vesicourethral anastomotic leak (PVAL after Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (LRP. Methods: from 2004 to 2011, two surgeons performed LRP in 620 patients. Ten patients had PVAL, with initially indicated conservative treatment, to no avail. These patients underwent a minimally invasive operation, consisting of an endoscopically insertion of two ureteral catheters to direct urine flow, fixed to a new urethral catheter. We maintained the ureteral catheters for seven days on average to complete resolution of urine leakage. The urethral catheter was removed after three weeks of surgery. Results: the correction of urine leakage occurred within a range of one to three days, in all ten patients, without complications. There were no stenosis of the bladder neck and urinary incontinence on long-term follow-up. Conclusion: the study showed that PVAL after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy can be treated endoscopically with safety and excellent results.

  15. Validation of sleeve of straight union type B for leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, Mauricio; Fazzini, Pablo [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Analytic study and experimental validation of type B sleeve with overlapping, were done in order to determine whether they are suitable for used as permanent leaks repair in hydrocarbons transport lines. All relevant background of this type of repair was analyzed, following the guidelines defined by applicable regulations (ASME B31.8 and ASME B31.4) and modeled by finite elements methods. Solicitations under internal pressure of each one of the reinforcement parts were analyzed. All solicitations involved in welded unions were studied, so as the reinforcement effectiveness when it is filled with internal gap filler. Experimental tests were developed, consisted on the reinforcement installation upon damaged pipes and the following hydrostatic test. These tests were assisted by a digitalized measurement, to determine the solicitations at different parts of the reinforcement; strain gauges were used for this task. (author)

  16. Percutaneous paravalvular leak closure- imaging, techniques and outcomes. (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Amar; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat


    Paravalvular leak (PVL) is a known complication of surgical and transcatheter valve replacement procedures. Patients most commonly present with congestive heart failure and/or hemolysis, and repeat surgical procedures to correct the PVL carries increased risk with reduced likelihood of success. As a result, percutaneous approaches to PVL closure have been developed, with a considerable emphasis on multimodality imaging for both diagnosis and procedural guidance in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Several large series of percutaneous PVL closure have been recently published, with encouraging results with respect to both procedural success and clinical outcomes. Here, we give a comprehensive review of imaging and procedural techniques for percutaneous PVL closure and present the data supporting this novel treatment strategy.

  17. The LHC detector challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Virdee, Tejinder S


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

  18. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration


    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  19. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander


    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  20. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration


    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  1. Physician accountability in iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid leak litigation. (United States)

    Kovalerchik, Olga; Mady, Leila J; Svider, Peter F; Mauro, Andrew C; Baredes, Soly; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson


    The potentially severe complications resulting from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak makes iatrogenic injury a medicolegal area of concern for otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons. The objectives of this analysis were to study legal outcomes as well as medical and nonmedical elements affecting malpractice litigation. Public court records available in the Westlaw legal database (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY) were searched for medical malpractice litigation related to iatrogenic CSF leak. Of the 18 jury verdicts and settlements included, outcomes and awards, patient demographic data, and other factors instrumental in determining legal responsibility were recorded for comparison. Ten (55.6%) cases were resolved in the defendant's favor, 2 (11.1%) resulted in damages awarded by a jury, and 6 (33.3%) were settled out of court before resolution of trial. Mean damages awarded were $1.1 million, while out of court settlements averaged $966,887. Malpractice stemming from patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery comprised 77.8% of cases analyzed. The most frequent alleged factors cited for litigation included having to undergo additional surgery (88.9%), developing meningitis (50.0%), and failing to recognize complications in a timely manner (44.4%). Perceived deficits in informed consent were alleged in one-third of cases. Although a slight majority of cases were resolved in the defendant's favor, payments made were considerable, averaging approximately $1 million. Strategies to decrease liability and allow patients to make more informed decisions should include clear communication with patients that explicitly states potential risks, such as meningitis, and possible need to undergo additional reparative surgery. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Temperature and Atomic Oxygen Effects on Helium Leak Rates of a Candidate Main Interface Seal (United States)

    Penney, Nicholas; Wasowski, Janice L.; Daniels, Christopher C.


    Helium leak tests were completed to characterize the leak rate of a 54 in. diameter composite space docking seal design in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). The evaluated seal design was a candidate for the main interface seal on the LIDS, which would be compressed between two vehicles, while docked, to prevent the escape of breathable air from the vehicles and into the vacuum of space. Leak tests completed at nominal temperatures of -30, 20, and 50 C on untreated and atomic oxygen (AO) exposed test samples were examined to determine the influence of both test temperature and AO exposure on the performance of the composite seal assembly. Results obtained for untreated seal samples showed leak rates which increased with increased test temperature. This general trend was not observed in tests of the AO exposed specimens. Initial examination of collected test data suggested that AO exposure resulted in higher helium leak rates, however, further analysis showed that the differences observed in the 20 and 50 C tests between the untreated and AO exposed samples were within the experimental error of the test method. Lack of discernable trends in the test data prevented concrete conclusions about the effects of test temperature and AO exposure on helium leak rates of the candidate seal design from being drawn. To facilitate a comparison of the current test data with results from previous leak tests using air as the test fluid, helium leak rates were converted to air leak rates using standard conversion factors for viscous and molecular flow. Flow rates calculated using the viscous flow conversion factor were significantly higher than the experimental air leakage values, whereas values calculated using the molecular flow conversion factor were significantly lower than the experimentally obtained air leak rates. The difference in these sets of converted flow rates and their deviation from the

  3. Mobile Sensor Networks for Leak and Backflow Detection in Water Distribution Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, M. Agumbe


    Leak and backflow detection are essential aspects of Water Distribution System (WDS) monitoring. Most existing solutions for leak/backflow detection in WDSs focus on the placement of expensive static sensors located strategically. In contrast to these, we propose a solution whereby mobile sensors (i.e., their movement aided only by the inherent water flow in the system) detect leaks/backflow. Information about the leaks/backflow is collected from the sensors either by physically capturing them, or through wireless communication. Specifically, we propose models to maximize leak/backflow detection given a cost constraint (a limit on the number of sensors). Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed solution when compared with the state of the art solutions (e.g., algorithms/protocols and analysis).

  4. The Relief of Unilateral Painful Thoracic Radiculopathy without Headache from Remote Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-chul Son


    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH caused by spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leaks produces orthostatic headaches. Although upper arm pain or paresthesia is reportedly associated with SIH from spontaneous spinal CSF leak in the presence of orthostatic headache, low thoracic radicular pain due to spontaneous spinal CSF leak unassociated with postural headache is extremely rare. We report a 67-year-old female who presented with chronic, positional radicular right T11 pain. Computed tomography myelography showed a spontaneous lumbar spinal CSF leak at L2-3 and repeated lumbar epidural blood patches significantly alleviated chronic, positional, and lower thoracic radiculopathic pain. The authors speculate that a chronic spontaneous spinal CSF leak not severe enough to cause typical orthostatic headache or epidural CSF collection may cause local symptoms such as irritation of a remote nerve root. There might be considerable variabilities in the clinical features of SIH which can present a diagnostic challenge.

  5. How to distinguish an active air leak from a pleural space effect. (United States)

    Marasco, Rita Daniela; Giudice, Gabriella; Lequaglie, Cosimo


    We aimed to distinguish a pleural space effect from an active air leak, using a digital chest drain system that provided continuous air flow and pleural pressure checks. between March 2010 and October 2011, we employed 144 digital drains for 138 thoracic surgical procedures. We observed 18 (12.5%) active air leaks, among which 4 (2.8%) were prolonged air leaks characterized by high differential pleural pressure due to increased mean expiratory pressure (>1 cm H(2)O; pair leaks, all long-lasting (ppressure curve divergence before the air flow appearance. We also reported 25 (17.4%) pleural space effects characterized by a high differential pleural pressure, but mainly due to a lower mean inspiratory pressure (air flow and pleural pressure measurement, could clearly identify a pleural space effect, avoiding the frequent misinterpretation of an active air leak, and allowing safe removal of the chest tube at the right time.

  6. Detecting well casing leaks in Bangladesh using a salt spiking method (United States)

    Stahl, M.O.; Ong, J.B.; Harvey, C.F.; Johnson, C.D.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Tarek, M.H.; VanGeen, A.; Anderson, J.A.; Lane, J.W.


    We apply fluid-replacement logging in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh using a low-cost, down-well fluid conductivity logging tool to detect leaks in the cased section of wells. The fluid-conductivity tool is designed for the developing world: it is lightweight and easily transportable, operable by one person, and can be built for minimal cost. The fluid-replacement test identifies leaking casing by comparison of fluid conductivity logs collected before and after spiking the wellbore with a sodium chloride tracer. Here, we present results of fluid-replacement logging tests from both leaking and non-leaking casing from wells in Araihazar and Munshiganj, Bangladesh, and demonstrate that the low-cost tool produces measurements comparable to those obtained with a standard geophysical logging tool. Finally, we suggest well testing procedures and approaches for preventing casing leaks in Bangladesh and other developing countries.


    CERN Multimedia

    R. Breedon


    Toward the end of last year, a few water leaks, one of them severe, were discovered in the endcap cooling system on the YE1 disks that not only services the cathode strip chambers, but also the endcap resistive plate chambers, electromagnetic calorimeter, and disks. The problem was traced to a bushing adaptor present on each return line that in some cases had been over-tightened. There were close to 400 such bushings on all the endcap disks that could potentially cause a leak. Most of these are inaccessible to fix or valve off when CMS is closed, so a future leak could require shutting down an entire disk. It was therefore decided to open CMS during the December shutdown and replace all the bushing assemblies on the YE1 disks with swivel fittings that do  not have this potential problem. From 8 to 22 January, 6 technicians from the Polish ZEC company and 2 engineers from the Physical Sciences Laboratory in Wisconsin not only made the replacements on YE1, but on all the other endcap disks as well. ...

  8. Development of a fiber-optic sensor for hydrogen leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    The real and perceived risks of hydrogen fuel use, particularly in passenger vehicles, will require extensive safety precautions including hydrogen leak detection. Conventional hydrogen gas sensors require electrical wiring and may be too expensive for deployment in multiple locations within a vehicle. In this recently initiated project, we are attempting to develop a reversible, thin-film, chemochromic sensor that can be applied to the end of a polymer optical fiber. The presence of hydrogen gas causes the film to become darker. A light beam transmitted from a central instrument in the vehicle along the sensor fibers will be reflected from the ends of the fiber back to individual light detectors. A decrease in the reflected light signal will indicate the presence and concentration of hydrogen in the vicinity of the fiber sensor. The typical thin film sensor consists of a layer of transparent, amorphous tungsten oxide covered by a very thin reflective layer of palladium. When the sensor is exposed to hydrogen, a portion of the hydrogen is dissociated, diffuses through the palladium and reacts with the tungsten oxide to form a blue insertion compound, H{sub X}WO{sub 3}- When the hydrogen gas is no longer present, the hydrogen will diffuse out of the H{sub X}WO{sub 3} and oxidize at the palladium/air interface, restoring the tungsten oxide film and the light signal to normal. The principle of this detection scheme has already been demonstrated by scientists in Japan. However, the design of the sensor has not been optimized for speed of response nor tested for its hydrogen selectivity in the presence of hydrocarbon gases. The challenge of this project is to modify the basic sensor design to achieve the required rapid response and assure sufficient selectivity to avoid false readings.

  9. Neonatal air leak syndrome and the role of high-frequency ventilation in its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Jy Jeng


    Full Text Available Air leak syndrome includes pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumoperitoneum, subcutaneous emphysema, and systemic air embolism. The most common cause of air leak syndrome in neonates is inadequate mechanical ventilation of the fragile and immature lungs. The incidence of air leaks in newborns is inversely related to the birth weight of the infants, especially in very-low-birth-weight and meconium-aspirated infants. When the air leak is asymptomatic and the infant is not mechanically ventilated, there is usually no specific treatment. Emergent needle aspiration and/or tube drainage are necessary in managing tension pneumothorax or pneumopericardium with cardiac tamponade. To prevent air leak syndrome, gentle ventilation with low pressure, low tidal volume, low inspiratory time, high rate, and judicious use of positive end expiratory pressure are the keys to caring for mechanically ventilated infants. Both high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV and high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV can provide adequate gas exchange using extremely low tidal volume and supraphysiologic rate in neonates with acute pulmonary dysfunction, and they are considered to have the potential to reduce the risks of air leak syndrome in neonates. However, there is still no conclusive evidence that HFOV or HFJV can help to reduce new air leaks in published neonatal clinical trials. In conclusion, neonatal air leaks may present as a thoracic emergency requiring emergent intervention. To prevent air leak syndrome, gentle ventilations are key to caring for ventilated infants. There is insufficient evidence showing the role of HFOV and HFJV in the prevention or reduction of new air leaks in newborn infants, so further investigation will be necessary for future applications.

  10. Technical basis for inner container leak detection sensitivity goals in 3013 DE surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Helium leak checking of 3013 inner container lids is under consideration for addition to DE Surveillance tasks as an improved means to detect any through-wall flaws that may have formed during storage. This white paper evaluates whether leak checking at DE could replace and improve upon the current method of comparing gas compositions and pressures within the inner and outer containers. We have used viscous and molecular flow equations in ANSI N14.5 to calculate what the measured standard helium leak rate would be for hypothetical leaks of three different sizes. For comparison, we have also calculated the effects on gas composition and pressure differences as a function of pre-DE storage time for the same three leak sizes, using molecular and viscous flow equations as well as diffusion equations to predict the relevant gas transport. For a hypothetical leak that would be measured at 1x10-7 std cc/sec, likely an achievable sensitivity using helium leak checking at DE, the calculations predict no measurable effect on pressure difference or gas composition as measured by DE gas analysis. We also calculate that it would take over 200 years for water vapor to diffuse through a 10-7 std cc/sec leak enough to raise the RH outer container to half the RH value in the inner container. A leak 100 times larger, which would be measured at 1x10-5 std cc/sec, the same water vapor diffusion would take at least 14 years. Our conclusion is that helium leak checking will be useful even at a sensitivity of 1x10-5 std cc/sec, and a significant improvement over current DE methods at a sensitivity of 1x10-7 std cc/sec.

  11. Validation of the Low-Range Differential Pressure (LRDP) Leak Detection System for Small Leaks in Bulk Fuel Tanks (United States)


    gal/h [TLR - CMDL (A2/A1)] > 0.1 or 0.1 for [TLR - CMDL (A2/A1)] < 0.1 PD – % 95% PFA - % < 5% *There may be more than one threshold...specification for system operation; TLR = target leak rate. **Define MDL and CMDL = MDL/2 for A1; S for A1; and A1...0.2 Threshold, C – gal/h [TLR-( CMDL /n0.5) (A2/A1)] > 0.1 such that 1 < n < 12 or 0.1 for [TLR- ( CMDL /n0.5) (A2/A1)] < 0.1 PD – % 95

  12. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T


    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  13. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G


    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  14. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia


    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  15. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank


    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  16. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider. (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  17. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia


    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe


    Mar 1, 1981 ... Most of Radiation detectors based on the Cherenkov Effect are essentially very bulky and expensive for schools and colleges. An inexpensive yet very compact radiation detector is designed, built and tested. It is used to measure the Cherenkov angles for natural radioactivity from sources as. Cs137.

  19. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.


    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  20. Mobile natural gas leak surveys indicate that two utilities have high false negative rates (United States)

    von Fischer, J. C.; Brewer, P. E.; Chamberlain, S.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.


    In the distribution systems that carry natural gas to consumers, leaks need to be discovered for safety reasons and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, few utilities have adopted newer laser-based technologies that have greater sensitivity and precision, and instead rely on "industry standard" equipment that is far less sensitive. In partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund and Google, we mapped natural gas leaks in the domains of two anonymous utilities (Utility "A" and "B") using high sensitivity Picarro methane analyzers in Google Street View Cars. Surprisingly, when we shared these results with utilities, their survey crews were unable to find most of the leaks that our survey indicated (84% in A and 80% in B). To investigate this phenomenon, our team visited a subset of the leaks in each utility domain (n=32 in A and n=30 in B), and worked alongside utility surveyors to search the leak indication area, using a Los Gatos Research ultraportable methane analyzer to pinpoint leak locations. We found evidence of natural gas leaks at 69% and 68% of the locations in Utilities A and B respectively where survey crews had found nothing. We describe this as a "false negative" rate for the utility because the utility survey falsely indicated that there was no leak at these locations. Of these false negatives, 7% (n=2 of 32 in A, n=2 of 30 in B) were determined to be Grade 1 leaks requiring immediate repair due to high safety risk. Instrument sensitivity appears to explain some of the false negative rates. In particular, use of some industry standard equipment appears to have created a false sense of confidence among utility surveyors that leaks were not present. However, there was also evidence of communication failures and that surveyors did not use optimal approaches in their search. Based on these findings, we suggest that: 1) mobile deployment of high-precision methane analyzers can help find more natural gas leaks, and 2) use of some hand-held survey

  1. Superconducting detectors in astronomy (United States)

    Rahman, F.


    Radiation detectors based on superconducting phenomena are becoming increasingly important for observational astronomy. Recent developments in this important field, together with relevant background, are described here. After a general introduction to superconductivity and the field of superconductor-based radiation sensors, the main detector types are examined with regard to their physical form, operating principles and principal advantages. All major forms of superconducting detectors used in contemporary research such as tunnelling detectors, mixers, hot-electron bolometers and transition edge sensitive devices are discussed with an emphasis on how more recent developments are overcoming the shortcomings of the previous device generations. Also, discussed are new ideas in superconducting detector technology that may find applications in the coming years.

  2. Nanomechanical resonance detector (United States)

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K


    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  3. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration


    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  4. Semiconductor radiation detectors. Device physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany). Semiconductor Lab.


    The following topics were dealt with: semiconductor radiation detectors, basic semiconductor structures, semiconductors, energy measurement, radiation-level measurement, position measurement, electronics of the readout function, detectors with intrinsic amplification, detector technology, device stability, radiation hardness and device simulation.

  5. Calculation note for an underground leak which remains underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.


    This calculation note supports the subsurface leak accident scenario which remains subsurface. It is assumed that a single walled pipe carrying waste from tank 106-C ruptures, releasing the liquid waste into the soil. In this scenario, the waste does not form a surface pool, but remains subsurface. However, above the pipe is a berm, 0.762 m (2.5 ft) high and 2.44 m (8 ft) wide, and the liquid released from the leak rises into the berm. The slurry line, which transports a source term of higher activity than the sluice line, leaks into the soil at a rate of 5% of the maximum flow rate of 28.4 L/s (450 gpm) for twelve hours. The dose recipient was placed a perpendicular distance of 100 m from the pipe. Two source terms were considered, mitigated and unmitigated release as described in section 3.4.1 of UANF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Addendum 1. The unmitigated consisted of two parts of AWF liquid and one part AWF solid. The mitigated release consisted of two parts SST liquid, eighteen parts AWF liquid, nine parts SST solid, and one part AWF solid. The isotopic breakdown of the release in these cases is presented. Two geometries were considered in preliminary investigations, disk source, and rectangular source. Since the rectangular source results from the assumption that the contamination is wicked up into the berm, only six inches of shielding from uncontaminated earth is present, while the disk source, which remains six inches below the level of the surface of the land is often shielded by a thick shield due to the slant path to the dose point. For this reason, only the rectangular source was considered in the final analysis. The source model was a rectangle 2.134 m (7 ft) thick, 0.6096 m (2 ft) high, and 130.899 m (131 ft) long. The top and sides of this rectangular source was covered with earth of density 1.6 g/cm{sup 3} to a thickness of 15.24 cm (6 in). This soil is modeled as 40% void space. The source consisted of earth of the same density with the void spaces filled with

  6. Leak-Tight Welding Experience from the Industrial Assembly of the LHC Cryostats at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bourcey, N; Chiggiato, P; Limon, P; Mongelluzzo, A; Musso, G; Poncet, A; Parma, V


    The assembly of the approximately 1700 LHC main ring cryostats at CERN involved extensive welding of cryogenic lines and vacuum vessels. More than 6 km of welding requiring leak tightness to a rate better than 1.10-9 mbar.l.s-1 on stainless steel and aluminium piping and envelopes was made, essentially by manual welding but also making use of orbital welding machines. In order to fulfil the safety regulations related to pressure vessels and to comply with the leak-tightness requirements of the vacuum systems of the machine, welds were executed according to high qualification standards and following a severe quality assurance plan. Leak detection by He mass spectrometry was extensively used. Neon leak detection was used successfully to locate leaks in the presence of helium backgrounds. This paper presents the quality assurance strategy adopted for welds and leak detection. It presents the statistics of non-conformities on welds and leaks detected throughout the entire production and the advances in the use...

  7. Role of endothelin-1 and cyclic nucleotides in ischemia/reperfusion-mediated microvascular leak. (United States)

    Ramirez, René; Chong, Terry; Curran, Brian; Victorino, Gregory P


    A consequence of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is endothelial barrier dysfunction and intravascular volume loss. The purposes of our study are to explore the impact of: 1) cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis inhibition, 2) cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis inhibition, 3) treatment with endothelin-1, and 4) endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated cAMP changes on IR-induced fluid leak. We hypothesize that IR-mediated microvascular fluid leak results from increased cGMP activity and ET-1 decreases IR-induced fluid leak via cAMP. A micro-cannulation technique was used to determine fluid leak or hydraulic permeability (Lp) in rat mesenteric venules. Lp was measured during IR and after treatment with 1) cGMP synthesis inhibitor (LY83583,10 micromol/L) 2) cAMP synthesis inhibitor (2',5'dideoxyadenosine,10 micromol/L), 3) ET-1 (80 pM), and 4) cAMP synthesis inhibitor plus ET-1 (n=6 in each group; Lp represented as mean+/-standard error of the mean; units 10-cm/sec/cmH2O). IR resulted in an increase in Lp (Lp=7.07+/-0.20) sevenfold above baseline (1.05+/-0.31) (pcentral role as a mediator of IR-induced postcapillary venular leak. ET-1 mildly decreased leak. Furthermore, ET-1 may not exert its effects on microvascular fluid leak during IR via cAMP.

  8. Laparoscopic Roux En Y Esophago-Jejunostomy for Chronic Leak/Fistula After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy. (United States)

    Mahmoud, Maysoon; Maasher, Ahmed; Al Hadad, Mohamed; Salim, Elnazeer; Nimeri, Abdelrahman A


    Leak following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most serious and devastating complications. Endoscopic stents can treat most early LSG leaks, but is not as effective for chronic LSG leaks/fistulae. The surgical options to treat a chronic leak/fistula after LSG are laparoscopic Roux en Y esophago-jejunostomy (LRYEJ) or laparoscopic Roux en Y fistulo-jejunostomy. We reviewed our prospective database for all patients with leak after LSG treated with LRYEJ. We have described our algorithm for managing LSG previously. We prefer to optimize the nutritional status of patients with enteral rather than parenteral nutrition and drain all collections prior to LRYEJ. We have treated four patients utilizing our technique of LRYEJ. Initial endoscopic stent placement was attempted in all four patients (two failed to resolve (50 %) and two had distal stenosis at the incisura not amenable to endoscopic stenting). We utilized enteral feeding through either naso-jejunal (NJ) or jejunostomy tube feeding in 3/4 (75 %) of patients, and in one patient with stenosis, we could not introduce a NJ tube endoscopically due to tight stricture. This patient was placed on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and went on to develop pulmonary embolism. None of the patient developed leak after LRYEJ. The only patient with stenosis (25 %) had antecolic LRYEJ. In contrast, all patients who had retrocolic LRYGB laparoscopically did not develop stenosis. Laparoscopic Roux en Y esophago-jejunostomy for chronic leak/fistula after is safe and effective. Preoperative enteral nutrition is important.

  9. Stress determination in active thrust belts: An alternative leak-off pressure interpretation (United States)

    Couzens-Schultz, Brent A.; Chan, Alvin W.


    In thrust belts, fluid flow through critically stressed fractures will occur at pressures less than the overburden stress, which is the minimum stress. We propose that low leak-off pressures obtained in active thrust belts may result from this mechanism, leading workers to infer that apparent minimum stresses are 30-60% less than the overburden stress in some compressional settings. Traditionally, leak-off pressure data have been used to constrain the magnitude of minimum stress, assuming that the rock is dilating against the minimum stress during a leak-off test. In our new interpretation, we constrain the stress state by assuming that the leak-off test causes shear failure along pre-existing weaknesses rather than tensile opening. While this mechanism has been discussed in a small number of borehole stability and hydraulic fracture papers, it has not been directly applied to leak-off tests. We considered this interpretation because we observed that some leak-off tests imply an apparent contradiction between the stress states from the standard interpretation of leak-off tests versus the stress state inferred from geologic and geophysical evidence in tectonically active thrust belts. We present two examples with one in an onshore fold-thrust belt and one in a deepwater fold-thrust belt. Our new interpretation of stresses based on shear failure resolves the contradiction and also provides a constraint on the maximum horizontal stress in the fold-thrust belts.

  10. Leak detection systems for uranium mill tailings impoundments with synthetic liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.A.; Tyler, S.W.; Gutknecht, P.J.; Mitchell, D.H.


    This study evaluated the performance of existing and alternative leak detection systems for lined uranium mill tailings ponds. Existing systems for detecting leaks at uranium mill tailings ponds investigated in this study included groundwater monitoring wells, subliner drains, and lysimeters. Three alternative systems which demonstrated the ability to locate leaks in bench-scale tests included moisture blocks, soil moisture probes, and a soil resistivity system. Several other systems in a developmental stage are described. For proper performance of leak detection systems (other than groundwater wells and lysimeters), a subgrade is required which assures lateral dispersion of a leak. Methods to enhance dispersion are discussed. Cost estimates were prepared for groundwater monitoring wells, subliner drain systems, and the three experimental systems. Based on the results of this report, it is suggested that groundwater monitoring systems be used as the primary means of leak detection. However, if a more responsive system is required due to site characteristics and groundwater quality criteria, subliner drains are applicable for ponds with uncovered liners. Leak-locating systems for ponds with covered liners require further development. Other recommendations are discussed in the report.

  11. RCS Leak rate Calculation Using Bilateral Kernel Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Jang, Seok Bo; Kim, So Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Ha [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The leakage from a RCS (Reactor Coolant System) is classified into identified leakage which is defined as leakage into the closed system boundaries so that it can be captured and unidentified leakage which is all other leakages. The timely and accurate detection of the unidentified leakage has significant meaning from a viewpoint of nuclear safety. The unidentified leakage was typically determined by the RCS inventory balance method that NUREG-1107 recommended, which was the most preferable algorithm accepted in NPPs. However, it turned out that the accuracy of the conventional method was quite susceptible to measurement uncertainty. To enhance the robustness of the RCS inventory balance method, NUREG/CR-6582 indicated such a trouble can be eliminated by using filtering techniques, for example, such as a linear regression. On the basis of this recommendation, many of the NPPs including Korean NPPs have accepted the calculation algorithm which is based on the linear regression to eliminate noises or fluctuations. It should be noted that there are still technical issues, for example, how to deal with transient conditions. Since the accuracy of leak rate calculation is also strongly dependent on the step change in thermo-hydraulic conditions or inventories, any transient conditions such as injection or discharge modes should be avoided during a test period. Particularly, as transient conditions take place, the linear regression is of no use and what's worse is it may output junk results, which must be very confused to operators. In order to enhance the capability of the RCS inventory balance method in transient conditions as well as steady state operations, the study using Kalman filter and smoother techniques which have the system state modeling capability was proposed. After this study, we concluded that the study on the leak rate calculation would be worthwhile as not only a practical application to NPPs but also an academic concern. To extensively investigate

  12. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group


    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  13. The Belle II Detector (United States)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II


    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  14. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  15. Smile detectors correlation (United States)

    Yuksel, Kivanc; Chang, Xin; Skarbek, Władysław


    The novel smile recognition algorithm is presented based on extraction of 68 facial salient points (fp68) using the ensemble of regression trees. The smile detector exploits the Support Vector Machine linear model. It is trained with few hundreds exemplar images by SVM algorithm working in 136 dimensional space. It is shown by the strict statistical data analysis that such geometric detector strongly depends on the geometry of mouth opening area, measured by triangulation of outer lip contour. To this goal two Bayesian detectors were developed and compared with SVM detector. The first uses the mouth area in 2D image, while the second refers to the mouth area in 3D animated face model. The 3D modeling is based on Candide-3 model and it is performed in real time along with three smile detectors and statistics estimators. The mouth area/Bayesian detectors exhibit high correlation with fp68/SVM detector in a range [0:8; 1:0], depending mainly on light conditions and individual features with advantage of 3D technique, especially in hard light conditions.

  16. The HERMES recoil detector (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.


    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  17. [Application of Digital Drainage System in Postoperative Refractory Prolonged Air Leaks after Pulmonary Surgery]. (United States)

    Chen, Donglai; Kadeer, Xiermaimaiti; Shi, Zhe; Jin, Yuxing; Chen, Chang


    Postoperative prolonged air leaks is one of the most common complications secondary to pulmonary resections. Digital drainage system (DDS) is considered as an accurate and objective device which has been found to be comfortable and well tolerated by patients, economical as well. The aim of this study is to explore the application of DDS in patients with postoperative refractory prolonged air leaks after pulmonary surgery. Prolonged air leak (PAL) is defined as air leaks lasting for more than 5 d after video-assisted surgery or more than 7 d after thoracotomy. Postoperative refractory prolonged air leak is defined as a kind of air leak lasting for twice than PAL with grade 2 or 3 air leak, or air leak with severe complications such as subcutaneous or mediastinal emphysema in our study. A total of 8 patients who had postoperative refractory prolonged air leaks after pulmonary resection were treated with digital drainage system combined with pleurodesis from January to December in 2016 in Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. All the relevant clinical data of patients were collected for analysis. In our study, 6 patients accepted lobectomy, the other 2 patients underwent segmentectomy. The average air leak and chest tube duration of the patients with postoperative refractory prolonged air leaks after pulmonary resection was (17.3±5.1) d. The average postoperative DDS duration was (5.6±3.7) d. The mean drainage volume of the patients was (2,615.6±1,741.2) mL and (935.0±242.7) mL before and after the application of DDS. The average length of hospital stay was (18.1±5.0) d. It is safe and feasible to apply digital drainage system to patients with postoperative refractory prolonged air leaks after pulmonary resection. Compared with the conventional drainage system, digital drainage system is more accurate and objective which can offer a larger suction pressure and promote lung recruitment maneuver for pleurodesis, shortening the drainage time

  18. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-SX Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L. [Washington River Protection Solutions (United States); Harlow, Donald G. [Washington River Protection Solutions (United States)


    This document identifies 241-SX Tank Farm (SX Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114, and 241-SX-115) identified in RPP-ENV-39658, Rev. 0, Hanford SX-Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the SX Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  19. The Rhetorical Algorithm: WikiLeaks and the Elliptical Secrets of Donald J. Trump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Hallsby


    Full Text Available Algorithms were a generative force behind many of the leaks and secrets that dominated the 2016 election season. Taking the form of the identity-anonymizing Tor software that protected the identity of leakers, mathematical protocols occupied a prominent place in the secrets generated during the presidential campaign. This essay suggests that the rhetorical trope of ellipsis offers an equally crucial, algorithmic formula for explaining the public production of these secrets and leaks. It then describes the 2016 DNC leak and Donald Trump’s “I love Wikileaks” moment using the trope of ellipsis, which marks a discursive omission or gap in official executive discourse.

  20. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-BY and 241-TY Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.


    This document identifies 241-BY Tank Farm (BY Farm) and 241-TY Tank Farm (TY Farm) lead causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-BY-103, 241-TY-103, 241-TY-104, 241-TY-105 and 241-TY-106) identified in RPP-RPT-43704, Hanford BY Farm Leak Assessments Report, and in RPP-RPT-42296, Hanford TY Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the BY and TY Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  1. Using airborne measurements and modelling to determine the leak rate of the Elgin platform in 2012 (United States)

    Mobbs, Stephen D.; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Wellpott, Axel; O'Shea, Sebastian


    On the 25th March 2012 the French multinational oil and gas company Total reported a gas leak at the Elgin gas field in the North Sea following an operation on well G4 on the wellhead platform. During operations to plug and decommission the well methane leaked out which lead to the evacuation of the platform. Total made immense efforts to quickly stop the leak and on the 16th May 2012 the company announced the successful "Top kill". The UK's National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) supported the Total response to the leak with flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. Between the 3rd of April and the 4th of May five missions were flown. The FAAM aircraft was equipped with a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200, Los Gatos Research Inc., US) to measure CH4 mixing ratios with an accuracy of 0.07±2.48 ppbv. The measurement strategy used followed closely NOAA's during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The basis of the method is to sample the cross-wind structure of the plume at different heights downwind of the source. The measurements were then fitted to a Gaussian dispersion model which allowed the calculation of the leak rate. The first mission was flown on the 30th March 2012 only 5 days after Total reported the leak. On this day maximum CH4 concentrations exceeded 2800 ppbv. The plume was very distinct and narrow especially near the platform (10km) and it showed almost perfect Gaussian characteristics. Further downwind the plume was split up into several filaments. On this day the CH4 leak rate was estimated to be 1.1 kg/s. Between the 1st and 2nd mission (03/04/2012) the leak rate decreased significantly to about 0.5 kg/s. From the 2nd flight onwards only a minor decrease in leak rate was calculated. The last mission - while the platform was still leaking - was flown on the 4th of May, when the leak rate was estimated to be 0.3 kg/s. The FAAM aircraft measurements

  2. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  3. The Silicon Cube detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matea, I.; Adimi, N. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Blank, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Canchel, G.; Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Tengblad, O. [Insto. Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomas, J.-C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)


    A new experimental device, the Silicon Cube detector, consisting of six double-sided silicon strip detectors placed in a compact geometry was developed at CENBG. Having a very good angular coverage and high granularity, it allows simultaneous measurements of energy and angular distributions of charged particles emitted from unbound nuclear states. In addition, large-volume Germanium detectors can be placed close to the collection point of the radioactive species to be studied. The setup is ideally suited for isotope separation on-line (ISOL)-type experiments to study multi-particle emitters and was tested during an experiment at the low-energy beam line of SPIRAL at GANIL.

  4. Directional radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.


    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  5. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L


    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  6. Assessment of crack opening area for leak rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharples, J.K.; Bouchard, P.J.


    This paper outlines the background to recommended crack opening area solutions given in a proposed revision to leak before break guidance for the R6 procedure. Comparisons with experimental and analytical results are given for some selected cases of circumferential cracks in cylinders. It is shown that elastic models can provide satisfactory estimations of crack opening displacement (and area) but they become increasingly conservative for values of L{sub r} greater than approximately 0.4. The Dugdale small scale yielding model gives conservative estimates of crack opening displacement with increasing enhancement for L{sub r} values greater than 0.4. Further validation of the elastic-plastic reference stress method for up to L{sub r} values of about 1.0 is presented by experimental and analytical comparisons. Although a more detailed method, its application gives a best estimate of crack opening displacement which may be substantially greater than small scale plasticity models. It is also shown that the local boundary conditions in pipework need to be carefully considered when evaluating crack opening area for through-wall bending stresses resulting from welding residual stresses or geometry discontinuities.

  7. Multiple-Feature Extracting Modules Based Leak Mining System Design (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi


    Over the years, human dependence on the Internet has increased dramatically. A large amount of information is placed on the Internet and retrieved from it daily, which makes web security in terms of online information a major concern. In recent years, the most problematic issues in web security have been e-mail address leakage and SQL injection attacks. There are many possible causes of information leakage, such as inadequate precautions during the programming process, which lead to the leakage of e-mail addresses entered online or insufficient protection of database information, a loophole that enables malicious users to steal online content. In this paper, we implement a crawler mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing. PMID:24453892

  8. Multiple-feature extracting modules based leak mining system design. (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi


    Over the years, human dependence on the Internet has increased dramatically. A large amount of information is placed on the Internet and retrieved from it daily, which makes web security in terms of online information a major concern. In recent years, the most problematic issues in web security have been e-mail address leakage and SQL injection attacks. There are many possible causes of information leakage, such as inadequate precautions during the programming process, which lead to the leakage of e-mail addresses entered online or insufficient protection of database information, a loophole that enables malicious users to steal online content. In this paper, we implement a crawler mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing.

  9. Surgical Repair of Leaking Filtering Blebs Using Two Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António B Melo


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the outcomes of two different surgical techniques for the repair of late onset bleb leakage following trabeculectomy. Methods: This retrospective study includes 21 eyes of 20 patients with prior trabeculectomy and late-onset bleb leaks; 14 eyes underwent excision of the filtering bleb together with conjunctival advancement while in the other 7 eyes the bleb was retained but de-epithelialized before conjunctival advancement. Success was defined as resolution of leakage with no need for additional glaucoma surgery together with intraocular pressure (IOP of 5-21 mmHg. Complete and qualified success was considered when the above mentioned was achieved without or with glaucoma medications, respectively. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 20.3΁14.4 months. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of complete, qualified and overall success rates (P>0.05, however more antiglaucoma medications were necessary in the bleb excision group (P=0.02. Conclusions: Both surgical techniques of bleb repair were comparably effective, however the bleb de-epithelialization technique was associated with less need for glaucoma medications after the procedure.

  10. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng


    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb of 220 g/L, hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion and respiratory (ventilator support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients.

  11. The sodium leak channel, NALCN, in health and disease (United States)

    Cochet-Bissuel, Maud; Lory, Philippe; Monteil, Arnaud


    Ion channels are crucial components of cellular excitability and are involved in many neurological diseases. This review focuses on the sodium leak, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-activated NALCN channel that is predominantly expressed in neurons where it regulates the resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. NALCN is part of a complex that includes not only GPCRs, but also UNC-79, UNC-80, NLF-1 and src family of Tyrosine kinases (SFKs). There is growing evidence that the NALCN channelosome critically regulates its ion conduction. Both in mammals and invertebrates, animal models revealed an involvement in many processes such as locomotor behaviors, sensitivity to volatile anesthetics, and respiratory rhythms. There is also evidence that alteration in this NALCN channelosome can cause a wide variety of diseases. Indeed, mutations in the NALCN gene were identified in Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (INAD) patients, as well as in patients with an Autosomal Recessive Syndrome with severe hypotonia, speech impairment, and cognitive delay. Deletions in NALCN gene were also reported in diseases such as 13q syndrome. In addition, genes encoding NALCN, NLF- 1, UNC-79, and UNC-80 proteins may be susceptibility loci for several diseases including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, autism, epilepsy, alcoholism, cardiac diseases and cancer. Although the physiological role of the NALCN channelosome is poorly understood, its involvement in human diseases should foster interest for drug development in the near future. Toward this goal, we review here the current knowledge on the NALCN channelosome in physiology and diseases. PMID:24904279

  12. The CLIC Detector Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Pitters, Florian Michael


    CLIC is a concept for a future linear collider that would provide e+e- collisions at up to 3 TeV. The physics aims require a detector system with excellent jet energy and track momentum resolution, highly efficient flavour-tagging and lepton identification capabilities, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles and timing information in the order of nanoseconds to reject beam-induced background. To deal with those requirements, an extensive R&D programme is in place to overcome current technological limits. The CLIC detector concept includes a low-mass all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system and fine-grained calorimeters designed for particle flow analysis techniques, surrounded by a 4 T solenoid magnet. An overview of the requirements and design optimisations for the CLIC detector concept is presented.

  13. Improved CO [lidar detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.


    A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

  14. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C


    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  15. Infrared Detectors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...

  16. Europe plans megaton detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin


    A group of French and Italian particle physicists hopes to carry on the long tradition of building large underground detectors by constructing a device deep under the Alps containing a million tonnes of extremely pure water.

  17. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia


    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) is part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment : . SPD Structure . Bump Bonding . Test beam . ALICE1LHCb Readout Chip . Chip Tests . Data from the SPD

  18. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C


    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  19. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  20. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.


    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  1. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Points, Region 9 Indian Country, 2017, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  2. Airway obstruction and gas leak during mask ventilation of preterm infants in the delivery room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Preterm infants with inadequate breathing receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) by mask with variable success. The authors examined recordings of PPV given to preterm infants in the delivery room for prevalence of mask leak and airway obstruction.

  3. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford


    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  4. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford


    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  5. Calculation notes for surface leak resulting in pool, TWRS FSAR accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.W.


    This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Surface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

  6. U.S. strategic petroleum reserve Big Hill 114 leak analysis 2012.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith


    This report addresses recent well integrity issues related to cavern 114 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. DM Petroleum Operations, M&O contractor for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, recognized an apparent leak in Big Hill cavern well 114A in late summer, 2012, and provided written notice to the State of Texas as required by law. DM has since isolated the leak in well A with a temporary plug, and is planning on remediating both 114 A- and B-wells with liners. In this report Sandia provides an analysis of the apparent leak that includes: (i) estimated leak volume, (ii) recommendation for operating pressure to maintain in the cavern between temporary and permanent fixes for the well integrity issues, and (iii) identification of other caverns or wells at Big Hill that should be monitored closely in light of the sequence of failures there in the last several years.

  7. Microelectromechanical System-Based Internally Unpowered Leak-Pressure Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for a miniature pressure-leak sensor, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Microelectromechanical System-based...

  8. Management of water leaks on Tore Supra actively cooled fusion device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchressian, J.C.; Gargiulo, L.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B


    Up to now, Tore Supra is the only fusion device fully equipped with actively cooled Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). In case of abnormal events during a plasma discharge, the PFCs could be submitted to a transient high power density (run away electrons) or to a continuous phenomena as local thermal flux induced by trapped suprathermal electrons or ions). It could lead to a degradation of the PFC integrity and in the worst case to a water leak occurrence. Such water leak has important consequence on the tokamak operation that concerns PFCs themselves, monitoring equipment located in the vacuum vessel or connected to the ports as RF antennas, diagnostics or pumping systems. Following successive water leak events (the most important water leak, that occurred in September 2002, is described in the paper), a large feedback experience has been gained on Tore supra since more than 15 years that could be useful to actively cooled next devices as W7X and ITER. (authors)

  9. Using Decision Trees to Detect and Isolate Leaks in the J-2X (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Full title: Using Decision Trees to Detect and Isolate Simulated Leaks in the J-2X Rocket Engine Mark Schwabacher, NASA Ames Research Center Robert Aguilar, Pratt...

  10. New Sensor Cable for the Detection and Location of Leaks in Pipelines for Transportation of Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available At present, hydrocarbon leaks, generated mainly by corrosion of pipelines, cause large economic losses for Mexico.These leaks constitute a problem of serious consequences in Mexico and in other countries in the world. This workdescribes the results of the tests conducted on a new sensor cable for the detection and location of leaks in pipelinesfor transportation of hydrocarbons. When a liquid or gas enters in contact with the wall of the sensor cable, it causes ashort circuit in the wires; changing the measurement of the resistance may detect and locate the leak. The new sensorcable that is presented in this article has advantages over cables with similar characteristic made in other countries.The use of this sensor cable in pipelines of PEMEX will avoid economic losses, environmental damage and risks ofpossible explosions to the population. The experimental results demonstrate these advantages.

  11. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) Map Service, Region 9, 2016, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. The service is composed of three layers; one for each unique LUST...

  12. An Evaluation of liquid metal leak detection methods for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.J.; Doctor, S.R.


    This report documents an independent review and evaluation of sodium leak detection methods described in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Only information in publicly available documents was used in making the assessments.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers


    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  14. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach


    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  15. Gamma ray detector modules (United States)

    Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)


    A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

  16. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K


    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  17. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten


    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  18. Detectors for scanning video imagers (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Hughes, George W.


    In scanning video imagers, a single detector sees each pixel for only 100 ns, so the bandwidth of the detector needs to be about 10 MHz. How this fact influences the choice of detectors for scanning systems is described here. Some important parametric quantities obtained from manufacturer specifications are related and it is shown how to compare detectors when specified quantities differ.

  19. Airway obstruction and gas leak during mask ventilation of preterm infants in the delivery room. (United States)

    Schmölzer, Georg M; Dawson, Jennifer A; Kamlin, C Omar F; O'Donnell, Colm P F; Morley, Colin J; Davis, Peter G


    Preterm infants with inadequate breathing receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) by mask with variable success. The authors examined recordings of PPV given to preterm infants in the delivery room for prevalence of mask leak and airway obstruction. The authors reviewed recordings of infants at piece or self-inflating bag and a round silicone face mask. Airway pressures and gas flow were recorded with a respiratory function monitor (RFM). Videos recorded from a web camera were used to review the resuscitation. The first 2 min of PPV were analysed for each infant. Obstruction was arbitrarily defined as a 75% reduction in delivered expired tidal volume (V(Te)) and significant face-mask leak as >75%. The authors analysed recordings of 56 preterm infants. Obstruction occurred in 14 (26%) recordings and leaks in 27 (51%). Both obstruction and mask leaks were seen in eight (14%) recordings, and neither was seen in 15 (27%). Obstruction occurred at a median (IQR) of 48 (24-60) s after the start of PPV. A median (range) of 22 (3-83) consecutive obstructed inflations were delivered. Face-mask leaks occurred from the first inflation in 19/27 (70%) and in the remaining eight at a median (IQR) of 30 (24-46) s after the start of PPV. A median (range) of 10 (3-117) consecutive inflations with a leak >75% were delivered. Airway obstruction and face-mask leak are common during the first 2 min of PPV. An RFM enables detection of important airway obstruction and mask leak.

  20. Utility of removable esophageal covered self-expanding metal stents for leak and fistula management. (United States)

    Blackmon, Shanda H; Santora, Rachel; Schwarz, Peter; Barroso, Alberto; Dunkin, Brian J


    Esophageal or gastric leakage from anastomotic wound dehiscence, perforation, staple line dehiscence, or trauma can be a devastating event. Traditional therapy has often consisted of either surgical repair for rapidly diagnosed leaks or diversion for more complicated cases, commonly associated with a delayed diagnosis. This study summarizes our experience treating leaks or fistulas with novel, covered self-expanding metal stents (cSEMS). The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of covered self-expanding metal stents when used to treat complicated leaks and fistulas. Over 15 months, 25 patients with esophageal or gastric leaks were evaluated for stenting as primary treatment. A prospective database was used to collect data. Stents were placed endoscopically, with contrast evaluation used for leak evaluation. Patients who did not improve clinically after stenting or whose leak could not be sealed underwent operative management. During a mean follow-up of 15 months, 23 of the 25 patients with esophageal or gastric leaks during a 15-month period were managed with endoscopic stenting as primary treatment. Healing occurred in patients who were stented for anastomotic leakage after gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy (n = 10). One patient with three esophageal iatrogenic perforations healed with stenting. Eight patients successfully avoided esophageal diversion and healed with stenting and adjunctive therapy. Two of the 4 patients with tracheoesophageal fistulas sealed with the assistance of a new pexy technique to prevent stent migration; 1 additional patient had this same technique used to successfully heal an upper esophageal perforation. Esophageal leaks and fistulas can be effectively managed with cSEMS as a primary modality. The potential benefits of esophageal stenting are healing without diversion or reconstruction and early return to an oral diet. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Using optical and microwave, modeled and airborne data to identify water leaks from rural aqueducts (United States)

    Taylor, Frances M.; Malthus, Tim J.; Woodhouse, Iain H.; Hedger, Richard D.


    The development of techniques for the detection of water leaks from underground pipelines is seen as a high profile activity by water companies and regulators. This is due to increasing water demands and problems with current leak detection methods. In this paper optical reflectance and microwave backscatter models (SAIL + PROSPECT and RT2) were used to try and identify optimal indices for detecting water leaks amongst a variety of different land cover types at different growth stages. Results suggest that red/near infrared and red/middle infrared ratios show potential for leak detection. Given the sensitivity of L-band radar to moisture, and the ability to separate contributions from canopy and ground surface, it is possible to detect saturated soils through vegetation canopies. The results of both approaches are used to infer limits of detection in terms of season and meteorological conditions for a range of land covers. Preliminary findings suggest that leaks may be optimally detected when canopy height is low, surrounding soil is dry, and the leak has been present for more than 14 days. The modelled data is compared with L - band fully polarimetric E-SAR data, and 200 channel HYMAP hyperspectral airborne data which were acquired over an 8km section of the Vrynwy aqueduct (UK), which included a high concentration of leaks. Data was acquired as part of the British National Space Centre (BNSC) and Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC), SAR and Hyperspectral Airborne Campaign (SHAC) in June 2000. The results from this work suggest that remote sensing is both an effective and feasible tool for leak identification.



    computer modeling platform to track all military assets, including potable water systems to manage life cycle repair, degradation assessment, and...evidence of significant water flow on the surface. The field test excavation revealed that the leak was under the slab of a building. Further research...and development is needed to address location of leaks that may be underneath building slabs or other surface features. In an actual field application

  3. Optimal Sensor Placement for Leak Location in Water Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithms


    Casillas, Myrna V.; Puig, Vicenc; Garza-Castanon, Luis E.; Rosich, Albert


    This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs). The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the large size and non-linear integer nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GAs) are used as the solution approach. The obtained results ...

  4. Risk factors for postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis after expanded endoscopic endonasal surgery. (United States)

    Ivan, Michael E; Iorgulescu, J Bryan; El-Sayed, Ivan; McDermott, Michael W; Parsa, Andrew T; Pletcher, Steven D; Jahangiri, Arman; Wagner, Jeffrey; Aghi, Manish K


    Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery, which can lead to meningitis and often requires reparative surgery. We sought to identify preoperative risk factors for CSF leaks and meningitis. We reviewed 98 consecutive expanded endoscopic endonasal surgeries performed from 2008-2012 and analyzed preoperative comorbidities, intraoperative techniques, and postoperative care. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The most common pathologies addressed included pituitary adenoma, Rathke cyst, chordoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, meningioma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. There were 11 CSF leaks (11%) and 10 central nervous system (CNS) infections (10%). Univariate and multivariate analysis of preoperative risk factors showed that patients with non-ideal body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher rate of postoperative CSF leak and meningitis (both p<0.01). Also, patients with increasing age were associated with increased CSF leak (p = 0.03) and the length of time a lumbar drain was used postoperatively was associated with infection in a univariate analysis. In addition, three of three endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries combined with open cranial surgery had a postoperative CSF leak and CNS infection rate which was a considerably higher rate than for transsphenoidal surgeries alone or surgeries staged with open cases (p<0.01 and p=0.04, respectively) In this series of expanded endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries, preoperative BMI remains the most important preoperative predictor for CSF leak and infection. Other risk factors include age, intraoperative CSF leak, lumbar drain duration, and cranial combined cases. Risks associated with complex surgical resections when combining open and endoscopic approaches could be minimized by staging these procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CT scan-based modelling of anastomotic leak risk after colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Platon, A; Buchs, N C; Rocher, T; Perneger, T; Poletti, P-A


    Prolonged ileus, low-grade fever and abdominal discomfort are common during the first week after colonic resection. Undiagnosed anastomotic leak carries a poor outcome and computed tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging tool for assessing postoperative abdominal complications. We used a CT scan-based model to quantify the risk of anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery. A case-control analysis of 74 patients who underwent clinico-radiological evaluation after colorectal surgery for suspicion of anastomotic leak was undertaken and a multivariable analysis of risk factors for leak was performed. A logistic regression model was used to identify determinant variables and construct a predictive score. Out of 74 patients with a clinical suspicion of anastomotic leak, 17 (23%) had this complication confirmed following repeat laparotomy. In multivariate analysis, three variables were associated with anastomotic leak: (1) white blood cells count > 9 × 10(9) /l (OR = 14.8); (2) presence of ≥ 500 cm(3) of intra- abdominal fluid (OR = 13.4); and (3) pneumoperitoneum at the site of anastomosis (OR = 9.9). Each of these three parameters contributed one point to the risk score. The observed risk of leak was 0, 6, 31 and 100%, respectively, for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the score was 0.83 (0.72-0.94). This CT scan-based model seems clinically promising for objective quantification of the risk of a leak after colorectal surgery. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Leaks in fixed-ring banded sleeve gastrectomies: a management approach. (United States)

    Foo, Jonathan W; Balshaw, James; Tan, Michael H L; Tan, Jeremy T H


    The use of a Fobi ring to prevent pouch dilation is sometimes used in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Recently, it has been extrapolated to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) procedures by placing a fixed-ring band a few centimeters below the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). What is the consequence if a patient develops a leak? Tertiary metropolitan referral center, Australia. Over 18 months, all patients with either a conventional LSG or a fixed-ring banded sleeve gastrectomy (BLSG) who presented with a proven leak complication were included. The management approaches along with the surgical, endoscopic, and percutaneous procedures used were examined. Six patients had a BLSG leak and 6 had a LSG leak. All patients had leak resolution. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI), time to leak, initial white cell count (WCC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels between the 2 groups. LSG patients required a median of 2 endoscopic procedures (range: 1-3). Stents were deployed in 3 patients. All BLSG patients required a single surgical intervention with laparoscopic washout, drainage, removal of band±feeding jejunostomy. One stent was deployed in 1 BLSG patient. BLSG leak resolution was found at 34±12 days versus 85±12 days in the LSG group (P< .05). The BLSG is a new modification of the sleeve gastrectomy procedure. This study presents a management strategy for leak resolution employed in BLSG patients. The presence of a foreign body as a persistent nidus of infection mandates band removal. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Renal nephrometry score is associated with urine leak after partial nephrectomy. (United States)

    Bruner, Bryan; Breau, Rodney H; Lohse, Christine M; Leibovich, Bradley C; Blute, Michael L


    • To determine if the RENAL nephrometry score is associated with urine leak after partial nephrectomy for tumours ≤ 7 cm. • Thirty-one patients who developed urine leak after partial nephrectomy between 1998 and 2006 were identified. Each patient was individually matched (1 : 4 by age, gender and surgery date) to 124 patients who had undergone partial nephrectomy but without urine leak. • Associations of RENAL nephrometry scores and each component of the score (Radius; Endophytic; Nearness to collecting system; and Location) with urine leak were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. • Mean tumour size for the 31 patients who developed urine leak was 3.4 cm (median 3.5; range 1.5-5.9). Mean RENAL score was 8 (median 8; range 5-11). • Each unit increase in RENAL score was associated with a 35% increased odds of urine leak (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08-1.69; P= 0.009). • On multivariable analysis, tumours that were pole (OR 4.34; 95% CI 1.30-14.53; P= 0.017) were associated with urine leak. • If the score attributed to tumour location was reversed (polar location given a higher score), each unit increase in RENAL score was associated with an 89% increased odds of urine leak (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.40-2.55; P reversal of the score attributed to tumour location may improve risk prediction. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  8. Leveraging Social Norms to Improve Leak Resolution Outcomes Across Meter Classes: (United States)

    Holleran, W.


    Over the past decade, utilities, governments, businesses, and nonprofits have come to realize that more than just financial considerations and information drive behavior. Social and psychological factors also play a significant role in shaping consumers' decisions and behaviors around resource use. Stakeholders have consequently turned their interest to behavioral science, a multidisciplinary field that draws from psychology, sociology, public health, and behavioral economics to explain the complex mechanisms that shape human behavior. When used strategically, behavioral science holds the potential to drive down resource use, drive up profits, and generate measurable gains in conservation and efficiency. WaterSmart will present on how the water sector can employ behavioral science to nudge residential rate-payers to use water more efficiently and help them save money. Utilities can use behavioral science to influence people's reaction to leaks. 5% of Single Family Residential (SFR) metered water use can be attributed to leaks. This value potentially skews even higher for MultiFamily (MF) and Commercial accounts given that it can get lost in the noise of daily consumption. Existing leak detection algorithms in the market are not sophisticated enough to detect leaks for a MF or Commercial property. Leveraging data from utilities on known leak events at MF and Commercial buildings allowed WaterSmart to train a machine learning model to identify key features in the load shape and accurately detect these types of water use events. The outcome of the model is a leak amount and confidence level for each irregular usage event. The model also incorporates record feedback from users on the type of leak event, and the accuracy of the alert. When WaterSmart leverages this data model with social norms messaging, we've been able to improve water demand management for MF and Commercial properties. Experiences from leak detection and resolution in the SFR space will also be


    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    The April Muon Barrel Workshop marked the boundary between DT maintenance work and preparation for the LHC run. The thrust of the DT group was then directed, on one side, towards system safety and reliability, and, on the other side, towards enlarging the pool of experts and shifters. Analysis of the 2008 CRAFT data has provided details on the performance and a first set of calibration constants. Improvements to the safety system (both DSS and DCS) have been made: flow-meters inserted in the cooling system provide on-line information; an interlock signal is available from the gas racks; electronics racks have thermostats and fire detection systems; power to the mini-crates is cut when DCS communication is lost. Water leak detection cables were installed on the wheels: they provide an early warning before the HV trips and help in localizing the leak. On April 28, a short circuit in an opto-receiver board recently installed and cabled in USC caused a minor rack fire. This was satisfactorily mastered by the DS...

  10. Low-cost fiber optic hydrogen gas detector using guided-wave surface-plasmon resonance in chemochromic thin films (United States)

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Ed; Hishmeh, Gary A.; Ciszek, Paul E.; Lee, Se-Hee; Haberman, D. P.


    Low-cost, hydrogen-gas-leak detectors are needed for many hydrogen applications, such as hydrogen-fueled vehicles where several detectors may be required in different locations on each vehicle. A fiber-optic leak detector could be inherently safer than conventional detectors, because it would remove all detector electronics from the vicinity of potential leaks. It would also provide freedom from electromagnetic interference, a serious problem in fuel- cell-powered electric vehicles. This paper describes the design of a fiber-optic, surface-plasmon-resonance hydrogen detector, and efforts to make it more sensitive, selective, and durable. Chemochromic materials, such as tungsten oxide and certain Lanthanide hydrides, can reversibly react with hydrogen in air while exhibiting significant changes in their optical properties. Thin films of these materials applied to a sensor at the nd of an optical fiber have been used to detect low concentrations of hydrogen gas in air. The coatings include a thin silver layer in which the surface plasmon is generated, a thin film of the chemochromic materials, and a catalytic layer of palladium that facilitates the reaction with hydrogen. The film thickness is chosen to produce a guided-surface plasmon wave along the interface between the silver and the chemichromic material. A dichroic beam-splitter separates the reflected spectrum into a portion near the resonance and a portion away from the resonance, and directs these two portions to two separate photodiodes. The electronic ratio of these two signals cancels most of the fiber transmission noise and provides a stable hydrogen signal.

  11. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  12. Non-Pyrotechnic Zero-Leak Normally Closed Valve (United States)

    Gillespie, Rebecca


    This valve is designed to create a zero-leak seal in a liquid propulsion system that is a functional replacement for the normally closed pyrovalve. Unlike pyrovalves, Nitinol is actuated by simply heating the material to a certain temperature, called the transition temperature. Like a pyrovalve, before actuation, the upstream and downstream sections are separated from one another and from the external environment by closed welded seals. Also like pyrovalves, after actuation, the propellant or pressurant gas can flow without a significant pressure drop but are still separated from the external environment by a closed welded seal. During manufacture, a Nitinol bar is compressed to 93 percent of its original length and fitted tightly into the valve. During operation, the valve is heated until the Nitinol reaches the transition temperature of 95 C; the Nitinol "remembers" its previous longer shape with a very large recovery force causing it to expand and break the titanium parent metal seal to allow flow. Once open, the valve forever remains open. The first prototype valve was designed for high pressure [5,000 psi (=34.5 MPa)] and low flow, typical requirements for pressurant gas valves in liquid propulsion systems. It is possible to modify the dimensions to make low-pressure models or high-flow models, for use downstream of the propellant tanks. This design is simpler, lower risk, and less expensive than the pyrovalve. Although the valve must be in a thermally controlled state (kept below 80 C) to prevent premature actuation, the pyrovalves and electrically actuated initiators have far more taxing handling requirements.

  13. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson disease). (United States)

    Xie, Zhihui; Chan, Eunice C; Long, Lauren M; Nelson, Celeste; Druey, Kirk M


    Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a highly rare disorder of unknown cause. The disease is characterized by episodes of transient vascular collapse, which leads to hypotensive shock and anasarca. Previous treatment of this potentially devastating condition has been largely ineffective. We evaluated intravenous immunoglobulin prophylactic therapy in a cohort of 29 patients with systemic capillary leak syndrome in a longitudinal follow-up study. All patients received treatments at the discretion of their primary providers and retrospectively via questionnaire-recorded symptoms beginning with their first documented episode of systemic capillary leak syndrome to May 31, 2014. A total of 22 of 29 patients responded to the questionnaire, and 18 of the 22 respondents received monthly prophylaxis with intravenous immunoglobulin during the study period for a median interval of 32 months. The median annual attack frequency was 2.6 per patient before intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and 0 per patient after initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis (P = .0001). A total of 15 of 18 subjects with a history of 1 or more acute systemic capillary leak syndrome episodes experienced no further symptoms while taking intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis is associated with a dramatic reduction in the occurrence of systemic capillary leak syndrome attacks in most patients, with minimal side effects. A prospective, randomized trial may be necessary to fully assess the benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin for systemic capillary leak syndrome and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Time-dependent leak behavior of flawed Alloy 600 tube specimens at constant pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Harris, Charles [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)


    Leak rate testing has been performed using Alloy 600 tube specimens with throughwall flaws. Some specimens have shown time-dependent leak behavior at constant pressure conditions. Fractographic characterization was performed to identify the time-dependent crack growth mechanism. The fracture surface of the specimens showed the typical features of ductile fracture, as well as the distinct crystallographic facets, typical of fatigue crack growth at low {Delta}K level. Structural vibration appears to have been caused by the oscillation of pressure, induced by a high-pressure pump used in a test facility, and by the water jet/tube structure interaction. Analyses of the leak behaviors and crack growth indicated that both the high-pressure pump and the water jet could significantly contribute to fatigue crack growth. To determine whether the fatigue crack growth during the leak testing can occur solely by the water jet effect, leak rate tests at constant pressure without the high-pressure pump need to be performed. - Highlights: > Leak rate of flawed Alloy 600 tubing increased at constant pressure condition. > Fractography revealed two cases: ductile tearing and crystallographic facets. > Crystallographic facets are typical features of fatigue crack growth at low {Delta}K. > Fatigue source could be water jet-induced vibration and/or high-pressure pump pulsation.

  15. Crack growth of throughwall flaw in Alloy 600 tube during leak testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: [Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of leak testing was conducted at a constant pressure and room temperature. • The time-dependent increase in the leak rate was observed. • The fractography revealed slip offsets and crystallographic facets. • Time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip caused the slip offsets. • Fatigue by jet/structure interaction caused the crystallographic facets. - Abstract: We examined the issue of whether crack growth in a full thickness material can occur in a leaking crack. A series of leak tests was conducted at a room temperature and constant pressure (17.3 MPa) with Alloy 600 tube specimens containing a tight rectangular throughwall axial fatigue crack. To exclude a potential pulsation effect by a high pressure pump, the test water was pressurized by using high pressure nitrogen gas. Fractography showed that crack growth in the full thickness material can occur in the leaking crack by two mechanisms: time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip and fatigue induced by jet/structure interaction. The threshold leak rate at which the jet/structure interaction was triggered was between 1.3 and 3.3 L/min for the specific heat of the Alloy 600 tube tested.

  16. An Experimental Investigation of Leak Rate Performance of a Subscale Candidate Elastomer Docking Space Seal (United States)

    Garafolo, Nicholas G.; Daniels, Christopher C.


    A novel docking seal was developed for the main interface seal of NASA s Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This interface seal was designed to maintain acceptable leak rates while being exposed to the harsh environmental conditions of outer space. In this experimental evaluation, a candidate docking seal assembly called Engineering Development Unit (EDU58) was characterized and evaluated against the Constellation Project leak rate requirement. The EDU58 candidate seal assembly was manufactured from silicone elastomer S0383-70 vacuum molded in a metal retainer ring. Four seal designs were considered with unique characteristic heights. The leak rate performance was characterized through a mass point leak rate method by monitoring gas properties within an internal control volume. The leakage performance of the seals were described herein at representative docking temperatures of -50, +23, and +50 C for all four seal designs. Leak performance was also characterized at 100, 74, and 48 percent of full closure. For all conditions considered, the candidate seal assemblies met the Constellation Project leak rate requirement.

  17. Locating hazardous gas leaks in the atmosphere via modified genetic, MCMC and particle swarm optimization algorithms (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ru; Yan, Yuting; Dong, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jun Ming


    Hazardous gas leaks in the atmosphere can cause significant economic losses in addition to environmental hazards, such as fires and explosions. A three-stage hazardous gas leak source localization method was developed that uses movable and stationary gas concentration sensors. The method calculates a preliminary source inversion with a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) and has the potential to crossover with eliminated individuals from the population, following the selection of the best candidate. The method then determines a search zone using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, utilizing a partial evaluation strategy. The leak source is then accurately localized using a modified guaranteed convergence particle swarm optimization algorithm with several bad-performing individuals, following selection of the most successful individual with dynamic updates. The first two stages are based on data collected by motionless sensors, and the last stage is based on data from movable robots with sensors. The measurement error adaptability and the effect of the leak source location were analyzed. The test results showed that this three-stage localization process can localize a leak source within 1.0 m of the source for different leak source locations, with measurement error standard deviation smaller than 2.0.

  18. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred


    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  19. In-service leak testing of district heating systems using dissolved tracer gas. Final report; Betriebsbegleitende Lecksuche mit geloestem Tracergas in Fernwaermesystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergarten, A.; Althaus, W. [eds.


    The feasibility of in-service leak detection with dissolved tracer gas was investigated. Helium was selected as tracer gas because of its good diffusion characteristics, selective detectability at very low concentrations, inert and unproblematic behaviour within the district heating system, and good environmental compatibility. For a systematic investigation of the influencing parameters governing practical applications, a pipeline test field comprising about 240 m of KMR district heating pipelines and 61 controllable simulation leaks was constructed, and experiments using the new method were carried out. The required helium concentration amounts to a few grams of helium per cubic metre of district heating water. The water can be charged in the water preparation or feeding stage, and commercial detectors can be used. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Zur Entwicklung einer betriebsbegleitenden Lecksuchmethode fuer erdverlegte Rohrleitungen wurden in einem Feasbility-Test die Machbarkeit der Tracergassuche mittels geloestem Spuergas bestaetigt. Als Tracergas wurde Helium aufgrund seines guenstigen Diffusionsverhaltens, seiner selektiven Nachweisbarkeit bei kleinsten Konzentrationen, seines inerten, unproblematischen Verhaltens im Fernwaermenetz und seiner guten Umweltvertraeglichkeit ausgewaehlt. Zur systematischen Untersuchung der Einflussparameter bei der Anwendung der Methode unter praxisnahen Bedingungen wurde ein Rohrleitungsversuchsfeld mit ca. 240 m KMR-Fernwaermeleitung und 61 regelbaren Simulationsleckagen aufgebaut und die neue Lecksuchmethode eingehend experimentell getestet. Die einzustellende Heliumkonzentration im Fernwaermewasser ist mit wenigen Gramm Helium je Kubikmeter Fernwaermewasser gering. Eine Vorrichtung fuer die empfohlene Beladung des gesamten Netzwasserinhalts kann in Wasseraufbereitung oder Nachspeisung des Netzes eingebunden werden. Zur Detektion koennen, marktverfuegbare Messgeraete verwendet werden. (orig./GL)

  20. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Adrian


    Full Text Available Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS. The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  1. Understanding the Magnitude and Manifestation of Individual Natural Gas Leaks from the Urban and Suburban Distribution Infrastructure (United States)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Daube, C.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; von Fischer, J.; Gaylord, A.; Chamberlain, S.; Rudek, J.; Takahashi, T.; Hamburg, S.


    Natural gas leaks from the distribution infrastructure in urban and suburban areas are significant contributors to the urban methane budget. Understanding the magnitude of these emissions and how they manifest at ground level is critical to identifying, prioritizing, and mitigating them. Here we present results and analysis of field measurements of distribution leaks in the greater Boston area during Spring 2016. Initial surveys of urban and suburban neighborhoods using Google Street View Cars (GSV) outfitted with methane monitors provided a map of approximate leak location and magnitude. A sub-sample of these leaks were investigated by the miniature Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (minAML). Tracer release methods were used to quantify leak rates, short-term temporal variability, and identify leak locations. The manifestation of these leaks at ground level was also explored, revealing several common leak modes, such as manhole ventilation, joints in granite curbs, cracks in asphalt, and patches from previous repair attempts by the local natural gas provider. Several leaks were also mapped across cracks and joints in the road, demonstrating the large spatial extent and inhomogeneity of these underground leaks.

  2. Analysis of Pressure Data As CO2/Brine Leak Diagnostic in Shallow Aquifers (United States)

    Trainor Guitton, W.; Mansoor, K.; Sun, Y.; Carroll, S.


    Pressure is a promising signal for detecting CO2leakage from deep, geologic storage reservoirs to shallow groundwater sources. Pressure signals should faster than other physical indications (i.e. electrical or geochemical changes) thus allowing for a timely leak diagnosis and mitigation. We explore the effectiveness of pressure as a detection tool. A simulation-based approach is used to diagnose a CO2/brine leak using pressure data from monitoring wells and to assess the influence of 3 principal uncertainties: distances between the source leak and the monitoring well, heterogeneity of the aquifer flow properties, and CO2 and brine leakage rates. Specifically, five parameters are sampled: the correlation lengths of the vertical and horizontal permeability for the aquifer (2), the sand proportion for each model (1), and the CO2 and brine leakage flux magnitude (2). Areal model dimensions and grid cell dimensions allow for sampling distances of 25 m to 990 m from the leaking well to the monitoring well. We generate 500 simulations by sampling each parameter within an appropriate range predefined by site-specific values. Pressure transducers in monitoring wells will only be accurate at measuring changes on the order of 0.1 to 0.3 PSI. These pressure thresholds are used to establish which simulations are classified as leaks at the leaking location and which locations away from the leak would constitute a signal. We observe 3 conclusions from the results: vertical flow barriers (heterogeneity) creates complicated pressure signals by forcing convoluted flow paths false positives (Pr( No Leak | Signal)) do not occur with our sample simulations false negatives (Pr( Leak | No signal)) dominate after 200 days even when considering only potential monitoring wells within 100m of the leaking well. We use these posteriors to calculate the value of information (VOI) from above zone pressure data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by

  3. ATLAS muon detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Muon detectors from the outer layer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Over a million individual detectors combine to make up the outer layer of ATLAS. All of this is exclusively to track the muons, the only detectable particles to make it out so far from the collision point. How the muon’s path curves in the magnetic field depends on how fast it is travelling. A fast muon curves only a very little, a slower one curves a lot. Together with the calorimeters, the muon detectors play an essential role in deciding which collisions to store and which to ignore. Certain signals from muons are a sure sign of exciting discoveries. To make sure the data from these collisions is not lost, some of the muon detectors react very quickly and trigger the electronics to record. The other detectors take a little longer, but are much more precise. Their job is to measure exactly where the muons have passed, calculating the curvature of their tracks in the magnetic field to the nearest five hundredths of a ...

  4. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  5. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  6. The LHCb Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, H


    The LHCb collaboration presented a Letter of Intent (LOI) to the LHCC in March 2011 for a major upgrading of the detector during Long Shutdown 2 (2018) and intends to collect a data sample of 50/fb in the LHC and High-Luminosity-LHC eras. The aim is to operate the experiment at an instantaneous luminosity 2.5 times above the present operational luminosity, which has already been pushed to twice the design value. Reading out the detector at 40MHz allows to increase the trigger efficiencies especially for the hadronic decay modes. The physics case and the strategy for the upgrade have been endorsed by the LHCC. This paper presents briefly the physics motivations for the LHCb upgrade and the proposed changes to the detector and trigger.

  7. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M


    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  8. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A


    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  9. Refining Radchem Detectors: Iridium (United States)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Moody, W. A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Couture, A. J.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.


    Accurate determination of neutron fluence is an important diagnostic of nuclear device performance, whether the device is a commercial reactor, a critical assembly or an explosive device. One important method for neutron fluence determination, generally referred to as dosimetry, is based on exploiting various threshold reactions of elements such as iridium. It is possible to infer details about the integrated neutron energy spectrum to which the dosimetry sample or ``radiochemical detector'' was exposed by measuring specific activation products post-irradiation. The ability of radchem detectors like iridium to give accurate neutron fluence measurements is limited by the precision of the cross-sections in the production/destruction network (189Ir-193Ir). The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) located at LANSCE is ideal for refining neutron capture cross sections of iridium isotopes. Recent results from a measurement of neutron capture on 193-Ir are promising. Plans to measure other iridium isotopes are underway.

  10. JSATS Detector Field Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eric Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flory, Adam E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lamarche, Brian L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) Detector is a software and hardware system that captures JSATS Acoustic Micro Transmitter (AMT) signals. The system uses hydrophones to capture acoustic signals in the water. This analog signal is then amplified and processed by the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) board in the computer. This board digitizes and processes the acoustic signal to determine if a possible JSATS tag is present. With this detection, the data will be saved to the computer for further analysis. This document details the features and functionality of the JSATS Detector software. The document covers how to install the software, setup and run the detector software. The document will also go over the raw binary waveform file format and CSV files containing RMS values

  11. Do galaxies that leak ionizing photons have extreme outflows? (United States)

    Chisholm, J.; Orlitová, I.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.; Worseck, G.; Izotov, Y. I.; Thuan, T. X.; Guseva, N. G.


    Context. To reionize the early universe, high-energy photons must escape the galaxies that produce them. How these photons escape is debated because too many ionizing photons are absorbed even at small H i column densities. It has been suggested that stellar feedback drives galactic outflows out of star-forming regions, creating low density channels through which ionizing photons escape into the inter-galactic medium. Aims: We compare the galactic outflow properties of confirmed Lyman continuum (LyC) leaking galaxies to a control sample of nearby star-forming galaxies to explore whether the outflows from leakers are extreme as compared to the control sample. Methods: We use data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the equivalent widths and velocities of Si ii and Si iii absorption lines, tracing neutral and ionized galactic outflows. We explore whether the leakers have similar outflow properties to the control sample, and whether the outflows from the leakers follow similar scaling relations with host galaxy properties as the control sample. We rederive the escape fraction of ionizing photons for each leaker, and study whether the outflow properties influence the LyC escape fractions. Results: We find that the Si ii and Si iii equivalent widths of the LyC leakers reside on the low-end of the trend established by the control sample. The leakers' velocities are not statistically different than the control sample, but their absorption line profiles have a different asymmetry: their central velocities are closer to their maximum velocities. This possibly indicates a more rapidly accelerated outflow due to the compact size of the leakers. The outflow kinematics and equivalent widths are consistent with the scaling relations between outflow properties and host galaxy properties - most notably metallicity - defined by the control sample. Additionally, we use the Lyα profiles to show that the Si ii equivalent width scales with the

  12. Mobile Monitoring of Methane During and After the Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak (United States)

    Polidori, A.; Pikelnaya, O.; Low, J.; Wimmer, R.; Zhou, Q.


    The Aliso Canyon gas leak was discovered inside the SoCalGas (SCG) facility on October 23, 2015. This incident represented the worst natural gas leak in the US history, and spurred a number of odor nuisance complaints from local residents. The community of Porter Ranch, located directly south of the SCG Aliso Canyon facility, was the most affected by the leak although complaints have been also reported in other neighboring communities of the San Fernando Valley. Therefore, monitoring of air quality was and remains crucial for measuring the impact of methane emissions from this leak and assessing the well-being of all residents. As the main local air quality agency for this area, South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) organized a set of monitoring activities in response to the leak. Since December 21, 2015 SCAQMD has been conducting mobile survey measurements in and around Porter Ranch to characterize methane levels and concentration gradients within the community. For this purpose, a fast-response optical methane analyzer (LI-COR 7700) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) were mounted on top of a hybrid vehicle and driven around Porter Ranch and other surrounding areas. Following the permanent seal of the leaking well on February 18, 2016 mobile measurements have also been expanded to inside the Aliso Canyon SCG facility. During this presentation we will describe the experimental setup designed for mobile methane surveys and the monitoring strategy used for this study. We will discuss the main results of our mobile measurements including long-term methane trends since the end of the leak.

  13. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y


    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  14. Intelligent Detector Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne


    At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

  15. Semiconductor neutron detector (United States)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos, NM; Littlewood, Peter B [Cambridge, GB; Blagoev, Krastan B [Arlington, VA; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos, NM; Smith, James L [Los Alamos, NM; Sullivan, Clair J [Los Alamos, NM; Alexandrov, Boian S [Los Alamos, NM; Lashley, Jason Charles [Santa Fe, NM


    A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

  16. Edgeless silicon pad detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea Solano, B. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Abreu, M.C. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Avati, V. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Boccali, T. [INFN Sez. di Pisa and Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Boccone, V. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Bozzo, M. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Capra, R. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Casagrande, L. [INFN Sez. di Roma 2 and Universita di Roma 2, Rome (Italy); Chen, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Eggert, K. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Heijne, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klauke, S. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Li, Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Maeki, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Mirabito, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Morelli, A. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Niinikoski, T.O. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Oljemark, F. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Palmieri, V.G. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Rato Mendes, P. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Rodrigues, S. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Siegrist, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Silvestris, L. [INFN Sez. Di Bari, Bari (Italy); Sousa, P. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Tapprogge, S. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Trocme, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Villeurbanne (France)


    We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in 'edgeless' planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5{+-}8{sub stat.}.{+-}6{sub syst.}) {mu}m.

  17. Edgeless silicon pad detectors (United States)

    Perea Solano, B.; Abreu, M. C.; Avati, V.; Boccali, T.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Mirabito, L.; Morelli, A.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rodrigues, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silvestris, L.; Sousa, P.; Tapprogge, S.; Trocmé, B.


    We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in "edgeless" planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5±8 stat..±6 syst.) μm.

  18. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.


    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  19. Detecting subsurface fluid leaks in real-time using injection and production rates (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Huerta, Nicolas J.


    CO2 injection into geologic formations for either enhanced oil recovery or carbon storage introduces a risk for undesired fluid leakage into overlying groundwater or to the surface. Despite decades of subsurface CO2 production and injection, the technologies and methods for detecting CO2 leaks are still costly and prone to large uncertainties. This is especially true for pressure-based monitoring methods, which require the use of simplified geological and reservoir flow models to simulate the pressure behavior as well as background noise affecting pressure measurements. In this study, we propose a method to detect the time and volume of fluid leakage based on real-time measurements of well injection and production rates. The approach utilizes analogies between fluid flow and capacitance-resistance modeling. Unlike other leak detection methods (e.g. pressure-based), the proposed method does not require geological and reservoir flow models to simulate the behavior that often carry significant sources of uncertainty; therefore, with our approach the leak can be detected with greater certainty. The method can be applied to detect when a leak begins by tracking a departure in fluid production rate from the expected pattern. The method has been tuned to detect the effect of boundary conditions and fluid compressibility on leakage. To highlight the utility of this approach we use our method to detect leaks for two scenarios. The first scenario simulates a fluid leak from the storage formation into an above-zone monitoring interval. The second scenario simulates intra-reservoir migration between two compartments. We illustrate this method to detect fluid leakage in three different reservoirs with varying levels of geological and structural complexity. The proposed leakage detection method has three novelties: i) requires only readily-available data (injection and production rates), ii) accounts for fluid compressibility and boundary effects, and iii) in addition to

  20. Regulated tailored suction vs regulated seal: a prospective randomized trial on air leak duration. (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Salati, Michele; Pompili, Cecilia; Refai, Majed; Sabbatini, Armando


    The objective of this study was to compare the air leak duration of two regulated chest tube modes following pulmonary lobectomy. This is a prospective randomized trial on 100 consecutive pulmonary lobectomies (2010-11) performed for lung cancer. A single 24-French chest tube was connected to an electronic system capable of maintaining the pleural pressure within preset values (regulated suction mode) or within a physiological range (regulated seal mode). Patients were randomized to two groups: Group 1, regulated individualized suction (range: -11 to -20 cmH2O, according to lobectomy type); Group 2, regulated seal (-2 cmH2O). The main endpoint was the duration of air leak (h) calculated from the end of the operation to a value consistently below 20 ml/min. Patients with prolonged air leak (>168 h) were connected to a portable device before discharge. Their air leak duration was considered as 192 h. The sample size was calculated to detect 1-day difference in air leak duration with a statistical power of 80%. The two groups were well matched for several baseline and surgical characteristics. No crossovers occurred between groups. The average air leak duration (Group 1: 28 vs Group 2: 22.2, P = 0.6), and the number of patients with prolonged air leak (Group 1: 5 vs Group 2: 4, P = 0.7) and with other complications (Group 1: 6 patients vs Group 2: 7 patients, P = 0.9) were similar between the groups. Sixteen patients of Group 1 and 21 of Group 2 had an air leak present immediately after extubation. Among them, patients of Group 2 (regulated seal) had an air leak lasting 34.5 h less than those of Group 1 (regulated suction) (52.9 vs 87.4, P = 0.07). Regulated seal is as effective and safe as regulated suction in managing chest tubes following lobectomy. This information demonstrates with objective data the non-superiority of regulated suction vs regulated seal and may assist in future investigations on regulated pleural pressure.

  1. Leak-off mechanism and pressure prediction for shallow sediments in deepwater drilling (United States)

    Tan, Qiang; Deng, Jingen; Sun, Jin; Liu, Wei; Yu, Baohua


    Deepwater sediments are prone to loss circulation in drilling due to a low overburden gradient. How to predict the magnitude of leak-off pressure more accurately is an important issue in the protection of drilling safety and the reduction of drilling cost in deep water. Starting from the mechanical properties of a shallow formation and based on the basic theory of rock-soil mechanics, the stress distribution around a borehole was analyzed. It was found that the rock or soil on a borehole is in the plastic yield state before the effective tensile stress is generated, and the effective tangential and vertical stresses increase as the drilling fluid density increases; thus, tensile failure will not occur on the borehole wall. Based on the results of stress calculation, two mechanisms and leak-off pressure prediction models for shallow sediments in deepwater drilling were put forward, and the calculated values of these models were compared with the measured value of shallow leak-off pressure in actual drilling. The results show that the MHPS (minimum horizontal principle stress) model and the FIF (fracturing in formation) model can predict the lower and upper limits of leak-off pressure. The PLC (permeable lost circulation) model can comprehensively analyze the factors influencing permeable leakage and provide a theoretical basis for leak-off prevention and plugging in deepwater drilling.

  2. Least squares deconvolution for leak detection with a pseudo random binary sequence excitation (United States)

    Nguyen, Si Tran Nguyen; Gong, Jinzhe; Lambert, Martin F.; Zecchin, Aaron C.; Simpson, Angus R.


    Leak detection and localisation is critical for water distribution system pipelines. This paper examines the use of the time-domain impulse response function (IRF) for leak detection and localisation in a pressurised water pipeline with a pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) signal excitation. Compared to the conventional step wave generated using a single fast operation of a valve closure, a PRBS signal offers advantageous correlation properties, in that the signal has very low autocorrelation for lags different from zero and low cross correlation with other signals including noise and other interference. These properties result in a significant improvement in the IRF signal to noise ratio (SNR), leading to more accurate leak localisation. In this paper, the estimation of the system IRF is formulated as an optimisation problem in which the l2 norm of the IRF is minimised to suppress the impact of noise and interference sources. Both numerical and experimental data are used to verify the proposed technique. The resultant estimated IRF provides not only accurate leak location estimation, but also good sensitivity to small leak sizes due to the improved SNR.

  3. Soft Bandage Contact Lenses in Management of Early Bleb Leak Following Trabeculectomy. (United States)

    Wu, Zhenggen; Huang, Chukai; Huang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Wanqi; Ma, Di


    To investigate the efficacy of a soft bandage contact lens in the management of early bleb leak following trabeculectomy. Between October 2011 and April 2013, 11 patients with early bleb leak following fornix-based trabeculectomy were instructed to wear a soft bandage contact lens 14 mm in diameter continuously for 1-2 weeks. The daily visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber situation, and healing condition were measured at 1, 3, and 7 d, after con tact lens removal, and 3 months after trabeculectomy. The conditions of blebs, sensation of wearing contact lens, and adverse events were recorded. Bleb leaks were observed at 2-8 d after surgery, (4.09 ± 1.10 d on average). The daily LogMAR visual acuity did not significantly differ before and after contact lens wear (P > 0.05). The IOP was significantly raised after at 1, 3, and 7 d after lens wear (all P contact lens for another 7 d for full healing of the bleb leak. No ocular infection was noted throughout the management. A soft bandage contact lens of 14 mm diameter is a safe and efficacious therapy for an early bleb leak following fornix-based trabeculectomy.

  4. Staple Line Reinforcement Methods in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Comparison of Burst Pressures and Leaks. (United States)

    Timucin Aydin, M; Aras, Orhan; Karip, Bora; Memisoglu, Kemal


    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a technically simple and popular bariatric operation with acceptable results. However, leaks can occur in long staple lines, for which various reinforcement methods are used. We compared nonreinforced stapling in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with 3 staple line reinforcement methods: suturing, absorbable buttressing material, and fibrin glue. From March 1 until September 30, 2014, 118 patients with body mass index >40 kg/m(2) underwent sleeve gastrectomy and were enrolled in 4 groups, depending on the type of reinforcement used. The resected stomach specimens were treated with the same methods of reinforcement as used in the surgeries in the corresponding patients and then insufflated until a burst occurred. The burst pressures of the resected stomach specimens and adverse postoperative events were recorded. Five postoperative leaks occurred in the reinforcement groups (fibrin glue, 2; absorbable buttresses, 2; sutures, 1); no leaks were evident in the no-reinforcement group. Suturing afforded the highest burst pressure and took the longest to perform of the methods. There was no correlation between the leaks and burst pressures. All of the leaks occurred in the proximal fundus in the resected stomach specimens and in the affected patients. Although most surgeons use additional reinforcement on long staple lines in sleeve gastrectomy, there is no consensus about its necessity. We did not show any benefit of such reinforcement methods over proper stapling technique alone. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy without staple line reinforcement is safe and avoids additional costs for reinforcement materials.

  5. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  6. Endoscopic therapy for esophageal perforation or anastomotic leak with a self-expandable metallic stent. (United States)

    Leers, Jessica M; Vivaldi, Carlo; Schäfer, Hartmut; Bludau, Marc; Brabender, Jan; Lurje, Georg; Herbold, Till; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Metzger, Ralf


    Leaks of the esophagus are associated with a high mortality rate and need to be treated as soon as possible. Therapeutic options are surgical repair or resection or conservative management with cessation of oral intake and antibiotic therapy. We evaluated an alternative approach that uses self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS). Between 2002 and 2007, 31 consecutive patients with iatrogenic esophageal perforation (n = 9), intrathoracic anastomotic leak after esophagectomy (n = 16), spontaneous tumor perforation (n = 5), and esophageal ischemia (n = 1) were treated at our institution. All were treated with endoscopic placement of a covered SEMS. Stent removal was performed 4 to 6 weeks after implantation. To exclude continuous esophageal leak after SEMS placement, radiologic examination was performed after stent implantation and removal. SEMS placement was successful in all patients and a postinterventional esophagogram demonstrated full coverage of the leak in 29 patients (92%). In two patients, complete sealing could not be achieved and they were referred to surgical repair. Stent migration was seen in only one patient (3%). After removal, a second stent with larger diameter was placed and no further complication occurred. Two patients died: one due to myocardial infarction and one due to progressive ischemia of the esophagus and small bowl as a consequence of vascular occlusion. Stent removal was performed within 6 weeks, and all patients had radiologic and endoscopic evidence of esophageal healing. Implantation of covered SEMS in patients with esophageal leak or perforation is a safe and feasible alternative to operative treatment and can lower the interventional morbidity rate.

  7. Analysis of events related to cracks and leaks in the reactor coolant pressure boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Antonio, E-mail: [JRC-IET: Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Postbus 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sanda, Radian; Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [JRC-IET: Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Postbus 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Negri, Patrice [IRSN: Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (France); Wenke, Rainer [GRS: Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH (Germany)


    Highlights: • The important role of Operating Experience Feedback is emphasised. • Events relating to cracks and leaks in the reactor coolant pressure boundary are analysed. • A methodology for event investigation is described. • Some illustrative results of the analysis of events for specific components are presented. - Abstract: The presence of cracks and leaks in the reactor coolant pressure boundary may jeopardise the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Analysis of cracks and leaks related events is an important task for the prevention of their recurrence, which should be performed in the context of activities on Operating Experience Feedback. In response to this concern, the EU Clearinghouse operated by the JRC-IET supports and develops technical and scientific work to disseminate the lessons learned from past operating experience. In particular, concerning cracks and leaks, the studies carried out in collaboration with IRSN and GRS have allowed to identify the most sensitive areas to degradation in the plant primary system and to elaborate recommendations for upgrading the maintenance, ageing management and inspection programmes. An overview of the methodology used in the analysis of cracks and leaks related events is presented in this paper, together with the relevant results obtained in the study.

  8. Good versus Good Enough? Empirical tests of methane leak detection sensitivity of a commercial infrared camera. (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P; Wang, Jingfan; McGuire, Mike; Bell, Clay S; Zimmerle, Daniel; Brandt, Adam R


    Methane - a key component of natural gas - is a potent greenhouse gas. A key feature of recent methane mitigation policies is the use of periodic leak detection surveys, typically done with optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies. The most common OGI technology is an infrared camera. In this work, we experimentally develop detection probability curves for OGI-based methane leak detection under different environmental and imaging conditions. Controlled single blind leak detection tests show that the median detection limit (50% detection likelihood) for FLIR-camera based OGI technology is about 20 g CH4/h at an imaging distance of 6 m, an order of magnitude higher than previously reported estimates of 1.4 g CH4/h. Furthermore, we show that median and 90% detection likelihood limit follows a power-law relationship with imaging distance. Finally, we demonstrate that real-world marginal effectiveness of methane mitigation through periodic surveys approaches zero as leak detection sensitivity improves. For example, a median detection limit of 100 g CH4/h is sufficient to detect the maximum amount of leakage that is possible through periodic surveys. Policy makers should take note of these limits while designing equivalence metrics for next-generation leak detection technologies that can trade sensitivity for cost without affecting mitigation priorities.

  9. Leak Rate Quantification Method for Gas Pressure Seals with Controlled Pressure Differential (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Braun, Minel J.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.


    An enhancement to the pressure decay leak rate method with mass point analysis solved deficiencies in the standard method. By adding a control system, a constant gas pressure differential across the test article was maintained. As a result, the desired pressure condition was met at the onset of the test, and the mass leak rate and measurement uncertainty were computed in real-time. The data acquisition and control system were programmed to automatically stop when specified criteria were met. Typically, the test was stopped when a specified level of measurement uncertainty was attained. Using silicone O-ring test articles, the new method was compared with the standard method that permitted the downstream pressure to be non-constant atmospheric pressure. The two methods recorded comparable leak rates, but the new method recorded leak rates with significantly lower measurement uncertainty, statistical variance, and test duration. Utilizing this new method in leak rate quantification, projects will reduce cost and schedule, improve test results, and ease interpretation between data sets.

  10. Water Pipeline Monitoring and Leak Detection using Flow Liquid Meter Sensor (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Satria, I. S.; Siregar, B.; Budiarto, R.


    Water distribution is generally installed through underground pipes. Monitoring the underground water pipelines is more difficult than monitoring the water pipelines located on the ground in open space. This situation will cause a permanent loss if there is a disturbance in the pipeline such as leakage. Leaks in pipes can be caused by several factors, such as the pipe’s age, improper installation, and natural disasters. Therefore, a solution is required to detect and to determine the location of the damage when there is a leak. The detection of the leak location will use fluid mechanics and kinematics physics based on harness water flow rate data obtained using flow liquid meter sensor and Arduino UNO as a microcontroller. The results show that the proposed method is able to work stably to determine the location of the leak which has a maximum distance of 2 metres, and it’s able to determine the leak location as close as possible with flow rate about 10 litters per minute.

  11. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke


    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  12. Integrated Approaches for the Management of Staple Line Leaks following Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Montuori


    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of the study was trying to draw a final flow chart for the management of gastric leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, based on the review of our cases over 10 years’ experience. Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent LSG as a primary operation at the Bariatric Unit of Tor Vergata University Hospital in Rome from 2007 to 2015. Results. Patients included in the study were 418. There were 6 staple line leaks (1.44%. All patients with diagnosis of a leak were initially discharged home in good clinical conditions and then returned to A&E because of the complication. The mean interval between surgery and readmission for leak was 13,4 days (range 6–34 days, SD ± 11.85. We recorded one death (16.67% due to sepsis. The remaining five cases were successfully treated with a mean healing time of the gastric leak of 55,5 days (range 26–83 days; SD ± 25.44. Conclusion. Choosing the proper treatment depends on clinical stability and on the presence or not of collected abscess. Our treatment protocol showed being associated with low complication rate and minor discomfort to the patients, reducing the need for more invasive procedures.

  13. Photovoltaic radiation detector element (United States)

    Agouridis, D.C.


    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  14. Electromagnetic radiation detector (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.


    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci


    The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

  16. Performance of GLD detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the important physics processes to be studied in the international linear collider (ILC) experiment have multi-jets in the final state. In order to achieve better jet energy resolution, the so-called particle flow algorithm (PFA) will be employed and there is a general consensus that PFA derives overall ILC detector design.

  17. Directional gamma detector (United States)

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.


    An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

  18. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server


    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  19. Choosing a Motion Detector. (United States)

    Ballard, David M.


    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  20. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V


    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  1. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.


    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  2. The BABAR Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luth, Vera G


    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  3. Gaseous wire detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.


    This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations.

  4. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia



    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  5. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia


    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  6. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfold, James; The ATLAS collaboration


    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808/3546 filled/total LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept...

  7. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Soluk, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration


    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808 LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept stable at a perce...

  8. The CLIC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, D


    The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a meas- urement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t → W b will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit tim- ing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC ver- tex det...

  9. Venous Sinus Stenting in the Management of Patients with Intracranial Hypertension Manifesting with Skull Base Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks. (United States)

    Iyer, Rajiv R; Solomon, David; Moghekar, Abhay; Goodwin, C Rory; Stewart, C Matthew; Ishii, Masaru; Gailloud, Philippe; Gallia, Gary L


    A subset of patients with skull base cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are found to have elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). In these patients, elevated ICP is thought to contribute to both the pathophysiology of the leak and postoperative leak recurrences. Current strategies for postoperative ICP control include medical therapy and shunting procedures. The aim of this study is to report the use of venous sinus stenting (VSS) in the management of patients with skull base CSF leaks caused by elevated ICP. We performed a retrospective investigation of 2 patients who underwent surgical repair of skull base CSF leaks and were found to have elevated ICP associated with venous sinus stenosis and subsequently treated with VSS. Two patients underwent successful surgical repair of skull base CSF leaks with perioperative ICP monitoring via temporary lumbar catheters. Postoperative CSF pressure measurement demonstrated elevated ICP. Both patients were found to have venous sinus stenosis on further workup and subsequently underwent VSS for treatment of intracranial hypertension. Both patients had improvement in their symptoms with no evidence of recurrent CSF leak at follow-up. Patients with skull base CSF leaks of unknown etiology should undergo CSF pressure monitoring postoperatively and, if found to be elevated, be treated for intracranial hypertension. In patients unresponsive to, or intolerant of, medical therapy, VSS can provide an alternative option to medical and surgical shunting procedures for treatment of intracranial hypertension in patients with skull base CSF leaks and venous sinus stenosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki


    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  11. Successful outcome of sphincterotomy and 7 French pigtail stent insertion in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile leaks.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnellan, Fergal


    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is widely used to manage post-cholecystectomy bile leaks. However, the best endoscopic intervention remains controversial. We investigated the success of a 7 French double pigtail stent following sphincterotomy in the management of such bile leaks. METHODS: Between July 1998 and June 2008, 48 patients were referred for ERCP for presumed post-cholecystectomy bile leaks. Leaks were confirmed at ERCP and managed by a combination of sphincterotomy and stent insertion unless contraindicated. RESULTS: Bile duct cannulation was successful in 44 (91.7%) patients. A leak of the cystic duct was demonstrated in 19 (43.2%) patients, the duct of Luschka in 11 (25.0%), and the common hepatic duct in 5 (11.4%). Complete transection of the common bile duct occurred in 4 patients. The remaining patients had no cholangiographic evidence of a leak. Sphincterotomy was performed in 34 patients. A 7 French double pigtail plastic stent was placed in all 35 patients with cholangiographic evidence of a bile leak. No bile leaks were demonstrated at a follow-up of 8-16 weeks and all stents were removed successfully. CONCLUSION: The combination of sphincterotomy and insertion of a 7 French double pigtail stent results in excellent outcomes in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile leaks.

  12. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

  13. Lyman continuum leaking galaxies. Search strategies and local candidates (United States)

    Bergvall, N.; Leitet, E.; Zackrisson, E.; Marquart, T.


    Context. Star-forming dwarf galaxies may have played an important role in the reionization of the Universe, provided that some fraction of their ionizing radiation were able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Local galaxies exhibiting such Lyman-continuum (LyC) leakage could potentially shed light on the escape mechanisms involved, but only two low-redshift cases of LyC leakage have been identified so far. Here, we argue that this meager harvest may be caused by unsuitable selection criteria. Candidates for LyC leakage are normally selected by indicators of starburst activity, one of which is a high equivalent width in Hα. Such a criterion will guarantee a high production of LyC photons but will also bias the selection in favour of a high column density in the neutral gas, effectively ruling out LyC escape. Aims: In this work we want to investigate whether the lack of local LyC emitters can be caused in part by biased selection criteria, and we present a novel method of selecting targets with high escape fractions. By applying these criteria, we assemble a sample of observation targets to study their basic properties. Methods: We introduce a new selection strategy here where the potential LyC leakers are selected by their blue colours and weak emission lines. The selection is based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We also take a closer look at the properties of 8 LyC leaking candidates at z ~ 0.03 which we have observed with ESO/NTT in broadband B and Hα. Results: We find that 7 of the 8 target galaxies are involved in interaction with neighbours or show signs of mergers. In 7 cases the young stellar population is clearly displaced relative to the main body of these galaxies, often directly bordering the halo region. In about half of our targets the absorption spectra show young post-starburst signatures. Comparing the scale lengths in Hα with those of the stellar continua shows that the scale lengths in Hα typically are 30% smaller

  14. The status of BAT detector (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley


    We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.

  15. Radiation detectors laboratory; Laboratorio de detectores de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  16. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d' Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K


    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

  17. Characterizations of GEM detector prototype

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00522505; Rudra, Sharmili; Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T.K.; Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S.


    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  18. Characterisations of GEM detector prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Rajendra Nath [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Nanda, Amit [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Rudra, Sharmili [Department of Applied Physics, CU, 92, APC Road, Kolkata 700009, West Bengal (India); Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Biswas, S., E-mail: [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Mohanty, B. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Nayak, T.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, P.O.: Sainik School, Bhubaneswar 751005, Odisha (India)


    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  19. The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Christian Holm; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Sogaard, Carsten


    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4 < \\eta < 5.1$. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

  20. Real-time electronic monitoring of a pitted and leaking gas gathering pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Hewitt, P.G.


    Hydrogen patch, flush electrical resistance, and flush linear polarization proves wre used with flush coupons to monitor corrosion rates in a pitted and leaking sour gas gathering line. Four inhibitors were evaluated in stopping the leaks. Inhibitor residuals and the amount and ratio of water and condensate in the lines were measured at five locations along the line. The best inhibitor reduced reduced the pit-leak frequency by over a factor of 10. Inhibitor usage rate was optimized using the hydrogen patch current as a measure of the instantaneous corrosion rate. Improper pigging was identified as a cause of corrosion transients. This problem is discussed in relation to the pigging of pipelines in stratified flow where moving fluids are the carriers for continuously injected corrosion inhibitors.

  1. He leaks in the CERN LHC beam vacuum chambers operating at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V


    The 27 km long large hadron collider (LHC), currently under construction at CERN, will collide protons beam at 14 TeV in the centre of mass. In the 8 arcs, the superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles of the FODO cells operate with superfluid He at 1.9 K. In the 8 long straight sections, the cold bores of the superconducting magnets are held at 1.9 or 4.5 K. Thus, in the LHC, 75% of the beam tube vacuum chamber is cooled with He. In many areas of the machine, He leaks could appear in the beam tube. At cryogenic temperature, the gas condenses onto the cold bores or beam screens, and interacts with the circulating beam. He leaks creates a He front propagating along the vacuum chambers, which might cause magnet quench. We discuss the consequences of He leaks, the possible means of detections, the strategies to localise them and the methods to measure their size.

  2. A new method of leak location for the natural gas pipeline based on wavelet analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhao; Xiong, Zhuang; Shao, Min [Thermal Energy Research Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China)


    This paper analyzes the properties of wavelet transform and its potential application in detecting the leakage location of gas pipeline. An entity-part method, which is proposed for the accurate leaking point, has been proved valid in the stimulation experiment. In addition, method of Romberg and Dichotomy Searching are also adopted for the computational analysis of leaking point. In detail, the effect of gas velocity is taken into consideration in the location formula and we propose to consider the average velocities of two parts caused by the leaking point, respectively. Finally, we test these three methods in a real gas pipeline experiment and the result shows the improvement to some extent in contrast to the traditional approach. (author)

  3. Vigilados. WikiLeaks o las nuevas fronteras de la información


    Cano Orón, Lorena


    Vigilados. WikiLeaks o las nuevas fronteras de la información, es fruto del proyecto de Investigación I+D «El fenómeno WikiLeaks en España: un análisis semiótico y mediológico», con Jorge Lozano Hernández como investigador principal del grupo. No obstante, esta obra ha recogido la participación de múltiples autores que investigan sobre el fenómeno de WikiLeaks, sin pertenecer necesariamente al proyecto, que consiguen configurar una perspectiva holística del fenómeno. Además, también incorpora...

  4. Percutaneous Treatment of Intrahepatic Biliary Leak: A Modified Occlusion Balloon Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser, Felipe; Rocha, Rafael Dahmer, E-mail:; Falsarella, Priscila Mina; Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício da; Azevedo, André Arantes; Valle, Leonardo Guedes Moreira; Cavalcante, Rafael Noronha; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Affonso, Breno Boueri; Galastri, Francisco Leonardo [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Interventional Radiology (Brazil)


    PurposeTo report a novel modified occlusion balloon technique to treat biliary leaks.MethodsA 22-year-old female patient underwent liver transplantation with biliary-enteric anastomosis. She developed thrombosis of the common hepatic artery and extensive ischemia in the left hepatic lobe. Resection of segments II and III was performed and a biliary-cutaneous leak originating at the resection plane was identified in the early postoperative period. Initial treatment with percutaneous transhepatic drainage was unsuccessful. Therefore, an angioplasty balloon was coaxially inserted within the biliary drain and positioned close to the leak.ResultsThe fistula output abruptly decreased after the procedure and stopped on the 7th day. At the 3-week follow-up, cholangiography revealed complete resolution of the leakage.ConclusionThis novel modified occlusion balloon technique was effective and safe. However, greater experience and more cases are necessary to validate the technique.

  5. Non-intrusive measurement of tritium activity in waste drums by modelling a {sup 3}He leak quantified by mass spectrometry; Mesure non intrusive de l'activite de futs de dechets trities par modelisation d'une fuite {sup 3}He et sa quantification par spectrometrie de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D


    This study deals with a new method that makes it possible to measure very low tritium quantities inside radioactive waste drums. This indirect method is based on measuring the decaying product, {sup 3}He, and requires a study of its behaviour inside the drum. Our model considers {sup 3}He as totally free and its leak through the polymeric joint of the drum as two distinct phenomena: permeation and laminar flow. The numerical simulations show that a pseudo-stationary state takes place. Thus, the {sup 3}He leak corresponds to the tritium activity inside the drum but it appears, however, that the leak peaks when the atmospheric pressure variations induce an overpressure in the drum. Nevertheless, the confinement of a drum in a tight chamber makes it possible to quantify the {sup 3}He leak. This is a non-intrusive measurement of its activity, which was experimentally checked by using reduced models, representing the drum and its confinement chamber. The drum's confinement was optimised to obtain a reproducible {sup 3}He leak measurement. The gaseous samples taken from the chamber were purified using selective adsorption onto activated charcoals at 77 K to remove the tritium and pre-concentrate the {sup 3}He. The samples were measured using a leak detector mass spectrometer. The adaptation of the signal acquisition and the optimisation of the analysis parameters made it possible to reach the stability of the external calibrations using standard gases with a {sup 3}He detection limit of 0.05 ppb. Repeated confinement of the reference drums demonstrated the accuracy of this method. The uncertainty of this non-intrusive measurement of the tritium activity in 200-liter drums is 15% and the detection limit is about 1 GBq after a 24 h confinement. These results led to the definition of an automated tool able to systematically measure the tritium activity of all storage waste drums. (authors)

  6. Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B; Paik, T


    The optimum detector for a known signal in white Gaussian background noise is the matched filter, also known as a correlation detector [Van Trees, 1968]. Correlation detectors offer exquisite sensitivity (high probability of detection at a fixed false alarm rate), but require perfect knowledge of the signal. The sensitivity of correlation detectors is increased by the availability of multichannel data, something common in seismic applications due to the prevalence of three-component stations and arrays. When the signal is imperfectly known, an extension of the correlation detector, the subspace detector, may be able to capture much of the performance of a matched filter [Harris, 2006]. In order to apply a subspace detector, the signal to be detected must be known to lie in a signal subspace of dimension d {ge} 1, which is defined by a set of d linearly-independent basis waveforms. The basis is constructed to span the range of signals anticipated to be emitted by a source of interest. Correlation detectors operate by computing a running correlation coefficient between a template waveform (the signal to be detected) and the data from a window sliding continuously along a data stream. The template waveform and the continuous data stream may be multichannel, as would be true for a three-component seismic station or an array. In such cases, the appropriate correlation operation computes the individual correlations channel-for-channel and sums the result (Figure 1). Both the waveform matching that occurs when a target signal is present and the cross-channel stacking provide processing gain. For a three-component station processing gain occurs from matching the time-history of the signals and their polarization structure. The projection operation that is at the heart of the subspace detector can be expensive to compute if implemented in a straightforward manner, i.e. with direct-form convolutions. The purpose of this report is to indicate how the projection can be

  7. Inhaled nitric oxide pretreatment but not posttreatment attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced pulmonary microvascular leak. (United States)

    Chetham, P M; Sefton, W D; Bridges, J P; Stevens, T; McMurtry, I F


    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) pulmonary edema probably reflects a leukocyte-dependent, oxidant-mediated mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and I/R-induced microvascular leak. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists reverse and prevent I/R-induced microvascular leak, but reversal by inhaled NO (INO) has not been tested. In addition, the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation in the NO protection effect is unknown. Rat lungs perfused with salt solution were grouped as either I/R, I/R with INO (10 or 50 ppm) on reperfusion, or time control. Capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc) were estimated 25 min before ischemia (baseline) and after 30 and 75 min of reperfusion. Perfusate cell counts and lung homogenate myeloperoxidase activity were determined in selected groups. Additional groups were treated with either INO (50 ppm) or isoproterenol (ISO-10 microM) after 30 min of reperfusion. Guanylyl cyclase was inhibited with 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ-15 microM), and Kfc was estimated at baseline and after 30 min of reperfusion. (1) Inhaled NO attenuated I/R-induced increases in Kfc. (2) Cell counts were similar at baseline. After 75 min of reperfusion, lung neutrophil retention (myeloperoxidase activity) and decreased perfusate neutrophil counts were similar in all groups. (3) In contrast to ISO, INO did not reverse microvascular leak. (4) 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-br-cGMP) prevented I/R-induced microvascular leak in ODQ-treated lungs, but INO was no longer effective. Inhaled NO attenuates I/R-induced pulmonary microvascular leak, which requires sGC activation and may involve a mechanism independent of inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In addition, INO is ineffective in reversing I/R-induced microvascular leak.

  8. Estimation of Leak Flow Rate during Post-LOCA Using Cascaded Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, important parameters such as the break position, size, and leak flow rate of loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs), provide operators with essential information for recovering the cooling capability of the nuclear reactor core, for preventing the reactor core from melting down, and for managing severe accidents effectively. Leak flow rate should consist of break size, differential pressure, temperature, and so on (where differential pressure means difference between internal and external reactor vessel pressure). The leak flow rate is strongly dependent on the break size and the differential pressure, but the break size is not measured and the integrity of pressure sensors is not assured in severe circumstances. In this paper, a cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model is appropriately proposed to estimate the leak flow rate out of break, which has a direct impact on the important times (time approaching the core exit temperature that exceeds 1200 .deg. F, core uncover time, reactor vessel failure time, etc.). The CFNN is a data-based model, it requires data to develop and verify itself. Because few actual severe accident data exist, it is essential to obtain the data required in the proposed model using numerical simulations. In this study, a CFNN model was developed to predict the leak flow rate before proceeding to severe LOCAs. The simulations showed that the developed CFNN model accurately predicted the leak flow rate with less error than 0.5%. The CFNN model is much better than FNN model under the same conditions, such as the same fuzzy rules. At the result of comparison, the RMS errors of the CFNN model were reduced by approximately 82 ~ 97% of those of the FNN model.

  9. Spontaneous sphenoid lateral recess cerebrospinal fluid leaks arise from intracranial hypertension, not Sternberg's canal. (United States)

    Illing, Elisa; Schlosser, Rodney J; Palmer, James N; Curé, Joel; Fox, Nyssa; Woodworth, Bradford A


    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks/encephaloceles are proven to be associated with intracranial hypertension by objective measurements of CSF pressure during or following endoscopic repair. A common area of involvement is a pneumatized lateral recess of the sphenoid (LRS) sinus, where prolonged intracranial pressures lead to arachnoid pits and subsequent development of skull-base defects. Even though the LRS is never present at birth, a "congenital" cause of these leaks due to a persistent Sternberg's (lateral craniopharyngeal) canal continues to be erroneously perpetuated in the literature. The objective of this study was to eliminate the myths defining these leaks as congenital in nature. Evaluation of LRS CSF leaks present within a multiinstitutional case series was performed. Data regarding demographics, body mass index (BMI), radiologic evaluation of intracranial hypertension, and direct intracranial pressure measurements (when available) were collected. Data evaluation identified 77 LRS CSF leaks in 59 patients (mean age 52 years). Obesity was present in 83% of individuals (mean BMI 36) and 81% were females. Radiologic evidence of intracranial hypertension (eg, empty sella, dilated optic nerve sheaths, and scalloped/attenuated bone) was present on 96% of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Opening or postsurgical lumbar drain or ventriculostomy pressure measurements were elevated in 95% of patients (mean 27.7; range, 9-50 cmH2 O). This study provides objective evidence that LRS CSF leaks are secondary to erosions from intracranial hypertension and refutes the myth regarding a congenital origin from Sternberg's canal. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  10. Factors affecting bond cement across casing leak zones in oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Mohamed; Edbeib, Said [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering


    Casing leaks have been a major concern to the oil industry because of their effect on lowering the production rate in many oil and gas wells. The leaks are the result of deterioration of the casing in the well, which is caused by severe corrosion due to the contact of the casing with high salinity foreign fluid. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing the mechanical properties of the hardened cement opposite the casing leak zones. This study is conducted by laboratory measurements of the compressive strength of the hardened cement when the cement slurry was mixed with different percentages of formation water and different concentrations of different cement additives. The results of this study indicate that the compressive strength readings obtained from the cement bond log and the cement evaluation tool against the casing leak zones are lower than those readings recorded in adjacent formations. The low cement compressive strength values observed across casing leak zones are due to the contamination of the cement with saline water present in these formations which, in turn, effects the hardening properties of the cement. The experimental results indicated that the salinity of the formation water when mixed with the cement slurry in the presence of cement additives, decreased the compressive strength of the bond cement and also decreased the thickening time of the cement slurry. It is concluded that casing leaks found in many wells observed in oil fields in Libya were due to the mixing of the cement with high salinity formation water present in the lost circulation zones. The high water salinity in these zones effects the setting time of the cement slurry which, therefore, decreased the hardening properties of the bond cement and caused cracks and channels in the hardened cement across lost circulation zones. (author)

  11. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar


    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  12. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.


    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  13. Evaluation of methodologies for the calculation of leak rates for pressure retaining components with crack-like leaks; Bewertung von Methoden zur Berechnung von Leckraten fuer druckfuehrende Komponenten mit rissartigen Lecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Juergen; Heckmann, Klaus; Blaesius, Christoph


    For the demonstration of break preclusion for pressure retaining components in nuclear power plants, the nuclear safety standard KTA 3206 determines also the requirements for the leak-before-break verification. For this procedure, it has to be ensured that a wall-penetrating crack is subcritical with respect to instable growth, and that the resulting leakage under stationary operation conditions can be detected by a leak detection system. Within the scope of the project 3613R01332 analyses with respect to conservative estimates of the leak rates in case of detections regarding break preclusion were performed by means of leak rate models being available at GRS. For this purpose, conservative assumptions in the procedure were quantified by comparative calculations concerning selected leak rate experiments and the requirements regarding the determination of leak rates indicated in the KTA 3206 were verified and specified. Moreover, the models were extended and relevant recommendations for the calculation procedure were developed. During the investigations of leak rate tests the calculation methods were validated, qualified by means of both examples indicated in KTA 3206 and applied to a postulated leak accident in the cooling circuit of a PWR. For the calculation of leak rates several simplified solution methods which are included in the GRS program WinLeck were applied, and for the simulation of a leak accident the large-scale programs ANSYS Mechanical and ATHLET (thermohydraulics program developed by GRS) were used. When applying simplified methods for the calculation of leak rates using the limiting curve for the friction factor which has been derived during the project and which is included in the KTA 3206 attention has to be paid to the fact that in case of small flow lengths the entrance loss can dominate compared to the friction loss. However, the available data do not suffice in order to make a quantitative statement with respect to limits of applicability

  14. [A comparison of leak compensation in six acute care ventilators during non-invasive ventilation]. (United States)

    Hu, X S; Wang, Y; Wang, Z T; Yan, P; Zhang, X G; Zhao, S F; Xie, F; Gu, H J; Xie, L X


    Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0.098 kPa) at 4 air leak level conditions (L0: 2-3 L/min, L1: 8-10 L/min, L2: 22-27 L/min, L3: 35-40 L/min). Results: In the high elastance resistance condition (L2, L3)with different leak levels, the number of auto-triggering and miss-triggering of the non-invasive ventilator Flexo was significantly less than those of the others (L2: 1, 1; L3: 1.67, 1.33, P L2: 2.33, 2.33; L3: 3.33, 3.33, P L1 leak levels and PEEP levels [ARDS, PEEP=4: (109.8±1.8) ms, (112.0±0.6) ms; ARDS, PEEP=8: (103.1±0.7) ms, (109.7±0.7) ms; COPD, PEEP=4: (207.3±1.1) ms, (220.8±1.1) ms; COPD, PEEP=8: (195.6±6.7) ms, (200.0±1.2) ms , P <0.01]. Stellar150 had the shortest trigger delay time in high airway resistance condition with PEEP 4 cmH(2)O and high leak level L3[(262.8±0.8) ms , P <0.01]. V60 had a good performance on trigger delay time in high elastance resistance condition with PEEP 4 and 8 cmH(2)O, and also was most stable in increasing leak levels. Conclusion: In high airway resistance and high elastance resistance conditions with different PEEP levels and leak levels, V60, Stellar150, Flexo and BellaVista ventilators could be synchronized, among which V60, Stellar150 and Flexo presented a good performance features in specific conditions.

  15. Emergency management of heat exchanger leak on cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermia. (United States)

    Gukop, P; Tiezzi, A; Mattam, K; Sarsam, M


    Heat exchanger leak on cardiopulmonary bypass is very rare, but serious. The exact incidence is not known. It is an emergency associated with the potential risk of blood contamination, air embolism and haemolysis, difficulty with re-warming, acidosis, subsequent septic shock, multi-organ failure and death. We present a prompt, highly co-ordinated algorithm for the successful management of this important rare complication. There is need for further research to look for safety devices that detect leaks and techniques to reduce bacterial load. It is essential that teams practice oxygenator change-out routines and have a well-established change-out protocol. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye


    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  17. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan


    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  18. Semiconductor radiation detector (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold


    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.


    CERN Multimedia


    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  20. The LUCID detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasagni Manghi, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration


    Starting from 2015 LHC will perform a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely renewed, both on detector design and in the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics is presented, featuring a new read-out board (LUCROD), for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and the revisited LUMAT board for side A–side C combination. The contribution covers the new boards design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  1. Noble gas detectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aprile, Elena


    ... that is reflected in the high-quality discussions of principles and devices that will be found throughout the book. Noble gases in compressed or liquid form are regarded as an attractive detection medium from several standpoints. Detector volume is not limited by the need for crystal growth required in many alternative approaches, and the statistical limit on energy resolution is quite small due to moderate values for average ionization energy and a relatively low Fano factor. These media ...

  2. Borehole Muon Detector Development (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.


    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  3. The Upgraded DØ detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš; Šimák, Vladislav


    Roč. 565, - (2006), s. 463-537 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA210; GA MŠk 1P05LA257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Fermilab * DZero * DØ * detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2006

  4. LEAR Crystal Barrel Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, K.; Keh, S.; Montanet, L.; Zoll, J.; Beckmann, R.; Friedrich, J.; Heinsius, H.; Kiel, T.; Lewendel, B.; Pegel, C.; and others


    The features of the Crystal Barrel Detector which is in preparation for LEAR at CERN, are discussed. The physics aims include q-barq- and exotics-spectroscopy and a detailed investigation of yet unknown p-barp-anihilation channels. An eventual later use on the PSI-B-Meson-Factory is discussed. The paper finishes with a description of the present status of the project.

  5. ALICE detector upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Peitzmann, Thomas


    The LHC with its unprecedented energy offers unique opportunities for groundbreaking measurements in p+p, p+A and A+A collisions even beyond the baseline experimental designs. ALICE is setting up a program of detector upgrades, which could to a large extent be installed in the LHC shutdown planned for 2017/18, to address the new scientific challenges. We will discuss examples of the scientific frontiers and will present the corresponding upgrade projects under study for the ALICE experiment.

  6. The LHCb detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H., E-mail:


    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, with its installation scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will transform the data acquisition and processing architecture to a triggerless readout at 40 MHz with subsequent software-based event selection in a CPU farm. In this contribution, an overview of the detector technology options under consideration and the associated challenges is given and selected highlights of the ongoing R and D programme are presented.

  7. Biological detector and method (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  8. LHCb velo detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    Photo 01 : L. to r.: D. Malinon, Summer Student, J. Libby, Fellow, J. Harvey, Head of CERN LHCb group, D. Schlatter, Head of the EP Division in front of the LHCb velo detector test beam (on the right). Photo 02 : L. to r.: J. Harvey, D. Schlatter, W. Riegler (staff), H.J. Hilke, LHCb Technical Coordinator in front of the muon chamber test beam

  9. The LHCb detector upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, H


    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, with its installation scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will transform the data acquisition and processing architecture to a triggerless readout at 40 MHz with subsequent software-based event selection in a CPU farm. In this contribution, an overview of the detector technology options under consideration and the associated challenges is given and selected highlights of the ongoing R&D programme are presented

  10. The ALEPH detector

    CERN Multimedia


    For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's largest. In the foreground from the left, Jacques Lefrancois, Jack Steinberger, Lorenzo Foa and Pierre Lazeyras. ALEPH was an experiment on the LEP accelerator, which studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

  11. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llope, W.J., E-mail: [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hoffmann, G.W. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Asselta, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brandenburg, J.D.; Butterworth, J. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Camarda, T.; Christie, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dong, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Engelage, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eppley, G.; Geurts, F. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hammond, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Judd, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McDonald, D.L. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Perkins, C. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others


    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event “start time” needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ∼100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ∼1 cm.

  12. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Document Server


    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 experiment ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron and made the Nobel Prize winning discovery of W and Z particles in 1983. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was essentially a wire chamber - a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6...

  13. The MAC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaby, J.V.; Ash, W.W.; Band, H.R.; Baksay, L.A.; Blume, H.T.; Bosman, M.; Camporesi, T.; Chadwick, G.B.; Clearwater, S.H.; Coombes, R.W.; Delfino, M.C.; De Sangro, R.; Faissler, W.L.; Fernandez, E.; Ford, W.T.; Gettner, M.W.; Goderre, G.P.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Y.; Gottschalk, B.; Groom, D.E.; Heltsley, B.K.; Hurst, R.B.; Johnson, J.R.; Kaye, H.S.; Lau, K.H.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, H.Y.; Leedy, R.E.; Leung, S.P.; Lippi, I.; Loh, E.C.; Lynch, H.L.; Marini, A.; Marsh, J.S.; Maruyama, T.; Messner, R.L.; Meyer, O.A.; Michaloswki, S.J.; Morcos, S.; Moromisato, J.H.; Morse, R.M.; Moss, L.J.; Muller, F.; Nelson, H.N.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Prepost, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Qi, N.; Read, A.L. Jr.; Rich, K.; Ritson, D.M.; Ronga, F.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Shambroom, W.D.; Sleeman, J.C.; Smith, J.G.; Venuti, J.P.; Verdini, P.G.; Goeler, E. von; Wald, H.B.; Weinstein, R.; Wiser, D.E.; Zdarko, R.W. (Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab.


    The MAC detector at PEP recorded data for an integrated luminosity of 335 pb{sup -1} between 1980 and 1986. The design of this low-cost MAgnetic Calorimeter was optimized for electron and muon identification, as well as for the measurement of hadronic energy flow. Muon identification is available over 96% of the solid angle, and MAC was the first detector to make large-scale use of gas-sampling calorimetry. Electromagnetic calorimetry in the central selection employs alternating layers of lead and proportional wire chambers (PWCs), and hadron and the remaining electromagnetic calorimetry is accomplished with iron plate and PWC layers. A relatively small central drift chamber in an axial magnetic field provides pattern recognition and modest momentum determination. An outer blanket of drift tubes completes the muon identification system. During the latter two years of operation an innovative 'soda straw' vertex chamber made more precise lifetime measurements possible. With an evolving trigger system and highly automated data acquisition system, this modest detector has exceeded most of its designers' expectations and has produced a gratifying spectrum of physics results. (orig.).


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci


    RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci


    During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

  16. Nanowire-based detector (United States)

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele


    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.


    CERN Multimedia

    Giuseppe Iaselli

    Major interventions have been completed on the plus-side endcap. Two faulty chambers have been replaced, the gas circuit for six sectors has been modified from serial to parallel, the leaking cooling circuits have been fixed, and a few high voltage connectors have been replaced. The minus-side endcap has been fully commissioned and the link board electronics put into operation. A preliminary attempt to synchronize the minus endcap has also been attempted during the global run data taking. Some additional improvement of the grounding connections has been done on the W+2/W-2 barrel wheels. A preliminary observation of the monitoring data shows this has had a positive effect on the noise level. Significant improvement in our understanding of the CCR ring instabilities has been achieved. Additional filters will be installed on the cables to protect against noise pick-up. The implementation of the TTU technical trigger was completed and the system was debugged. The TTU now has to be integrated into the overal...


    CERN Multimedia

    Jay Hauser


    Great progress has been made on the CSC improvement projects during LS1, the construction of the new ME4/2 muon station, and the refurbishing of the electronics in the high-rate inner ME1/1 muon station. CSC participated successfully in the Global Run in November (GRiN) cosmic ray test, but with just stations +2 and +3, due to the large amount of work going on. The test suite used for commissioning chambers is more comprehensive than the previous tests, and should lead to smoother running in the future. The chamber factory at Prevessin’s building 904 has just finished assembling all the new ME4/2 chambers, which number 67 to be installed plus five spares, and is now finishing up the long-term HV training and testing of the last chambers. At Point 5, installation of the new chambers on the positive endcap went well, and they are now all working well. Gas leak rates are very low. Services are in good shape, except for the HV system, which will be installed during the coming month. We will then be w...

  19. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.


    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of

  20. Postoperative Biliary Leak Treated with Chemical Bile Duct Ablation Using Absolute Ethanol: A Report of Two Cases. (United States)

    Sasaki, Maho; Hori, Tomohide; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Ito, Tatsuo; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichi; Kitano, Taku; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro


    BACKGROUND Postoperative bile duct leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery can be intractable, and the postoperative course can be prolonged. However, if the site of the leak is in the distal bile duct in the main biliary tract, the therapeutic options may be limited. Injection of absolute ethanol into the bile duct requires correct identification of the bile duct, and balloon occlusion is useful to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak. CASE REPORT Two cases of non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak are presented; one case following pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure), and one case following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both cases were successfully managed by chemical bile duct ablation with absolute ethanol. In the first case, the biliary leak occurred from a fistula of the right posterior biliary tract following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Cannulation of the leaking bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a percutaneous route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. In the second case, perforation of the bile duct branch draining hepatic segment V occurred following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cannulation of the bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a transhepatic route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. CONCLUSIONS Chemical ablation of the bile duct using absolute ethanol is an effective treatment for biliary leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula. Identification of the bile duct leak is required before ethanol injection to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues.

  1. Leak Rate Performance of Silicone Elastomer O-Rings Contaminated with JSC-1A Lunar Regolith Simulant (United States)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.


    Contamination of spacecraft components with planetary and foreign object debris is a growing concern. Face seals separating the spacecraft cabin from the debris filled environment are particularly susceptible; if the seal becomes contaminated there is potential for decreased performance, mission failure, or catastrophe. In this study, silicone elastomer O-rings were contaminated with JSC- 1A lunar regolith and their leak rate performance was evaluated. The leak rate values of contaminated O-rings at four levels of seal compression were compared to those of as-received, uncontaminated, O-rings. The results showed a drastic increase in leak rate after contamination. JSC-1A contaminated O-rings lead to immeasurably high leak rate values for all levels of compression except complete closure. Additionally, a mechanical method of simulant removal was examined. In general, this method returned the leak rate to as-received values.

  2. Geomechanical analysis to predict the oil leak at the wellbores in Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon


    Oil leaks were found in wellbores of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interbed between the caprock bottom and salt top. A three dimensional finite element model, which contains wellbore element blocks and allows each cavern to be configured individually, is constructed to investigate the wellbore damage mechanism. The model also contains element blocks to represent interface between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interbed behavior in a realistic manner. The causes of the damaged casing segments are a result of vertical and horizontal movements of the interbed between the caprock and salt dome. The salt top subsides because the volume of caverns below the salt top decrease with time due to salt creep closure, while the caprock subsides at a slower rate because the caprock is thick and stiffer. This discrepancy yields a deformation of the well. The deformed wellbore may fail at some time. An oil leak occurs when the wellbore fails. A possible oil leak date of each well is determined using the equivalent plastic strain failure criterion. A well grading system for a remediation plan is developed based on the predicted leak dates of each wellbore.

  3. Emergency membrane contactor based absorption system for ammonia leaks in water treatment plants. (United States)

    Shao, Jiahui; Fang, Xuliang; He, Yiliang; Jin, Qiang


    Abstract Because of the suspected health risks of trihalomethanes (THMs), more and more water treatment plants have replaced traditional chlorine disinfection process with chloramines but often without the proper absorption system installed in the case of ammonia leaks in the storage room. A pilot plant membrane absorption system was developed and installed in a water treatment plant for this purpose. Experimentally determined contact angle, surface tension, and corrosion tests indicated that the sulfuric acid was the proper choice as the absorbent for leaking ammonia using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor. Effects of several operating conditions on the mass transfer coefficient, ammonia absorption, and removal efficiency were examined, including the liquid concentration, liquid velocity, and feed gas concentration. Under the operation conditions investigated, the gas absorption efficiency over 99.9% was achieved. This indicated that the designed pilot plant membrane absorption system was effective to absorb the leaking ammonia in the model storage room. The removal rate of the ammonia in the model storage room was also experimentally and theoretically found to be primarily determined by the ammonia suction flow rate from the ammonia storage room to the membrane contactor. The ammonia removal rate of 99.9% was expected to be achieved within 1.3 h at the ammonia gas flow rate of 500 m3/h. The success of the pilot plant membrane absorption system developed in this study illustrated the potential of this technology for ammonia leaks in water treatment plant, also paved the way towards a larger scale application.

  4. Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Supporting Documentation: Miscellaneous Reports, Letters, Memoranda, And Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeman, J. K.; Girardot, C. L.; Harlow, D. G.; Rosenkrance, C. L.


    This report contains reference materials cited in RPP-ASMT -53793, Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Report, that were obtained from the National Archives Federal Records Repository in Seattle, Washington, or from other sources including the Hanford Site's Integrated Data Management System database (IDMS).

  5. Treatment of intraoperative nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak of patients with hormone active pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yu Grigoriev


    Full Text Available Intraoperative nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak are common during the transnasal transsphenoidal interven tions. In certain cases, it is a feature of these interventions. However, its amplification needs a mandatory treatment. In this article, we describe the technique for closure dural defects that have developed during the transnasal removal of hormone active pituitary adenomas, using thrombin and fibrinogen containing colla genic sponge.

  6. Posttraumatic lumbar cerebrospinal fluid leak: detection by retrograde In-111-DTPA myeloscintography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, P.M.; Siegel, M.E.


    A case of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extravasation with an unsuspected traumatic meningocele after a gunshot wound was detected by means of retrograde myeloscintography using isobaric In-111-DTPA. Our experience and a review of the literature have provided evidence retrograde myeloscintography may be useful for detecting and delineating significant traumatic thoracic and lumbar CSF leaks.

  7. Instrument, in particular leak indicator, for the detection of a gas in a gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, R.


    Leak indicator to determine the presence of an electronegative gas such as sulphur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) in a mixture with another gas, especially air, with a space containing the mixture and a high-frequency discharge column without electrodes as well as a voltmeter at this discharge column.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1023 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks. (United States)


    ... pursuant to § 63.1030(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500... this section, the instrument readings may be adjusted by multiplying by the representative response... concentration no more than 2,000 parts per million greater than the leak definition concentration of the...

  9. Attacks by “Anonymous‿ WikiLeaks Proponents not Anonymous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko; Sperotto, Anna; Moreira Moura, Giovane; Drago, Idilio; Barbosa, R.R.R.; Sadre, R.; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Hofstede, R.J.; Hofstede, Rick


    On November 28, 2010, the world started watching the whistle blower website WikiLeaks to begin publishing part of the 250,000 US Embassy Diplomatic cables. These confidential cables provide an insight on U.S. international affairs from 274 different embassies, covering topics such as analysis of

  10. Development of a low cost unmanned aircraft system for atmospheric carbon dioxide leak detection (United States)

    Mitchell, Taylor Austin

    Carbon sequestration, the storage of carbon dioxide gas underground, has the potential to reduce global warming by removing a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. These storage sites, however, must first be monitored to detect if carbon dioxide is leaking back out to the atmosphere. As an alternative to traditional large ground-based sensor networks to monitor CO2 levels for leaks, unmanned aircraft offer the potential to perform in-situ atmospheric leak detection over large areas for a fraction of the cost. This project developed a proof-of-concept sensor system to map relative carbon dioxide levels to detect potential leaks. The sensor system included a Sensair K-30 FR CO2 sensor, GPS, and altimeter connected an Arduino microcontroller which logged data to an onboard SD card. Ground tests were performed to verify and calibrate the system including wind tunnel tests to determine the optimal configuration of the system for the quickest response time (4-8 seconds based upon flowrate). Tests were then conducted over a controlled release of CO 2 in addition to over controlled rangeland fires which released carbon dioxide over a large area as would be expected from a carbon sequestration source. 3D maps of carbon dioxide were developed from the system telemetry that clearly illustrated increased CO2 levels from the fires. These tests demonstrated the system's ability to detect increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.

  11. Leak detection in gas pipeline by acoustic and signal processing - A review (United States)

    Adnan, N. F.; Ghazali, M. F.; Amin, M. M.; Hamat, A. M. A.


    The pipeline system is the most important part in media transport in order to deliver fluid to another station. The weak maintenance and poor safety will contribute to financial losses in term of fluid waste and environmental impacts. There are many classifications of techniques to make it easier to show their specific method and application. This paper's discussion about gas leak detection in pipeline system using acoustic method will be presented in this paper. The wave propagation in the pipeline is a key parameter in acoustic method when the leak occurs and the pressure balance of the pipe will generated by the friction between wall in the pipe. The signal processing is used to decompose the raw signal and show in time- frequency. Findings based on the acoustic method can be used for comparative study in the future. Acoustic signal and HHT is the best method to detect leak in gas pipelines. More experiments and simulation need to be carried out to get the fast result of leaking and estimation of their location.

  12. Conduit Vascular Evaluation is Associated with Reduction in Anastomotic Leak After Esophagectomy. (United States)

    Campbell, Chase; Reames, Mark K; Robinson, Myra; Symanowski, James; Salo, Jonathan C


    Anastomotic leak following esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A major factor determining anastomotic success is an adequate blood supply to the conduit. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of intraoperative evaluation of the conduit's vascular supply on anastomotic failure after esophagectomy. We retrospectively analyzed data from 90 consecutive patients undergoing esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction. A change in surgical practice occurred after 60 cases were completed, when we introduced the use of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography and Doppler examination to evaluate blood supply and assist in construction of the conduit. The leak rates before and after implementation of conduit vascular evaluation were compared. After the introduction of intraoperative vascular evaluation of the gastric conduit, we noted a dramatic decrease in the rate of anastomotic leak from 20 % in the first 60 patients to 0 % in the succeeding 30 patients. Intraoperative vascular evaluation with indocyanine green fluorescence imaging and Doppler examination of the gastric conduit used to assist reconstruction after esophagectomy allows for enhanced construction of the conduit that maximizes blood supply to the anastomosis. This change in practice was associated with a significant reduction in anastomotic leak rate.

  13. Management of primary-to-secondary leaks at Loviisa nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnsen, B.; Jaenkaelae, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)


    The Loviisa Nuclear power plant consisting of two VVER-440 type press water reactor units has been in commercial operation since the late 1970`s. Specific features for VVER-440 reactors are six primary loops with horizontal steam generators and main gate valves. The structure of the horizontal steam generators construction may cause a large primary to secondary leak in case of a break in the cover of the primary collector. An accident where two primary collector covers opened totally and two covers opened partly took place in Rovno, Ukraine January 1982. Primary to secondary leaks are one of the main contributors to the core melt frequency in VVER reactors according to the Loviisa 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The high core damage contribution has set requirements for the development of effective means to cope with all sizes of primary to secondary leaks in the steam generator. A concept for all leak sizes has been developed for Loviisa 1 and 2. The solution includes four main areas which are a new steam generator leakage monitoring system based on nitrogen-16 measurement, an upgraded pressurizer spray system, an increased emergency cooling water reserve and an automated isolation of the defected steam generator.

  14. Optimal sensor placement for leak location in water distribution networks using genetic algorithms. (United States)

    Casillas, Myrna V; Puig, Vicenç; Garza-Castañón, Luis E; Rosich, Albert


    This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs). The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the large size and non-linear integer nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GAs) are used as the solution approach. The obtained results are compared with a semi-exhaustive search method with higher computational effort, proving that GA allows one to find near-optimal solutions with less computational load. Moreover, three ways of increasing the robustness of the GA-based sensor placement method have been proposed using a time horizon analysis, a distance-based scoring and considering different leaks sizes. A great advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not depend on the isolation method chosen by the user, as long as it is based on leak sensitivity analysis. Experiments in two networks allow us to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.

  15. A Rare Case of Spontaneous Pneumocephalus Associated with Nontraumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Baba


    Full Text Available Introduction. Spontaneous nontraumatic pneumocephalus (PNC and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leaks are both very uncommon conditions. We report a rare case of spontaneous pneumocephalus associated with CSF leak secondary to right sphenoid sinus bony defect without history of trauma. Case Description. 51-year-old Hispanic female with past medical history of hypertension and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri presented to the emergency room complaining of headache and clear discharge from the right nostril. Physical examination was significant for right frontal sinus tenderness and clear discharge from right nostril. Computed Tomography (CT scan of the brain showed moderate amount of extra-axial air within the right cerebral hemisphere indicative of pneumocephalus. CT scan of facial bones showed bony defect along the right sphenoid sinus with abnormal CSF collection. The patient was started on intravenous antibiotics for meningitis prophylaxis and subsequently underwent transsphenoidal repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak with abdominal fat graft. CSF rhinorrhea stopped completely after the surgery with near complete resolution of pneumocephalus before discharge. Conclusions. Early identification of pneumocephalus and surgical intervention can help decrease the morbidity and avoid possible complications. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, although rare, can lead to CSF leak and pneumocepahlus.



    water treatment costs. These conditions are typically associated with energy intensive water treatment processes . For example, at...overall water loss. Reduction in water loss equates to energy savings both in reduced pumping and water treatment . Leak detection technologies that... Processes to Treat the Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) Reject Stream for the Proposed Fort Irwin Water Treatment Plant. U.S. Army Engineer

  17. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo


    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  18. Integrated hydrodynamic analysis of fluid pressure and leak-off pressure distributions to evaluate seal effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.


    Hydrodynamic methods are used to analyse the present-day fluid overpressure and leak-off pressure distributions in offshore Netherlands in combination with recently completed stratigraphic and structural maps, and knowledge on distribution and characteristics of oil and gas accumulations. This paper

  19. Method and system for capturing hydrocarbons from a leaking oilwell at a predetermined seabed location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nauta Lemke, A.H.A.; Willemse, C.A.


    Method and system for capturing hydrocarbons from a leaking oilwell at a predetermined seabed location, in which the steps are applied of: a. deploying a dome near the predetermined seabed location; b. moving the dome to the predetermined seabed location; c. capturing the hydrocarbons from the

  20. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube based sensors for distributed methane leak detection (United States)

    This paper presents a highly sensitive, energy efficient and low-cost distributed methane (CH4) sensor system (DMSS) for continuous monitoring, detection and localization of CH4 leaks in natural gas infrastructure such as transmission and distribution pipelines, wells, and produc...

  1. A sodium leak current regulates pacemaker activity of adult central pattern generator neurons in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Z Lu

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential of the pacemaker neurons is one of the essential mechanisms underlying rhythm generation. In this study, we described the biophysical properties of an uncharacterized channel (U-type channel and investigated the role of the channel in the rhythmic activity of a respiratory pacemaker neuron and the respiratory behaviour in adult freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Our results show that the channel conducts an inward leak current carried by Na(+ (I(Leak-Na. The I(Leak-Na contributed to the resting membrane potential and was required for maintaining rhythmic action potential bursting activity of the identified pacemaker RPeD1 neurons. Partial knockdown of the U-type channel suppressed the aerial respiratory behaviour of the adult snail in vivo. These findings identified the Na(+ leak conductance via the U-type channel, likely a NALCN-like channel, as one of the fundamental mechanisms regulating rhythm activity of pacemaker neurons and respiratory behaviour in adult animals.

  2. SmartPipes: Smart Wireless Sensor Networks for Leak Detection in Water Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Sadeghioon


    Full Text Available Asset monitoring, specifically infrastructure monitoring such as water distribution pipelines, is becoming increasingly critical for utility owners who face new challenges due to an aging network. In the UK alone, during the period of 2009–2010, approximately 3281 mega litres (106 of water were wasted due to failure or leaks in water pipelines. Various techniques can be used for the monitoring of water distribution networks. This paper presents the design, development and testing of a smart wireless sensor network for leak detection in water pipelines, based on the measurement of relative indirect pressure changes in plastic pipes. Power consumption of the sensor nodes is minimised to 2.2 mW based on one measurement every 6 h in order to prolong the lifetime of the network and increase the sensor nodes’ compatibility with current levels of power available by energy harvesting methods and long life batteries. A novel pressure sensing method is investigated for its performance and capabilities by both laboratory and field trials. The sensors were capable of measuring pressure changes due to leaks. These pressure profiles can also be used to locate the leaks.

  3. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines (United States)


    ... safety study on pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems (NTSB/SS-05/02). The... indications of a leak on the SCADA interface was the impetus for this study. The NTSB examined 13 hazardous... large pipeline breaks. The line balance processes incorporating SCADA or other technology are geared to...

  4. 75 FR 78557 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Amendments to the Section 608 Leak Repair Requirements (United States)


    ... Verification Tests Current leak repair requirements at Sec. 82.156 mandate the validation of repairs by both an... verification tests. These methods are not meant to be all-inclusive, but are intended to provide examples of...-123, HCFC-22) by requiring the following: Verification and documentation of all repairs, retrofit or...

  5. The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)

    CERN Multimedia

    Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P


    % DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

  6. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh


    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  7. Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekoszewski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)


    Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author).

  8. Quantifying Urban Natural Gas Leaks from Street-level Methane Mapping: Measurements and Uncertainty (United States)

    von Fischer, J. C.; Ham, J. M.; Griebenow, C.; Schumacher, R. S.; Salo, J.


    Leaks from the natural gas pipeline system are a significant source of anthropogenic methane in urban settings. Detecting and repairing these leaks will reduce the energy and carbon footprints of our cities. Gas leaks can be detected from spikes in street-level methane concentrations measured by analyzers deployed on vehicles. While a spike in methane concentration indicates a leak, an algorithm (e.g., inverse model) must be used to estimate the size of the leak (i.e., flux) from concentration data and supporting meteorological information. Unfortunately, this drive-by approach to leak quantification is confounded by the complexity of urban roughness, changing weather conditions, and other incidental factors (e.g., traffic, vehicle speed, etc.). Furthermore, the vehicle might only pass through the plume one to three times during routine mapping. The objective of this study was to conduct controlled release experiments to better quantify the relationship between mobile methane concentration measurements and the size and location of the emission source (e.g., pipeline leakage) in an urban environment. A portable system was developed that could release methane at known rates between 10 and 40 LPM while maintaining concentrations below the lower explosive limit. A mapping vehicle was configured with fast response methane analyzers, GPS, and meteorological instruments. Portable air-sampling tripods were fabricated that could be deployed at defined distances downwind from the release point and automatically-triggered to collect grab samples. The experimental protocol was as follows: (1) identify an appropriate release point within a city, (2) release methane at a known rate, (3) measure downwind street-level concentrations with the vehicle by making multiple passes through the plume, and (4) collect supporting concentration and meteorological data with the static tripod samplers deployed in the plume. Controlled release studies were performed at multiple locations and

  9. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Vicente Barreto Pinto, Mateus


    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  10. Effect of Early Use of Covered Self-Expandable Endoscopic Stent on the Treatment of Postoperative Stapler Line Leaks. (United States)

    Quezada, Nicolás; Maiz, Cristóbal; Daroch, David; Funke, Ricardo; Sharp, Allan; Boza, Camilo; Pimentel, Fernando


    Postoperative leaks are a dreaded complication after bariatric surgery (BS). Its treatment is based on nutritional support and sepsis control by antibiotics, collections drainage and/or prosthesis, and/or surgery. The aim of this study is to report our experience with coated self-expandable endoscopic stents (SEES) for leaks treatment. This study was performed in a University Hospital, (censored). We performed a retrospective analysis of our BS database from January 2007 to December 2013. All patients with leak after BS treated with SEES were included. We identified 29 patients; 17 (59%) were women, with median age of 37 (19-65) years, and preoperative body mass index of 40 (28.7-56-6) kg/m(2). Nineteen (65.5%) patients had a sleeve gastrectomy and 10 (34.5%) a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. All patients had a leak in the stapler line. Median time from surgery to leak diagnosis was 7 (1-51) days, and SEES were installed 8 (0-104) days after diagnosis. Twenty-one (72%) patients also had abdominal exploration. Median length of SEES use was 60 (1-299) days. Patients who had SEES as primary treatment (with or without simultaneous reoperation) had a shorter leak closure time (50 [6-112] vs 109 [60-352] days; p = 0.008). Twenty-eight (96.5%) patients successfully achieved leak closure with SEES. There were 16 migrations in 10 (34%) patients, 1 (3%) stent fracture, 1 opening of the blind end of alimentary limb (3%), and 5 patients (17%) required a second stent due to leak persistence. SEES is a feasible, safe, and effective management of post BS leaks, although patients may also require prosthesis revision and abdominal exploration. Primary SEES placement is associated with a shorter leak resolution time.

  11. Treatment of benign biliary leaks with transhepatic placement of coated self-expanding metallic stents. (United States)

    Páramo, M; García-Barquín, P; Carrillo, M; Millor Muruzábal, M; Vivas, I; Bilbao, J I

    To analyze the safety and efficacy of percutaneous placement of coated self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) in patients with biliary leaks. This ethics committee at our center approved this study. We retrospectively reviewed all coated SEMS placed between October 2008 and September 2015. We analyzed patient-related factors such as the primary underlying disease, prior hepatic procedures, and clinical outcome. We evaluated the location, the number and type of leak (anastomotic or non-anastomotic), and the characteristics of the interventional procedure (number of stents deployed, location of the stents, technical success, and primary functionality). We recorded the complications registered. We studied 14 patients (11 men and 3 women). The mean follow-up period was 375.5 days (range 15-1920 days). Leaks were postsurgical in 12 patients. One patient developed an arteriobilioportal fistula. In another, the biliary leak occurred secondary to the rupture of the common bile duct after ERCP. A total of 23 coated SEMS were placed, including 21 Fluency® stents (Bard, Tempe, AZ, USA) and 2 Wallflex® stents (Boston Scientific, Galway, Republic of Ireland). The technical success of the procedure was considered total in 11 (78.6%) patients, partial in 2 (14.3%) patients, and null in 1 (7.2%) patient. The clinical outcome was good in 13 of the 14 patients. The mean period of primary functionality of the coated SEMS was 331 days (range 15-1920 days). No major complications were observed in 11 (78.6%) patients. Percutaneous placement of coated SEMS for the treatment of benign biliary leaks is safe and efficacious, with a high rate of technical and clinical success and a moderate rate of complications. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. CALM: cascading system with leaking detection mechanism for medical image segmentation (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Lim, Joo Hwee; Li, Huiqi


    Medical image segmentation is a challenging process due to possible image over-segmentation and under-segmentation (leaking). The CALM medical image segmentation system is constructed with an innovative scheme that cascades threshold level-set and region-growing segmentation algorithms using Union and Intersection set operators. These set operators help to balance the over-segmentation rate and under-segmentation rate of the system respectively. While adjusting the curvature scalar parameter in the threshold level-set algorithm, we observe that the abrupt change in the size of the segmented areas coincides with the occurrences of possible leaking. Instead of randomly choose a value or use the system default curvature scalar values, this observation prompts us to use the following formula in CALM to automatically decide the optimal curvature values γ to prevent the occurrence of leaking : δ2S/δγ2 >= M, where S is the size of the segmented area and M is a large positive number. Motivated for potential applications in organ transplant and analysis, the CALM system is tested on the segmentation of the kidney regions from the Magnetic Resonance images taken from the National University Hospital of Singapore. Due to the nature of MR imaging, low-contrast, weak edges and overlapping regions of adjacent organs at kidney boundaries are frequently seen in the datasets and hence kidney segmentation is prone to leaking. The kidney segmentation accuracy rate achieved by CALM is 22% better compared with those achieved by the component algorithms or the system without leaking detection mechanism. CALM is easy-to-implement and can be applied to many applications besides kidney segmentation.

  13. Prediction of Leak Flow Rate Using FNNs in Severe LOCA Circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Seop; Kim, Chang Hwoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Leak flow rate is a function of break size, differential pressure ( i.e., difference between internal and external reactor vessel pressure), temperature, and so on. Specially, the leak flow rate is strongly dependent on the break size and the differential pressure, but the break size is not measured and the integrity of pressure sensors is not assured in severe circumstances. In this study, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is proposed to predict the leak flow rate out of break, which has a direct impact on the important times (time approaching the core exit temperature that exceeds 1200 .deg. F, core uncover time, reactor vessel failure time, etc.). Since FNN is a data-based model, it requires data to develop and verify itself. However, because actual severe accident data do not exist to the best of our knowledge, it is essential to obtain the data required in the proposed model using numerical simulations. These data were obtained by simulating severe accident scenarios for the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR 1000) using MAAP4 code. In this study, FNN model was developed to predict the leak flow rate in severe post-LOCA circumstances.. The training data were selected from among all the acquired data using an SC method to train the proposed FNN model with more informative data. The developed FNN model predicted the leak flow rate using the time elapsed after reactor shutdown and the predicted break size, and its validity was verified in the basis of the simulation data of OPR1000 using MAAP4 code.

  14. The STEIN Particle Detector (United States)


    of FPGA modules is shown in figure 9. The IIB shown in this figure referes to the instrument interface board that was the primary interface for...determined elsewhere. Likewise the FPGA is able to output control voltage to a high voltage power supply to modulate the voltage found on the electrostatic...D., “IDeF-X ECLAIRs: A CMOS ASIC for the Readout of CdTe and CdZnTe Detectors for High Resolution Spectroscopy,” Nuclear Science, IEEE Tran, 10.1109

  15. Scintillating fiber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vozak, Matous


    NA61 is one of the physics experiments at CERN dedicated to study hadron states coming from interactions of SPS beams with various targets. To determine the position of a secondary beam, three proportional chambers are placed along the beamline. However, these chambers tend to have slow response. In order to obtain more precise time information, use of another detector is being considered. Fast response and compact size is making scintillation fiber (SciFi) with silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) read out a good candidate. This report is focused on analysing data from SciFi collected in a test beam at the beginning of July 2016.

  16. A detector for neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, C L; Wintenberg, A L; Warmack, R J; McKnight, T E; Frank, S S; Cooper, R G; Dudney, N J; Veith, G M; Stephan, A C


    A bright neutron source such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) places extreme requirements on detectors including excellent 2-D spatial imaging and high dynamic range. Present imaging detectors have either shown position resolutions that are less than acceptable or they exhibit excessive paralyzing dead times due to the brightness of the source. High neutron detection efficiency with good neutron- gamma discrimination is critical for applications in neutron scattering research where the usefulness of the data is highly dependent on the statistical uncertainty associated with each detector pixel.. A detector concept known as MicroMegas (MicroMEsh GAseous Structure) has been developed at CERN in Geneva for high- energy physics charged-particle tracking applications and has shown great promise for handling high data rates with a rather low-cost structure. We are attempting to optimize the MicroMegas detector concept for thermal neutrons and have designed a 1-D neutron strip detector which we have tested In ...

  17. Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O


    Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors in 'Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Time of Flight Measurements Scintillator hodoscopes Parallel plate ToF detectors 3.3.3 Cherenkov Radiation ...

  18. Evaluating the effect of operative technique on leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a case-control study. (United States)

    Varban, Oliver A; Sheetz, Kyle H; Cassidy, Ruth B; Stricklen, Amanda; Carlin, Arthur M; Dimick, Justin B; Finks, Jonathan F


    To assess the effect of operative technique on staple line leaks after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Staple-line leaks after LSG are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Variations in operative technique exist; however, their effect on leaks is poorly understood. We analyzed data from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative (MBSC) to perform a case-control study comparing patients who had a clinically significant leak after undergoing a primary LSG to those who did not. A total of 45 patients with leaks were identified between January 2007 and December 2013. The leak group was matched 1:2 to a control group based on procedure type, age, body mass index, sex, and year the procedure was performed. Technique-specific factors were assessed by reviewing operative notes from all primary bariatric procedures in our study population. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify techniques associated with leaks. To increase the power of our analysis, we used a significance level of .10. Leak rates with LSG have decreased over the past 5 years (1.18% to .36%) as annual case volume has increased (846 cases/yr to 4435 cases/yr). Surgeons who performed 43 or more cases per year had a leak ratecases requiring a blood transfusion (26.2% versus 1.08%, P = .0031) and when cases were converted to open surgery (7.14% versus 0%, P = .0741). However, there was no significant difference in operative time between cases involving a leak and their matched controls (95.4 min versus 87.1 min, P = .1197). Oversewing of the staple line was the only technique associated with less leaks after controlling for confounding factors (OR .397 CI .174, .909, P = .0665). Notably, surgeons who oversewed routinely were also found to have higher case volume (307 versus 140, P = .0216) and less overall complication rates (4.81% versus 7.95%, P = .0027). Furthermore, oversewing technique varied widely as only 22.6% of cases involved oversewing of the entire staple line. Despite

  19. First detectors at the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Some of the first detectors at the ISR. A CERN/Rome team was looking at proton scattering at very small angles to the beam direction. A detector known as a "Roman pot" is in the foreground on the left. An Aachen/CERN/Genoa/Harvard/Turin team was looking at wider angles with the detectors seen branching off from the rings on the right.

  20. The CMS detector before closure

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez


    The CMS detector before testing using muon cosmic rays that are produced as high-energy particles from space crash into the Earth's atmosphere generating a cascade of energetic particles. After closing CMS, the magnets, calorimeters, trackers and muon chambers were tested on a small section of the detector as part of the magnet test and cosmic challenge. This test checked the alignment and functionality of the detector systems, as well as the magnets.