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Sample records for salt-sensitive poplar species1cwoa

  1. Genetic predisposition to salt-sensitivity : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeks, Esther; Kessels, Alfons G H; Kroon, Abraham A; van der Klauw, Melanie M; de Leeuw, Peter W

    PURPOSE: To assess the role of genetic polymorphisms in salt sensitivity of blood pressure. DATA IDENTIFICATION: We conducted a systematic review by searching the Medline literature from March 1993 to June 2003. Each paper was scrutinized and data concerning study population, method of salt

  2. Effects of salicylic acid on wheat salt sensitivity | Erdal | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, investigations on the effects of foliar-applied SA on salt sensitivity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and activities of antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) in plant tissues under salt stress was performed. SA treatment significantly increased the fresh and dry weights in both root ...

  3. Salt Sensitivity: Challenging and Controversial Phenotype of Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrino, Rossella; Manunta, Paolo; Zagato, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Increases in life expectancy and cardiovascular adverse events in patients with hypertension highlight the need for new risk-reduction strategies to reduce the burden of degenerative diseases. Among the environmental factors, high salt consumption is currently considered the most important risk factor of hypertension. However, while high salt intake significantly raises blood pressure in some individuals, others do not show variation or even decrease their blood pressure. This heterogeneity is respectively classified as salt sensitivity and salt resistance. In this review, we propose salt sensitivity as a useful phenotype to unravel the mechanistic complexity of primary hypertension. The individual variability in blood pressure modification in response to salt intake changes derives from the combination of genetic and environmental determinants. This combination of random and non random determinants leads to the development of a personal index of sensitivity to salt. However, those genes involved in susceptibility to salt are still not completely identified, and the triggering mechanisms underlying the following development of hypertension still remain uncovered. One reason might be represented by the absence of a specific protocol, universally followed, for a standard definition of salt sensitivity. Another reason may be linked to the absence of common criteria for patient recruitment during clinical studies. Thus, the generation of a reliable approach for a proper recognition of this personal index of sensitivity to salt, and through it the identification of novel therapeutic targets for primary hypertension, should be one of the aspirations for the scientific community.

  4. The American Heart Association Scientific Statement on salt sensitivity of blood pressure: Prompting consideration of alternative conceptual frameworks for the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Morris, R Curtis

    2017-11-01

    : Recently, the American Heart Association (AHA) published a scientific statement on salt sensitivity of blood pressure which emphasized a decades old conceptual framework for the pathogenesis of this common disorder. Here we examine the extent to which the conceptual framework for salt sensitivity emphasized in the AHA Statement accommodates contemporary findings and views of the broader scientific community on the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity. In addition, we highlight alternative conceptual frameworks and important contemporary theories of salt sensitivity that are little discussed in the AHA Statement. We suggest that greater consideration of conceptual frameworks and theories for salt sensitivity beyond those emphasized in the AHA Statement may help to advance understanding of the pathogenesis of salt-induced increases in blood pressure and, in consequence, may lead to improved approaches to preventing and treating this common disorder.

  5. Hydronephrosis causes salt-sensitive hypertension in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Wåhlin, Nils; Sällström, Johan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a common disease in the Western world and approximately 5% of all cases are secondary to kidney malfunction. It is not clear whether unilateral hydronephrosis due to partial obstruction affects blood pressure. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether...... hypertension develops and to investigate the effects of different salt diets on the blood pressure in hydronephrotic animals. METHODS: Unilateral partial ureteral obstruction was created in 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. A telemetric device was implanted 4-6 weeks later and blood pressure was measured...... on normal, low- and high-salt diets. Plasma samples were collected on all diets for renin analysis. RESULTS: All hydronephrotic animals developed hypertension that correlated to the degree of hydronephrosis. The blood pressure increased slowly with time and was salt sensitive. In severe hydronephrosis...

  6. Salt sensitivity: a review with a focus on non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Safiya I.; Freedman, Barry I.; Ellison, David H.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information regarding salt sensitivity particularly as it relates to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics and to clarify possible etiologies, especially those that might shed light on potential treatment options. In non-Hispanic blacks, there is evidence that endothelial dysfunction, reduced potassium intake, decreased urinary kallikrein excretion, upregulation of sodium channel activity, dysfunction in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) production, and APOL1 gene nephropathy risk variants may cause or contribute to salt sensitivity. Supported treatment avenues include diets high in potassium and soybean protein, the components of which stimulate nitric oxide production. Racial heterogeneity complicates the study of salt sensitivity in Hispanic populations. Caribbean Hispanics, who have a higher proportion of African ancestry, may respond to commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive agents in a way that is characteristic of non-Hispanic black hypertensives. The low-renin hypertensive phenotype commonly seen in non-Hispanic blacks has been linked to salt sensitivity and may indicate an increased risk for salt sensitivity in a portion of the Hispanic population. In conclusion, increased morbidity and mortality associated with salt sensitivity mandates further studies evaluating the efficacy of tailored dietary and pharmacologic treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and determining the prevalence of low renin hypertension and salt sensitivity within the various subgroups of Hispanic Americans. PMID:23428408

  7. Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Salt Sensitivity: The Role of Oxidative Stress

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    Jiang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Other than genetic regulation of salt sensitivity of blood pressure, many factors have been shown to regulate renal sodium handling which contributes to long-term blood pressure regulation and have been extensively reviewed. Here we present our progress on the Na/K-ATPase signaling mediated sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules, from cardiotonic steroids-mediated to reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling that contributes to experimental salt sensitivity.

  8. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with polymorphisms in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert M; Schoeffel, Cynthia D; Gildea, John J; Jones, John E; McGrath, Helen E; Gordon, Lindsay N; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S; Underwood, Patricia C; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N; Adler, Gail K; Williams, Scott M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 185 whites consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days of low Na(+) (10 mmol/d) and 7 days of high Na(+) (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt sensitivity was defined as a ≥ 7-mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure during a randomized transition between high and low Na(+) diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt sensitivity revealed 3 variants that associated with salt sensitivity, 2 in SLC4A5 (P<0.001) and 1 in GRK4 (P=0.020). Of these, 2 SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These 2 SNPs had P values of 1.0 × 10(-4) and 3.1 × 10(-4) with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for body mass index and age (P=8.9 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-4) and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Furthermore, the association of these SNPs with salt sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt sensitivity (rs7571842 [P=1.2 × 10(-5)]; rs1017783 [P=1.1 × 10(-4)]). In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 2 separate white populations.

  9. Environmental benefits of poplar culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. G. Isebrands; D.F. Karnosky.

    2001-01-01

    Poplars have important values above and beyond wood or fiber production. Poplars have been planted for environmental purposes for centuries. There are reports of poplar plantings dating back to early Chinese history and biblical times in the Middle East, When immigrants came to North America in the 18th and 19th century, they often brought cuttings of their favorite...

  10. The American Heart Association Scientific Statement on salt sensitivity of blood pressure: Prompting consideration of alternative conceptual frameworks for the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 11 (2017), s. 2214-2225 ISSN 0263-6352 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * hypertension * salt * salt resistence * salt sensitivity * sodium * sodium sensitivity Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2016

  11. Hydronephrosis causes salt-sensitive hypertension and impaired renal concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, M; Sällström, J; Skøtt, O

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Hypertension is a common disease in the industrialized world and approximately 5% of all cases are secondary to kidney malfunction. We have recently shown that hydronephrosis due to partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) causes salt-sensitive hypertension in rats. The mechanisms...... are still unclear, but appear to be intrarenal and primarily located to the diseased kidney. In the present study, we have developed a model for PUUO to study if hydronephrotic mice develop salt-sensitive hypertension. METHODS: PUUO was created in 3-week-old mice (C57bl/6J). Blood pressure and heart rate...... salt-sensitive hypertension that correlated to the degree of hydronephrosis. In hydronephrotic animals, blood pressure increased from 114 +/- 1 mmHg on normal salt diet to 120 +/- 2 mmHg on high salt diet, compared with 103 +/- 1 to 104 +/- 1 in controls. Hydronephrotic animals showed increased...

  12. Poplar Interactome: Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Pankaj [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2018-03-21

    The feedstock plant Poplar has many advantages over traditional crop plants. Not only Poplar needs low energy input and off season storage as compared to feedstocks such as corn, in the winter season Poplar biomass is stored on the stem/trunk, and Poplar plantations serve as large carbon sink. A key constraint to the expansion of cellulosic bioenergy sources such as in Poplar however, is the negative consequence of converting land use from food crops to energy crops. Therefore in order for Poplar to become a viable energy crop it needs to be grown mostly on marginal land unsuitable agricultural crops. For this we need a better understanding of abiotic stress and adaptation response in poplar. In the process we expected to find new and existing poplar genes and their function that respond to sustain abiotic stress. We carried out an extensive gene expression study on the control untreated and stress (drought, salinity, cold and heat) treated poplar plants. The samples were collected from the stem, leaf and root tissues. The RNA of protein coding genes and regulatory smallRNA genes were sequenced generating more than a billion reads. This is the first such known study in Poplar plants. These were used for quantification and genomic analysis to identify stress responsive genes in poplar. Based on the quantification and genomic analysis, a select set of genes were studied for gene-gene interactions to find their association to stress response. The data was also used to find novel stress responsive genes in poplar that were previously not identified in the Poplar reference genome. The data is made available to the public through the national and international genomic data archives.

  13. Stimulation of Intestinal Cl- Secretion Through CFTR by Caffeine Intake in Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats

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    Xiao Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: High salt consumption is a major risk factor for hypertension, and sodium homeostasis is regulated by both intestinal sodium absorption and urinary sodium excretion. Chronic caffeine intake has been reported to attenuate salt-sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion; however, its exact role in intestinal sodium absorption remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether and how chronic caffeine consumption antagonizes salt-sensitive hypertension by inhibiting intestinal sodium absorption. Methods: Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed 8% NaCl chow and 0.1% caffeine in their drinking water for 15 days. The blood pressure and fecal sodium content were measured. The effect of caffeine on the movement of Cl- in enterocyte cells was determined with the Ussing chamber assay. Results: Rats that were treated with caffeine displayed significantly lower mean blood pressure and higher fecal sodium content than the controls. Consistent with these findings, caffeine intake decreased fluid absorption by the intestine in the fluid perfusion experiment. Further, the results from the Ussing chamber assay indicated that caffeine promoted Cl- secretion through enterocyte apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and thus inhibited sodium absorption. Moreover, depletion of cAMP or inhibition of CFTR completely abolished the effect of caffeine on Cl- secretion. Conclusion: The results indicate that chronic caffeine consumption reduces sodium absorption by promoting CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in the intestine, which contributes to the anti-hypertensive effect of caffeine in salt-sensitive rats.

  14. Relief of chronic partial ureteral obstruction attenuates salt-sensitive hypertension in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, M.; Wåhlin, N.; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    shown that animals with chronic partial unilateral ureteral obstruction develop salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, the effects of ipsilateral and contralateral nephrectomy and ureterovesicostomy on blood pressure were studied in hydronephrotic animals. METHODS: Partial unilateral ureteral...... obstruction was created in 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and blood pressure was measured telemetrically 4-6 weeks later during a normal and high salt diet before and after uninephrectomy or ureterovesicostomy. Plasma samples for renin assay were collected during both diets before and after ipsilateral...... nephrectomy. RESULTS: All hydronephrotic animals developed salt-sensitive hypertension, of different degrees. Before nephrectomy the plasma renin concentration was significantly higher in the hydronephrotic animals than in controls (160 +/- 15 microGU mL(-1) vs. 96 +/- 12 microGU mL(-1), respectively...

  15. An Appraisal of Methods Recently Recommended for Testing Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2017), č. článku e005653. ISSN 2047-9980 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypertension * salt intake * salt sensitivity hypertension * sodium Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems Impact factor: 4.863, year: 2016

  16. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  17. Deuterium oxide normalizes blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasdev, S.; Prabhakaran, V.; Sampson, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 25% deuterium oxide in drinking water on systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas of Dahl salt-sensitive rats on 0.4% (low) and 8% (high) sodium chloride (salt) diet. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II were on the low salt diet and groups III and IV on the high salt diet from 6 weeks of age. Additionally, at 10 weeks of age groups I and III were placed on 100% water and groups II and IV on 25% deuterium oxide. At 14 weeks, systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in rats on the high salt diet as compared with those on the low salt diet. Deuterium oxide intake normalized systolic blood pressure and aortic calcium uptake but not aortic rubidium 86 uptake in hypertensive rats on the high salt diet. Deuterium oxide had no effect on blood pressure or aortic calcium uptake in rats on the low salt diet. The parallel increase in systolic blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake suggests that increased calcium uptake mechanisms are associated with hypertension in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. Furthermore, deuterium oxide appears to normalize elevated blood pressure in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by normalizing elevated vascular (aortic) calcium uptake

  18. Involvement of ENaC in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

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    Pavlov, Tengis S; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with renal and vascular dysfunctions, which lead to impaired fluid excretion, increased cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance. It is commonly accepted that increased renal sodium handling and plasma volume expansion are necessary factors for the development of salt-induced hypertension. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a trimeric ion channel expressed in the distal nephron that plays a critical role in the regulation of sodium reabsorption in both normal and pathological conditions. In this mini-review, we summarize recent studies investigating the role of ENaC in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. On the basis of experimental data obtained from the Dahl salt-sensitive rats, we and others have demonstrated that abnormal ENaC activation in response to a dietary NaCl load contributes to the development of high blood pressure in this model. The role of different humoral factors, such as the components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, members of the epidermal growth factors family, arginine vasopressin, and oxidative stress mediating the effects of dietary salt on ENaC are discussed in this review to highlight future research directions and to determine potential molecular targets for drug development. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Computational analysis of candidate disease genes and variants for Salt-sensitive hypertension in indigenous Southern Africans

    KAUST Repository

    Tiffin, Nicki; Meintjes, Ayton; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Rayner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    appears more prevalent in people of indigenous African origin. The underlying genetics of salt-sensitive hypertension, however, are poorly understood. In this study, computational methods including text- and data-mining have been used to select

  20. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

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    Victoria L M Herrera

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting blood pressure (BP in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001 and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001 F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50 and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65, four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5 were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  1. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L M; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting blood pressure (BP) in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R)-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001) and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001) F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50) and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65), four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5) were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  2. Free radical scavenging reverses fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension

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    Zenner ZP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium–hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure. We found that both 20% fructose intake and a high-salt diet stimulated 8-isoprostane excretion. The superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic tempol significantly reduced this elevated excretion. Next, we placed rats on a high-salt diet (4% for 1 week in combination with normal rat chow or 20% fructose with or without chronic tempol administration. A fructose plus high-salt diet induced a rapid increase (15 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and reversed high salt suppression of plasma renin activity. Tempol treatment reversed the pressor response and restored high salt suppression of renin. We conclude that fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension is driven by increased renal reactive oxygen species formation associated with salt retention and an enhanced renin–angiotensin system. Keywords: reactive oxygen species, tempol, sodium, renin, oxidative stress

  3. GPER activation ameliorates aortic remodeling induced by salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Kashyap, Shreya; Murphy, Brennah; Hutson, Dillion D; Budish, Rebecca A; Trimmer, Emma H; Zimmerman, Margaret A; Trask, Aaron J; Miller, Kristin S; Chappell, Mark C; Lindsey, Sarah H

    2016-04-15

    The mRen2 female rat is an estrogen- and salt-sensitive model of hypertension that reflects the higher pressure and salt sensitivity associated with menopause. We previously showed that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates estrogenic effects in this model. The current study hypothesized that GPER protects against vascular injury during salt loading. Intact mRen2 female rats were fed a normal (NS; 0.5% Na(+)) or high-salt diet (HS; 4% Na(+)) for 10 wk, which significantly increased systolic blood pressure (149 ± 5 vs. 224 ± 8 mmHg;PTreatment with the selective GPER agonist G-1 for 2 wk did not alter salt-sensitive hypertension (216 ± 4 mmHg;P> 0.05) or ex vivo vascular responses to angiotensin II or phenylephrine (P> 0.05). However, G-1 significantly attenuated salt-induced aortic remodeling assessed by media-to-lumen ratio (NS: 0.43; HS+veh: 0.89; HS+G-1: 0.61;P< 0.05). Aortic thickening was not accompanied by changes in collagen, elastin, or medial proliferation. However, HS induced increases in medial layer glycosaminoglycans (0.07 vs. 0.42 mm(2);P< 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (0.11 vs. 0.51 mm(2);P< 0.01), both of which were reduced by G-1 (0.20 mm(2)and 0.23 mm(2); both P< 0.05). We conclude that GPER's beneficial actions in the aorta of salt-loaded mRen2 females occur independently of changes in blood pressure and vasoreactivity. GPER-induced attenuation of aortic remodeling was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Endogenous activation of GPER may protect females from salt- and pressure-induced vascular damage. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    animals raised with normal-salt diet (UNX) or high-salt diet (UNX+HS). In the adult animals, renal and cardiovascular functions were evaluated and blood pressure recorded telemetrically under different sodium conditions (normal, high, and low). Hypertension was present in UNX+HS (122+/-9 mm Hg), UNX (101......+/-3 mm Hg), and HS (96+/-1 mm Hg) groups on normal-salt diets compared with the controls (84+/-2 mm Hg), and the blood pressure was salt sensitive (high- versus normal-salt diet; 23+/-3, 9+/-2, 7+/-2, and 1+/-1 mm Hg, respectively). The hypertensive groups (UNX+HS, UNX, and HS) had increased diuresis......The importance of nephron endowment and salt intake for the development of hypertension is under debate. The present study was designed to investigate whether reduced nephron number, after completion of nephrogenesis, or chronic salt loading causes renal injury and salt-sensitive hypertension...

  5. Agmatine induced NO dependent rat mesenteric artery relaxation and its impairment in salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Tushar V; Cortes, Natalie; Madrasi, Kumpal; Tsoukias, Nikolaos M; Joshi, Mahesh S

    2013-11-30

    l-Arginine and its decarboxylated product, agmatine are important mediators of NO production and vascular relaxation. However, the underlying mechanisms of their action are not understood. We have investigated the role of arginine and agmatine in resistance vessel relaxation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Second or 3rd-order mesenteric arterioles were cannulated in an organ chamber, pressurized and equilibrated before perfusing intraluminally with agonists. The vessel diameters were measured after mounting on the stage of a microscope fitted with a video camera. The gene expression in Dahl rat vessel homogenates was ascertained by real-time PCR. l-Arginine initiated relaxations (EC50, 5.8±0.7mM; n=9) were inhibited by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor, difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) (EC50, 18.3±1.3mM; n=5) suggesting that arginine-induced vessel relaxation was mediated by agmatine formation. Agmatine relaxed the SD rat vessels at significantly lower concentrations (EC50, 138.7±12.1μM; n=22), which was compromised by l-NAME (l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, an eNOS inhibitor), RX821002 (α-2 AR antagonist) and pertussis toxin (G-protein inhibitor). The agmatine-mediated vessel relaxation from high salt Dahl rats was abolished as compared to that from normal salt rats (EC50, 143.9±23.4μM; n=5). The α-2A AR, α-2B AR and eNOS mRNA expression was downregulated in mesenteric arterioles of high-salt treated Dahl hypertensive rats. These findings demonstrate that agmatine facilitated the relaxation via activation of α-2 adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor and NO synthesis, and this pathway is compromised in salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The Importance of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 (GRK4 in Pathogenesis of Salt Sensitivity, Salt Sensitive Hypertension and Response to Antihypertensive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rayner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt sensitivity is probably caused by either a hereditary or acquired defect of salt excretion by the kidney, and it is reasonable to consider that this is the basis for differences in hypertension between black and white people. Dopamine acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to promote natriuresis in the proximal tubule and thick ascending loop of Henle. G-protein receptor kinases (or GRKs are serine and threonine kinases that phosphorylate G protein-coupled receptors in response to agonist stimulation and uncouple the dopamine receptor from its G protein. This results in a desensitisation process that protects the cell from repeated agonist exposure. GRK4 activity is increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and infusion of GRK4 antisense oligonucleotides attenuates the increase in blood pressure (BP. This functional defect is replicated in the proximal tubule by expression of GRK4 variants namely p.Arg65Leu, p.Ala142Val and p.Val486Ala, in cell lines, with the p.Ala142Val showing the most activity. In humans, GRK4 polymorphisms were shown to be associated with essential hypertension in Australia, BP regulation in young adults, low renin hypertension in Japan and impaired stress-induced Na excretion in normotensive black men. In South Africa, GRK4 polymorphisms are more common in people of African descent, associated with impaired Na excretion in normotensive African people, and predict blood pressure response to Na restriction in African patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The therapeutic importance of the GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was emphasised in the African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK where African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis were randomised to receive amlodipine, ramipril or metoprolol. Men with the p.Ala142Val genotype were less likely to respond to metoprolol, especially if they also had the p.Arg65Leu variant. Furthermore, in the analysis of response to treatment in

  8. Computational analysis of candidate disease genes and variants for Salt-sensitive hypertension in indigenous Southern Africans

    KAUST Repository

    Tiffin, Nicki

    2010-09-27

    Multiple factors underlie susceptibility to essential hypertension, including a significant genetic and ethnic component, and environmental effects. Blood pressure response of hypertensive individuals to salt is heterogeneous, but salt sensitivity appears more prevalent in people of indigenous African origin. The underlying genetics of salt-sensitive hypertension, however, are poorly understood. In this study, computational methods including text- and data-mining have been used to select and prioritize candidate aetiological genes for salt-sensitive hypertension. Additionally, we have compared allele frequencies and copy number variation for single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes between indigenous Southern African and Caucasian populations, with the aim of identifying candidate genes with significant variability between the population groups: identifying genetic variability between population groups can exploit ethnic differences in disease prevalence to aid with prioritisation of good candidate genes. Our top-ranking candidate genes include parathyroid hormone precursor (PTH) and type-1angiotensin II receptor (AGTR1). We propose that the candidate genes identified in this study warrant further investigation as potential aetiological genes for salt-sensitive hypertension. © 2010 Tiffin et al.

  9. Sex-specific genetic determinants for arterial stiffness in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Julius L; Pasion, Khristine A; Black, Nicole; Giordano, Nicholas J; Herrera, Victoria L; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2016-01-11

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients including myocardial infarction, fatal stroke, cerebral micro-bleeds which predicts cerebral hemorrhage in hypertensive patients, as well as progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive subjects. The association between arterial stiffness and various cardiovascular outcomes (coronary heart disease, stroke) remains after adjusting for age, sex, blood pressure, body mass index and other known predictors of cardiovascular disease, suggesting that arterial stiffness, measured via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, has a better predictive value than each of these factors. Recent evidence shows that arterial stiffening precedes the onset of high blood pressure; however their molecular genetic relationship (s) and sex-specific determinants remain uncertain. We investigated whether distinct or shared genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to arterial stiffening in male and female Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Thus, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting arterial stiffness in six-week old F2 (Dahl S x R)-intercross male and female rats characterized for abdominal aortic pulse wave velocity and aortic strain by high-resolution ultrasonography. We detected five highly significant QTLs affecting aortic stiffness: two interacting QTLs (AS-m1 on chromosome 4 and AS-m2 on chromosome16, LOD 8.8) in males and two distinct interacting QTLs (AS-f1 on chromosome 9 and AS-f2 on chromosome11, LOD 8.9) in females affecting pulse wave velocity. One QTL (AS-1 on chromosome 3, LOD 4.3) was found to influence aortic strain in a sex-independent manner. None of these arterial stiffness QTLs co-localized with previously reported blood pressure QTLs detected in equivalent genetic intercrosses. These data reveal sex-specific genetic determinants for aortic pulse wave velocity and suggest distinct polygenic susceptibility for arterial stiffness and

  10. Reactive oxygen species dynamics in roots of salt sensitive and salt tolerant cultivars of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Shivani; Kaur, Navdeep; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Salinity stress is one of the major constraints for growth and survival of plants that affects rice productivity worldwide. Hence, in the present study, roots of two contrasting salinity sensitive cultivars, IR64 (IR64, salt sensitive) and Luna Suvarna (LS, salt tolerant) were compared with regard to the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to derive clues for their differential salt stress adaptation mechanisms. In our investigation, the tolerant cultivar exhibited longer primary roots, more lateral roots, higher root number leading to increased root biomass, with respect to IR64. It was observed that LS roots maintained higher level of H 2 O 2 in comparison to IR64. The activities of various enzymes involved in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanism (SOD, CAT, GPX, DHAR and MDHAR) were found to be greater in LS roots. Further, the higher transcript level accumulation of genes encoding ROS generating (RbohA, RbohD and RbohE) and scavenging enzymes (Fe-SOD, Chloroplastic Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and DHAR) were noticed in the roots of tolerant cultivar, LS. Moreover, the content of other stress markers such as total protein and proline were also elevated in LS roots. While, the expression of proline biosynthesis gene (P5CS) and proline catabolism gene (PDH) was observed to be lower in LS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. High salt diet induces metabolic alterations in multiple biological processes of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines. In addition, HS enhanced glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) and amino acid metabolism and suppressed the TCA (citrate synthase and aconitase) cycle. Finally, HS intake caused up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase), the ratio of NADPH/NADP + , NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production, suggesting that increased oxidative stress was associated with an altered PPP pathway. The metabolic pathways identified may serve as potential targets for the treatment of renal damage. Our findings provide comprehensive biochemical details about the metabolic responses to a high salt diet, which may contribute to the understanding of renal disease and salt-induced hypertension in SS rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Altered regulation of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yong; Lee, Jay Wook; Kim, Sejoong; Jung, Eun Sook; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2009-12-01

    Uninephrectomy (uNx) in young rats causes salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH). Alterations of sodium handling in residual nephrons may play a role in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the adaptive alterations of renal sodium transporters according to salt intake in uNx-SSH rats. uNx or sham operations were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and normal-salt diet was fed for 4 weeks. Four experimental groups were used: sham-operated rats raised on a high-salt diet for 2 weeks (CHH) or on a low-salt diet for 1 week after 1 week's high-salt diet (CHL) and uNx rats fed on the same diet (NHH, NHL) as the sham-operated rats were fed. Expression of major renal sodium transporters were determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Systolic blood pressure was increased in NHH and NHL groups, compared with CHH and CHL, respectively. Protein abundances of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the CHH group were lower than the CHL group. Expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-γ increased in the CHH group. In contrast, expressions of NKCC2 and NCC in the NHH group didn't show any significant alterations, compared to the NHL group. Expressions of ENaC-α and ENaC-β in the NHH group were higher than the CHH group. Adaptive alterations of NKCC2 and NCC to changes of salt intake were different in the uNx group, and changes in ENaC-α and ENaC-β were also different. These altered regulations of sodium transporters may be involved in the pathogenesis of SSH in the uNx rat model.

  13. Cordyceps militaris improves the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats possibly via influences of mitochondria and autophagy functions

    OpenAIRE

    Takakura, Kentaro; Ito, Shogo; Sonoda, Junya; Tabata, Koji; Shiozaki, Motoko; Nagai, Kaoru; Shibata, Masahiro; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Gotow, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    The genus Cordyceps and its specific ingredient, cordycepin, have attracted much attention for multiple health benefits and expectations for lifespan extension. We analyzed whether Cordyceps militaris (CM), which contains large amounts of cordycepin, can extend the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive rats, whose survival was reduced to â¼3 months via a high-salt diet. The survival of these life-shortened rats was extended significantly when supplemented with CM, possibly due to a minimization of ...

  14. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  15. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  16. Observations on a hybrid poplar test planting in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Eschner

    1960-01-01

    Hybrid poplars, crosses between European and American Aigeiros poplars, have been grown in Europe for about 200 years. The rapid growth and high productivity of some of these hybrids on sites to which they are adapted has stimulated interest in poplar growing in this country. And demand for these poplars is developing in many parts of the United States.

  17. Isoprene emission by poplar is not important for the feeding behaviour of poplar leaf beetles

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Anna; Kaling, Moritz; Faubert, Patrick; Gort, Gerrit; Smid, Hans M; Van Loon, Joop JA; Dicke, Marcel; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polle, Andrea; Schnitzler, J?rg-Peter; Rosenkranz, Maaria

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysomela populi (poplar leaf beetle) is a common herbivore in poplar plantations whose infestation causes major economic losses. Because plant volatiles act as infochemicals, we tested whether isoprene, the main volatile organic compound (VOC) produced by poplars (Populus x canescens), affects the performance of C. populi employing isoprene emitting (IE) and transgenic isoprene non-emitting (NE) plants. Our hypothesis was that isoprene is sensed and affects beetle orientation or ...

  18. Salt-Sensitive Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Transgenic Mice Expressing a Corin Variant Identified in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cui, Yujie; Shen, Jianzhong; Jiang, Jingjing; Chen, Shenghan; Peng, Jianhao; Wu, Qingyu

    2012-01-01

    African Americans represent a high risk population for salt-sensitive hypertension and heart disease but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Corin is a cardiac protease that regulates blood pressure by activating natriuretic peptides. A corin gene variant (T555I/Q568P) was identified in African Americans with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the corin variant contributes to the hypertensive and cardiac hypertrophic phenotype in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated to express wild-type or T555I/Q568P variant corin in the heart under the control of α-myosin heavy chain promoter. The mice were crossed into a corin knockout background to create KO/TgWT and KO/TgV mice that expressed WT or variant corin, respectively, in the heart. Functional studies showed that KO/TgV mice had significantly higher levels of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in the heart compared with that in control KO/TgWT mice, indicating that the corin variant was defective in processing natriuretic peptides in vivo. By radiotelemetry, corin KO/TgV mice were found to have hypertension that was sensitive to dietary salt loading. The mice also developed cardiac hypertrophy at 12–14 months of age when fed a normal salt diet or at a younger age when fed a high salt diet. The phenotype of salt-sensitive hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in KO/TgV mice closely resembles the pathological findings in African Americans who carry the corin variant. The results indicate that corin defects may represent an important mechanism in salt-sensitive hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in African Americans. PMID:22987923

  19. Metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure in non-diabetic people in China: a dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Gu, Dongfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Rao, Dabeeru C; Jaquish, Cashell E; Hixson, James E; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Chen, Jichun; Lu, Fanghong; Hu, Dongsheng; Rice, Treva; Kelly, Tanika N; Hamm, L Lee; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang

    2009-03-07

    Since insulin resistance is thought to be the underlying mechanism for metabolic syndrome, affected individuals might be sensitive to a dietary sodium intervention. We aimed to examine the association between metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure. 1906 Chinese participants without diabetes, aged 16 years or more, were selected to receive a low-sodium diet (51.3 mmol per day) for 7 days followed by a high-sodium diet (307.8 mmol per day) for an additional 7 days. Participants were excluded from the analysis if metabolic risk factor information was missing or if they did not complete their dietary interventions. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and on days 2, 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of: abdominal obesity, raised blood pressure, high triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol, or high glucose. High salt sensitivity was defined as a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure of more than 5 mm Hg during low-sodium or an increase of more than 5 mm Hg during high-sodium intervention. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00721721. Of the 1881 participants with information regarding metabolic syndrome, 283 had metabolic syndrome. 1853 participants completed the low-sodium diet and 1845 completed the high-sodium diet. Multivariable-adjusted mean changes in blood pressure were significantly greater in participants with metabolic syndrome than in those without on both low-sodium and high-sodium diets (plow-sodium and a 3.13-fold increased odds (1.80-5.43) of high salt-sensitivity during the high-sodium intervention. These results suggest that metabolic syndrome enhances blood pressure response to sodium intake. Reduction in sodium intake could be an especially important component in reducing blood pressure in patients with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  20. Dissection of Chromosome 18 Blood Pressure and Salt-Sensitivity Quantitative Trait Loci in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnson, M.D.; He, L.; Herman, D.; Wakimoto, H.; Wallace, C. A.; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Musilová, Alena; Šimáková, Miroslava; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Křen, Vladimír; Vyklický, O.; Qi, N.R.; Wang, J.; Seidman, Ch. E.; Seidman, J.; Kurtz, T. W.; Aitman, T. J.; Pravenec, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 639-645 ISSN 0194-911X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME791; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/08/0166 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015; Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI 55005624; Transatlantic network of excellence(US) Foundation Leducq Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rat * salt sensitivity * gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.614, year: 2009

  1. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  2. Salt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is dependent on elevated blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Liu, F.Q.; Ren, K.Y.; Xiao, H.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, Xi' an, China, Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an, China, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, Xi' an (China); Yang, Z. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Pathology, Xi' an, China, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Yuan, Z.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, Xi' an, China, Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an, China, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, Xi' an (China)

    2014-03-03

    Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13{sup BN} rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure.

  3. Salt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is dependent on elevated blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Liu, F.Q.; Ren, K.Y.; Xiao, H.Y.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13 BN rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure

  4. Liquefaction of aspen poplar wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M

    1982-01-01

    Dried and green aspen poplar wood suspended in water containing alkali catalysts was converted completely to an oil, water-soluble chemical, and gases by heating for 1 hour in the presence of CO in a rocking batch reactor. Within the ranges of parameters studied: temperature of 593-633 K; nominal reaction times of less than or equal to 1 hour; water-to-wood ratio of 0.5:1-5:1; Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and NaOH catalysts; amount of catalyst 7.0-12.5%; and initial H-CO ratios of 2:1-0:1, the water-to-wood ratio was most important. Oil yields of approximately 50% with a C plus H content of approximately 80% and representing a C recovery of approximately 66% were obtained. The higher heats of combustion were 32.2-36.0 MJ/kg.

  5. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg ( P  fructose + high salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P  fructose + high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P  fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178  μ mol /24 hrs P  fructose predisposes rats to salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. Sodium bicarbonate loading limits tubular cast formation independent of glomerular injury and proteinuria in dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S C; Patel, B; Irsik, D L; Sun, J; Ocasio, H; Crislip, G R; Jin, C H; Chen, J K; Baban, B; Polichnowski, A J; O'Connor, P M

    2018-04-12

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) slows the decline in kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat develops hypertension and progressive renal injury when fed a high salt diet; however, the effect of alkali loading on kidney injury has never been investigated in this model. We hypothesized that 'NaHCO 3 protects from the development of renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats via luminal alkalization which limits the formation of tubular casts, which are a prominent pathological feature in this model. To examine this hypothesis, we determined blood pressure and renal injury responses in Dahl SS rats drinking vehicle (0.1M NaCl) or NaHCO 3 (0.1M) solutions as well as in Dahl SS rats lacking the voltage gated proton channel (Hv1). We found that oral NaHCO 3 reduced tubular NH 4 + production, tubular cast formation and interstitial fibrosis in rats fed a high salt diet for 2 weeks. This effect was independent of changes in blood pressure, glomerular injury or proteinuria and did not associate with changes in renal inflammatory status. We found that null mutation of Hv1 also limited cast formation in Dahl SS rats independent of proteinuria or glomerular injury. As Hv1 is localized to the luminal membrane of TAL, our data, suggest that alkalization of the luminal fluid within this segment limits cast formation in this model. Reduced cast formation, secondary to luminal alkalization within TAL segments may mediate some of the protective effects of alkali loading observed in CKD patients. ©2018 The Author(s).

  7. Yellow-Poplar: Characteristics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1981-01-01

    This reference tool and field guide for foresters and other landmanagers includes a synthesis of information on the characteristics of yellow-poplar with guidelines for managing the species. It is based on research conducted by many individuals in State and Federal forestry organizations and in universities throughout the Eastern United States. This handbook...

  8. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Poplar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Ouden, den J.

    2016-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  9. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqu Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE. The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%–86%. Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa, whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1 showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  10. The expression of Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae salt-sensitive mutants enhances salt-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hu, Tangjin; Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Baiqu; Zheng, Yizhi

    2013-04-24

    The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI) whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM) via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp) was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%-86%). Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa), whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1) showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  11. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  12. Compost and residues from biogas plant as potting substrates for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam Van, Do Thi

    2013-08-01

    Compost and residues from biogas plant have been increasingly recognized as potting substrates in horticulture. To investigate the suitability of both materials to grow salt tolerant plants in 2010 a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of INRES-Plant nutrition, University of Bonn. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), rape (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were chosen as experimental plants. To reduce the high salt content compost and residues from biogas plant were leached. To improve physical characteristics of raw materials, additives including Perlite, Styromull, Hygromull, Lecaton, Peat, Cocofiber were incorporated into compost or residues from biogas plant with the volumetric ratio of 4:1. Plant growth (DM) and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na and S) of the experimental plants grown in compost-based or residue-based substrates with and without additives and standard soil as a control were determined. Preliminary results reveal that origin compost and residues from biogas plant without leaching are suitable potting substrates for those plants. For compost leaching may not be recommended while for residues from biogas plant the effect of leaching was not distinct and needs further investigations. The incorporation of additives into the basic materials partially resulted in higher plant dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. However, differences between the additives on both parameters were mainly insignificant. Incorporation of Hygromull or Peat, especially into residues from biogas plant favored plant growth and enhanced total nutrient uptake. In 2011, pot experiments were continued with the salt-sensitive ornamental plants, Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale Toro) and Salvia (Salvia splendens). Two separate experiments were carried out for the mixtures of compost and additives (SPS standard soil type 73 based on Peat, Hygromull or Cocofiber) with different volumetric ratios (4:1, 1:1, 1:4) and the mixtures of Peat incorporated with small

  13. Cordyceps militaris improves the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats possibly via influences of mitochondria and autophagy functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Takakura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cordyceps and its specific ingredient, cordycepin, have attracted much attention for multiple health benefits and expectations for lifespan extension. We analyzed whether Cordyceps militaris (CM, which contains large amounts of cordycepin, can extend the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive rats, whose survival was reduced to ∼3 months via a high-salt diet. The survival of these life-shortened rats was extended significantly when supplemented with CM, possibly due to a minimization of the effects of stroke. Next, we analyzed the effect of CM on hypertension-sensitive organs, the central nervous systems (CNS, heart, kidney and liver of these rats. We attempted to ascertain how the organs were improved by CM, and we paid particular attention to mitochondria and autophagy functions. The following results were from CM-treated rats in comparison with control rats. Microscopically, CNS neurons, cardiomyocytes, glomerular podocytes, renal epithelial cells, and hepatocytes all were improved. However, immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expressions of mitochondria-related proteins, ATP synthase β subunit, SIRT3 and SOD2, and autophagy-related proteins, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and cathepsin D all were reduced significantly in the CNS neurons, but increased significantly in the cells of the other three organs, although p62 was decreased in its expression in all the organs tested. Activity of Akt and mTOR was enhanced but that of AMPK was reduced in the CNS, while such kinase activity was completely the opposite in the other organs. Together, the influence of CM may differ between mitochondria and autophagy functioned between the two organ groups, as mitochondria and autophagy seemed to be repressed and promoted, respectively, in the CNS, while both mitochondria and autophagy were activated in the others. This could possibly be related to the steady or improved cellular activity in both the organs, which might result in the life

  14. Soluble guanylate cyclase stimulation prevents fibrotic tissue remodeling and improves survival in salt-sensitive Dahl rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Geschka

    Full Text Available A direct pharmacological stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC is an emerging therapeutic approach to the management of various cardiovascular disorders associated with endothelial dysfunction. Novel sGC stimulators, including riociguat (BAY 63-2521, have a dual mode of action: They sensitize sGC to endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO and also directly stimulate sGC independently of NO. Little is known about their effects on tissue remodeling and degeneration and survival in experimental malignant hypertension.Mortality, hemodynamics and biomarkers of tissue remodeling and degeneration were assessed in Dahl salt-sensitive rats maintained on a high salt diet and treated with riociguat (3 or 10 mg/kg/d for 14 weeks. Riociguat markedly attenuated systemic hypertension, improved systolic heart function and increased survival from 33% to 85%. Histological examination of the heart and kidneys revealed that riociguat significantly ameliorated fibrotic tissue remodeling and degeneration. Correspondingly, mRNA expression of the pro-fibrotic biomarkers osteopontin (OPN, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in the myocardium and the renal cortex was attenuated by riociguat. In addition, riociguat reduced plasma and urinary levels of OPN, TIMP-1, and PAI-1.Stimulation of sGC by riociguat markedly improves survival and attenuates systemic hypertension and systolic dysfunction, as well as fibrotic tissue remodeling in the myocardium and the renal cortex in a rodent model of pressure and volume overload. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of sGC stimulators in diseases associated with impaired cardiovascular and renal functions.

  15. Japanese traditional miso soup attenuates salt-induced hypertension and its organ damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Mariko; Toda, Natsuko; Tamura, Yuki; Terakado, Shouko; Ueno, Mai; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effects of long-term miso soup drinking on salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Dahl S rats were divided into four groups that consumed 1) water, 2) a 0.9% NaCl solution, 3) a 1.3% sodium NaCl solution, or 4) miso soup containing 1.3% NaCl. They were followed for 8 wk. Systolic blood pressure and hypertensive organ damage were determined. Systolic blood pressure increased in an age- and dose-dependent manner in Dahl S rats drinking salt solutions. The systolic blood pressure increase was significantly less in the Dahl S rats that drank miso soup, although the ultimate cumulative salt loading was greater than that in the Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. This blood pressure decrease was associated with a morphologic attenuation of glomerular sclerosis in the kidney and collagen infiltration in the heart. Urinary protein excretions were less in the miso group than in the rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. The fractional excretion of sodium was increased and that of potassium was decreased in Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution, and these effects were reversed in rats given miso soup toward the values of the control. We found that long-term miso soup drinking attenuates the blood pressure increase in salt-induced hypertension with organ damage. This may be caused by a possible retardation of sodium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract or by the direct effects of nutrients in the miso soup from soybeans. The decrease was associated with decreases in cardiovascular and renal damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cordyceps militaris improves the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats possibly via influences of mitochondria and autophagy functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Kentaro; Ito, Shogo; Sonoda, Junya; Tabata, Koji; Shiozaki, Motoko; Nagai, Kaoru; Shibata, Masahiro; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Gotow, Takahiro

    2017-11-01

    The genus Cordyceps and its specific ingredient, cordycepin, have attracted much attention for multiple health benefits and expectations for lifespan extension. We analyzed whether Cordyceps militaris (CM), which contains large amounts of cordycepin, can extend the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive rats, whose survival was reduced to ∼3 months via a high-salt diet. The survival of these life-shortened rats was extended significantly when supplemented with CM, possibly due to a minimization of the effects of stroke. Next, we analyzed the effect of CM on hypertension-sensitive organs, the central nervous systems (CNS), heart, kidney and liver of these rats. We attempted to ascertain how the organs were improved by CM, and we paid particular attention to mitochondria and autophagy functions. The following results were from CM-treated rats in comparison with control rats. Microscopically, CNS neurons, cardiomyocytes, glomerular podocytes, renal epithelial cells, and hepatocytes all were improved. However, immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expressions of mitochondria-related proteins, ATP synthase β subunit, SIRT3 and SOD2, and autophagy-related proteins, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and cathepsin D all were reduced significantly in the CNS neurons, but increased significantly in the cells of the other three organs, although p62 was decreased in its expression in all the organs tested. Activity of Akt and mTOR was enhanced but that of AMPK was reduced in the CNS, while such kinase activity was completely the opposite in the other organs. Together, the influence of CM may differ between mitochondria and autophagy functioned between the two organ groups, as mitochondria and autophagy seemed to be repressed and promoted, respectively, in the CNS, while both mitochondria and autophagy were activated in the others. This could possibly be related to the steady or improved cellular activity in both the organs, which might result in the life extension of these

  17. HV1 acts as a sodium sensor and promotes superoxide production in medullary thick ascending limb of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Sun, Jingping; Stilphen, Carly A; Smith, Susan M E; Ocasio, Hiram; Bermingham, Brent; Darji, Sandip; Guha, Avirup; Patel, Roshan; Geurts, Aron M; Jacob, Howard J; Lambert, Nevin A; O'Connor, Paul M

    2014-09-01

    We previously characterized a H(+) transport pathway in medullary thick ascending limb nephron segments that when activated stimulated the production of superoxide by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Importantly, the activity of this pathway was greater in Dahl salt-sensitive rats than salt-resistant (SS.13(BN)) rats, and superoxide production was enhanced in low Na(+) media. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular identity of this pathway and its relationship to Na(+). We hypothesized that the voltage-gated proton channel, HV1, was the source of superoxide-stimulating H(+) currents. To test this hypothesis, we developed HV1(-/-) null mutant rats on the Dahl salt-sensitive rat genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease gene targeting. HV1 could be detected in medullary thick limb from wild-type rats. Intracellular acidification using an NH4Cl prepulse in 0 sodium/BaCl2 containing media resulted in superoxide production in thick limb from wild-type but not HV1(-/-) rats (Pthick limb and peritoneal macrophages only when HV1 was present. When fed a high-salt diet, blood pressure, outer medullary renal injury (tubular casts), and oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal staining) were significantly reduced in HV1(-/-) rats compared with wild-type Dahl salt-sensitive rats. We conclude that HV1 is expressed in medullary thick ascending limb and promotes superoxide production in this segment when intracellular Na(+) is low. HV1 contributes to the development of hypertension and renal disease in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Partial baroreceptor dysfunction and low plasma nitric oxide bioavailability as determinants of salt-sensitive hypertension: a reverse translational rat study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, A.S.; López-Rodríguez, J.F.; Calvo-Turrubiartes, M.Z. [Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Saavedra-Alanís, V.M. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Llamazares-Azuara, L. [Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, Renal Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rodríguez-Martínez, M. [Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2013-10-02

    This study determined whether clinical salt-sensitive hypertension (cSSHT) results from the interaction between partial arterial baroreceptor impairment and a high-sodium (HNa) diet. In three series (S-I, S-II, S-III), mean arterial pressure (MAP) of conscious male Wistar ChR003 rats was measured once before (pdMAP) and twice after either sham (SHM) or bilateral aortic denervation (AD), following 7 days on a low-sodium (LNa) diet (LNaMAP) and then 21 days on a HNa diet (HNaMAP). The roles of plasma nitric oxide bioavailability (pNOB), renal medullary superoxide anion production (RMSAP), and mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. In SHM (n=11) and AD (n=15) groups of S-I, LNaMAP-pdMAP was 10.5±2.1 vs 23±2.1 mmHg (P<0.001), and the salt-sensitivity index (SSi; HNaMAP−LNaMAP) was 6.0±1.9 vs 12.7±1.9 mmHg (P=0.03), respectively. In the SHM group, all rats were normotensive, and 36% were salt sensitive (SSi≥10 mmHg), whereas in the AD group ∼50% showed cSSHT. A 45% reduction in pNOB (P≤0.004) was observed in both groups in dietary transit. RMSAP increased in the AD group on both diets but more so on the HNa diet (S-II, P<0.03) than on the LNa diet (S-III, P<0.04). MAP modeling in rats without a renal hypertensive genotype indicated that the AD*HNa diet interaction (P=0.008) increases the likelihood of developing cSSHT. Translationally, these findings help to explain why subjects with clinical salt-sensitive normotension may transition to cSSHT.

  19. Bedding Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Fragipan Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-poplar can be grown on soils that have a shallow fragipan--but unless such sites are bedded, growth is likely to be extremely poor. In a Tennessee study, bedding increased height of planted yellow-poplar over 5 years, but fertilizer did not. Because of the cost of bedding and the availability of nonfragipan sites, it would ordinarily be better not to plant...

  20. Selection of black poplars for water use efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Orlović Saša S.; Pajević Slobodanka P.; Krstić Borivoj Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Photosynthesis, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass production have been investigated in nine black poplar clones (section Aigeiros) in three field experiments. Eastern cottonwood clones (Populus deltoides) had the highest net photosynthesis and water use efficiency. European black poplar clones had the highest transpiration intensity. Correlation analysis showed that net photosynthesis was in a high positive correlation with biomass. Medium negative correlations existed bet...

  1. Gender-based differences on the association between salt-sensitive genes and obesity in Korean children aged between 8 and 9 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoungsook Lee

    Full Text Available High sodium intake is associated with the development of chronic diseases such as obesity. Although its role in obesity remains controversial, there may be a correlation between salt sensitivity and the early onset of chronic diseases in obese children.In all, 2,163 Korean children (1,106 boys and 1,057 girls aged 8-9 years were recruited from seven elementary schools in Seoul. To evaluate whether obesity risk was modulated by the salt sensitivity, 11 SNPs related to salt sensitive genes (SSG became the target of sodium intakes in obese children.BP, HOMA-IR, LDLc, TG, and the girls' sodium intake significantly increased, but HDLc significantly decreased with increase in BMI. Regardless of sex, the obesity risk was 5.27-fold (CI; 1.320-27.560 higher in the Q2 to Q5 of sodium intake adjusted by energy (4044.9-5058.9 mg/day than in the lowest Q1 level (2287.6 mg/day in obese children. BP was sensitively dependent on insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in all subjects; however, sodium intake may be an independent risk factor of obesity without increasing BP in girls. GRK4 A486V mutant homozygote was highly distributed in the obese group, but other SNPs had no impact. The obesity risk increased 7.06, 16.8, and 46.09-fold more in boys with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 mutants as sodium intake increased. Among girls, the obesity risk increased in GRK4 A486V heterozygote and CYP11β-2 mutant homozygote although sodium intake was relatively lower, implying that ACE, SLC12A, CYP11β-2, and GRK4 A486V polymorphisms showed gender-based differences with regard to interaction between sodium intake and obesity.A high sodium intake markedly increased the obesity risk in variants of GRK4 A486V regardless of sex. The obesity risk increased with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 variants in boys, whereas it increased with GRK4 A486V and CYP11B2 variants in girls as sodium intake increased. Obese children with the specific gene variants are recommended to reduce

  2. Gender-Based Differences on the Association between Salt-Sensitive Genes and Obesity in Korean Children Aged between 8 and 9 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Mee; Park, Hyesoon; Park, Chang gyu; Park, Hye Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background High sodium intake is associated with the development of chronic diseases such as obesity. Although its role in obesity remains controversial, there may be a correlation between salt sensitivity and the early onset of chronic diseases in obese children. Methods In all, 2,163 Korean children (1,106 boys and 1,057 girls) aged 8–9 years were recruited from seven elementary schools in Seoul. To evaluate whether obesity risk was modulated by the salt sensitivity, 11 SNPs related to salt sensitive genes (SSG) became the target of sodium intakes in obese children. Results BP, HOMA-IR, LDLc, TG, and the girls’ sodium intake significantly increased, but HDLc significantly decreased with increase in BMI. Regardless of sex, the obesity risk was 5.27-fold (CI; 1.320–27.560) higher in the Q2 to Q5 of sodium intake adjusted by energy (4044.9–5058.9 mg/day) than in the lowest Q1 level (2287.6 mg/day) in obese children. BP was sensitively dependent on insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in all subjects; however, sodium intake may be an independent risk factor of obesity without increasing BP in girls. GRK4 A486V mutant homozygote was highly distributed in the obese group, but other SNPs had no impact. The obesity risk increased 7.06, 16.8, and 46.09-fold more in boys with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 mutants as sodium intake increased. Among girls, the obesity risk increased in GRK4 A486V heterozygote and CYP11β-2 mutant homozygote although sodium intake was relatively lower, implying that ACE, SLC12A, CYP11β-2, and GRK4 A486V polymorphisms showed gender-based differences with regard to interaction between sodium intake and obesity. Conclusion A high sodium intake markedly increased the obesity risk in variants of GRK4 A486V regardless of sex. The obesity risk increased with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 variants in boys, whereas it increased with GRK4 A486V and CYP11B2 variants in girls as sodium intake increased. Obese children with the specific gene

  3. Gender-based differences on the association between salt-sensitive genes and obesity in Korean children aged between 8 and 9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Seon-Mee; Park, Hyesoon; Park, Chang Gyu; Park, Hye Kyung

    2015-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with the development of chronic diseases such as obesity. Although its role in obesity remains controversial, there may be a correlation between salt sensitivity and the early onset of chronic diseases in obese children. In all, 2,163 Korean children (1,106 boys and 1,057 girls) aged 8-9 years were recruited from seven elementary schools in Seoul. To evaluate whether obesity risk was modulated by the salt sensitivity, 11 SNPs related to salt sensitive genes (SSG) became the target of sodium intakes in obese children. BP, HOMA-IR, LDLc, TG, and the girls' sodium intake significantly increased, but HDLc significantly decreased with increase in BMI. Regardless of sex, the obesity risk was 5.27-fold (CI; 1.320-27.560) higher in the Q2 to Q5 of sodium intake adjusted by energy (4044.9-5058.9 mg/day) than in the lowest Q1 level (2287.6 mg/day) in obese children. BP was sensitively dependent on insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in all subjects; however, sodium intake may be an independent risk factor of obesity without increasing BP in girls. GRK4 A486V mutant homozygote was highly distributed in the obese group, but other SNPs had no impact. The obesity risk increased 7.06, 16.8, and 46.09-fold more in boys with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 mutants as sodium intake increased. Among girls, the obesity risk increased in GRK4 A486V heterozygote and CYP11β-2 mutant homozygote although sodium intake was relatively lower, implying that ACE, SLC12A, CYP11β-2, and GRK4 A486V polymorphisms showed gender-based differences with regard to interaction between sodium intake and obesity. A high sodium intake markedly increased the obesity risk in variants of GRK4 A486V regardless of sex. The obesity risk increased with GRK4 A486V, ACE, and SLC12A3 variants in boys, whereas it increased with GRK4 A486V and CYP11B2 variants in girls as sodium intake increased. Obese children with the specific gene variants are recommended to reduce their sodium

  4. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  5. High salt loading induces urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of epithelial sodium channel alpha in the bladder epithelium in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Yamamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether high salt intake affects bladder function via epithelial sodium channel (ENaC by using Dahl salt-resistant (DR and salt-sensitive (DS rats. Bladder weight of DR + high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl and DS + HS groups were significantly higher than those of DR + normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl and DS + NS groups after one week treatment. We thereafter used only DR + HS and DS + HS group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group after the treatment period. Cystometrogram showed the intercontraction intervals (ICI were significantly shorter in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group during infusion of saline. Subsequent infusion of amiloride significantly prolonged ICI in DS + HS group, while no intra-group difference in ICI was observed in DR + HS group. No intra- or inter-group differences in maximum intravesical pressure were observed. Protein expression levels of ENaCα in the bladder were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group. ENaCα protein was localized at bladder epithelium in both groups. In conclusion, high salt intake is considered to cause urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of ENaC in the bladder epithelium with salt-sensitive hypertension, suggesting that ENaC might be a candidate for therapeutic target for urinary storage dysfunction.

  6. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Attenuates Salt-Induced Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Wollner, Clayton; Kurth, Theresa; Bukowy, John D; Cowley, Allen W

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the protective effects of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) inhibition by rapamycin on salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We have previously demonstrated that H 2 O 2 is elevated in the kidneys of SS rats. The present study showed a significant upregulation of renal mTORC1 activity in the SS rats fed a 4.0% NaCl for 3 days. In addition, renal interstitial infusion of H 2 O 2 into salt-resistant Sprague Dawley rats for 3 days was also found to stimulate mTORC1 activity independent of a rise of arterial blood pressure. Together, these data indicate that the salt-induced increases of renal H 2 O 2 in SS rats activated the mTORC1 pathway. Daily administration of rapamycin (IP, 1.5 mg/kg per day) for 21 days reduced salt-induced hypertension from 176.0±9.0 to 153.0±12.0 mm Hg in SS rats but had no effect on blood pressure salt sensitivity in Sprague Dawley treated rats. Compared with vehicle, rapamycin reduced albumin excretion rate in SS rats from 190.0±35.0 to 37.0±5.0 mg/d and reduced the renal infiltration of T lymphocytes (CD3 + ) and macrophages (ED1 + ) in the cortex and medulla. Renal hypertrophy and cell proliferation were also reduced in rapamycin-treated SS rats. We conclude that enhancement of intrarenal H 2 O 2 with a 4.0% NaCl diet stimulates the mTORC1 pathway that is necessary for the full development of the salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in the SS rat. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Signatures of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency in poplar lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Pollet, Brigitte; Mila, Isabelle; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Jouanin, Lise; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John

    2004-02-01

    A series of transgenic poplars down-regulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) was analyzed by thioacidolysis. Among the lignin-derived monomers, the indene compounds that were recently shown to originate from sinapaldehyde incorporated into lignins through 8-O-4-cross-coupling, were found to increase as a function of CAD deficiency level. While these syringyl markers were recovered in substantial amounts in the most severely depressed lines, the markers for coniferaldehyde incorporation were recovered in only low amounts. In conjunction with these additional sinapaldehyde units and relative to the control samples, lignins in CAD-deficient poplar lines had less conventional syringyl-units and beta-O-4-bonds and more free phenolic groups. We found that almost half of the polymers in the most deficient lines could be solubilized in alkali and at room temperature. This unusual behavior suggests that lignins in CAD-deficient poplars occur as small, alkali-leachable lignin domains. That mainly sinapaldehyde incorporates into the lignins of CAD-deficient poplars suggests that the recently identified sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), which is structurally distinct from the CAD enzyme targeted herein, does not play any substantial role in constitutive lignification in poplar.

  8. Chemical studies on oils derived from aspen poplar wood, cellulose, and an isolated aspen poplar lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Pepper, J M; Roy, J C; Mathews, J F

    1983-01-01

    An initial study has been made of the chemical nature of the oil phase resulting from the conversion of aspen poplar wood, cellulose, and an isolated lignin from the aspen poplar as a result of their interactions with water and carbon monoxide in the presence of sodium carbonate at 360 degrees C. Gas chromatographic analysis of the sodium hydroxide soluble fractions from each substrate revealed similar spectra of alkyl-substituted phenols. The relative abundance of identified low molecular weight phenolic compounds decreased from lignin to wood to cellulose. This was in agreement with the known phenolic nature of lignin. As well, it confirmed the synthesis during reaction of such compounds from a carbohydrate substrate. Gas chromatographic analysis of the whole oils also revealed the presence in each case of several alkyl-substituted cyclopentanones whose relative abundance decreased from cellulose to wood to lignin. Silica gel column separation of the oils, after a charcoal treatment, followed by capillary gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric analyses of the resulting fraction indicated the presence of other higher molecular weight phenols, napthols, cycloalkanols, and polycyclic and long chain alkanes and alkenes.

  9. Production and ecological aspects of short rotation poplars in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacic, Almir

    2005-02-01

    Poplars (Populus sp.) are widely used in short rotation forestry for production of biomass for bioenergy, fibre and environmental services. Swedish short rotation forestry is based on Salix sp., and little is known about the production potential of poplar plantations and their effects on the environment. This thesis focuses on four aspects of intensive short rotation forestry with poplars: 1) Biomass production and partitioning at several initial densities and a range of latitudes and growing conditions in Sweden, 2) the effects of poplar plantation on floristic diversity in the Swedish agricultural landscape, 3) the pattern of wind damage and its effects on production in poplar plantations in southern Sweden, and 4) ecological characterisation of poplar varieties in short-term experiments with pot-grown plants. Annual biomass production in poplar plots and plantations over a rotation period of 9-14 years ranges between 3.3 and 9.2 Mg/ha/yr. These high production figures are achieved on relatively fertile, non-fertilised and non-irrigated agricultural land. The production assessments for commercial poplar plantations established at lower initial densities (1000 trees/ha) in southern Sweden indicate a similar production potential as in closely spaced cultures (5000 trees/ha), though at 3-5 years longer rotations. Lower initial densities enable higher pulpwood yields along with the production of biomass for bioenergy. A comparison among 21 poplar plots, 0.1-13 ha large and adjacent arable fields, indicates that small poplar plantations may increase floristic diversity on a landscape scale, mainly by providing a different type of habitat that may favour shade-tolerant and draught-sensitive species. This is reflected by a relatively low number of species shared by both types of habitat. Wind damage in two poplar plantations, 15 and 33 ha large, was assessed using wind damage classes based on leaning angle of individual trees on plots established before wind damage

  10. Analysis of Location Quotient index of poplar wood processing value chain in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    omid hosseinzadeh; Marzieh Hajjarian; Samira Porbar

    2016-01-01

    Value added in the poplar wood value chain has great economic effects for poplar farmers and have a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials of industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value chain of poplar and use the results to improve it. In order to determine the poplar value chain, Porter's value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society consists of 76 experts to identify poplar wood value who were active in ...

  11. Polymorphisms of three genes (ACE, AGT and CYP11B2) in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are not associated with blood pressure salt sensitivity: A systematic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Zhao, Min; Miao, Song; Xi, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that polymorphisms of three key genes (ACE, AGT and CYP11B2) in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) play important roles in the development of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity, but they have revealed inconsistent results. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the association. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible published articles. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to pool odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals based on whether there was significant heterogeneity between studies. In total, seven studies [237 salt-sensitive (SS) cases and 251 salt-resistant (SR) controls] for ACE gene I/D polymorphism, three studies (130 SS cases and 221 SR controls) for AGT gene M235T polymorphism and three studies (113 SS cases and 218 SR controls) for CYP11B2 gene C344T polymorphism were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that there was no significant association between polymorphisms of these three polymorphisms in the RAAS and BP salt sensitivity under three genetic models (all p > 0.05). The meta-analysis suggested that three polymorphisms (ACE gene I/D, AGT gene M235T, CYP11B2 gene C344T) in the RAAS have no significant effect on BP salt sensitivity.

  12. Sulfate Metabolites of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2012-01-01

    4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently...

  13. [Phosphorus transfer between mixed poplar and black locust seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Jia, Liming; Hao, Baogang; Wen, Xuejun; Zhai, Mingpu

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the 32P radio-tracer technique was applied to study the ways of phosphorus transfer between poplar (Populus euramericana cv. 'I-214') and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). A five compartment root box (18 cm x 18 cm x 26 cm) was used for testing the existence of the hyphal links between the roots of two tree species when inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae). Populus I-214 (donor) and Robinia pseudoacacia (receiver) were grown in two terminal compartments, separated by a 2 cm root-free soil layer. The root compartments were lined with bags of nylon mesh (38 microns) that allowed the passage of hyphae but not roots. The top soil of a mixed stand of poplar and black locust, autoclaved at 121 degrees C for one hour, was used for growing seedlings for testing. In 5 compartment root box, mycorrhizal root colonization of poplar was 34%, in which VA mycorrhizal fungus was inoculated, whereas 26% mycorrhizal root colonization was observed in black locust, the other terminal compartment, 20 weeks after planting. No root colonization was observed in non-inoculated plant pairs. This indicated that the mycorrhizal root colonization of black locust was caused by hyphal spreading from the poplar. Test of tracer isotope of 32P showed that the radioactivity of the treatment significantly higher than that of the control (P mycorrhizal fungus was inoculated in poplar root. Furthermore, mycorrhizal interconnections between the roots of poplar and black locust seedlings was observed in situ by binocular in root box. All these experiments showed that the hyphal links was formed between the roots of two species of trees inoculated by VA mycorrhizal fungus. Four treatments were designed according to if there were two nets (mesh 38 microns), 2 cm apart, between the poplar and black locust, and if the soil in root box was pasteurized. Most significant differences of radioactivity among four treatments appeared 44 days after feeding

  14. Effect of different biochars on Nitrogen uptake in poplar trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth; Tonon, Giustino; Scandellari, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Influence of biochar on soil nitrogen transformation and plant uptake has been reported. This paper presents preliminary results of plant N uptake in poplars by using 15N isotope tracer approach Two types of biochar were applied to two sets of pots containing only sand and each pot received a pre-rooted poplar cutting. Half of the pots were inoculated with commercial mycorrhizal gel and the other half were left without. It is intended to provide information on how biochar, mycorrhiza and root interaction mediate nitrogen uptake and organ allocation.

  15. Genome-wide Identification of WRKY Genes in the Desert Poplar Populus euphratica and Adaptive Evolution of the Genes in Response to Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianchao; Lu, Jing; Xu, Jianmei; Duan, Bingbing; He, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant development and responses to various stresses in plants. However, little is known about the evolution of the WRKY genes in the desert poplar species Populus euphratica, which is highly tolerant of salt stress. In this study, we identified 107 PeWRKY genes from the P. euphratica genome and examined their evolutionary relationships with the WRKY genes of the salt-sensitive congener Populus trichocarpa. Ten PeWRKY genes are specific to P. euphratica, and five of these showed altered expression under salt stress. Furthermore, we found that two pairs of orthologs between the two species showed evidence of positive evolution, with dN/dS ratios>1 (nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions), and both of them altered their expression in response to salinity stress. These findings suggested that both the development of new genes and positive evolution in some orthologs of the WRKY gene family may have played an important role in the acquisition of high salt tolerance by P. euphratica.

  16. Growth and cellular ion content of a salt-sensitive symbiotic system Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vandna; Sharma, Naveen Kumar; Rai, Ashwani K

    2006-09-01

    Salinity, at a concentration of 10 mM NaCl affected the growth of Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae association and became lethal at 40 mM. Plants exposed up to 30 mM NaCl exhibited longer roots than the control, especially during the beginning of incubation. Average root number in plants exposed to 10 and 20 mM NaCl remained almost the same as in control. A further rise in NaCl concentration to 30 mM reduced the root number, and roots shed off at 40 mM NaCl. Presence of NaCl in the nutrient solution increased the cellular Na+ of the intact association exhibiting differential accumulation by individual partners, while it reduced the cellular Ca2+ level. However, cellular K+ content did not show significant change. Cellular Na+ based on fresh weight of respective individual partners (host tissues and cyanobiont) remained higher in the host tissues than the cyanobiont, while reverse was true for K+ and Ca2+ contents. The contribution of A. azollae in the total cellular ion content of the association was a little because of meagre contribution of the cyanobiont mass (19-21%). High salt sensitivity of Azolla-Anabaena complex is due to an inability of the association to maintain low Na+ and high Ca2+ cellular level.

  17. Salt Sensitive Tet-Off-Like Systems to Knockdown Primordial Germ Cell Genes for Repressible Transgenic Sterilization in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanbo; Su, Baofeng; Qin, Guyu; Ye, Zhi; Alsaqufi, Ahmed; Perera, Dayan A; Shang, Mei; Odin, Ramjie; Vo, Khoi; Drescher, David; Robinson, Dalton; Zhang, Dan; Abass, Nermeen; Dunham, Rex A

    2017-05-31

    Repressible knockdown approaches were investigated for transgenic sterilization in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus . Two primordial germ cell (PGC) marker genes, nanos and dead end , were targeted for knockdown, and an off-target gene, vasa , was monitored. Two potentially salt sensitive repressible promoters, zebrafish adenylosuccinate synthase 2 (ADSS) and zebrafish racemase (Rm), were each coupled with four knockdown strategies: ds-sh RNA targeting the 5' end (N1) or 3' end (N2) of channel catfish nanos , full-length cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression (cDNA) and ds-sh RNA targeting channel catfish dead end (DND). Each construct had an untreated group and treated group with sodium chloride as the repressor compound. Spawning rates of full-sibling P₁ fish exposed or not exposed to the constructs as treated and untreated embryos were 93% and 59%, respectively, indicating potential sterilization of fish and repression of the constructs. Although the mRNA expression data of PGC marker genes were inconsistent in P₁ fish, most F₁ individuals were able to downregulate the target genes in untreated groups and repress the knockdown process in treated groups. The results indicate that repressible transgenic sterilization is feasible for reproductive control of fish, but more data from F₂ or F₃ are needed for evaluation.

  18. Salt Sensitive Tet-Off-Like Systems to Knockdown Primordial Germ Cell Genes for Repressible Transgenic Sterilization in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbo Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Repressible knockdown approaches were investigated for transgenic sterilization in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Two primordial germ cell (PGC marker genes, nanos and dead end, were targeted for knockdown, and an off-target gene, vasa, was monitored. Two potentially salt sensitive repressible promoters, zebrafish adenylosuccinate synthase 2 (ADSS and zebrafish racemase (Rm, were each coupled with four knockdown strategies: ds-sh RNA targeting the 5′ end (N1 or 3′ end (N2 of channel catfish nanos, full-length cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression (cDNA and ds-sh RNA targeting channel catfish dead end (DND. Each construct had an untreated group and treated group with sodium chloride as the repressor compound. Spawning rates of full-sibling P1 fish exposed or not exposed to the constructs as treated and untreated embryos were 93% and 59%, respectively, indicating potential sterilization of fish and repression of the constructs. Although the mRNA expression data of PGC marker genes were inconsistent in P1 fish, most F1 individuals were able to downregulate the target genes in untreated groups and repress the knockdown process in treated groups. The results indicate that repressible transgenic sterilization is feasible for reproductive control of fish, but more data from F2 or F3 are needed for evaluation.

  19. Poplar physiology and short-term biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, P.; Lannoye, R. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale)

    1990-01-01

    This program comprised the establishment, on biochemical and physiological basis, of specific screening tests for the rapid evaluation of poplar adaptation to environmental conditions. The resistance of chloroplasts to several major environmental stresses affecting biomass production (light, heat, cold and water stress) has been assessed in leaves of five poplar (Populus sp.) clones by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen production measurements. These two chloroplastic activities are correlated to the photosynthetic activity of the plant and respond immediately to any changes affecting the organization and the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus, including regulatory mechanisms. Test clones were grown as cuttings in a .80 {times} .80m planting pattern. In addition, some plants were grown hydroponically in containers under a plastic roof in controlled conditions to test their behavior toward hydric (drought), light (shadow and overlight) and temperature (cold and warm) stresses. A specific data capture system has been developed to analyze clone resistance to environmental stresses. The results indicated considerable genetic variation in tolerance of poplar clones toward environmental stresses. The application of the in vivo fluorescence method and of the photoacoustic method appears to be an easy and rapid method to estimate the reaction of poplar clones against some stresses and thus for detecting plant species adapted to environmental stresses. 59 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Poplar response to cadmium and lead soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Hanousek, Karla; Sedak, Marija; Bilandžić, Nina; Jakovljević, Tamara

    2017-10-01

    An outdoor pot experiment was designed to study the potential of poplar (Populus nigra 'Italica') in phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Poplar was treated with a combination of different concentrations of Cd (w = 10, 25, 50mgkg -1 soil) and Pb (400, 800, 1200mgkg -1 soil) and several physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored including the accumulation and distribution of metals in different plant parts (leaf, stem, root). Simultaneously, the changes in the antioxidant system in roots and leaves were monitored to be able to follow synergistic effects of both heavy metals. Moreover, a statistical analysis based on the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) was performed in order to determine the most important predictors affecting growth and antioxidative machinery activities of poplar under heavy metal stress. The study demonstrated that tested poplar could be a good candidate for phytoextraction processes of Cd in moderately contaminated soils, while in heavily contaminated soil it could be only considered as a phytostabilisator. For Pb remediation only phytostabilisation process could be considered. By using RFA we pointed out that it is important to conduct the experiments in an outdoor space and include environmental conditions in order to study more realistic changes of growth parameters and accumulation and distribution of heavy metals. Also, to be able to better understand the interactions among previously mentioned parameters, it is important to conduct the experiments during prolonged time exposure., This is especially important for the long life cycle woody species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluation of interspecific DNA variability in poplars using AFLP and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to examine interspecific DNA variation in poplars using AFLP and SSR markers. The AFLP and SSR markers polymorphism and its power of discrimination were determined within 13 genotypes of different genetic background (clones, cultivars, hybrids) of two sections (Aigeiros and ...

  2. Economic investigations of short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lothner

    1983-01-01

    The history of the economic analyses is summarized for short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplar at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Early break-even analyses with limited data indicated that at a price of $25-30 per dry ton for fiber and low to medium production costs, several systems looked profitable. Later cash flow analyses indicated that two...

  3. FEM growth and yield data Monocultures - Poplar (revised version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Schmidt, P.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.; Ouden, den J.

    2017-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species with only a few plots,

  4. Trinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers for Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    Using an enrichment procedure, we have cloned microsatellite repeats from black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and developed primers for microsatellite marker analysis. Ten primer pairs, mostly for trinucleotide repeats, produced polymorphic fragments in P. nigra. Some of them also showed amplification

  5. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  6. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  7. Initial spacing of poplars and willows grown as arable coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, A.; Johns, C.

    1997-11-01

    Two clones of poplar and two clones of willow were grown at two sites, on a three year cutting cycle, at six different square spacings, between 0.8 metres and 1.5 metres. The two willow clones 'Bowles hybrid' and 'Dasyclados' were planted at both sites. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Beaupre' and Populus trichocarpa 'Columbia River'' were planted at Wishanger in Hampshire. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Boelare' and Populus trichocarpa 'Trichobel' were planted at Downham Market in Norfolk. The highest yield of 17.55 oven dry tonnes per hectare (odt/ha/annum) was obtained from 'Bowles hybrid', at the closest spacing, grown on a water meadow adjacent to the River Wey at Wishanger. The highest yield for all clones at both sites was achieved at the closest spacing (in this first rotation). There was a significant linear effect. One of the most interesting observations was that when comparing the gradient of the linear relationship, within species, the gradient was steeper for the higher yielding clone. This was particularly so for the willows. This would suggest that higher yielding clones are more tolerant of crowding, or, that upright Salix viminalis make better use of close space than the more spreading Salix dasyclados. The new Salix x Salix schwerinnii hybrids should therefore also be responsive to closer spacing. The same effect was observed for the poplars at Wishanger only, but the difference was not as dramatic. There was a suggestion from the highest yielding poplar plots that optimum yield may still be obtained at the currently recommended spacing of 1.0 metre x 1.0 metre. (author)

  8. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  9. Isoprene biosynthesis in hybrid poplar impacts ozone tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, K.; Kleist, E.; Uerlings, R.; Wildt, J.; Rennenberg, H.; Schnitzler, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant volatile compound emitted by vegetation. It influences air chemistry and is thought to take part in plant defense reactions against abiotic stress such as high temperature or ozone. However, whether or not isoprene emission interacts with ozone tolerance of plants is still in discussion. We exploited transgenic non-isoprene emitting Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) in a biochemical and physiological model study to investigate the effect of acute ozone stress on the elicitation of defense-related emissions of plant volatiles, photosynthesis and the antioxidative system. We recorded that non-isoprene emitting poplars are more resistant to ozone as indicated by less damaged leaf area and higher assimilation rates compared to ozone-exposed wild type plants. The integral of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions was different between the two poplar phenotypes and a reliable early marker for subsequent leaf damage. For other stress-induced volatiles like mono-, homo-, and sesquiterpenes, and methyl salicylate similar time profiles, pattern and emission intensities were observed in both transgenic and wild type plants. However, un-stressed non-isoprene emitting poplars are characterized by elevated levels of ascorbate and α-tocopherol as well as a more effective de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls than in wild type plants. Since ozone quenching properties of ascorbate are much higher than those of isoprene and furthermore α-tocopherol also is an essential antioxidant, non-isoprene emitting poplars might benefit from changes within the antioxidative system by providing them with enhanced ozone tolerance.

  10. Does a medical history of hypertension influence disclosing genetic testing results of the risk for salt-sensitive hypertension, in primary care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okayama M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masanobu Okayama,1,2 Taro Takeshima,2 Masanori Harada,3 Ryusuke Ae,4 Eiji Kajii2 1Division of Community Medicine and Medical Education, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, 2Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 3Department of Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Hofu, Yamaguchi, 4Division of Public Health, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan Objective: Disclosing genetic testing results may contribute to the prevention and management of many common diseases. However, whether the presence of a disease influences these effects is unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference in the effects of disclosing genetic testing results of the risk for developing salt-sensitive hypertension on the behavioral modifications with respect to salt intake in hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients.Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted for outpatients aged >20 years (N=2,237 at six primary care clinics and hospitals in Japan. The main factors assessed were medical histories of hypertension, salt preferences, reduced salt intakes, and behavior modifications for reducing salt intake. Behavioral modifications of participants were assessed using their behavior stages before and after disclosure of the hypothetical genetic testing results. Results: Of the 2,237 participants, 1,644 (73.5% responded to the survey. Of these respondents, 558 (33.9% patients were hypertensive and 1,086 (66.1% were nonhypertensive. After being notified of the result “If with genetic risk”, the nonhypertensive participants were more likely to make positive behavioral modifications compared to the hypertensive patients among all participants and in those aged <65 years (adjusted relative ratio [ad-RR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.12−2.76 and ad-RR, 1

  11. Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696) on Natriuresis, Diuresis, Blood Pressures, and NT-proBNP in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzung-Dau; Tan, Ru-San; Lee, Hae-Young; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Rhee, Moo-Yong; Tomlinson, Brian; Pal, Parasar; Yang, Fan; Hirschhorn, Elizabeth; Prescott, Margaret F; Hinder, Markus; Langenickel, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    Salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) is characterized by impaired sodium excretion and subnormal vasodilatory response to salt loading. Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) was hypothesized to increase natriuresis and diuresis and result in superior blood pressure control compared with valsartan in Asian patients with SSH. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 72 patients with SSH received sacubitril/valsartan 400 mg and valsartan 320 mg once daily for 4 weeks each. SSH was diagnosed if the mean arterial pressure increased by ≥10% when patients switched from low (50 mmol/d) to high (320 mmol/d) sodium diet. The primary outcome was cumulative 6- and 24-hour sodium excretion after first dose administration. Compared with valsartan, sacubitril/valsartan was associated with a significant increase in natriuresis (adjusted treatment difference: 24.5 mmol/6 hours, 50.3 mmol/24 hours, both Psacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels on day 28 (adjusted treatment difference: -20%; P=0.001). Sacubitril/valsartan and valsartan were safe and well tolerated with no significant changes in body weight or serum sodium and potassium levels with either treatments. In conclusion, sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan was associated with short-term increases in natriuresis and diuresis, superior office and ambulatory blood pressure control, and significantly reduced N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels in Asian patients with SSH. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01681576. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De-Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey tolerance and sensitivity remain largely unknown. To investigate this issue, potted olive plants of Leccino (salt-sensitive) and Frantoio (salt-tolerant) cultivars were grown in a phytotron chamber and treated with 0, 60 and 120mM NaCl. After forty days of treatment, growth analysis was performed and the concentration of sodium in root, stem and leaves was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Phenolic compounds were extracted using methanol, hydrolyzed with butanol-HCl, and quercetin and kaempferol quantified via high performance liquid-chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and HPLC-q-Time of Flight-MS analyses. In addition, the transcripts levels of five key genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR. The results of this study corroborate the previous observations, which showed that Frantoio and Leccino differ in allocating sodium in root and leaves. This study also revealed that phenolic compounds remain stable or are strongly depleted under long-time treatment with sodium in Leccino, despite a strong up-regulation of key genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway was observed. Frantoio instead, showed a less intense up-regulation of the phenylpropanoid genes but overall higher content of phenolic compounds. These data suggest that Frantoio copes with the toxicity imposed by elevated sodium not only with mechanisms of Na + exclusion, but also promptly allocating effective and adequate antioxidant compounds to more sensitive organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filichkin, Sergei; Etherington, Elizabeth; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steve

    2007-02-22

    The goals of the S.H. Strauss laboratory portion of 'Genome-enabled discovery of carbon sequestration genes in poplar' are (1) to explore the functions of candidate genes using Populus transformation by inserting genes provided by Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Florida (UF) into poplar; (2) to expand the poplar transformation toolkit by developing transformation methods for important genotypes; and (3) to allow induced expression, and efficient gene suppression, in roots and other tissues. As part of the transformation improvement effort, OSU developed transformation protocols for Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1' clone and an early flowering P. alba clone, 6K10. Complete descriptions of the transformation systems were published (Ma et. al. 2004, Meilan et. al 2004). Twenty-one 'Nisqually-1' and 622 6K10 transgenic plants were generated. To identify root predominant promoters, a set of three promoters were tested for their tissue-specific expression patterns in poplar and in Arabidopsis as a model system. A novel gene, ET304, was identified by analyzing a collection of poplar enhancer trap lines generated at OSU (Filichkin et. al 2006a, 2006b). Other promoters include the pGgMT1 root-predominant promoter from Casuarina glauca and the pAtPIN2 promoter from Arabidopsis root specific PIN2 gene. OSU tested two induction systems, alcohol- and estrogen-inducible, in multiple poplar transgenics. Ethanol proved to be the more efficient when tested in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. Two estrogen-inducible systems were evaluated in transgenic Populus, neither of which functioned reliably in tissue culture conditions. GATEWAY-compatible plant binary vectors were designed to compare the silencing efficiency of homologous (direct) RNAi vs. heterologous (transitive) RNAi inverted repeats. A set of genes was targeted for post transcriptional silencing in the model Arabidopsis system; these include the floral

  14. Political culture and the labour movement: a comparison between Poplar and West Ham, 1889-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Banks-Conney, Diana Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    This thesis compares two areas of East London, Poplar and West Ham,that ultimately became strongholds of the Labour Party. The thesis attemptsto answer the crucial question of why, prior to 1914, it seemed as if Labour had succeeded in South West Ham but had failed to achieve similar representation in Poplar. This thesis considers that although contemporaries had identified similar social and economic problems in both Poplar and West Ham in the early twentieth century, more detailed analysis ...

  15. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0% compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations.

  16. The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of poplar clones selected for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, T.; Radimszky, L.; Nemeth, T. [Research Inst. for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the colonization of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in fine-roots of poplar clones. Roots of 7 poplar clones were sampled from a 1-year-old trial established at an industrial site strongly polluted with heavy metals at Balatonfuezfoe, Hungary. The poplar clones have shown variable degrees of colonization by AMF, suggesting differential host susceptibility or mycorrhizal dependency. After outplanting the percentage of poplar survival was strongly correlated with the frequency of AMF infection. Two clones that survived at the lowest ratio after outplanting had not been colonized by AMF in contrast to those which survived to a much higher extent. (orig.)

  17. 21st Session of the International Poplar Commission (IPC-2000): poplar and willow culture: meeting the needs of society and the environment; 200 September 24-28; Vancouver, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; J. Richardson

    2000-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities on poplar and willow breeding, diseases, insects, production, and utilization are described in 220 abstracts from the International Poplar Commission meeting in Vancouver, Washington, September 24-28, 2000.

  18. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of poplar clones (Populus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipovic, A.; Orlovic, S.; Petrovic, N. [Faculty of Agriculture, Inst. of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia); Nikolic, N.; Krstic, B. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Dept. of Biology and Ecology, Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia)

    2005-04-01

    Biomass production, leaf number and area, photosynthetic and dark respiration rates, leaf concentration of photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity, as well as cadmium concentrations in leaves, stem, and roots were measured in poplar clones PE 4/68, B-229, 665, and 45/51. Plants were grown hydroponically under controlled conditions and treated with two different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (10{sup -5} and 10{sup -7} M) in the same background solution (Hoagland's solution). The presence of Cd did not cause serious disturbance of growth and physiological parameters in the studied poplar clones. Cd concentrations in plant tissues reflected external concentrations. In treated plants, root contents increased from 38.57 to 511.51 ppm, leaf contents from 0.91 to 7.50, while stem contents ranged from 1.37 to 9.50 ppm. (orig.)

  19. A New Stem Taper Function for Short-rotation poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbrahim, Mohammed [INRA Centre de Bordeaux, Cestas (France). Unite de Recherches Forestieres; Gavaland, Andre [INRA Centre de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosane (France). Unite Agroforesterie et Foret Paysanne

    2003-07-01

    A new stem taper function was established for individual trees of two poplar hybrid clones grown on a short-rotation coppice. The model could be easily fitted and required three parameters to be estimated. It can be used to estimate both diameter at a given height and height for a given top diameter. Two of the three parameters controlled the conical and the neiloid parts of the stem. Significant differences in these parameters were observed between the two clones even if no differences were observed for diameter at breast height or total height of the stem. The model could not be integrated to calculate volumes (total volume, merchantable volume), which were estimated by numerical integration. However, use of this new model allows the optimal length of billets to be determined and thus maximizes the merchantable biomass of poplar in short-rotation coppice by minimizing the biomass of residues.

  20. Fungus diseases of poplar that pose a threat to Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, E.; Cellerino, G.P.; Garibaldi, A.

    1981-01-01

    European Economic Community Directive No. 7793 on the exchange of, and trade in, plant material between member countries specified Hypoxylon mammatum, Mycosphaerella populorum, Melampsora medusae and Xanthomonas populi as the causal agents of serious poplar diseases the introduction of which into Italy should be avoided. Information is given on the geographic distribution, morphology and biology of the four pathogens, together with notes on the symptoms of attack, host plants and damage caused. Control measures to avoid their introduction and spread are suggested.

  1. With willows and poplars against the heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, M.

    2002-01-01

    Special kinds of trees take out cadmium, lead and zinc from the soil, helping its rehabilitation in contaminated regions. A new method for soil rehabilitation (phytoremediation) based on plants is described. Special willows and poplars have the capability to extract as a sponge heavy metals from the soils and store them in their leaves. For example, they can uptake 700 times the amount of cadmium than the normal plants do. (nevyjel)

  2. Comparative 2D-DIGE analysis of salinity responsive microsomal proteins from leaves of salt-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana and salt-tolerant Thellungiella salsuginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Pantoja, Omar

    2014-12-05

    Halophytes have evolved unique molecular strategies to overcome high soil salinity but we still know very little about the main mechanisms that these plants use to complete their lifecycle under salinity stress. One useful approach to further our understanding in this area is to directly compare the response to salinity of two closely related species which show diverse levels of salt tolerance. Here we present a comparative proteomic study using DIGE of leaf microsomal proteins to identify salt-responsive membrane associated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (a glycophyte) and Thellungiella salsuginea (a halophyte). While a small number of distinct protein abundance changes were observed upon salt stress in both species, the most notable differences were observed between species and specifically, in untreated plants with a total of 36 proteins displaying significant abundance changes. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis showed that the majority of these proteins were distributed into two functional categories; transport (31%) and carbohydrate metabolism (17%). Results identify several novel salt responsive proteins in this system and support the theory that T. salsuginea shows a high degree of salt-tolerance because molecular mechanisms are primed to deal with the stress. This intrinsic ability to anticipate salinity stress distinguishes it from the glycophyte A. thaliana. There is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms that plants use to tolerate salinity as soil salinization is becoming an increasing concern for agriculture with high soil Na(+) levels leading to reduced yields and economic loss. Much of our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms employed by plants to combat salinity stress has come from work on salt-sensitive plants, but studies on naturally occurring highly salt-resistant plants, halophytes, and direct comparisons between closely related glycophytes and halophytes, could help to further our understanding of salinity

  3. An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System for Poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Ali; Zhang, Jiaxin; Amirian, Rasoul; Zhuge, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective suspension was treated at 4 °C for at least 10 h before infecting explants. By transforming the Populus hybrid clone “Nanlin895” (Populus deltoides × P. euramericana) with Agrobacterium harboring the PBI121:CarNAC6 binary vector, we showed that the transformation efficiency was improved significantly by multiple independent factors, including an Agrobacterium infective suspension with an OD600 of 0.7, an Agrobacterium infection for 120 min, an Agrobacterium infective suspension at a pH of 5.0, an acetosyringone concentration of 200 µM, a cocultivation at 28 °C, a cocultivation for 72 h and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L in the cocultivation medium. We also showed that preculture of wounded leaf explants for two days increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis. PMID:24933641

  4. Heat transfer mechanisms in poplar wood undergoing torrefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Idris O.; Mahmud, Shohel; Dutta, Animesh; Tasnim, Syeda Humaira

    2016-03-01

    Torrefaction, a thermal treatment process of biomass, has been proved to improve biomass combustible properties. Torrefaction is defined as a thermochemical process in reduced oxygen condition and at temperature range from 200 to 300 °C for shorter residence time whereby energy yield is maximized, can be a bridging technology that can lead the conventional system (e.g. coal-fired plants) towards a sustainable energy system. In efforts to develop a commercial operable torrefaction reactor, the present study examines the minimum input condition at which biomass is torrefied and explores the heat transfer mechanisms during torrefaction in poplar wood samples. The heat transfer through the wood sample is numerically modeled and analyzed. Each poplar wood is torrefied at temperature of 250, 270, and 300 °C. The experimental study shows that the 270 °C-treatment can be deduced as the optimal input condition for torrefaction of poplar wood. A good understanding of heat transfer mechanisms can facilitate the upscaling and downscaling of torrefaction process equipment to fit the feedstock input criteria and can help to develop treatment input specifications that can maximize process efficiency.

  5. Characterization of surface water contaminants in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.; Madix, S.; Rash, C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface waters in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek have been contaminated by activities on the DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation throughout the more than 50 year history of Oak Ridge. Though the Clinch River and Poplar Creek drainage areas are contaminated with heavy metals, organics and radionuclides, public access to these sites is not restricted. The investigation, divided into discrete studies, was tailored to provide a statistically sound picture of contaminants and aqueous toxicity in Poplar Creek, investigate contaminant remobilization from sediments, and determine contaminant levels during a series of ''worst-case'' events. Results for Poplar Creek indicate that average contaminant values were below levels of concern for human health and ecological risk, though contaminant distributions suggest that episodic events contribute sufficiently to system contaminant levels to be of concern. Additionally, water column contaminant levels were significantly higher in particle deposition areas rather than at known contaminant sources. Levels of organic compounds in reference areas to Poplar Creek exceeded those in the Poplar Creek study area. In the Clinch River and Poplar Creek, statistical differences in metal and radionuclide levels from known contaminated areas confirmed previous results, and were used to independently distinguish between sites. Contaminant concentrations were elevated in association with sediments, though no distinction between deposition and remobilization could be made. Due to elevated contaminant levels, and some unexpected contaminant distributions, sites in Poplar Creek and off-channel embayments of the Clinch River were identified that will require additional characterization

  6. A comprehensive database of poplar research in North America from 1980 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops such as Populus species and hybrids (hereafter referred to as poplars) are renewable energy feedstocks that can potentially be used to offset electricity generation and natural gas use in many temperature regions. Highly productive poplars grown primarily on marginal agricultural sites are an important component of the...

  7. An approach for siting poplar energy production systems to increase productivity and associated ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Jr. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; D.R. Coyle; W.L. Headlee; R.B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are renewable energy feedstocks that are vital to reducing our dependence on non-renewable and foreign sources of energy used for heat, power, and transportation fuels. Highly productive poplars grown primarily on marginal agricultural sites are an important...

  8. The use of the white poplar (Populus alba L.) biomass as fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana Griu; Aurel Lunguleasa

    2016-01-01

    We determined the calorific value of white poplar (Populus alba L.) woody biomass to use it as fire-wood. The value of 19.133 MJ kg-1 obtained experimen-tally shows that the white poplar can be quite successfully used as firewood. Being of a lower quality in comparison with usual beech firewood, the white poplar has similar calorific value. The white poplar has a calorific density of 30.7%lower than that of current firewood. That is why the price of this firewood from white poplar is lower accord-ingly. Also, the prognosis of calorific value on the basis of the main chemical elements, being very close to the experimental value (?2.6%), indicates an appropriate value can be achieved to be used for investigation with the chemical element analysis.

  9. Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene by an Endophyte of Hybrid Poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Khan, Zareen

    2012-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a novel endophyte from hybrid poplar. This unique endophyte, identified as Enterobacter sp. strain PDN3, showed high tolerance to trichloroethylene (TCE). Without the addition of inducers, such as toluene or phenol, PDN3 rapidly reduced TCE levels in medium from 72.4 μM to 30.1 μM in 24 h with a concurrent release of 127 μM chloride ion, and nearly 80% of TCE (55.3 μM) was dechlorinated by PDN3 in 5 days with 166 μM chloride ion production, suggesting TCE degradation. PMID:22367087

  10. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  11. [SSR analysis on stress effect of transgenic hybrid poplar 741 on Clostera anachoreta (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun Xia; Song, Xiao Ying; Jiang, Wen Hu; Zhou, Guo Na; Gao, Bao Jia

    2016-12-01

    The genetic differentiation of the experimental population of Clostera anachoreta fed on different resistant transgenic 741 poplar leaves was analyzed by SSR molecular marker technique to investigate stress effect of transgenic poplar Bt gene as food on target insect. The experimental population of C. anachoreta fed on transgenic 741 poplar high resistant strains 'Pb29', medium resis-tant strains 'Pb17' and non-transgenic poplar (CK), and the screened ten pairs of SSR primers were used. The results showed that 76 alleles were observed in ten pairs of primers. The average allele was 7.6, the average effective number of alleles was 2.2, the average observed heterozygosity was 0.5167, the average expected heterozygosity was 0.5167, and the average percentage of polymorphic loci was 96.7%. The genetic diversity level of C. anachoreta experimental population fed on transgenic poplar 741 was significantly higher than that fed on non-transgenic populations, and C. anachoreta fed on high resistance had the lowest genetic similarity with CK samples, which showed an increasing trend of the genetic diversity of the experimental population fed on transgenic Bt poplar. It was thus clear that transgenic hybrid poplar 741 had stress effects on genetic differentiation of C. anachoreta experimental population by SSR.

  12. Phytoextraction of risk elements by willow and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacálková, Lada; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of two clones of willow trees (Salix x smithiana Willd., Salix rubens) and two clones of poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii, Populus nigra Wolterson) were planted in contaminated soil (0.4-2.0 mg Cd.kg(-1), 78-313 mg Zn.kg(-1), 21.3-118 mg Cu.kg(-1)). Field experiment was carried out in Czech Republic. The study investigated their ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in harvestable plant parts. The poplars produced higher amount of biomass than willows. Both Salix clones accumulated higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu in their biomass (maximum 6.8 mg Cd.kg(-1), 909 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 17.7 mg Cu.kg(-1)) compared to Populus clones (maximum 2.06 mg Cd.kg(-1), 463 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 11.8 mg Cu.kg(-1)). There were no significant differences between clones of individual species. BCs for Cd and Zn were greater than 1 (the highest in willow leaves). BCs values of Cu were very low. These results indicate that Salix is more suitable plant for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn than Populus. The Cu phytoextraction potential of Salix and Populus trees was not confirmed in this experiment due to low soil availability of this element.

  13. Dechlorination of PCBs in the rhizosphere of switchgrass and poplar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggo, Richard E.; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Hu, Dingfei

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77, and 153) singly and in mixture were spiked and aged in soil microcosms and subsequently planted with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) or poplar (Populus deltoids x nigra DN34). The planted reactors showed significantly greater reductions in PCB parent compounds when compared to unplanted systems after 32 weeks. There was evidence of reductive dechlorination in both planted and unplanted systems, but the planted microcosms with fully developed roots and rhizospheres showed greater biotransformation than the unplanted reactors. These dechlorination products accounted for approximately all of the molar mass of parent compound lost. Based on the transformation products, reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed for rhizospheric biotransformation of PCB 52, 77, and 153. This is the first report of rhizosphere biotransformation pathways for reductive dechlorination in marginally aerobic, intermittently flooded soil as evidenced by a mass balance on transformation products. -- Highlights: •Soil was spiked and aged and then planted with poplar and switchgrass. •Planted microcosms showed significant reductive dechlorination and greater biotransformation than unplanted reactor. •Rhizospheric reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed. -- This study provides insight into rhizospheric transformation of PCBs

  14. Blood pressure, magnesium and other mineral balance in two rat models of salt-sensitive, induced hypertension: effects of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón, Lusliany Josefina; Marcano, Eunice; Rodríguez, Fátima; del Castillo, Jesús Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in regulating arterial blood pressure (BP). Inappropriate angiotensin type-1 receptor activation by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is related to increased arterial BP. Mg has a role in BP; it can affect cardiac electrical activity, myocardial contractility, and vascular tone. To evaluate the relationship between high BP induced by a high sodium (Na) diet and Mg, and other mineral balances, two experimental rat models of salt-sensitive, induced-hypertension were used: Ang-II infused and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We found that: 1) Ang-II infusion progressively increased BP, which was accompanied by hypomagnesuria and signs of secondary hyperaldosteronism; 2) an additive effect between Ang-II and a high Na load may have an effect on strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) balances; 3) Dahl SS rats fed a high Na diet had a slow pressor response, accompanied by altered Mg, Na, potassium (K), and phosphate (P) balances; and 4) losartan prevented BP increases induced by Ang II-NaCl, but did not modify mineral balances. In Dahl SS rats, losartan attenuated high BP and ameliorated magnesemia, Na and K balances. Mg metabolism maybe considered a possible defect in this strain of rat that may contribute to hypertension.

  15. Effect of calcium cyanamide on growth and nutrition of plan fed yellow-poplar seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; G.W. Wendel; G.W. Wendel

    1973-01-01

    Calcium cyanamide, a nitrogenous fertilizer that also acts as an herbicide, was evaluated over a 3-year period for use in establishing planted yellow-poplar on an old-field site. Results of this study show that first and second year growth of yellow-poplar can be increased by nbroadcasting CaCN2 around the seedlings. When applied at rates of 400 to 500 pounds of...

  16. Response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to drought events in a poplar plantation in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Ge Sun; Xianrui Fang; Tonggang Zha; Steve McNulty; Jiquan Chen; Ying Jin; Asko Noormets

    2013-01-01

    Poplar plantations are widely used for timber production and ecological restoration in northern China,a region that experiences frequent droughts and water scarcity. An open-path eddy-covariance (EC)system was used to continuously measure the carbon,water,and energy fluxes in a poplar plantation during the growing season (i.e., April–October)over the period 2006–2008...

  17. Changes in tree density do not influence epicormic branching of yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1977-01-01

    Epicormic branching was studied in a West Virginia yellow-poplar stand thinned to various tree density levels. Study trees in the 55- to 60-year-old second-growth stand were primarily codominant in crown class with 32 to 48 feet of log height. Eight-year study results indicated that yellow-poplar trees in this age class and locale could be thinned without serious loss...

  18. Delimbing hybrid poplar prior to processing with a flail/chipper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hartsough; Raffaele Spinelli; Steve Pottle

    2000-01-01

    We compared the performance of a flail/chipper for processing a) whole poplar trees and b) poplar trees that had been roughly delimbed with a pull-through delimber. Production rate was about 10% higher for the delimbed trees. The reduced cost of flail/chipping would not cover the additional cost of delimbing with the machine mix tested, but changes to equipment might...

  19. Study on adsorption and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Jia, Youngfeng

    2010-08-01

    Field experiments at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology were conducted to study the adsorption, accumulation, and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch grown in artificially contaminated soil. The soil was spiked with a combination of Cd, Cu, and Zn at concentrations of 1.5, 100, and 200 mg.kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the biomass of poplar (Populus canadensis Moench) was lower by 26.0% in the soil spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, and Zn, compared with the control. Concentrations of Cd in poplar leaf and Cu in poplar roots in the treated soil were 4.11 and 14.55 mg kg(-1), respectively, which are much greater than in corresponding controls. The migration of heavy metals in woody plant body was in the order Cd > Zn > Cu. Poplar had higher metal concentrations in aboveground tissues and a higher biomass compared with larch of the same age and therefore is potentially more suitable for remediation. In the heavy metal-polluted soil of this study, phytoremediation by poplar may take 56 and 245 years for Cd and Cu, respectively, for meeting the soil standards of heavy metals, and the corresponding phytoremediation times by larch would take 211 and 438 years. The research findings could be used as a basis to develop ecological engineering technologies for environmental control and remediation of pollution caused by heavy metals in soils.

  20. Willow and poplar for bioenergy on former cropland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros

    and water demands of the trees. The water requirements of SRWCs are generally high, and high evapotranspiration rates in both SRC willow and SRF poplar decreased deep percolation, which along with low N concentrations led to low N leaching. Excessive N leaching was only observed when SRC was fertilized......Climate change is one of the 21st century’s greatest challenges and calls for immediate action through the implementation of mitigation strategies. A shift from fossil fuel to renewable energy is a key factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, with bioenergy being...... the predominant sector of renewables in the current European and global energy markets. Dedicated energy crops, such as short rotation woody crops (SRWC), are promising bioenergy feedstock in southern Scandinavia due to their high yields. Such cropping systems have high demands for land, water, and nutrients...

  1. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  2. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Choi, Young-Im; Cho, Jin-Seong; Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem

  3. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

  4. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Seol Ah, E-mail: s6022029@korea.ac.kr; Choi, Young-Im, E-mail: yichoi99@forest.go.kr; Cho, Jin-Seong, E-mail: jinsung3932@gmail.com; Lee, Hyoshin, E-mail: hslee@forest.go.kr

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem.

  5. Genotypic variations in the dynamics of metal concentrations in poplar leaves: A field study with a perspective on phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Mathieu; García de la Torre, Vanesa S.; Victor, Cindy; David, Laure C.; Chalot, Michel; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Poplar is commonly used for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. However, the high concentrations of trace elements present in leaves may return to soil upon leaf abscission. To investigate the mechanisms controlling leaf metal content, metal concentrations and expression levels of genes involved in metal transport were monitored at different developmental stages on leaves from different poplar genotypes growing on a contaminated field. Large differences in leaf metal concentrations were observed among genotypes. Whereas Mg was remobilized during senescence, Zn and Cd accumulation continued until leaf abscission in all genotypes. A positive correlation between Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 (NRAMP1) expression levels and Zn bio-concentration factors was observed. Principal component analyses of metal concentrations and gene expression levels clearly discriminated poplar genotypes. This study highlights a general absence of trace element remobilization from poplar leaves despite genotype specificities in the control of leaf metal homeostasis. - Highlights: • Poplar genotypes display large variations in leaf metal concentrations. • Trace elements are not remobilized during poplar leaf senescence. • Distinct transporter genes control metal homeostasis at different leaf stages. • Poplar genotypes use distinct mechanisms to control leaf metal homeostasis. • NRAMP1 metal transporter could contribute to Zn and Cd accumulation in poplar leaves. - In order to improve metal phytoextraction using poplars, this work provides new insights on the control of leaf metal concentrations through principal component and correlative analyses

  6. Phylogeographic patterns of the desert poplar in Northwest China shaped by both geology and climatic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Abuduhamiti, Bawerjan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Jia, Zhi-Qing

    2018-05-25

    The effects of historical geology and climatic events on the evolution of plants around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region have been at the center of debate for years. To identify the influence of the uplift of the Tianshan Mountains and/or climatic oscillations on the evolution of plants in arid northwest China, we investigated the phylogeography of the Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica) using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences and nuclear microsatellites, and estimated its historical distribution using Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM). We found that the Euphrates poplar differed from another desert poplar, P. pruinosa, in both nuclear and chloroplast DNA. The low clonal diversity in both populations reflected the low regeneration rate by seed/seedlings in many locations. Both cpDNA and nuclear markers demonstrated a clear divergence between the Euphrates poplar populations from northern and southern Xinjiang regions. The divergence time was estimated to be early Pleistocene based on cpDNA, and late Pleistocene using an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis based on microsatellites. Estimated gene flow was low between these two regions, and the limited gene flow occurred mainly via dispersal from eastern regions. ENM analysis supported a wider distribution of the Euphrates poplar at 3 Ma, but a more constricted distribution during both the glacial period and the interglacial period. These results indicate that the deformation of the Tianshan Mountains has impeded gene flow of the Euphrates poplar populations from northern and southern Xinjiang, and the distribution constriction due to climatic oscillations further accelerated the divergence of populations from these regions. To protect the desert poplars, more effort is needed to encourage seed germination and seedling establishment, and to conserve endemic gene resources in the northern Xinjiang region.

  7. Carbon budget and its response to environmental factors in young and mature poplar plantations along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxing Zhou; Yuan Wei; Jun Yang; Xiaohui Yang; Zeping Jiang; Jiquan Chen; Asko Noormets; Xiaosong Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Although poplar forest is the dominant plantation type in China, there is uncertainty about the carbon budget of these forests across the country. The observations, performed in 2006, of two eddy covariance flux towers on a young poplar plantation (Yueyang, Hunan province) and a mature poplar plantation (Huaining, Anhui province) provide an opportunity to understand...

  8. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  9. Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Hybrid Poplar Populus davidiana Dode × Populus bollena Lauche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar is a model organism for high in vitro regeneration in woody plants. We have chosen a hybrid poplar Populus davidiana Dode × Populus bollena Lauche. By optimizing the Murashige and Skoog medium with (0.3 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and (0.08 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid, we have achieved the highest frequency (90% for shoot regeneration from poplar leaves. It was also important to improve the transformation efficiency of poplar for genetic breeding and other applications. In this study, we found a significant improvement of the transformation frequency by controlling the leaf age. Transformation efficiency was enhanced by optimizing the Agrobacterium concentration (OD600 = 0.8–1.0 and an infection time (20–30 min. According to transmission electron microscopy observations, there were more Agrobacterium invasions in the 30-day-old leaf explants than in 60-day-old and 90-day-old explants. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP marker, the expression of MD–GFP fusion proteins in the leaf, shoot, and root of hybrid poplar P. davidiana Dode × P. bollena Lauche was visualized for confirmation of transgene integration. Southern and Northern blot analysis also showed the integration of T-DNA into the genome and gene expression of transgenic plants. Our results suggest that younger leaves had higher transformation efficiency (~30% than older leaves (10%.

  10. Peroxidase Activity in Poplar Inoculated with Compatible and Incompetent Isolates of Paxillus involutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUL GAFUR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase activity of the hybrid poplar Populus×canescens (Ait. Sm. (= P. tremula L. × P. alba L. inoculated with compatible and incompetent isolates of Paxillus involutus (Batsch Fr. was investigated. Screening of the ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates was initiated with exploration of mycelial growth characteristics and mycorrhizal ability in vitro with poplar. Both traits varied within the fungus although they did not seem to be genetically correlated. While isolates SCO1, NAU, and 031 grew faster than others, only isolates MAJ, SCO1, and 031 were able to form ectomycorrhiza with poplar. Isolates MAJ (compatible and NAU (incompetent were subsequently selected for further experiments. Activity of peroxidase, one of the defense-related enzymes, was examined in pure culture and short root components of compatible and incompetent interactions between poplar and P. involutus. Peroxidase activities increased significantly in poplar inoculated with incompetent isolate of the fungus compared to control, while induction of the same enzyme was not detected in compatible associations.

  11. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Poplar during Leaf Spot Infection with Sphaerulina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Foster

    Full Text Available Diseases of poplar caused by the native fungal pathogen Sphaerulina musiva and related species are of growing concern, particularly with the increasing interest in intensive poplar plantations to meet growing energy demands. Sphaerulina musiva is able to cause infection on leaves, resulting in defoliation and canker formation on stems. To gain a greater understanding of the different responses of poplar species to infection caused by the naturally co-evolved Sphaerulina species, RNA-seq was conducted on leaves of Populus deltoides, P. balsamifera and P. tremuloides infected with S. musiva, S. populicola and a new undescribed species, Ston1, respectively. The experiment was designed to contain the pathogen in a laboratory environment, while replicating disease development in commercial plantations. Following inoculation, trees were monitored for disease symptoms, pathogen growth and host responses. Genes involved in phenylpropanoid, terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis were generally upregulated in P. balsamifera and P. tremuloides, while cell wall modification appears to play an important role in the defense of P. deltoides. Poplar defensive genes were expressed early in P. balsamifera and P. tremuloides, but their expression was delayed in P. deltoides, which correlated with the rate of disease symptoms development. Also, severe infection in P. balsamifera led to leaf abscission. This data gives an insight into the large differences in timing and expression of genes between poplar species being attacked by their associated Sphaerulina pathogen.

  13. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  14. The Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Poplar Wood Dimensional Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Qiu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional stability is a key property of wood that significantly affects its applications. The effect of an ultrasound pretreatment on poplar wood (Populous tomentosa dimensional stability was examined. During the pretreatments, wood samples were immersed in distilled water and treated ultrasonically under three different powers and frequencies. The samples were then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The chemical transformation of the cell-wall material was studied and then associated with the change of water absorption and the swelling coefficient. The results showed that the water absorption decreased after the ultrasonic pretreatment. The axial and radial swelling coefficients of the pretreated samples decreased, while the tangential swelling coefficients increased. The volumetric swelling coefficient of pretreated specimens fluctuated near 4.48% (the volumetric swelling coefficient of untreated wood. Ultrasonic pretreatment increased the number of hydrophilic groups, such as the hydroxyl, acetyl, and uronic ester groups. Meanwhile, the pretreatment also increased the degree of crystallinity and reduced the available polar groups. These two factors together caused the change of the moisture absorption and the swelling coefficient of the pretreated wood. These conclusions suggest that the ultrasonic pretreatment is a promising method for further chemical modification of wood.

  15. Soil Investigation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Johnbull O [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Earles, Jennifer E [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2017-03-01

    Mercury is regarded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management as a priority contaminant on the Oak Ridge Reservation because of the environmental risks associated with substantial losses from buildings, soils, and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). As a result of historical releases of mercury from Y-12 primarily in the 1950s and early 1960s, the lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) stream channel and bank soil margins are contaminated with mercury (Brooks and Southworth 2011; Tennessee Valley Authority 1985b, a). A Mercury Remediation Technology Development project is underway to evaluate the nature of downstream mercury contamination and to develop targeted site-specific remedial technologies that can mitigate mercury release and biological uptake. It is known that mercury concentration varies longitudinally and with depth in LEFPC bank soils; however, soil types and soil physical properties are not well known, especially relative to the zones of mercury contamination. Moreover, there are no soil maps for the downstream reaches of LEFPC in Roane County (i.e. from the Chestnut Hill Road downstream) and this work represents the first ever soil mapping along this section of LEFPC.

  16. Genomics Mechanisms of Carbon Allocation and Partitioning in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias; Peter, Gary; Martin, Timothy

    2009-07-30

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration. It is also unclear how environmental cues such as nitrogen availability impact the genes that regulate growth, and biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. To address these questions we phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above and below ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Fifty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for twenty traits analyzed. The majority of QTL are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and QTL co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Gene expression analysis of all poplar genes was also characterized in differentiating xylem, whole-roots and developing leaves of 192 of the segregating population. By integrating the QTL and gene expression information we identified genes that regulate carbon partitioning and several biomass growth related properties. The work developed in this project resulted in the publication of three book chapters, four scientific articles (three others currently in preparation), 17 presentations in international conferences and two provisional patent applications.

  17. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  18. Biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Beaty, T.W.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.S.

    1997-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  19. Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

    1995-05-01

    The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child's digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative

  20. Concentration- and flux-based ozone dose–response relationships for five poplar clones grown in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Gao, Feng; Xin, Yue; Jia, Huixia; Li, Kaihui; Hu, Jianjun; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Concentration- and flux-based O_3 dose–response relationships were developed for poplars in China. Stomatal conductance (g_s) of five poplar clones was measured to parameterize a Jarvis-type multiplicative g_s model. The maximum g_s and other model parameters varied between clones. The strongest relationship between stomatal O_3 flux and total biomass was obtained when phytotoxic ozone dose (POD) was integrated using an uptake rate threshold of 7 nmol m"−"2 s"−"1. The R"2 value was similar between flux-based and concentration-based dose–response relationships. Ozone concentrations above 28–36 nmol mol"−"1 contributed to reducing the biomass production of poplar. Critical levels of AOT_4_0 (accumulated O_3 exposure over 40 nmol mol"−"1) and POD_7 in relation to 5% reduction in total biomass for poplar were 12 μmol mol"−"1 h and 3.8 mmol m"−"2, respectively. - Highlights: • A stomatal conductance model was calibrated for poplar clones in China. • The stomatal O_3 flux–response relationship was developed for poplars. • O_3 concentrations > 28–36 nmol mol"−"1 contributed to poplar biomass reduction. • Current ambient O_3 level in most places of China has threatened poplar growth. • Ozone sensitivity of poplar is similar to that of birch/beech. - For the first time, dose–response relationships were developed for risk assessment of O_3 impacts on poplars in China.

  1. A survey of the pyrabactin resistance-like abscisic acid receptor gene family in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingling; Li, Hejuan; Peng, Yajing; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2017-08-03

    The conserved PYR/PYL/RCAR family acts as abscisic acid (ABA) receptors for land plants to adapt to terrestrial environments. Our recent study reported that the exogenous overexpression of poplar PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, the PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs, promoted the sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis to ABA responses. Here, we surveyed the PtPYRL family in poplar, and revealed that although the sequence and structure are relatively conserved among these receptors, PtPYRL members have differential expression patterns and the sensitivity to ABA or drought treatment, suggesting that PtPYRLs might be good candidates to a future biotechnological use to enhance poplar resistance to water-stress environments.

  2. [Water utilization characteristics of the degraded poplar shelterbelts in Zhangbei, Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Cao, Jun; Wang, Hua Bing; Song, Bo; Jia, Guo Dong; Liu, Zi Qiang; Yu, Xin Xiao; Zeng, Jia

    2018-05-01

    In Zhangbei County, Hebei Province, poplar-dominated shelterbelts are degraded to different extents. Water availability is the main limiting factor for plant survival in arid areas. The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between water availability and poplar degradation. Based on the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope techniques, we explored the water sources of Populus simonii under different degradation degrees by comparing the isotopic values of P. simonii xylem water with that in potential water source, and calculated the utilization ratio of each water source. The results showed that the water sources of poplar trees varied with degradation degree. The water sources of P. simonii gradually transferred from the deep layer to the surface layer with the increases of degradation. P. simonii with no degradation mainly absorbed soil water in the range of 320-400 cm, with the utilization rate being 25.1%. P. simonii with slight degradation mainly used soil water at depth of 120-180, 180-240 and 240-320 cm. The total utilization rate of three layers was close to 50.0%, with less utilization of water from other layers. The moderately degraded P. simonii mainly used soil water at depth of 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm. The utilization rate of each layer was 17.5%-20.9%, and the contribution rate of soil water under 120 cm was less than 10.0%. The severely degraded P. simonii mainly used water from surface soil layer (0-20 cm), with the utilization rate being 30.4%, which was significantly higher than that of other water sources. The water sources of poplar shelter forests were gradually shallower during the process of degradation. However, the low soil water content in the shallow layer could not meet the normal water demand of poplar, which would accelerate the degradation and even decline of poplar.

  3. The effect of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) deficient poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özparpucu, Merve; Gierlinger, Notburga; Burgert, Ingo; Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Pilate, Gilles; Déjardin, Annabelle; Rüggeberg, Markus

    2018-04-01

    CAD-deficient poplars enabled studying the influence of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties. Severe alterations in lignin composition did not influence the mechanical properties. Wood represents a hierarchical fiber-composite material with excellent mechanical properties. Despite its wide use and versatility, its mechanical behavior has not been entirely understood. It has especially been challenging to unravel the mechanical function of the cell wall matrix. Lignin engineering has been a useful tool to increase the knowledge on the mechanical function of lignin as it allows for modifications of lignin content and composition and the subsequent studying of the mechanical properties of these transgenics. Hereby, in most cases, both lignin composition and content are altered and the specific influence of lignin composition has hardly been revealed. Here, we have performed a comprehensive micromechanical, structural, and spectroscopic analysis on xylem strips of transgenic poplar plants, which are downregulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. All parameters were evaluated on the same samples. Raman microscopy revealed that the lignin of the hpCAD poplars was significantly enriched in aldehydes and reduced in the (relative) amount of G-units. FTIR spectra indicated pronounced changes in lignin composition, whereas lignin content was not significantly changed between WT and the hpCAD poplars. Microfibril angles were in the range of 18°-24° and were not significantly different between WT and transgenics. No significant changes were observed in mechanical properties, such as tensile stiffness, ultimate stress, and yield stress. The specific findings on hpCAD poplar allowed studying the specific influence of lignin composition on mechanics. It can be concluded that the changes in lignin composition in hpCAD poplars did not affect the micromechanical tensile properties.

  4. Tissue-type-specific transcriptome analysis identifies developing xylem-specific promoters in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Hwang, Ildoo; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Plant biotechnology offers a means to create novel phenotypes. However, commercial application of biotechnology in crop improvement programmes is severely hindered by the lack of utility promoters (or freedom to operate the existing ones) that can drive gene expression in a tissue-specific or temporally controlled manner. Woody biomass is gaining popularity as a source of fermentable sugars for liquid fuel production. To improve the quantity and quality of woody biomass, developing xylem (DX)-specific modification of the feedstock is highly desirable. To develop utility promoters that can drive transgene expression in a DX-specific manner, we used the Affymetrix Poplar Genome Arrays to obtain tissue-type-specific transcriptomes from poplar stems. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 37 transcripts that are specifically or strongly expressed in DX cells of poplar. After further confirmation of their DX-specific expression using semi-quantitative PCR, we selected four genes (DX5, DX8, DX11 and DX15) for in vivo confirmation of their tissue-specific expression in transgenic poplars. The promoter regions of the selected DX genes were isolated and fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS)-reported gene in a binary vector. This construct was used to produce transgenic poplars via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GUS expression patterns of the resulting transgenic plants showed that these promoters were active in the xylem cells at early seedling growth and had strongest expression in the developing xylem cells at later growth stages of poplar. We conclude that these DX promoters can be used as a utility promoter for DX-specific biomass engineering. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Poplar Wood by a Combined-Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical (CHTM) Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Houri Sharifnia; Behbood Mohebbi

    2011-01-01

    The current research explains an innovated technique to enhanced mechanice properties of poplar wood by combination of two modification techniques, hydrothermal and mechanical. Blocks of 50×55×500mm3 were cut from poplar wood and treated in a reactor at 120, 150 and 180°C for 30 min. Afterwards, the blocks were pressed at 180°C for 20 min at a pressure of 80 bar to achieve a compression set of 60% in radial direction. Density and bending properties (moduli of elasticity and rupture) as well a...

  6. Albedo of a hybrid poplar plantation in central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. T.; Bernier, P. Y.; Orchansky, A.; Thomas, B.

    2012-04-01

    Canada's boreal forest resources are coming under increasing pressure from competing land-uses, including establishment of protected areas, and losses of harvestable forest to mining and oil and gas exploration. In the prairie region, concerns about lack of wood supply for pulpmills and potential opportunities for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation, have spurred interest in afforestation of marginal agricultural land, notably with fast-growing hybrid poplars (HP). However, global modelling studies suggest that a shift from grassland or crops to forest cover in temperate and boreal regions could result in reduced surface albedo, particularly in winter, causing an increase in radiative forcing and reducing any climate mitigation benefits due to net GHG removal. We report on seven growing seasons of measurements of short-wave canopy albedo using tower-mounted instruments, along with eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy balance, at a site in central Alberta planted with HP cuttings in spring 2005. The data show little systematic change in average albedo as vegetation has changed from bare ground to a plantation of 6 m trees. Reasons for this include very wide (3 m) spacing between the trees, and snow cover which often persists for 4-5 months and is highly visible below the bare canopies during winter. While measurements should continue as the trees grow larger, we postulate that extensive afforestation with HP is unlikely to have major effects on regional-scale surface albedo compared to the agricultural systems they replace. Normal rotation lengths are 15-20 years, hence even if older plantations have significantly lower winter albedo, their contribution to the regional average would be relatively small because they will cover only a small fraction of the landscape (e.g., compared to forests of boreal conifers or temperate broadleaved species).

  7. Effect of Genetically Modified Poplars on Soil Microbial Communities during the Phytoremediation of Waste Mine Tailings▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Moonsuk; Kim, Yongho; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Young Im; Yi, Hana

    2011-01-01

    The application of transgenic plants to clean up environmental pollution caused by the wastes of heavy metal mining is a promising method for removing metal pollutants from soils. However, the effect of using genetically modified organisms for phytoremediation is a poorly researched topic in terms of microbial community structures, despite the important role of microorganisms in the health of soil. In this study, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and archaeal communities found in the rhizosphere of genetically modified (GM) versus wild-type (WT) poplar was conducted on trees at different growth stages (i.e., the rhizospheres of 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3-year-old poplars) that were cultivated on contaminated soils together with nonplanted control soil. Based on the results of DNA pyrosequencing, poplar type and growth stages were associated with directional changes in the structure of the microbial community. The rate of change was faster in GM poplars than in WT poplars, but the microbial communities were identical in the 3-year-old poplars. This phenomenon may arise because of a higher rate and greater extent of metal accumulation in GM poplars than in naturally occurring plants, which resulted in greater changes in soil environments and hence the microbial habitat. PMID:21890678

  8. Putrescine overproduction does not affect the catabolism of spermidine and spermine in poplar and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Shao; Pratiksha Bhatnagar; Rajtilak Majumdar; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha

    2014-01-01

    The effect of up-regulation of putrescine (Put) production by genetic manipulation on the turnover of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) was investigated in transgenic cells of poplar (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) and seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. Several-fold increase in Put production was achieved by expressing a mouse...

  9. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee

    2009-01-01

    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  10. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  11. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow-poplar. Twelve types of external...

  12. Somaclonal variation in hybrid poplars for resistance to Septoria leaf spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Ostry; D. D. Skilling

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques have been used to obtain hybrid poplars with putative resistance to leaf spot caused by Septoria musiva from clones previously susceptible to the disease. Stem internode explants were used to obtain proliferating callus cultures. Adventitious bud formation and shoot proliferation were then induced. Elongated shoots were excised and rooted in a...

  13. Achievements in the utilzation of poplar wood : guideposts for the future : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Balatinecz; Andre. Leclercq; David E. Kretschmann

    2000-01-01

    Poplar wood is suitable and is utilized for a broad range of forest products worldwide. The utilization of any species is governed by a number of factors, such as basic wood properties, overall quality, quantity and price of the resource, available processing technologies, local as well as international market conditions for the products, and the availability and price...

  14. Xylanase supplementation on enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated poplars at different severities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Zhang; Xinshu Zhuang; Zhao Jiang Wang; Fred Matt; Franz St. John; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Three pairs of solid substrates from dilute acid pretreatment of two poplar wood samples were enzymatically hydrolyzed by cellulase preparations supplemented with xylanase. Supplementation of xylanase improved cellulose saccharification perhaps due to improved cellulose accessibility by xylan hydrolysis. Total xylan removal directly affected enzymatic cellulose...

  15. The optimization of sewage sludge and effluent disposal on energy crops of short rotation hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, A.J.; Armstrong, A.T. [Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom); Ockleston, J. [Thames Water Utilities Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    An experiment was set up to test the effect of sewage sludge application and waste water irrigation on the biomass production of two poplar varieties, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides ''Beaupre'', and Populus trichocarpa ''Trichobel''. Three sludge applications were examined factorially with two irrigation regimes (with and without), over the two final years of a three-year rotation. The effects of treatment on soil and soil water were monitored, and the amount of heavy metals removed in the biomass was quantified. Irrigation had a significant effect on biomass of both poplar varieties, with Beaupre yielding more than Trichobel. Sludge application was not effective in increasing biomass yield, but the experiment was valuable in identifying that modest amounts of sludge (approximately 100 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) were acceptable environmentally and did not compromise biomass production. Cadmium uptake was detected in the poplar biomass, but the amounts were small and insufficient for poplar to be used in phytoremediation of metal-contaminated land. (author)

  16. Vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation in poplars: synthesis and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Régis; Brignolas, Franck; Cochard, Hervé; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-07-01

    Vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation is a key trait of plant water relations. Here, we summarize the available literature on vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation in poplars (Populus spp.), a genus of agronomic, ecological and scientific importance. Vulnerability curves and vulnerability parameters (including the water potential inducing 50% loss in hydraulic conductivity, P50) were collected from 37 studies published between 1991 and 2014, covering a range of 10 species and 12 interspecific hybrid crosses. Results of our meta-analysis confirm that poplars are among the most vulnerable woody species to drought-induced cavitation (mean P50  = -1.44 and -1.55 MPa across pure species and hybrids, respectively). Yet, significant variation occurs among species (P50 range: 1.43 MPa) and among hybrid crosses (P50 range: 1.12 MPa), within species and hybrid crosses (max. P50 range reported: 0.8 MPa) as well as in response to environmental factors including nitrogen fertilization, irradiance, temperature and drought (max. P50 range reported: 0.75 MPa). Potential implications and gaps in knowledge are discussed in the context of poplar cultivation, species adaptation and climate modifications. We suggest that poplars represent a valuable model for studies on drought-induced cavitation, especially to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of cavitation resistance in Angiosperms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization for the trees. Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are ideal for such systems given their fast...

  18. Diseases of intensively cultured hybrid poplars: a summary of recent research in the north central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Ostry; H. S. McNabb

    1983-01-01

    Several potentially damaging diseases of hybrid poplars hue been identified in the north-central United States. Among the most serious are leaf and stem diseases caused by Melampsora, Marssonina, and Septoria. Short-term chemical controls are of limited usefulness. The most practical control strategy appears to be the use of resistant clones obtained through local...

  19. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from...

  20. Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Köhler, A.; Larsen, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel fuel to willow and poplar trees was studied using a tree transpiration toxicity test. Soils were taken from an abandoned filling station. Concentrations in the samples were measured as the sum of hydrocarbons from C5 to C10 (gasoline) and C1...

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially affect the response to high zinc concentrations of two registered poplar clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingua, Guido; Franchin, Cinzia; Todeschini, Valeria; Castiglione, Stefano; Biondi, Stefania; Burlando, Bruno; Parravicini, Valerio; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Berta, Graziella

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a high concentration of zinc on two registered clones of poplar (Populus alba Villafranca and Populus nigra Jean Pourtet), inoculated or not with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices) before transplanting them into polluted soil, were investigated, with special regard to the extent of root colonization by the fungi, plant growth, metal accumulation in the different plant organs, and leaf polyamine concentration. Zinc accumulation was lower in Jean Pourtet than in Villafranca poplars, and it was mainly translocated to the leaves; the metal inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, compromised plant growth, and, in Villafranca, altered the putrescine profile in the leaves. Most of these effects were reversed or reduced in plants pre-inoculated with G. mosseae. Results indicate that poplars are suitable for phytoremediation purposes, confirming that mycorrhizal fungi can be useful for phytoremediation, and underscore the importance of appropriate combinations of plant genotypes and fungal symbionts. - Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can improve poplar tolerance to heavy metals in phytoremediation programmes

  2. The effects of exotic and native poplars on rhizosphere soil microbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... ecology. However, how different poplars species affect soil microbial community and soil .... ml of molasses-urea block (MUB) (pH 6.0) and 0.5 ml of 25 mM p- ... Microbial community DNA extraction and polymerase chain.

  3. Poplar plantation has the potential to alter the water balance in semiarid inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard Wilske; Long Wei; Shiping Chen; Tonggang Zha; Chenfeng Liu; Wenting Xu; Asko Noormets; Jianhui Haung; Yafen Wei; Jun Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang; Jian Ni; Ge Sun; Kirk Guo; Steve McNulty; Ranjeet John; Xiangguo Han; Guanghui Lin; Jiquan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Poplar plantation is the most dominant broadleaf forest type in northern China. Since the mid-1990s plantation was intensified to combat desertification along China’s northwestern border, i.e., within Inner Mongolia (IM). This evoked much concern regarding the ecological and environmental effects on areas that naturally grow grass or shrub vegetation. To highlight...

  4. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Kang; Z. Zhang; A. Noormets; X. Fang; T. Zha; J. Zhou; G. Sun; S. G. McNulty; J. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of...

  5. Non-destructive digital imaging in poplar allows detailed analysis of adventitious rooting dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Kodrzycki; R.B. Michaels; A.L. Friend; R.S. Zalesny; Ch.P. Mawata; D.W. McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of root formation are difficult to observe directly over time without disturbing the rooting environment. A novel system for a non-destructive, non-invasive root analysis (RootViz FS, Phenotype Screening Corp.) was evaluated for its ability to analyze root formation from cuttings over a 32 day period in three poplar genotypes (DN70, P. Deltoides x...

  6. Repeated unidirectional introgression towards Populus balsamifera in contact zones of exotic and native poplars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, S.L.; Lamothe, M.; Meirmans, P.G.; Périnet, P.; Isabel, N.

    2010-01-01

    As the evolutionary significance of hybridization is largely dictated by its extent beyond the first generation, we broadly surveyed patterns of introgression across a sympatric zone of two native poplars (Populus balsamifera, Populus deltoides) in Quebec, Canada within which European exotic Populus

  7. Molecular genetic analysis of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) along Dutch rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.; Coops, H.; Jansen, J.; Vosman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic structure of remaining black poplar (Populus nigra) trees on the banks of the Dutch Rhine branches was investigated using the AFLP technique. In total, 143 trees, including one P. deltoides and some P. x euramericana, were analysed using six AFLP primer combinations which generated 319

  8. Analysis of genetic and environmental effects on hybrid poplar rooting in Central and Northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Don Riemenschneider; Edmund Bauer

    2000-01-01

    We studied genetic and environmental effects on adventitious root initiation and growth because rooting is biologically prerequisite to the establishment of hybrid poplar plantations. Six clones from two pedigrees (pure Populus deltoides "cottonwoods" and P. deltoides x P. maximowiczii hybrids) were...

  9. Lignin engineering in field-grown poplar trees affects the endosphere bacterial microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Bram; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Weyens, Nele; Van Acker, Rebecca; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-02-23

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway, represents a promising biotechnological target to reduce lignin levels and to improve the commercial viability of lignocellulosic biomass. However, silencing of the CCR gene results in considerable flux changes of the general and monolignol-specific lignin pathways, ultimately leading to the accumulation of various extractable phenolic compounds in the xylem. Here, we evaluated host genotype-dependent effects of field-grown, CCR-down-regulated poplar trees (Populus tremula × Populus alba) on the bacterial rhizosphere microbiome and the endosphere microbiome, namely the microbiota present in roots, stems, and leaves. Plant-associated bacteria were isolated from all plant compartments by selective isolation and enrichment techniques with specific phenolic carbon sources (such as ferulic acid) that are up-regulated in CCR-deficient poplar trees. The bacterial microbiomes present in the endosphere were highly responsive to the CCR-deficient poplar genotype with remarkably different metabolic capacities and associated community structures compared with the WT trees. In contrast, the rhizosphere microbiome of CCR-deficient and WT poplar trees featured highly overlapping bacterial community structures and metabolic capacities. We demonstrate the host genotype modulation of the plant microbiome by minute genetic variations in the plant genome. Hence, these interactions need to be taken into consideration to understand the full consequences of plant metabolic pathway engineering and its relation with the environment and the intended genetic improvement.

  10. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots in te...

  11. Poplar trees for phytoremediation of high levels of nitrate and applications in bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodríguez, Vanessa; García-Gutiérrez, Angel; Canales, Javier; Cañas, Rafael A; Kirby, Edward G; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of high amounts of nitrate fertilizers for crop yield leads to nitrate pollution of ground and surface waters. In this study, we report the assimilation and utilization of nitrate luxuriant levels, 20 times more than the highest N fertilizer application in Europe, by transgenic poplars overexpressing a cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1). In comparison with the wild-type controls, transgenic plants grown under high N levels exhibited increased biomass (171.6%) and accumulated higher levels of proteins, chlorophylls and total sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. These plants also exhibited greater nitrogen-use efficiency particularly in young leaves, suggesting that they are able to translocate most of the resources to the above-ground part of the plant to produce biomass. The transgenic poplar transcriptome was greatly affected in response to N availability with 1237 genes differentially regulated in high N, while only 632 genes were differentially expressed in untransformed plants. Many of these genes are essential in the adaptation and response against N excess and include those involved in photosynthesis, cell wall formation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Cellulose production in the transgenic plants was fivefold higher than in control plants, indicating that transgenic poplars represent a potential feedstock for applications in bioenergy. In conclusion, our results show that GS transgenic poplars can be used not only for improving growth and biomass production but also as an important resource for potential phytoremediation of nitrate pollution. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Fiber Recovery with Chain Flail Delimbing/Debarking and Chipping of Hybrid Poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hartsough; Raffaele Spinelli; Steve Pottle; John Klepac

    2000-01-01

    This study determined how much wood was potentially available From short rotation hybrid poplar, and how mtich was actually recovered when trees were delimbed and debarked with chain flails and chipped. 3 1 groups of five trees each were measured and then processed. For trees larger than 50 kg total dry weight, potentially recoverable wood averaged 75% oftotal weight...

  13. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after...

  14. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  15. Putrescine overproduction negatively impacts the oxidative state of poplar cells in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridev Mohapatra; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long

    2009-01-01

    While polyamines (PAs) have been suggested to protect cells against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), their catabolism is known to generate ROS. We compared the activities of several enzymes and cellular metabolites involved in the ROS scavenging pathways in two isogenic cell lines of poplar (Populus nigra × maximowiczii) differing in their PA...

  16. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, J.; Knight, J.D.; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

    2006-07-01

    The biological remediation of contaminated soils using plants was discussed. Hybrid poplars are good candidates for phytoremediation because they root deeply, cycle large amounts of water and grow quickly. Their fine root system is pivotal in nutrient and water acquisition. Therefore, in order to maximize the phytoremediation potential, it is important to understand the response of the fine root system. In addition to degrading organic chemicals, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide the host with greater access to nutrients. This study determined the relationship between residual soil hydrocarbons and soil properties at a field site. The effects of residual contamination on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics was also examined along with the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics when grown in diesel contaminated soil under controlled conditions. A minirhizotron camera inside a growth chamber captured images of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root production. Walker hybrid poplar seedlings were grown for 12 weeks in a control soil and also in a diesel contaminated soil. Seedlings were also grown in control and diesel contaminated, ectomycorrhizal inoculated soils. The inoculum was a mycorrhizal mix containing Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizopogon spp. The images showed that colonization by ECM fungi increased hybrid poplar fine root production and aboveground biomass in a diesel contaminated soil compared to non-colonized trees in the same soil. Root:shoot ratios were much higher in the diesel contaminated/non-inoculated treatment than in either of the control soil treatments. Results of phytoremediation in diesel contaminated soil were better in the non-colonized treatment than in the colonized treatment. Both treatments removed more contaminants from the soil than the unplanted control. Much higher quantities of hydrocarbons were found sequestered in the roots from the inoculated treatment than from the non

  17. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Andres, S.; Bachner, M.; Behnke, K.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Rubach, F.; Springer, M.; Steitz, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Schnitzler, J.-P.; Wildt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m-2 s-1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT) and nearly zero (plants (line RA22), respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm-3 s-1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8) was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  18. Physiological aspects of short-rotation culture of the poplar. Fertilization of soils by sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, G

    1988-01-01

    This study, on the poplar (Populus Trichocarpa x Populus deltoides, c.v. Raspalje) concerned two different problems. The first is a physiological study on the tree treated in short rotation; the second deals with a fertilization by sewage sludge and the consequences on the environment. We have carried out in the laboratory two complementary experiments, the one, on the culture of the poplar in hydroponic medium with a pollutant element (Hg), and the other in the potentialities of soil retention. In the first part, we have showed that: - the best period for coppicing is between Mid August and May, as soon as the stumps were four or five years-old, - the coppicing has a stimulating effect on the growth of the coppice shoots, - the mean number of dominant coppice shoots, after several coppicing, is two, - the productivity is about 20 to 30 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and per year. The second part of this study has showed that: - using 3.2 tonnes of dehydrated sewage sludge per hectare and per year to fertilize, has the same effects on productivity of poplars as a classical fertilization (every 5 years) by chemical manure (N, P, K), - there were no differences in the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg), in the different parts of the poplars, between the different plots fertilized with sewage sludge, chemical manure and controlled. Moreover, the experiments performed, in the laboratory showed that: - pollutant elements (Cd, Cu) were fixed in the top of the column soil, - using a hydroponic solution containing a mercuric chloride, labelled ({sup 203}Hg), the poplars absorb very little of the pollutant element. Only 10% of the mercury in the solution was to be found in the plant and 99% of this in the root-system, more precisely, at the level epidermic barrier.

  19. Analysis of Poplar process value chain in Western Azerbaijan province aims to upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid hosein zadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the size and importance of poplar culturing and its role in the West Azerbaijan province economy, evaluation of the poplar value chain is necessary. With drawing up a comprehensive value chain and identify the lacks, setting the value chain in the province were studied. Finally, due to lacks of the value chain, value chain strategy for development was identified using ANP. The results of the calculation of location quotient in the West Azerbaijan province showed that the LQ is equal to 0.65852. Due to its lower LQ than one, it can be concluded that the poplar costumers in Western Azerbaijan province are less than the country average. The results of the prioritization of criteria affecting poplar value chain development in West Azerbaijan province indicated the most important criterion is the access to wooden raw materials weighing 0.16. After that the stable supply of raw materials, machinery and equipment, manpower, proximity to local markets, expertise and financial resources are with weights, 0.132, 0.123, 0.116, 0.105, 0.102 and 0.07 respectively. The weights of the other criteria have a little importance in the development of the poplar value chain. Final results of alternatives prioritization showed, the maximum weight is related to particleboard with the 0.295. The following options are OSB, MDF and HDF which have a weight of 0.185 and 0.178 respectively. After the composite wood products is turn of chemical products, namely cellulose, pulp and paper weights 0.112, 0.1 and 0.066 respectively.

  20. Forest biorefinery: Potential of poplar phytochemicals as value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rakshit, Sudip K; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-11-01

    The global forestry industry after experiencing a market downturn during the past decade has now aimed its vision towards the integrated biorefinery. New business models and strategies are constantly being explored to re-invent the global wood and pulp/paper industry through sustainable resource exploitation. The goal is to produce diversified, innovative and revenue generating product lines using on-site bioresources (wood and tree residues). The most popular product lines are generally produced from wood fibers (biofuels, pulp/paper, biomaterials, and bio/chemicals). However, the bark and other tree residues like foliage that constitute forest wastes, still remain largely an underexploited resource from which extractives and phytochemicals can be harnessed as by-products (biopharmaceuticals, food additives and nutraceuticals, biopesticides, cosmetics). Commercially, Populus (poplar) tree species including hybrid varieties are cultivated as a fast growing bioenergy crop, but can also be utilized to produce bio-based chemicals. This review identifies and underlines the potential of natural products (phytochemicals) from Populus species that could lead to new business ventures in biorefineries and contribute to the bioeconomy. In brief, this review highlights the importance of by-products/co-products in forest industries, methods that can be employed to extract and purify poplar phytochemicals, the potential pharmaceutical and other uses of >160 phytochemicals identified from poplar species - their chemical structures, properties and bioactivities, the challenges and limitations of utilizing poplar phytochemicals, and potential commercial opportunities. Finally, the overall discussion and conclusion are made considering the recent biotechnological advances in phytochemical research to indicate the areas for future commercial applications from poplar tree species. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. The nitrate transporter (NRT gene family in poplar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Bai

    Full Text Available Nitrate is an important nutrient required for plant growth. It also acts as a signal regulating plant development. Nitrate is actively taken up and transported by nitrate transporters (NRT, which form a large family with many members and distinct functions. In contrast to Arabidopsis and rice there is little information about the NRT family in woody plants such as Populus. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus NRT family was performed. Sixty-eight PtNRT1/PTR, 6 PtNRT2, and 5 PtNRT3 genes were identified in the P. trichocarpa genome. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the genes of the NRT family are divided into three clades: NRT1/PTR with four subclades, NRT2, and NRT3. Topological analysis indicated that all members of PtNRT1/PTR and PtNRT2 have 8 to 12 trans-membrane domains, whereas the PtNRT3 proteins have no or up to two trans-membrane domains. Four PtNRT3 members were predicted as secreted proteins. Microarray analyses revealed tissue-specific expression patterns of PtNRT genes with distinct clusters of NRTs for roots, for the elongation zone of the apical stem segment and the developing xylem and a further cluster for leaves, bark and wood. A comparison of different poplar species (P. trichocarpa, P. tremula, P. euphratica, P. fremontii x P. angustifolia, and P. x canescens showed that the tissue-specific patterns of the NRT genes varied to some extent with species. Bioinformatic analysis of putative cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of PtNRT family retrieved motifs suggesting the regulation of the NRT genes by N metabolism, by energy and carbon metabolism, and by phytohormones and stress. Multivariate analysis suggested that the combination and abundance of motifs in distinct promoters may lead to tissue-specificity. Our genome wide analysis of the PtNRT genes provides a valuable basis for functional analysis towards understanding the role of nitrate transporters for tree growth.

  3. Improved diffusivity of NaOH solution in autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips for chemi-mechanical pulp production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Hou, Qingxi; Liu, Wei; Yue, Zhen; Jiang, Xiaoya; Ma, Xixi

    2018-07-01

    This work investigated the changes in the physical structure of autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips and the effect on the subsequent alkali liquor diffusion properties for chemi-mechanical pulping (CMP). An alkali impregnation process was conducted by using the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood with different levels of autohydrolysis intensity. The results showed that the volume porosity, water constraint capacity, and saturated water absorption of the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips increased. Also, the effective capillary cross-sectional area (ECCSA) in the radial direction and the diffusion coefficients of NaOH solution in both the radial and axial directions all increased. Autohydrolysis pretreatment enhanced the alkali liquor diffusion properties in poplar sapwood chips, and the diffusion coefficient was increased more greatly in the radial direction than that in the axial direction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical response of hybrid black poplar tissue culture (Populus × canadensis) on water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tari, I; Csiszár, J; Gallé, Á; Poór, P; Galović, V; Trudić, B; Orlović, S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, poplar tissue culture (hybrid black poplar, M1 genotype) was subjected to water stress influenced by polyethyleneglycol 6000 (100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000). The aim of the research was to investigate the biochemical response of poplar tissue culture on water deficit regime. Antioxidant status was analyzed including antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guiacol-peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-reductase, reduced glutathione, total phenol content, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical antioxidant power. Polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine-ammonium-lyase were determined as enzymatic markers of polyphenol metabolism. Among oxidative stress parameters lipid peroxidation, carbonyl-proteins, hydrogen-peroxide, reactive oxygen species, nitric-oxide and peroxynitrite were determined. Proline, proline-dehydrogenase and glycinebetaine were measured also as parameters of water stress. Cell viability is finally determined as a biological indicator of osmotic stress. It was found that water stress induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation in leaves of hybrid black poplar and reduced cell viability. Antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPx, CAT and GSH-Px were induced but total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were reduced by PEG 6000 mediated osmotic stress. The highest biochemical response and adaptive reaction was the increase of proline and GB especially by 200 mOsm PEG. While long term molecular analysis will be necessary to fully address the poplar potentials for water stress adaptation, our results on hybrid black poplar suggest that glycine-betaine, proline and PDH enzyme might be the most important markers of poplar on water stress and that future efforts should be focused on these markers and strategies to enhance their concentration in poplar.

  5. The Atlantic-Mediterranean watershed, river basins and glacial history shape the genetic structure of Iberian poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya-Sanz, D; Heuertz, M; López-de-Heredia, U; De-Lucas, A I; Hidalgo, E; Maestro, C; Prada, A; Alía, R; González-Martínez, S C

    2012-07-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies have elucidated the effects of Pleistocene glaciations and of Pre-Pleistocene events on populations from glacial refuge areas. This study investigates those effects in riparian trees (Populus spp.), whose particular features may convey enhanced resistance to climate fluctuations. We analysed the phylogeographic structure of 44 white (Populus alba), 13 black (Populus nigra) and two grey (Populus x canescens) poplar populations in the Iberian Peninsula using plastid DNA microsatellites and sequences. We also assessed fine-scale spatial genetic structure and the extent of clonality in four white and one grey poplar populations using nuclear microsatellites and we determined quantitative genetic differentiation (Q(ST) ) for growth traits in white poplar. Black poplar displayed higher regional diversity and lower differentiation than white poplar, reflecting its higher cold-tolerance. The dependence of white poplar on phreatic water was evidenced by strong differentiation between the Atlantic and Mediterranean drainage basins and among river basins, and by weaker isolation by distance within than among river basins. Our results suggest confinement to the lower river courses during glacial periods and moderate interglacial gene exchange along coastlines. In northern Iberian river basins, white poplar had lower diversity, fewer private haplotypes and larger clonal assemblies than in southern basins, indicating a stronger effect of glaciations in the north. Despite strong genetic structure and frequent asexual propagation in white poplar, some growth traits displayed adaptive divergence between drainage and river basins (Q(ST) >F(ST)), highlighting the remarkable capacity of riparian tree populations to adapt to regional environmental conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. To Make Long Character-Marked Cuttings From Low-Grade Yellow-Poplar Lumber - Rip First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1979-01-01

    Long, character-marked furniture cuttings are easily obtained when low-grade (2A and 2B Common) yellow-poplar lumber is first ripped into strips and then crosscut to remove objectionable defects. Overall yields of character-marked material using this procedure were 78% from 1 Common and 2A Common and 70% from 2B Common yellow-poplar lumber. Furthermore, 82% of the 1...

  7. Bacterial microflora isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in areas where air pollution is very high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 1976 bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Erwinia and Cellulomonas were isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in protective belts around several industrial plants. It was found that the qualitative and quantitative composition of the surface bacterial microflora changes in dependence on the degree of resistance of the poplars to the action of the dust emitted by the industrial establishment and containing high amounts of heavy metals.

  8. Epigenetic Diversity of Clonal White Poplar (Populus alba L. Populations: Could Methylation Support the Success of Vegetative Reproduction Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guarino

    Full Text Available The widespread poplar populations of Sardinia are vegetatively propagated and live in different natural environments forming large monoclonal stands. The main goals of the present study were: i to investigate/measure the epigenetic diversity of the poplar populations by determining their DNA methylation status; ii to assess if and how methylation status influences population clustering; iii to shed light on the changes that occur in the epigenome of ramets of the same poplar clone. To these purposes, 83 white poplar trees were sampled at different locations on the island of Sardinia. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis was carried out on the genomic DNA extracted from leaves at the same juvenile stage. The study showed that the genetic biodiversity of poplars is quite limited but it is counterbalanced by epigenetic inter-population molecular variability. The comparison between MspI and HpaII DNA fragmentation profiles revealed that environmental conditions strongly influence hemi-methylation of the inner cytosine. The variable epigenetic status of Sardinian white poplars revealed a decreased number of population clusters. Landscape genetics analyses clearly demonstrated that ramets of the same clone were differentially methylated in relation to their geographic position. Therefore, our data support the notion that studies on plant biodiversity should no longer be restricted to genetic aspects, especially in the case of vegetatively propagated plant species.

  9. Exploring the Role of Plant Genetics to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration in Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Garten, C. T.; Classen, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased in recent decades and are projected to increase even further during the coming century. These projections have prompted scientists and policy-makers to consider how plants and soils can be used to stabilize CO2 concentrations. Although storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems represents an attractive near-term option for mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, enhancing the sequestration potential of managed systems will require advancements in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that control rates of carbon transfer and turnover in plants and soils. To address this challenge, a mathematical model was constructed to evaluate how changes in particular plant traits and management practices could affect soil carbon storage beneath hybrid poplar (Populus) plantations. The model was built from four sub-models that describe aboveground biomass, root biomass, soil carbon dynamics, and soil nitrogen transformations for trees growing throughout a user-defined rotation. Simulations could be run over one or multiple rotations. A sensitivity analysis of the model indicated changes in soil carbon storage were affected by variables that could be linked to hybrid poplar traits like rates of aboveground production, partitioning of carbon to coarse and fine roots, and rates of root decomposition. A higher ratio of belowground to aboveground production was especially important and correlated directly with increased soil carbon storage. Faster decomposition rates for coarse and fine dead roots resulted in a greater loss of carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 and less residual organic carbon for transfer to the fast soil carbon pool. Hence, changes in root chemistry that prolonged dead root decomposition rates, a trait that is under potential genetic control, were predicted to increase soil carbon storage via higher soil carbon inputs. Nitrogen limitation of both aboveground biomass production and soil carbon sequestration was

  10. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  11. A structured understanding of cellobiohydrolase I binding to poplar lignin fractions after dilute acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yoo, Chang Geun; Meng, Xianzhi; Li, Mi; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Yang, Haitao

    2018-01-01

    Cellulase adsorption to lignin is considered a cost barrier for bioethanol production; however, its detailed association mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, two natural poplar variants with high and low sugar release performance were selected as the low and high recalcitrant raw materials (named L and H , respectively). Three different lignin fractions were extracted using ethanol, followed by p -dioxane and then cellulase treatment from the dilute acid pretreated poplar solids (fraction 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Each lignin fraction had different physicochemical properties. Ethanol-extracted lignin had the lowest weight average molecular weight, while the molecular weights for the other two lignin fractions were similar. 31 P NMR analysis revealed that lignin fraction with higher molecular weight contained more aliphatic hydroxyl groups and less phenolic hydroxyl groups. Semi-quantitative analysis by 2D HSQC NMR indicated that the lignin fractions isolated from the natural variants had different contents of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and interunit linkages. Lignin extracted by ethanol contained the largest amount of S units, the smallest amounts of G and p -hydroxybenzoate (PB) subunits, while the contents of these lignin subunits in the other two lignin fractions were similar. The lignin fraction obtained after cellulase treatment was primarily comprised of β- O -4 linkages with small amounts of β-5 and β-β linkages. The binding strength of these three lignin fractions obtained by Langmuir equations were in the order of L 1  >  L 3  >  L 2 for the low recalcitrance poplar and H 1  >  H 2  >  H 3 for the high recalcitrance poplar. Overall, adsorption ability of lignin was correlated with the sugar release of poplar. Structural features of lignin were associated with its binding to CBH. For natural poplar variants, lignin fractions with lower molecular weight and polydispersity index (PDI) exhibited more CBH adsorption

  12. The potential of willow and poplar plantations as carbon sinks in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2012-01-01

    A large share, estimated at 12–25%, of the annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to global deforestation. Increasing the forested areas therefore has a positive impact on carbon (C) sequestration and mitigation of high atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Fast-growing species, such as willow and poplar, are of high interest as producers of biomass for fuel, but also as C sinks. The present study estimated the rate of C sequestration in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. Calculations were based on above- and below-ground biomass production data from field experiments, including fine root turnover, litter decomposition rates, and production levels from commercial plantations. Accumulation of C in woody biomass, above and below ground, was estimated at 76.6–80.1 Mg C ha −1 and accumulation of C in the soil at 9.0–10.3 Mg C ha −1 over the first 20–22 years. The average rates of C sequestration were 3.5–4.0 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in woody biomass, and 0.4–0.5 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in the soil. If 400,000 ha of abandoned arable land in Sweden were planted with willow and poplar, about 1.5 Tg C would be sequestered annually in woody biomass and 0.2 Tg C in soils. This would be nearly one tenth of the annual anthropogenic emissions of C in Sweden today. These calculations show the potential of fast-growing plantations on arable land to mitigate the effect of high CO 2 concentrations over a short time span. Knowledge gaps were found during the calculation process and future research areas were suggested. -- Highlights: ► Poplars and willows as producers of biomass for fuel and as C sinks. ► Calculation of C sequestration rates in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. ► Increasing forested areas has positive impact on high CO 2 levels. ► Willow and poplar plantations on arable land mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

  13. Phytoremediation capacity of poplar (Populus spp. and willow (Salix spp. clonesin relation to photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Slobodanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good photosynthetic features and a favorable water regimes of woody plants improve their survival and remediation potential under unfavorable ecological conditions. Accordingly, we here present results of testing plant tolerance of Pb, Cd, Ni, and diesel fuel based on gas exchange parameters and WUE of four poplar and two willow clones grown in a greenhouse on soil culture. Photosynthesis and transpiration of plants grown on soils with individually applied heavy metals decreased significantly, but this was less obvious in the case of Cd treatment. A heavy metal mixture in the soil induced significant reduction in photosynthesis (by more than 50%. Diesel fuel as the only pollutant in soil caused very strong and significant inhibition of photosynthesis and transpiration of willow clones. The results indicate genotypic specificity of all investigated physiological parameters and mark poplar clones as very useful in phytoextraction technology for the bio-cleaning of chemically polluted soils.

  14. Engineering functional artificial hybrid proteins between poplar peroxiredoxin II and glutaredoxin or thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhier, Nicolas; Gama, Filipe; Wingsle, Gunnar; Gelhaye, Eric; Gans, Pierre; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The existence of natural peroxiredoxin-glutaredoxin hybrid enzymes in several bacteria is in line with previous findings indicating that poplar peroxiredoxin II can use glutaredoxin as an electron donor. This peroxiredoxin remains however unique since it also uses thioredoxin with a quite good efficiency. Based on the existing fusions, we have created artificial enzymes containing a poplar peroxiredoxin module linked to glutaredoxin or thioredoxin modules. The recombinant fusion enzymes folded properly into non-covalently bound homodimers or homotetramers. Two of the three protein constructs exhibit peroxidase activity, a reaction where the two modules need to function together, but they also display enzymatic activities specific of each module. In addition, mass spectrometry analyses indicate that the Prx module can be both glutathiolated or overoxidized in vitro. This is discussed in the light of the Prx reactivity

  15. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botkova, K.; Petrasova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Invasions of neophyte plant species are considered as one of the major threats to the diversity of natural ecosystems including floodplain forests. The aims of our study were to find out if there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophyte species in the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland over time. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests was evaluated from 1950 to the present time using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA. According to the analysis results, along the time gradient there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophytes among analysed periods. This result is not caused by increasing biodiversity, because the number of native species significantly decreased. Therefor it is necessary to look for reasons of this situation in deteriorating condition of floodplain biotopes. (authors)

  16. Cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4 with poplar leaf homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    2014-07-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated organic solvent, is one of the most common and widespread groundwater contaminants worldwide. Among the group of TCE-degrading aerobic bacteria, Burkholderia cepacia G4 is the best-known representative. This strain requires the addition of specific substrates, including toluene, phenol, and benzene, to induce the enzymes to degrade TCE. However, the substrates are toxic and introducing them into the soil can result in secondary contamination. In this study, poplar leaf homogenate containing natural phenolic compounds was tested for the ability to induce the growth of and TCE degradation by B. cepacia G4. The results showed that the G4 strain could grow and degrade TCE well with the addition of phytochemicals. The poplar leaf homogenate also functioned as an inducer of the toluene-ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) gene in B. cepacia G4.

  17. Overexpression of PtABCC1 contributes to mercury tolerance and accumulation in Arabidopsis and poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Ma, Yifeng; Wang, Huihong; Huang, Weipeng; Wang, Xiaozhu; Han, Li; Sun, Wanmei; Han, Erqin; Wang, Bangjun

    2018-03-18

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly biotoxic heavy metal that contaminates the environment. Phytoremediation is a green technology for environmental remediation and is used to clean up Hg contaminated soil in recent years. In this study, we isolated an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene PtABCC1 from Populus trichocarpa and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis and poplar. The transgenic plants conferred higher Hg tolerance than wild type (WT) plants, and overexpression of PtABCC1 could lead to 26-72% or 7-160% increase of Hg accumulation in Arabidopsis or poplar plants, respectively. These results demonstrated that PtABCC1 plays a crucial role in enhancing tolerance and accumulation to Hg in plants, which provides a promising way for phytoremediation of Hg contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of poplar wood sawdust for heavy metals removal from model solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demcak Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some kinds of natural organic materials have a potential for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials or by-products can be used as cheap adsorbents in chemical treatment process. In this paper, poplar wood sawdust were used for removal of Cu(II, Zn(II and Fe(II ions from model solutions with using the static and dynamic adsorption experiments. Infrared spectrometry of poplar wood sawdust confirmed the presence of the functional groups which correspond with hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin. At static adsorption was achieved approximately of 80 % efficiency for all treated model solutions. Similar efficiency of the adsorption processes was reached after 5 min at dynamic condition. The highest efficiency of Cu(II removal (98 % was observed after 30 min of dynamic adsorption. Changes of pH values confirmed a mechanism of ion exchange on the beginning of the adsorption process.

  19. Mercury Content of Sediments in East Fork Poplar Creek: Current Assessment and Past Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Earles, Jennifer E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowe, Kenneth Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehlhorn, Tonia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, David J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phillips, Debra H. [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study provided new information on sediment mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) content and chemistry. The current inventory of Hg in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) bed sediments was estimated to be 334 kg, which represents a ~67% decrease relative to the initial investigations in 1984. MMHg sediment inventory was estimated to be 44.1 g, lower but roughly similar to past estimates. The results support the relevance and potential impacts of other active and planned investigations within the Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek project (e.g., assessment and control of bank soil inputs, sorbents for Hg and MMHg removal, re-introduction of freshwater clams to EFPC), and identify gaps in current understanding that represent opportunities to understand controlling variables that may inform future technology development studies.

  20. Environmental profile of ethanol from poplar biomass as transport fuel in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Gasol, Carles M.; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Liquid biofuels provide one of the few options for fossil fuel substitution in the short to medium-term and they are strongly being promoted by the European Union as transport fuel (such as ethanol) since they have the potential to offer both greenhouse gas (GHG) savings and energy security. A ''well to wheel'' analysis has been conducted for poplar based ethanol by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The aim of the analysis is to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol applications (E10, E85 and E100) in comparison with conventional gasoline. To compare the environmental profiles, the study addressed the impact potentials per kilometre driven by a middle size passenger car, taking into account the performance difference between ethanol blends and gasoline. According to the results of this study, fuel ethanol derived from poplar biomass may help to reduce the contributions to global warming, abiotic resources depletion and ozone layer depletion up to 62%, 72% and 36% respectively. Reductions of fossil fuel extraction of up to 80% could be achieved when pure ethanol is used. On the contrary, contributions to other impact categories would be increased, specifically to acidification and eutrophication. In both categories, ethanol based blends are less environmentally friendly than conventional gasoline due to the higher impact from the upstream activities. Research focussed on the reduction of the environmental impacts should be pointed forward poplar cultivation as well as ethanol conversion plant (enzyme manufacturing, energy production and distillation). In this study poplar cultivation was really intensive in order to obtain a high yield. Strategic planning according to the location of the crops and its requirements should help to reduce these impacts from its cultivation. (author)

  1. Biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mix for hybrid poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Headlee; Catherine E. Brewer; Richard B. Hall

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mixes for unrooted vegetative cuttings of hybrid poplar as represented by the clone ‘NM6’ (Populus nigra L. × Populus suaveolens Fischer subsp. maximowiczii A. Henry). We compared three treatments (peat moss (control), peat moss mixed with vermiculite, and peat moss mixed with...

  2. RNA-SEQ reveals transcriptional level changes of poplar roots in different forms of nitrogen treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpu eQu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplar has emerged as a model plant for understanding molecular mechanisms of tree growth, development and response to environment. Long-term application of different forms of nitrogen (such as NO3--N and NH4+-N may cause morphological changes of poplar roots; however, the molecular level changes are still not well known. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiling of poplar roots treated by three forms of nitrogen: S1 (NH4+, S2 (NH4NO3 and S3 (NO3- by using RNA-SEQ technique. We found 463 genes significantly differentially expressed in roots by different N treatments, of which a total of 116 genes were found to differentially express between S1 and S2, 173 genes between S2 and S3, and 327 genes between S1 and S3. A cluster analysis shows significant difference in many transcription factor families and functional genes family under different N forms. Through an analysis of Mapman metabolic pathway, we found that the significantly differentially expressed genes are associated with fermentation, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transport processing. Interestingly, we did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in N metabolism pathway, mitochondrial electron transport / ATP synthesis and mineral nutrition. We also found abundant candidate genes (20 transcription factors and 30 functional genes regulating morphology changes of poplar roots under the three N forms. The results obtained are beneficial to a better understanding of the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating root morphology changes under different N treatments.

  3. Life cycle assessment: an application to poplar for energy cultivated in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bacenetti, J.; Gonzalez Garcia, S.; Mena, A.; Fiala, M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the bioenergy sector has led to an increasing interest in energy crops. Short rotation coppices (SRC) are forestry management systems in which fast-growing tree species are produced under intensive cultivation practices to obtain high wood chips yields. In Italy, most SRC plantations consist of poplar biomass-clones. SRC plantations can be carried out with different management systems with diverse cutting times; consequently, the cultivation system can be crucial for attain...

  4. Combining proteomics and metabolite analyses to unravel cadmium stress-response in poplar leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Pol; Planchon, Sébastien; Oufir, Mouhssin; Ziebel, Johanna; Dommes, Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Renaut, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    A proteomic analysis of poplar leaves exposed to cadmium, combined with biochemical analysis of pigments and carbohydrates revealed changes in primary carbon metabolism. Proteomic results suggested that photosynthesis was slightly affected. Together with a growth inhibition, photoassimilates were less needed for developmental processes and could be stored in the form of hexoses or complex sugars, acting also as osmoprotectants. Simultaneously, mitochondrial respiration was upregulated, providing energy needs of cadmium-exposed plants.

  5. Environmental benefits of cropland conversion to hybrid poplar: economic and policy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updegraff, K.; Baughman, M.J.; Taff, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate environmental benefits that might accrue from conversion of farmland to short-rotation woody crops (SRWC), a hypothetical conversion of 10%, 20% and 30% of cropland was modeled in a watershed of the Lower Minnesota River. The analysis synthesized output from a watershed model (ADAPT) with literature-based estimates of productivity and economic values for water quality, forest conservation and carbon sequestration. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to estimate ranges of environmental benefit values for cropland conversion to SRWCS. The summed average net benefits justified annual public subsidies ranging from $44 to 596 ha -1 , depending on market scenario and conversion level. Cropland conversion to SRWCs reduced cumulative annual stream flows, sediment and nitrogen loadings by up to 9%, 28% and 15%, respectively. Reduced sediment loads resulted in potential average annual public savings on culvert and ditch maintenance costs of $9.37 Mg -1 of sediment not delivered to the watershed outlet. Hybrid poplars over a 5-year rotation produced an estimated annual economic value due to carbon sequestration of $13-15 ha -1 when used for bioenergy and $29-33 ha -1 (depending on conversion rate) when converted to wood products. If hybrid poplars are substituted for aspen traditionally harvested from natural woodlands, the poplars create annual forest preservation values of $4.79-5.44 ha -1 . (author)

  6. Partitioning of K, Cl, S and P during combustion of poplar and brassica energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz-Ramírez, Maryori; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    K-, Cl-, S- and P-release from a herbaceous (brassica) and a short rotation coppice (poplar) cultivated in the Mediterranean region, have been investigated under combustion conditions [500-1100 °C]. Contrary to brassica, Cl- and S-release from poplar were substantial for all temperatures tested....... Low-temperature [500-700 °C] Cl-release from the high-Cl brassica appeared to be primarily limited by the fuel chemical composition and secondarily by interactions of the ash-forming elements with the fuel organic matrix. Below 700 °C, Cl-release was nearly 50%, whereas complete dechlorination...... resulted around 800 °C. S-release from brassica was up to 40% at low temperature. Above 1000 °C, additional S-release was observed presumably by sulfate dissociation. K-release was linked to Cl-release around 700 °C and, gradually increased afterwards. At 1100 °C, nearly 60% of K in poplar was retained...

  7. Biomass and Volume Yield in Mature Hybrid Poplar Plantations on Temperate Abandoned Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Truax

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed clone-specific allometric relationships, with the objective of calculating volume and biomass production after 13 years in 8 poplar plantations, located across an environmental gradient, and composed of 5 unrelated hybrid poplar clones. Allometry was found to be very similar for clones MxB-915311, NxM-3729 and DNxM-915508, all having P. maximoviczii parentage. Clones DxN-3570 and TxD-3230 also had a similar allometry; for a given DBH they have a lower stem volume, stem biomass and branch biomass than P. maximoviczii hybrids. Strong Site × Clone interactions were observed for volume and woody biomass growth, with DxN and TxD hybrids only productive on low elevation fertile sites, whereas P. maximovizcii hybrids were also very productive on higher elevation sites with moderate to high soil fertility. At the site level (5 clones mean, yield reached 27.5 and 22.7 m3/ha/yr. on the two best sites (high fertility and low elevation, confirming the great potential of southern Québec (Canada for poplar culture. The productivity gap between the most and least productive sites has widened from year 8 to year 13, highlighting the need for high quality abandoned farmland site selection in terms of climate and soil fertility. Although clone selection could optimize yield across the studied environmental gradient, it cannot fully compensate for inadequate site selection.

  8. Lignin-enriched Fermentation Residues from Bioethanol Production of Fast-growing Poplar and Forage Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current challenges in developing a cost-effective bioethanol industry include the production of not only high-volume, low cost biofuels but also high-value products with minimal downstream waste. The up-grading of side-stream lignins from bioethanol production plants to novel high-value products will improve the profitability of the bioethanol industry; to do that, a precise understanding of lignin is required. In the present study, lignin-enriched fermentation residues from bioethanol production (steam explosion pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of fast-growing poplar and forage sorghum were characterized. In addition to the purity and composition, lignin structure (syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio, inter-unit linkages was also analyzed with spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Bioethanol processing and feedstock origins seemed to be the main factors determining the purity, composition, and structure of lignins. Residual lignins from poplar and forage sorghum contained significant amounts of sugar and protein impurities. Poplar lignin showed a very high S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxybenzoate. A lower S/G ratio together with H lignin units and p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate was observed for forage sorghum lignin. The main inter-unit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4´ aryl ether followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans.

  9. Predictive models of biomass for poplar and willow. Short rotation coppice in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, A.C.; Morgan, G.W.; Poole, E.J.; Baldwin, M.E.; Tubby, I. (Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    A series of forty-nine experimental trials on short rotation coppice (SRC) were conducted throughout the United Kingdom using a selection of varieties of poplar and willow with the aim of evaluating their performance for wood fuel production under a representative range of UK conditions. Observations on the crops and on a range of site and climatic conditions during the growth of the crops were taken over two three-year cutting cycles. These observations were used to develop a suite of empirical models for poplar and willow SRC growth and yield from which systems were constructed to provide a- priori predictions of biomass yield for any site in the UK with known characteristics (predictive yield models), and estimates of biomass yield from a standing crop (standing biomass models). The structure of the series of field trials and the consequent approach and methodology used in the construction of the suite of empirical models are described, and their use in predicting biomass yields of poplar and willow SRC is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Isolation and Pathogenicity of Phytophthora Species from Poplar Plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milenković

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available During a survey in three declining and three healthy poplar plantations in Serbia, six different Phytophthora species were obtained. Phytophthora plurivora was the most common, followed by P. pini, P. polonica, P. lacustris, P. cactorum, and P. gonapodyides. Pathogenicity of all isolated species to four-month and one-year-old cuttings of Populus hybrid clones I-214 and Pánnonia, respectively, was tested using both a soil infestation and stem inoculation test. Isolates of P. polonica, P. × cambivora, P. cryptogea, and P. × serendipita from other host plants were included as a comparison. In the soil infestation test, the most aggressive species to clone I-214 were P. plurivora, P. × serendipita, and P. pini. On clone Pánnonia, P. gonapodyides and P. pini were the most aggressive, both causing 100% mortality, followed by P. cactorum, P. × cambivora, and P. polonica. In the underbark inoculation test, the susceptibility of both poplar clones to the different Phytophthora species was largely similar, as in the soil infestation test, with the exception of P. polonica, which proved to be only weakly pathogenic to poplar bark. The most aggressive species to clone I-214 was P. pini, while on clone Pánnonia, the longest lesions and highest disease incidence were caused by P. gonapodyides. Phytophthora cactorum and P. plurivora were pathogenic to both clones, whereas P. × cambivora showed only weak pathogenicity. The implications of these findings and possible pathways of dispersion of the pathogens are discussed.

  11. ADVANCING PROTOCOLS FOR POPLARS in vitro PROPAGATION, REGENERATION AND SELECTION OF TRANSFORMANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kutsokon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplars (genus Populus have emerged as a model organism for forest biotechnology, and genetic modification is more advanced for this genus than for any other tree. So far several protocols for microclonal propagation and regeneration for Populus species have been developed. However it is well known that these protocols differ for various species and need to be adapted even for different clones of the same species. This work was focused on developing of protocols for propagation, regeneration and putative transformant´s selection of aspen Populus tremula L. and other two fast-growing Populus species (P. nigra L., P. x canadensis Moench. The regeneration ability for black poplar explants was demonstrated to be three times higher compared to those for aspen and hybrid poplar. It was found that concentration 1 mg/L of phosphinothricin and 25 mg/L of kanamycin is toxic for non- transgenic plant tissues of P. x canadensis and can be applied in transformation experiments when genes of resistance to the corresponding selective agents into the plant genome are introduced.

  12. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  13. Syringyl-Rich Lignin Renders Poplars More Resistant to Degradation by Wood Decay Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Oleksandr; Douglas, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of lignin composition on the resistance of wood to degradation by decay fungi, wood specimens from two transgenic poplar lines expressing an Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) driven by the cinnimate-4-hydroxylase promoter (C4H::F5H) that increased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) monolignol ratios relative to those in the untransformed control wood were incubated with six different wood decay fungi. Alterations in wood weight and chemical composition were monitored over the incubation period. The results showed that transgenic poplar lines extremely rich in syringyl lignin exhibited a drastically improved resistance to degradation by all decay fungi evaluated. Lignin monomer composition and its distribution among cell types and within different cell layers were the sole wood chemistry parameters determining wood durability. Since transgenic poplars with exceedingly high syringyl contents were recalcitrant to degradation, where wood durability is a critical factor, these genotypes may offer improved performance. PMID:23396333

  14. Thaumatin-like proteins are differentially expressed and localized in phloem tissues of hybrid poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafoe Nicole J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs were previously identified in phloem exudate of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides using proteomics methods, and their sieve element localization confirmed by immunofluorescence. In the current study, we analyzed different tissues to further understand TLP expression and localization in poplar, and used immunogold labelling to determine intracellular localization. Results Immunofluorescence using a TLP antiserum confirmed the presence of TLP in punctate, organelle-like structures within sieve elements. On western blots, the antiserum labeled two constitutively expressed proteins with distinct expression patterns. Immunogold labelling suggested that TLPs are associated with starch granules and starch-containing plastids in sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. In addition, the antiserum recognized TLPs in the inner cell wall and sieve plate region of sieve elements. Conclusions TLP localization in poplar cells and tissues is complex. TLP1 is expressed predominantly in tissues with a prominent vascular system such as midveins, petioles and stems, whereas the second TLP is primarily expressed in starch-storing plastids found in young leaves and the shoot apex.

  15. Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-Regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucher, M.; Chabbert, B.; Pilate, G.; Van Doorsselaere, J.; Tollier, M. T.; Petit-Conil, M.; Cornu, D.; Monties, B.; Van Montagu, M.; Inze, D.; Jouanin, L.; Boerjan, W.

    1996-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lignin precursors, the monolignols. We have down-regulated CAD in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula X Populus alba) by both antisense and co-suppression strategies. Several antisense and sense CAD transgenic poplars had an approximately 70% reduced CAD activity that was associated with a red coloration of the xylem tissue. Neither the lignin amount nor the lignin monomeric composition (syringyl/guaiacyl) were significantly modified. However, phloroglucinol-HCl staining was different in the down-regulated CAD plants, suggesting changes in the number of aldehyde units in the lignin. Furthermore, the reactivity of the cell wall toward alkali treatment was altered: a lower amount of lignin was found in the insoluble, saponified residue and more lignin could be precipitated from the soluble alkali fraction. Moreover, large amounts of phenolic compounds, vanillin and especially syringaldehyde, were detected in the soluble alkali fraction of the CAD down-regulated poplars. Alkaline pulping experiments on 3-month-old trees showed a reduction of the kappa number without affecting the degree of cellulose degradation. These results indicate that reducing the CAD activity in trees might be a valuable strategy to optimize certain processes of the wood industry, especially those of the pulp and paper industry.

  16. Metal-induced changes in photosynthetic electron transport in poplar Ieaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralova, K.; Gaplovsky, A.; Masarovicova, E.; Havranek, E.

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the effect of different toxic metals (Cu, Hg and Cd) on dark-induced changes in the photochemical activity of detached poplar leaves that were submersed in solutions of tested metals at different pH level, on the metal accumulation in poplar leaves as well as on fluorescence quenching ability of the tested metals. Cu and Hg inhibited the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in chloroplast prepared from the leaves of P. nigra and the corresponding IC 50 values were 32.7 and 512.7 μmol dm -3 , respectively. We could not determine the IC 50 value for CdCl 2 due to its very low PET-inhibiting activity. These results are in agreement with previous findings concerning PET inhibition by the studied metals in spinach chloroplasts. The accumulated metal amounts in poplar leaves were determined using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The accumulated metal amount increased with the increasing metal concentration and with the decreasing pH value of the applied metal solution. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David B.; Brooks, Scott C.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Chris; Brandt, Craig C.; Peterson, Mark J.; Ketelle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats' surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  18. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  19. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  20. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiendler-Scharr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m−2 s−1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT and nearly zero (<0.5 nmol m−2 s−1 in isoprene emission-repressed plants (line RA22, respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm−3 s−1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8 was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  1. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Increased demand for bioenergy has intensified the production of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and poplar in temperate zones. We used a combined chronosequence and paired plot approach to study the potential of SRC willow and poplar stands to increase the soil carbon stock compared to stocks of the previous arable land-use. The study focused on well-drained soils. We sampled soil from 30 SRC stands in Denmark and southern Sweden including soils from their adjacent arable fields. The 18 willow and 12 poplar stands formed a chronosequence ranging between 4 and 29 years after conversion. The soil was sampled both with soil cores taken by fixed depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25, and 25-40 cm and by genetic horizons from soil pits to 1m depth. The aim of the study was to estimate the difference and the ratio between soil carbon contents of the SRC and annual crop land and analyze the results as a chronosequence to examine the effect of age after conversion on the difference. Covariates such as soil type, fertilization type and harvest frequency were also taken into account. Preliminary results suggest an overall increase in carbon stocks over time with average accumulation rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in willow and poplar stands. Poplar stands had higher rates of C gain, probably due to less frequent harvesting. The differences in carbon between the SRC and the paired cropland were initially negative but changed to positive over time, implying loss of carbon after conversion and a later gain in soil carbon with stand age. Pairwise differences ranged from -25 Mg C ha-1 to 37 Mg C ha-1 for the top 40 cm. The carbon stock ratio of the SRC stand to the arable land was estimated to minimize the effect of site-related factors. The results of this analysis suggested that the ratio increased significantly with age after conversion for the top 10 cm of the soil, both for poplar and willow. A slight increase with age was also noticed at the deeper depths, but

  2. Overexpression of Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Enhances Drought, Osmotic, and Cold Tolerance in Transgenic Poplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA has been known participate in a wider range of adaptive responses to diverse environmental abiotic stresses such as drought, osmosis, and low temperatures. ABA signaling is initiated by its receptors PYR/PYL/RCARs, a type of soluble proteins with a conserved START domain which can bind ABA and trigger the downstream pathway. Previously, we discovered that poplar (Populus trichocarpa genome encodes 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs (PtPYRLs, and two of them, PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 have been functionally characterized to positively regulate drought tolerance. However, the physiological function of these ABA receptors in poplar remains uncharacterized. Here, we generated transgenic poplar plants overexpressing PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 and found that they exhibited more vigorous growth and produced greater biomass when exposed to drought stress. The improved drought tolerance was positively correlated with the key physiological responses dictated by the ABA signaling pathway, including increase in stomatal closure and decrease in leaf water loss. Further analyses revealed that overexpression lines showed improved capacity in scavenging reactive oxygen species and enhanced the activation of antioxidant enzymes under drought stress. Moreover, overexpression of PtPYRL1 or PtPYRL5 significantly increased the poplar resistance to osmotic and cold stresses. In summary, our results suggest that constitutive expression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 significantly enhances the resistance to drought, osmotic and cold stresses by positively regulating ABA signaling in poplar.

  3. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  4. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Bian, Jie; Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi; Wan, Jinglin

    2017-06-01

    The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Sisbnd Osbnd C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  5. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuzhong; Yang Wanqin; Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 ± 19.22 and 576.75 ± 40.55 μg cadmium per plant with 110.77 ± 12.68 and 202.54 ± 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  6. Investigation on the Effect of Kenaf Core and Stalk Fiber on the Medium Density Fiber Board Properties Made of Poplar Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh SH.Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the use of material non-forest resources, in this study the possibility of using the kenaf stalk fibers mixed with poplar fibers in producing medium density fiber board was considered. Variable factors such as density at two levels (0.55, 0.75 g/cm3 and the percentage incorporation of fiber (%50 poplar fibers, - %50 kenaf core fiber, %50 poplar fiber, -% 50 kenaf stalk fiber and %100 poplar fibers were considered. Steaming time and temperature (175°C, 10min, press time and temperature (5 min, 175°C, Pressing pressure (30 kg/cm3, fiber cake moisture (%12 and urea-formaldehyde resin with Concentration of %50 of the study factors were fixed. Results show that adding kenaf core fibers to the poplar fibers increases modulus of elasticity and water absorption but thickness swelling reduces. Increased density in board made with kenaf core has caused increase in bending strength, modulus of elasticity and internal bond strength and their water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 hours were competitive with poplar (MDF. On the other hand Populus fiber– kenaf stalk board mechanical and physical properties were competitive with (MDF board made of %100 poplar fibers. Finally we can say that according to the statistical analysis, the best treatment in this study was using kenaf core fibers, in making poplar (MDF with 0.75 g/cm3 density.

  7. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Fuzhong [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Yang Wanqin, E-mail: scyangwq@163.com [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China)

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 {+-} 19.22 and 576.75 {+-} 40.55 {mu}g cadmium per plant with 110.77 {+-} 12.68 and 202.54 {+-} 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  8. Impacts of supplyshed-level differences in productivity and land Costs on the economics of hybrid poplar production in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Lazarus; William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Zalesny

    2015-01-01

    The joint effects of poplar biomass productivity and land costs on poplar production economics were compared for 12 Minnesota counties and two genetic groups, using a process-based model (3-PG) to estimate productivity. The counties represent three levels of productivity and a range of land costs (annual rental rates) from $128/ha to $534/ha. An optimal rotation age...

  9. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  10. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

  11. A heterogeneous boron distribution in soil influences the poplar root system architecture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, R.; Robinson, B. H.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Poplars are well suited for the phytomanagement of boron (B)-contaminated sites, due to their high transpiration rate and tolerance to elevated soil B concentrations. However, the uptake and the fate of B in poplar stands are not well understood. This information is crucial to improve the design of phytomanagement systems, where the primary role of poplars is to reduce B leaching by reducing the water flux through the contaminated material. Like other trace elements, B occurs heterogeneously in soils. Concentrations can differ up to an order of magnitude within centimetres. These gradients affect plant root growth and thus via preferential flow along the roots water and mass transport in soils to ground and surface waters. Generally there are three possible reactions of plant roots to patches with elevated trace element concentrations in soils: indifference, avoidance, or foraging. While avoidance or indifference might seem to be the most obvious strategies, foraging cannot be excluded a priori, because of the high demand of poplars for B compared to other tree species. We aimed to determine the rooting strategies of poplars in soils where B is either homo- or heterogeneously distributed. We planted 5 cm cuttings of Populus tremula var. Birmensdorf clones in aluminum (Al) containers with internal dimensions of 64 x 67 x 1.2 cm. The soil used was subsoil from northern Switzerland with a naturally low B and organic C concentration. We setup two treatments and a control with three replicates each. We spiked a bigger and a smaller portion of the soil with the same amount of B(OH)3-salt, in order to obtain soil concentrations of 7.5 mg B kg-1 and 20 mg B kg-1. We filled the containers with (a) un-spiked soil, (b) the 7.5 mg B kg-1 soil and (c) heterogeneously. The heterogeneous treatment consisted of one third 20 mg B kg-1 soil and two thirds control soil. We grew the poplars in a small greenhouse over 2 months and from then on in a climate chamber for another 3 months

  12. Impact of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO 2 and fertilization (two CO 2 treatments, elevated CO 2 and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO 2 and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar

  13. Cavitation vulnerability in roots and shoots: does Populus euphratica Oliv., a poplar from arid areas of Central Asia, differ from other poplar species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukin, D; Cochard, H; Dreyer, E; Le Thiec, D; Bogeat-Triboulot, M B

    2005-08-01

    Populus euphratica is a poplar species growing in arid regions of Central Asia, where its distribution remains nevertheless restricted to river-banks or to areas with an access to deep water tables. To test whether the hydraulic architecture of this species differs from that of other poplars with respect to this ecological distribution, the vulnerability to cavitation of P. euphratica was compared with that of P. alba and of P. trichocarpa x koreana. The occurrence of a potential hydraulic segmentation through cavitation was also investigated by assessing the vulnerability of roots, stems, and leaf mid-rib veins. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to assess the level of embolism in fine roots and leaf mid-ribs and a low pressure flowmeter (LPFM) was used for stems and main roots. The cryo-SEM technique was validated against LPFM measurements on paired samples. In P. alba and P. trichocarpa x koreana, leaf mid-ribs were more vulnerable to cavitation than stems and roots. In P. euphratica, leaf mid-ribs and stems were equally vulnerable and, contrary to what has been observed in other species, roots were significantly less vulnerable than shoots. P. euphratica was by far the most vulnerable. The water potential inducing 50% loss of conductivity in stems was close to -0.7 MPa, against approximately -1.45 MPa for the two others species. Such a large vulnerability was confirmed by recording losses of conductivity during a gradual drought. Moreover, significant stem embolism was recorded before stomatal closure, indicating the lack of an efficient safety margin for hydraulic functions in this species. Embolism was not reversed by rewatering. These observations are discussed with respect to the ecology of P. euphratica.

  14. Root proteome response to growth on tannery waste in three different poplar species with various adaptation abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemleduch-Barylska A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In our study we compared growth of three poplar clones (Populus tremula ×alba, P. alba ‘Villafranca” and P. nigra on chromium-containing solid tannery waste. Tolerance index of saplings ranged from only 25% for P. nigra up to 80% for P. tremula x alba. Standard morphological, chemical and biochemical analyses also confirmed significant differences in reaction of all tested clones to such growth conditions. Preliminary proteomic study showed an unequal level of changes in protein profiles from roots in different poplars.

  15. [Difference of water relationships of poplar trees in Zhangbei County, Hebei, China based on stable isotope and thermal dissipation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin Song; He, Fang Jie; Sun, Shou Jia

    2017-07-18

    The water sources and transpiration of poplar trees in Zhangbei County were measured using stable hydrogen isotope and thermal dissipation method. The differences in water relationships between dieback and non-dieback poplar trees were analyzed. The results showed that the dieback trees mainly used shallow water from 0-30 cm soil layer during growing season while the non-dieback trees mainly used water from 30-80 cm soil layer. There was a significant difference in water source between them. The non-dieback trees used more water from middle and deep soil layers than that of the dieback trees during the dry season. The percentage of poplar trees using water from 0-30 cm soil layer increased in wet season, and the increase of dieback trees was higher than that of non-dieback trees. The contributions of water from 30-180 cm soil layer of dieback and non-dieback trees both decreased in wet season. The sap flow rate of non-dieback trees was higher than that of dieback trees. There was a similar variation tend of sap flow rate between dieback and non-dieback trees in different weather conditions, but the start time of sap flow of non-dieback trees was earlier than that of dieback trees. Correlation analysis showed that the sap flow rate of either dieback or non-dieback poplar trees strongly related to soil temperature, wind speed, photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity and air temperature. The sap flow rate of die-back poplar trees strongly negatively related to soil temperature and relative humidity, and strongly positively related to the other factors. The sap flow rate of non-dieback poplar trees only strongly negatively related to relative humidity but positively related to the other factors. The results revealed transpiration of both poplar trees was easily affected by environmental factors. The water consumption of dieback trees was less than non-dieback trees because the cumulative sap flow amount of dieback trees was lower. Reduced transpiration

  16. Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Miao, Ling-Feng

    2010-08-01

    Cuttings of Populus kangdingensis C. Wang et Tung and Populus cathayana Rehder were examined during a single growing season in a greenhouse for comparative analysis of their physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress. The said species originate from high and low altitudes, respectively, of the eastern Himalaya. Results revealed that the adaptive responses to drought stress vary between the two poplar species. As a consequence of drought stress, the stem height increment and leaf number increment are more significantly inhibited in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, in response to drought stress, more significant cellular damages such as reduction in leaf relative water content and CO(2) assimilation rate, increments in the contents of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide and downregulation or degradation of proteins related to photosynthesis occur in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, P. kangdingensis can cope better with the negative impact on the entire regulatory network. This includes more efficient increases in content of solute sugar, soluble protein and free proline and activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as specific expressions of certain proteins related to protein processing, redox homeostasis and sugar metabolism. Morphological consequences as well as physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress between species revealed that P. kangdingensis originating from a high altitude manifest stronger drought adaptation than did P. cathayana originating from a low altitude. Functions of various proteins identified by proteomic experiment are related with physiological phenomena. Physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in poplar may work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis, allowing poplar to develop a certain level of drought tolerance.

  17. Water stress mitigates the negative effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biomass in poplar plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Catalayud, Vicent; Paoletti, Elena; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2017-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution frequently overlaps with drought episodes but the combined effects are not yet understood. We investigated the physiological and biomass responses of an O 3 sensitive hybrid poplar clone ('546') under three O 3 levels (charcoal-filtered ambient air, non-filtered ambient air (NF), and NF plus 40 ppb) and two watering regimes (well-watered (WW) and reduced watering (RW), i.e. 40% irrigation) for one growing season. Water stress increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, protecting leaves from pigment degradation by O 3 . Impairment of photosynthesis by O 3 was also reduced by stomatal closure due to water stress, which preserved light-saturated CO 2 assimilation rate, and the maximum carboxylation efficiency. Water stress increased water use efficiency of the leaves while O 3 decreased it, showing significant interactions. Effects were more evident in older leaves than in younger leaves. Water stress reduced biomass production, but the negative effects of O 3 were less in RW than in WW for total biomass per plant. A stomatal O 3 flux-based dose-response relationship was parameterized considering water stress effects, which explained biomass losses much better than a concentration-based approach. The O 3 critical level of Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a threshold of 7 nmol O 3 .m -2 .s -1 (POD 7 ) for a 4% biomass loss in this poplar clone under different water regimes was 4.1 mmol m -2 . Our results suggest that current O 3 levels in most parts of China threaten poplar growth and that interaction with water availability is a key factor for O 3 risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contaminant characterization of sediment and pore-water in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, D.A.; Harris, R.A.; Campbell, K.R.; Hargrove, W.W.; Rash, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment and pore-water samples were collected from 80 locations in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek system to characterize concentrations and spatial distribution of contaminants for use in ecological risk assessment. Sediment cores were collected at each site and the top 15 cm was analyzed to represent the biologically active zone. Sediment for pore-water extraction was collected in large volumes using a Ponar grab sampler. Pore-water was extracted from this sediment using centrifugation, All samples were analyzed for metals (including methyl mercury), organics, and radiological constituents. Additionally, sediment was analyzed for physical properties: particle size distribution, density, and porosity. Sediment and pore-water were also analyzed for total organic carbon and nitrogen and ammonia levels. Sediment and pore-water were also analyzed for total organic carbon and nitrogen and ammonia levels. Sediment and pre-water results indicate that there are several areas where concentrations of a variety of contaminants are high enough to causes ecological effects. These locations in the river are immediately downstream from know sources of Contamination from on-site DOE facilities. East Fork Poplar Creek is a source of several metals, including mercury, cadmium, chromium, and copper. Mitchell Branch is a source of number of metals, uranium isotopes, technetium-99, and several PAHs. There are two clear sources of arsenic and selenium to the system, one in Poplar Creek and one in Melton Hill Reservoir, both related to past disposal of coal-ash. High concentrations in sediments did not always coincide with high concentrations in pore-water for the same sites and contaminants. This appears to be related to particle size of the sediment and total organic carbon

  19. Analysis of the impact of biomechanical traits of European black Poplar on riverbank flow resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Villani, Paolo; Rita, Angelo; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of riparian plants on river flow dynamics is fundamental for an appropriate river management. Riparian woody vegetation enhances bank cohesion and provides ecosystem services by mitigating nutrient and sediment loads to the river flow and enhancing biodiversity. However riparian trees also contribute to river flow resistance and thus can have a significant impact on flow dynamics during flood events. The flow-plant interaction mainly depends on plant morphological characters (e.g. diameter, height, canopy size, foliage density) and biomechanical properties, such as its flexural rigidity. This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic behaviour of the European black Poplar (∖textit{Populus nigra} L.), a common woody riparian plant, is influenced by specific biomechanical traits developed as result of its adaptation to different river ecosystems. We examine the morphological and biomechanical properties of living stems of black Poplar sampled in two different riverine environments in Southern Italy located only a few kilometres apart. The two sample sets of living stems exhibit similar morphological traits but significantly different Young module of elasticity. We compared the drag forces that the flow would exert on these two different sets of plants for a wide range of flow velocities, by employing a numerical model that accounts for the bending behaviour of the woody plant due to the hydrodynamic load, under the hypothesis of complete submergence. A Monte Carlo approach was applied in order to account for the stochastic variability of the morphological and mechanical parameters affecting plant biomechanical behaviour. We identified a threshold value of the plant diameter, above which the two sets of European black Poplars are subjected to drag forces that differ by more than 25{∖%} on average, for flow velocities larger than 1 m/s.

  20. Thermochemical and physical evaluation of poplar genotypes as short rotation forestry crops for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monedero, Esperanza; Hernández, Juan José; Cañellas, Isabel; Otero, Jose María; Sixto, Hortensia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The combustion properties of poplar genotypes harvested from three different sites were analyzed. • Both the genotype and the locations affect the expected combustion behavior. • Among the poplar genotypes, ‘Monviso’ and ‘Viriato’ are expected to have better combustion behavior. • No operating problems derived from fouling/corrosion are expected for any of the genotypes. - Abstract: Short rotation plantations of fast-growing species provide a promising way to produce heat and electricity from renewable sources. The thermo-chemical and physical properties of different genotypes of poplar in short rotation forestry crops grown at three locations with different climatic and edaphic characteristics as well as planting density, have been determined in order to characterize the most appropriate biomass in terms of energy potential. The planting density was 6666 or 13,333 trees/ha (depending on the location) in a rotation of three-four years and the analysis was carried out at the end of the first rotation. For all the genotypes, experimental tests to quantify the moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk density, heating value, ash content and composition as well as the volatile matter were performed. In addition, natural air drying of biomass (stem and branches) was studied in two locations with the aim of determining the humidity loss during raw storage. A significant effect of the genotype and the planting density on the biomass properties was observed. The results obtained indicate that ‘Monviso’ and ‘Viriato’ are the most suitable genotypes. No operational problems related to ash fouling and deposition in combustion devices are expected for any of the genotypes studied.

  1. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources - Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess new data that has become available and provide an update to the evaluations and modeling presented in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Technical Manuscript Evaluation of lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Mercury Sources (Watson et al., 2016). Primary sources of field and laboratory data for this update include multiple US Department of Energy (DOE) programs including Environmental Management (EM; e.g., Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, Mercury Remediation Technology Development [TD], and Applied Field Research Initiative), Office of Science (Mercury Science Focus Areas [SFA] project), and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) Compliance Department.

  2. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449 ampersand D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit

  3. Characterization and 2D structural model of corn straw and poplar leaf biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Lv, YiZhong; Yang, XiXiang; Huang, Feng; Yang, JianWen

    2017-12-22

    The integrated experimental methods were used to analyze the physicochemical properties and structural characteristics and to build the 2D structural model of two kinds of biochars. Corn straw and poplar leaf biochars were gained by pyrolysing the raw materials slowly in a furnace at 300, 500, and 700 °C under oxygen-deficient conditions. Scanning electron microscope was applied to observe the surface morphology of the biochars. High temperatures destroyed the pore structures of the biochars, forming a particle mixture of varying sizes. The ash content, yield, pH, and surface area were also observed to describe the biochars' properties. The yield decreases as the pyrolysis temperature increases. The biochars are neutral to alkaline. The biggest surface area is 251.11 m 2 /g for 700 °C corn straw biochar. Elemental analysis, infrared microspectroscopy, solid-state C-13 NMR spectroscopy, and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were also used to study the structural characteristics and build the 2D structural models of biochars. The C content in the corn straw and poplar leaf biochars increases with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. A higher pyrolysis temperature makes the aryl carbon increase, and C=O, OH, and aliphatic hydrocarbon content decrease in the IR spectra. Solid-state C-13 NMR spectra show that a higher pyrolysis temperature makes the alkyl carbon and alkoxy carbon decrease and the aryl carbon increase. The results of IR microspectra and solid-state C-13 NMR spectra reveal that some noticeable differences exist in these two kinds of biochars and in the same type of biochar but under different pyrolysis temperatures. The conceptual elemental compositions of 500 °C corn straw and poplar leaf biochars are C 61 H 33 NO 13 and C 59 H 41 N 3 O 12 , respectively. Significant differences exist in the SEM images, physicochemical properties, and structural characteristics of corn straw and poplar leaf biochars.

  4. Biomass yield and fuel characteristics of short-rotation coppice (willow, poplar, empress tree)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, J.; Vetter, R. [Institute for Land Management Compatible to Environmental Requirements, Muellheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In two pedo-climatic different regions in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg three shortrotation coppices willow, poplar and empress tree were tested with regard to their biomass productivity on arable land and to their properties for energetic use. Between 8 and 13 tons of dry matter per hectare and year could be produced under extensive cultivation conditions, over 15 tons with irrigation. Due to their composition, it can be assumed that their use as solid fuel in a biomass combustor is just as unproblematic as with forest timber. (orig.)

  5. Genome-wide analysis of eukaryote thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs with an emphasis on poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplessis Sébastien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant inducible immunity includes the accumulation of a set of defense proteins during infection called pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, which are grouped into families termed PR-1 to PR-17. The PR-5 family is composed of thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs, which are responsive to biotic and abiotic stress and are widely studied in plants. TLPs were also recently discovered in fungi and animals. In the poplar genome, TLPs are over-represented compared with annual species and their transcripts strongly accumulate during stress conditions. Results Our analysis of the poplar TLP family suggests that the expansion of this gene family was followed by diversification, as differences in expression patterns and predicted properties correlate with phylogeny. In particular, we identified a clade of poplar TLPs that cluster to a single 350 kb locus of chromosome I and that are up-regulated by poplar leaf rust infection. A wider phylogenetic analysis of eukaryote TLPs - including plant, animal and fungi sequences - shows that TLP gene content and diversity increased markedly during land plant evolution. Mapping the reported functions of characterized TLPs to the eukaryote phylogenetic tree showed that antifungal or glycan-lytic properties are widespread across eukaryote phylogeny, suggesting that these properties are shared by most TLPs and are likely associated with the presence of a conserved acidic cleft in their 3D structure. Also, we established an exhaustive catalog of TLPs with atypical architectures such as small-TLPs, TLP-kinases and small-TLP-kinases, which have potentially developed alternative functions (such as putative receptor kinases for pathogen sensing and signaling. Conclusion Our study, based on the most recent plant genome sequences, provides evidence for TLP gene family diversification during land plant evolution. We have shown that the diverse functions described for TLPs are not restricted to specific clades but seem

  6. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2016 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Johnbull O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, John G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mehlhorn, Tonia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Lowe, Kenneth Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Morris, Jesse G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Eller, Virginia A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Gonez Rodriguez, Leroy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)

    2017-07-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM), especially at and near the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) where historical mercury use has resulted in contaminated buildings, soils, and downstream surface waters. To address mercury contamination of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the DOE has adopted a phased, adaptive management approach to remediation, which includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014).

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  8. Canopy profiles of photosynthetic parameters under elevated CO2 and N fertilization in a poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Tulva, Ingmar; Eensalu, Eve; Perez, Marta; De Angelis, Paolo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe; Kull, Olevi

    2005-01-01

    A poplar plantation has been exposed to an elevated CO 2 concentration for 5 years using the free air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) technique. Even after such a long period of exposure, leaves of Populus x euramericana have not shown clear signs of photosynthetic acclimation. Only at the end of the growing season for shade leaves was a decrease of maximum velocity of carboxylation (V cmax ) observed. Maximum electron transport rate (J max ) was increased by FACE treatment in July. Assimilation rates at CO 2 partial pressure of 400 (A 400 ) and 600 (A 600 ) μmol mol -1 were not significantly different under FACE treatment. Most notably FACE significantly decreased stomatal conductance (g s ) both on upper and lower canopy leaves. N fertilization increased N content in the leaves on mass basis (N m ) and specific leaf area (SLA) in both CO 2 treatments but did not influence the photosynthetic parameters. These data show that in poplar plantations the long-term effects of elevated CO 2 on photosynthesis do not differ considerably from the short-term ones even with N deposition. - Photosynthetic acclimation occurred only marginally

  9. Physical and chemical characteristics of products from the torrefaction of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, Jae-Won

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the characteristics of torrefied yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) depending on reaction time (30 min) and temperature (240-280 °C). The thermogravimetric, grindability and calorific value of torrefied biomass were analyzed. As the torrefaction temperature increased, the carbon content of torrefied biomass increased from 49.50% to 54.42%, while the hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased from 6.09% to 5.65% and 28.71% to 26.61%, respectively. The highest calorific value was 1233 kJ/kg when torrefaction was performed at 280 °C for 30 min. An overall increase in energy density and decrease in mass and energy yield was observed with the increase in torrefaction temperature. The analysis of thermal decomposition demonstrated that the hemicelluloses contained in torrefied biomass decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature, whereas cellulose and lignin were only slightly affected. The grindability of torrefied biomass was significantly improved when torrefaction was performed at high temperature. Torrefaction of yellow poplar improved the chemical and physical fuel properties of the biomass. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. One-step pretreatment of yellow poplar biomass using peracetic acid to enhance enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Rae; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Park, Tai Hyun

    2017-09-22

    Pretreatment of biomass with dilute acid requires high temperatures of >160 °C to remove xylan and does not remove lignin. Here we report that the addition of peracetic acid, a strong oxidant, to mild dilute acid pretreatment reduces the temperature requirement to only 120 °C. Pretreatment of yellow poplar with peracetic acid (300 mM, 2.3 wt%) and dilute sulfuric acid (100 mM, 1.0 wt%) at 120 °C for 5 min removed 85.7% of the xylan and 90.4% of the lignin leaving a solid consisting of 75.6% glucan, 6.0% xylan and 4.7% lignin. Low enzyme loadings of 5 FPU/g glucan and 10 pNPGU/g glucan converted this solid to glucose with an 84.0% yield. This amount of glucose was 2.5 times higher than with dilute acid-pretreated solid and 13.8 times higher than with untreated yellow poplar. Thus, the addition of peracetic acid, easily generated from acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, dramatically increases the effectiveness of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass.

  11. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.

  12. Estimation of the yield of poplars in plantations of fast-growing species within current results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current results are presented of allometric yield estimates of the poplar short rotation coppice. According to a literature review it is obvious that yield estimates, based on measurable quantities of a growing stand, depend not only on the selected tree specie or its clone, but also on the site location. The Jap-105 poplar clone (P. nigra x P. maximowiczii allometric relations were analyzed by regression methods aimed at the creation of the yield estimation methodology at a testing site in Domanínek. Altogether, the twelve polynomial dependences of particular measured quantities approved the high empirical data conformity with the tested regression model (correlation index from 0.9033 to 0.9967. Within the forward stepwise regression, factors were selected, which explain best examined estimates of the total biomass DM; i.e. d.b.h. and stem height. Furthermore, the KESTEMONT’s (1971 mo­del was verified with a satisfying conformity as well. Approving presented yield estimation methods, the presented models will be checked in a large-scale field trial.

  13. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algreen, Mette; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background concentrations at 0.5 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 1.6 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.3 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), and 25 mg kg(-1) for zinc (Zn). Concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were below or close to detection limit. Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were superior to poplars, except when screening for Ni. Phytoextraction of HMs was quantified from measured concentration in wood at the most polluted site. Extraction efficiencies were best for willows and Cd, but below 0.5% over 10 years, and below 1‰ in 10 years for all other HMs.

  14. Chemical Profiles of Wood Components of Poplar Clones for Their Energy Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Kačíková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected and tested poplar clones are very suitable biomass resources for various applications such as biofuels, the pulp and paper industry as well as chemicals production. In this study, we determined the content of lignin, cellulose, holocellulose, and extractives, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G ratio in lignin, and also calculated higher heating values (HHV among eight examined clones of Populus grown on three different experimental sites. The highest lignin content for all the examined sites was determined in ‘I-214’ and ‘Baka 5’ clones, whereas the highest content of extractives was found in ‘Villafranca’ and ‘Baka 5’ clones. The highest S/G ratio for all the examined sites was determined in ‘Villafranca’ and ‘Agathe F’ clones. The chemical profiles of main wood components, extractives, and the S/G ratio in lignin were also influenced by both the experimental site and the clone × site interaction. Higher heating values, derived from calculations based on the contents of lignin and extractives (or lignin only, were in close agreement with the previously published data. The highest heating values were found for ‘Baka 5’ and ‘I-214’ clones. The optimal method of poplar biomass utilization can be chosen on basis of the lignocellulosics chemical composition and the S/G ratio in lignin.

  15. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katanić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia. Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhizal types was performed by combining morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizae with molecular identification approach, based on sequencing of the nuclear ITS rRNA region. Also, colonization of poplar roots with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septated endophytic fungi were analysed with intersection method. Results and Conclusions: Physico-chemical analyses of soil from studied site showed unfavourable water properties of soil, relatively low pH and high content of heavy metals (copper and zinc. In investigated samples only four different ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. To the species level were identified Thelephora terrestris and Tomentella ellisi, while two types remained unidentified. Type Thelephora terrestris made up 89% of all ectomycorrhizal roots on studied site. Consequently total values of Species richness index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index were 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. No structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded. Unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing on investigated site caused decrease of ectomycorrhizal types diversity. Our findings point out that mycorrhyzal fungal community could be used as an appropriate indicator of environmental changes.

  16. Phenolic Profiling of Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase-Deficient Poplar Reveals Novel Benzodioxane Oligolignols1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreel, Kris; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Goeminne, Geert; Busson, Roger; Herdewijn, Piet; Goeman, Jan L.; Van der Eycken, Johan; Boerjan, Wout; Messens, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes preferentially the methylation of 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde to sinapaldehyde in monolignol biosynthesis. Here, we have compared HPLC profiles of the methanol-soluble phenolics fraction of xylem tissue from COMT-deficient and control poplars (Populus spp.), using statistical analysis of the peak heights. COMT down-regulation results in significant concentration differences for 25 of the 91 analyzed peaks. Eight peaks were exclusively detected in COMT-deficient poplar, of which four could be purified for further identification using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and spiking of synthesized reference compounds. These new compounds were derived from 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol or 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde and were characterized by benzodioxane moieties, a structural type that is also increased in the lignins of COMT-deficient plants. One of these four benzodioxanes amounted to the most abundant oligolignol in the HPLC profile. Furthermore, all of the differentially accumulating oligolignols involving sinapyl units were either reduced in abundance or undetectable. The concentration levels of all identified oligolignols were in agreement with the relative supply of monolignols and with their chemical coupling propensities, which supports the random coupling hypothesis. Chiral HPLC analysis of the most abundant benzodioxane dimer revealed the presence of both enantiomers in equal amounts, indicating that they were formed by radical coupling reactions under simple chemical control rather than guided by dirigent proteins. PMID:15563622

  17. Phenolic profiling of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase-deficient poplar reveals novel benzodioxane oligolignols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreel, Kris; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Goeminne, Geert; Busson, Roger; Herdewijn, Piet; Goeman, Jan L; Van der Eycken, Johan; Boerjan, Wout; Messens, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes preferentially the methylation of 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde to sinapaldehyde in monolignol biosynthesis. Here, we have compared HPLC profiles of the methanol-soluble phenolics fraction of xylem tissue from COMT-deficient and control poplars (Populus spp.), using statistical analysis of the peak heights. COMT down-regulation results in significant concentration differences for 25 of the 91 analyzed peaks. Eight peaks were exclusively detected in COMT-deficient poplar, of which four could be purified for further identification using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and spiking of synthesized reference compounds. These new compounds were derived from 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol or 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde and were characterized by benzodioxane moieties, a structural type that is also increased in the lignins of COMT-deficient plants. One of these four benzodioxanes amounted to the most abundant oligolignol in the HPLC profile. Furthermore, all of the differentially accumulating oligolignols involving sinapyl units were either reduced in abundance or undetectable. The concentration levels of all identified oligolignols were in agreement with the relative supply of monolignols and with their chemical coupling propensities, which supports the random coupling hypothesis. Chiral HPLC analysis of the most abundant benzodioxane dimer revealed the presence of both enantiomers in equal amounts, indicating that they were formed by radical coupling reactions under simple chemical control rather than guided by dirigent proteins.

  18. ITS2 sequence-structure phylogeny reveals diverse endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi on poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong-Hui; Gao, Qian; Sun, Xiaoming; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Hongchang

    2018-04-01

    For matching the new fungal nomenclature to abolish pleomorphic names for a fungus, a genus Pseudocercospora s. str. was suggested to host holomorphic Pseudocercosproa fungi. But the Pseudocercosproa fungi need extra phylogenetic loci to clarify their taxonomy and diversity for their existing and coming species. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures have been promising in charactering species phylogeny in plants, animals and fungi. In present study, a conserved model of ITS2 secondary structures was confirmed on fungi in Pseudocercospora s. str. genus using RNAshape program. The model has a typical eukaryotic four-helix ITS2 secondary structure. But a single U base occurred in conserved motif of U-U mismatch in Helix 2, and a UG emerged in UGGU motif in Helix 3 to Pseudocercospora fungi. The phylogeny analyses based on the ITS2 sequence-secondary structures with compensatory base change characterizations are able to delimit more species for Pseudocercospora s. str. than phylogenic inferences of traditional multi-loci alignments do. The model was employed to explore the diversity of endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi in poplar trees. The analysis results also showed that endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi were diverse in species and evolved a specific lineage in poplar trees. This work suggested that ITS2 sequence-structures could become as additionally significant loci for species phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on Pseudocerospora fungi, and that Pseudocercospora endophytes could be important roles to Pseudocercospora fungi's evolution and function in ecology.

  19. Development of Multiplexed Marker Sets to Identify the Most Relevant Poplar Species for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilke Schroeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the genus Populus, about 30 species are classified into six sections, of which some are cross-compatible. Besides naturally occurring hybrids, huge breeding programs have led to a high number of artificially produced hybrids, for which the determination of genetically involved species by morphological characteristics is often difficult. This necessitates the use of molecular markers for the identification of both maternal as well as paternal species, and in the case of complex hybrids, the genealogy. For this reason, we developed new chloroplast and nuclear markers for the differentiation of up to 19 poplar species, with one to 32 individuals per species regularly used in breeding programs based on already known barcoding, other chloroplast regions, and nuclear genes of interest. We developed methods to identify species by either species-specific nucleotide variations or, when no initial information for the species was given, by using a set of markers either in a procedure of exclusion or in a multiplexed marker set. The developed markers can all be used with low-cost equipment, and some can additionally be applied using a genetic analyzer. We combined these markers in multiplexes for a very fast and easy-to-use application for the identification of poplar species and their hybrids.

  20. Investigation of shallow groundwater contamination near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants were found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. 21 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Plant-pathogen interactions: leaf physiology alterations in poplars infected with rust (Melampsora medusae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortari, Fermín; Guiamet, Juan José; Graciano, Corina

    2018-01-23

    Rust produced by Melampsora sp. is considered one of the most relevant diseases in poplar plantations. Growth reduction in poplar plantations takes place because rust, like other pathogens, alters leaf physiology. There is not a complete evaluation of several of the physiological traits that can be affected by rust at leaf level. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, in an integrative way and in the same pathosystem, which physiological processes are affected when Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. leaves are infected by rust (Melampsora medusae Thümen). Leaves of two clones with different susceptibility to rust were analyzed. Field and pot experiments were performed, and several physiological traits were measured in healthy and infected leaves. We conclude that rust affects leaf mesophyll integrity, and so water movement in the leaf in liquid phase is affected. As a consequence, gas exchange is reduced, affecting both carbon fixation and transpiration. However, there is an increase in respiration rate, probably due to plant and fungal respiration. The increase in respiration rate is important in the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, but also some damage in the photosynthetic apparatus limits leaf capacity to fix carbon. The decrease in chlorophyll content would start later and seems not to explain the reduction in net photosynthetic rate. Both clones, although they have different susceptibility to rust, are affected in the same physiological mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Response to crop-tree release by 7-year-old stems of yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Jr. Trimble; G.R. Jr. Trimble

    1973-01-01

    Five years after crop-tree release of yellow-poplar and black cherry sterns in a 7-year-old stand of Appalachian hardwoods, measurements indicated that released trees were but slightly superior to control trees in height, diameter, and crown position. Sprout regrowth of cut tree stems and grapevines had largely nullified the effects of release. Indications are that for...

  3. Overexpression of Poplar Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Promotes Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Yu

    Full Text Available Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting productivity of plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. Abscisic acid (ABA is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and drought resistance. The PYR1 (Pyrabactin Resistance 1/ PYRL (PYR-Like/ RCAR (Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor (PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family has been identified and widely characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their functions in poplars remain unknown. Here, we report that 2 of 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologues in poplar (Populus trichocarpa (PtPYRLs function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. The Arabidopsis transient expression and yeast two-hybrid assays showed the interaction among PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, a clade A protein phosphatase 2C, and a SnRK2, suggesting that a core signalling complex for ABA signaling pathway exists in poplars. Phenotypic analysis of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed that these two genes positively regulated the ABA responses during the seed germination. More importantly, the overexpression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 substantially improved ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In summary, we comprehensively uncovered the properties of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, which might be good target genes to genetically engineer drought-Resistant plants.

  4. Geologic Variable Associated with Height of Yellow-Poplar Stand in the Bald Mountains of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Carl E. Merschat

    1990-01-01

    Quartz grain size and mylonitization, geologic variables determined fromrocks on sites, were associated with total height of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) standsand may be of value as independent variables in modeling tree growth from site characteristics. A predictive model containing quartz grain site and stand age accounted for about 54% of the...

  5. Results from software based empirical models of and standing biomass for poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.E.; Morgan, G.W.; Brewer, A.C. (Forest Research Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Wrecclesham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    Statistical analysis was used to create a model for estimating the quantity of biomass produced by crops of poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice. This model was converted into a software system as described here. The software is currently available for scientific demonstration. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of veneer yields and grades from yellow-poplar, white oak, and sweetgum from the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. McAlister

    1980-01-01

    Dry volume yields and standard grades of veneer are given for yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and white oak by tree diameter and location within the stem. Results show that the typical stands of mixed southern pine and hardwood timer yield enough veneer to utilize almost 90 percent of the stand volume in the production of COM-PLY lumber and panels

  7. Antisense down-regulation of 4CL expression alters lignification, tree growth, and saccharification potential of field-grown poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Michael Jourdes; Chanyoung Ki; Ann M. Patten; Laurence B. Davin; Norman G. Lewis; Gerald A. Tuskan; Lee Gunter; Stephen R. Decker; Michael J. Selig; Robert Sykes; Michael E. Himmel; Peter Kitin; Olga Shevchenko; Steven H. Strauss

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been reported as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls and increasing overall growth rates, thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplar (Populus tremula...

  8. The use of poplar during a two-year induced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarek, Michael [Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: komarek@af.czu.cz; Tlustos, Pavel [Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: tlustos@af.czu.cz; Szakova, Jirina [Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: szakova@af.czu.cz; Chrastny, Vladislav [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemistry Teaching, University of South Bohemia, Studentska 13, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: vladislavchrastny@seznam.cz

    2008-01-15

    The efficiency of poplar (Populus nigra L. x Populus maximowiczii Henry.) was assessed during a two-year chemically enhanced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soils. The tested metal mobilizing agents were EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and NH{sub 4}Cl. EDTA was more efficient than chlorides in solubilizing metals (especially Pb) from the soil matrix. The application of chlorides only increased the solubility of Cd and Zn. However, the increased uptake of metals after the application of higher concentrations of mobilizing agents was associated with low biomass yields of the poplar plants and the extraction efficiencies after the two vegetation periods were thus comparable to the untreated plants. Additionally, the application of mobilizing agents led to phytotoxicity effects and increased mobility of metals. Higher phytoextraction efficiencies were observed for Cd and Zn compared to Pb and Cu. Poplars are therefore not suitable for chemically enhanced phytoextraction of metals from severely contaminated agricultural soils. - Application of mobilizing agents is not optimal during a two-year phytoextraction of metals from severely contaminated soils using poplars.

  9. The use of poplar during a two-year induced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, Michael; Tlustos, Pavel; Szakova, Jirina; Chrastny, Vladislav

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of poplar (Populus nigra L. x Populus maximowiczii Henry.) was assessed during a two-year chemically enhanced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soils. The tested metal mobilizing agents were EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and NH 4 Cl. EDTA was more efficient than chlorides in solubilizing metals (especially Pb) from the soil matrix. The application of chlorides only increased the solubility of Cd and Zn. However, the increased uptake of metals after the application of higher concentrations of mobilizing agents was associated with low biomass yields of the poplar plants and the extraction efficiencies after the two vegetation periods were thus comparable to the untreated plants. Additionally, the application of mobilizing agents led to phytotoxicity effects and increased mobility of metals. Higher phytoextraction efficiencies were observed for Cd and Zn compared to Pb and Cu. Poplars are therefore not suitable for chemically enhanced phytoextraction of metals from severely contaminated agricultural soils. - Application of mobilizing agents is not optimal during a two-year phytoextraction of metals from severely contaminated soils using poplars

  10. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calfapietra, C.; Gielen, B.; Galema, A.N.J.; Lukac, M.; Angelis, de P.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Ceulemans, R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible contribution of Short Rotation Cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). A dense poplar plantation (1 x 1 m) was exposed to a [CO2] of 550 ppm in Central Italy using the free-air CO2 enrichment

  11. Patterns of genomic variation in the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina identify pathogenesis-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine ePersoons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melampsora larici-populina is a fungal pathogen responsible for foliar rust disease on poplar trees, which causes damage to forest plantations worldwide, particularly in Northern Europe. The reference genome of the isolate 98AG31 was previously sequenced using a whole genome shotgun strategy, revealing a large genome of 101 megabases containing 16,399 predicted genes, which included secreted protein genes representing poplar rust candidate effectors. In the present study, the genomes of 15 isolates collected over the past 20 years throughout the French territory, representing distinct virulence profiles, were characterized by massively parallel sequencing to assess genetic variation in the poplar rust fungus. Comparison to the reference genome revealed striking structural variations. Analysis of coverage and sequencing depth identified large missing regions between isolates related to the mating type loci. More than 611,824 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP positions were uncovered overall, indicating a remarkable level of polymorphism. Based on the accumulation of non-synonymous substitutions in coding sequences and the relative frequencies of synonymous and non-synonymous polymorphisms (i.e. PN/PS, we identify candidate genes that may be involved in fungal pathogenesis. Correlation between non-synonymous SNPs in genes encoding secreted proteins and pathotypes of the studied isolates revealed candidate genes potentially related to virulences 1, 6 and 8 of the poplar rust fungus.

  12. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H.; Rog, Christopher J.; Papritz, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. - Highlights: ► We studied four hybrid poplar clones grown on a B-laden paper mill waste landfill. ► Poplar growth, trace element accumulation and root traits were investigated. ► Survival and growth were comparable to commercial plantations. ► Root growth was nearly unaffected by the contaminants. ► Adaption

  13. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.rees@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Robinson, Brett H., E-mail: Brett.Robinson@lincoln.ac.nz [Soil and Physical Sciences, Burns 222, P. O. Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand); Rog, Christopher J., E-mail: cjrog@sand-creek.com [Sand Creek Consultants, Inc., P.O. Box 1512, 16 Randall Ave., Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States); Papritz, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.papritz@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Schulin, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schulin@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-03-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. - Highlights: ► We studied four hybrid poplar clones grown on a B-laden paper mill waste landfill. ► Poplar growth, trace element accumulation and root traits were investigated. ► Survival and growth were comparable to commercial plantations. ► Root growth was nearly unaffected by the contaminants. ► Adaption

  14. Gain-of-function analysis of poplar CLE genes in Arabidopsis by exogenous application and over-expression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisen; Yang, Shaohui; Song, Yingjin; Men, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiehua

    2016-04-01

    Among 50 CLE gene family members in the Populus trichocarpa genome, three and six PtCLE genes encode a CLE motif sequence highly homologous to Arabidopsis CLV3 and TDIF peptides, respectively, which potentially make them functional equivalents. To test and compare their biological activity, we first chemically synthesized each dodecapeptide and analysed itsi n vitro bioactivity on Arabidopsis seedlings. Similarly, but to a different extent, three types of poplar CLV3-related peptides caused root meristem consumption, phyllotaxis disorder, anthocyanin accumulation and failure to enter the bolting stage. In comparison, application of two poplar TDIF-related peptides led to root length promotion in a dose-dependent manner with an even stronger effect observed for poplar TDIF-like peptide than TDIF. Next, we constructed CaMV35S:PtCLE transgenic plants for each of the nine PtCLE genes. Phenotypic abnormalities exemplified by arrested shoot apical meristem and abnormal flower structure were found to be more dominant and severe in 35S:PtCLV3 and 35S:PtCLV3-like2 lines than in the 35S:PtCLV3-like line. Disordered vasculature was detected in both stem and hypocotyl cross-sections in Arabidopsis plants over-expressing poplar TDIF-related genes with the most defective vascular patterning observed for TDIF2 and two TDIF-like genes. Phenotypic difference consistently observed in peptide application assay and transgenic analysis indicated the functional diversity of nine poplar PtCLE genes under investigation. This work represents the first report on the functional analysis of CLE genes in a tree species and constitutes a basis for further study of the CLE peptide signalling pathway in tree development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effects of root pruning on the growth and rhizosphere soil characteristics of short-rotation closed-canopy poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z. Y.; Xing, S. J.; Ma, B. Y.; Liu, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Wang, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    When poplar trees planted at a high density are canopy-closed in plantation after 4-5 years of growth, the roots of adjacent trees will inevitably intermingle together, which possibly restricts the nutrient uptake by root system. Root pruning might stimulate the emergence of fine roots and benefit the tree growth of short-rotation poplar at the stage of canopy closing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of root pruning on DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.3 m), tree height, nutrients (N, P and K) and hormones (indoleacetic acid and cytokinin) in poplar leaves, gas exchange variables (photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance), and rhizosphere soil characteristics. Field experiment was carried out with four-yearold poplar (Populus × euramericana cv. ‘Neva’) planted in a fluvo-aquic loam soil in Shandong province, China in early April, 2008. Three root pruning treatments (severe, moderate and light degree) were conducted at the distances of 6, 8 and 10 times DBH on both inter-row sides of the trees to the depth of 30 cm, respectively. The results showed that the growth performance was obtained in the following order of treatments: moderate > light = control > severe. In the rhizophere soil, moderate and light pruning increased the microbial populations, enzymatic activities, and the concentrations of available N, P, K and organic matter. Generally, root pruning to improve tree growth and rhizosphere soil fertility can be recommended in canopy-closed poplar plantation. The appropriate selection of root pruning intensity is a pivotal factor for the effectiveness of this technique. (Author) 35 refs.

  16. Mammalian cytochrome CYP2E1 triggered differential gene regulation in response to trichloroethylene (TCE) in a transgenic poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Strand, Stuart E; Doty, Sharon L

    2010-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important environmental contaminant of soil, groundwater, and air. Studies of the metabolism of TCE by poplar trees suggest that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Using poplar genome microarrays, we report a number of putative genes that are differentially expressed in response to TCE. In a previous study, transgenic hybrid poplar plants expressing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) had increased metabolism of TCE. In the vector control plants for this construct, 24 h following TCE exposure, 517 genes were upregulated and 650 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed vector control plants. However, in the transgenic CYP2E1 plant, line 78, 1,601 genes were upregulated and 1,705 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed transgenic CYP2E1 plant. It appeared that the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants overexpressing mammalian CYP2E1 showed a larger number of differentially expressed transcripts, suggesting a metabolic pathway for TCE to metabolites had been initiated by activity of CYP2E1 on TCE. These results suggest that either the over-expression of the CYP2E1 gene or the abundance of TCE metabolites from CYP450 2E1 activity triggered a strong genetic response to TCE. Particularly, cytochrome p450s, glutathione S-transferases, glucosyltransferases, and ABC transporters in the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants were highly expressed compared with in vector controls.

  17. Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jon D; Tognetti, Roberto; Paris, Piero

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of shifts in rainfall patterns as atmospheric [CO2] increases could impact the growth of fast growing trees such as Populus spp. and Salix spp. and the interaction between elevated CO2 and water stress in these species is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the responses to elevated CO2 and water stress in these two species, and to determine if elevated CO2 mitigated drought stress effects. Gas exchange, water potential components, whole plant transpiration and growth response to soil drying and recovery were assessed in hybrid poplar (clone 53-246) and willow (Salix sagitta) rooted cuttings growing in either ambient (350 &mgr;mol mol-1) or elevated (700 &mgr;mol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Predawn water potential decreased with increasing water stress while midday water potentials remained unchanged (isohydric response). Turgor potentials at both predawn and midday increased in elevated [CO2], indicative of osmotic adjustment. Gas exchange was reduced by water stress while elevated [CO2] increased photosynthetic rates, reduced leaf conductance and nearly doubled instantaneous transpiration efficiency in both species. Dark respiration decreased in elevated [CO2] and water stress reduced Rd in the trees growing in ambient [CO2]. Willow had 56% lower whole plant hydraulic conductivity than poplar, and showed a 14% increase in elevated [CO2] while poplar was unresponsive. The physiological responses exhibited by poplar and willow to elevated [CO2] and water stress, singly, suggest that these species respond like other tree species. The interaction of [CO2] and water stress suggests that elevated [CO2] did mitigate the effects of water stress in willow, but not in poplar.

  18. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weimin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Zhou, Xiaoyan, E-mail: zhouxiaoyan@njfu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Xiaotao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Bian, Jie [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Wan, Jinglin [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma working under low pressure is easy to realize industrialization. • Enhancing process finished within 75 s. • Plasma treatment leads to the increase in equilibrium contact angle by 330%. • Tinfoil film with simple chemical structure was used to reveal the mechanism. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Si−O−C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  19. Greater efficiency of water use in poplar clones having a delayed response of mesophyll conductance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théroux Rancourt, Guillaume; Éthier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve

    2015-02-01

    Improvement of water use efficiency is a key objective to improve the sustainability of cultivated plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. It is well known that water use efficiency (WUE) varies considerably among poplar genotypes, and it was recently suggested that the use of the mesophyll-to-stomatal conductance ratio (gm/gs) would be an appropriate trait to improve WUE. The responses of 7-week-old cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones and one native Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) to a water stress-recovery cycle were examined to evaluate the relation between the gm/gs ratio and transpiration efficiency (TE), a leaf-level component of WUE. A contrasting gs response to water stress was observed among the five clones, from stomatal closure early on during soil drying up to limited closure in Balsam poplar. However in the hybrids, the decline in gm was consistently delayed by a few days compared with gs. Moreover, in the most water use-efficient hybrids, the recovery following rehydration occurred faster for gm than for gs. Thus, the delay in the response of gm to drought and its faster recovery upon rewatering increased the gm/gs of the hybrids and this ratio scaled positively with TE. Our results support the use of the gm/gs ratio to select genotypes with improved WUE, and the notion that breeding strategies focusing mainly on stomatal responses to soil drying should also look for a strong curvilinearity between net carbon assimilation rate and gs, the indication of a significant increase in gm/gs in the earlier stages of stomatal closure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs

  1. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  2. Phenotypic plasticity, QTL mapping and genomic characterization of bud set in black poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbrini Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic control of important adaptive traits, such as bud set, is still poorly understood in most forest trees species. Poplar is an ideal model tree to study bud set because of its indeterminate shoot growth. Thus, a full-sib family derived from an intraspecific cross of P. nigra with 162 clonally replicated progeny was used to assess the phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation of bud set in two sites of contrasting environmental conditions. Results Six crucial phenological stages of bud set were scored. Night length appeared to be the most important signal triggering the onset of growth cessation. Nevertheless, the effect of other environmental factors, such as temperature, increased during the process. Moreover, a considerable role of genotype × environment (G × E interaction was found in all phenological stages with the lowest temperature appearing to influence the sensitivity of the most plastic genotypes. Descriptors of growth cessation and bud onset explained the largest part of phenotypic variation of the entire process. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were detected. For the four selected traits (the onset of growth cessation (date2.5, the transition from shoot to bud (date1.5, the duration of bud formation (subproc1 and bud maturation (subproc2 eight and sixteen QTL were mapped on the maternal and paternal map, respectively. The identified QTL, each one characterized by small or modest effect, highlighted the complex nature of traits involved in bud set process. Comparison between map location of QTL and P. trichocarpa genome sequence allowed the identification of 13 gene models, 67 bud set-related expressional and six functional candidate genes (CGs. These CGs are functionally related to relevant biological processes, environmental sensing, signaling, and cell growth and development. Some strong QTL had no obvious CGs, and hold great promise to identify unknown genes that affect bud set

  3. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  4. The Populus superoxide dismutase gene family and its responses to drought stress in transgenic poplar overexpressing a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Molina-Rueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutamine synthetase (GS plays a central role in plant nitrogen assimilation, a process intimately linked to soil water availability. We previously showed that hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba, INRA 717-1B4 expressing ectopically a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a display enhanced tolerance to drought. Preliminary transcriptome profiling revealed that during drought, members of the superoxide dismutase (SOD family were reciprocally regulated in GS poplar when compared with the wild-type control, in all tissues examined. SOD was the only gene family found to exhibit such patterns. RESULTS: In silico analysis of the Populus genome identified 12 SOD genes and two genes encoding copper chaperones for SOD (CCSs. The poplar SODs form three phylogenetic clusters in accordance with their distinct metal co-factor requirements and gene structure. Nearly all poplar SODs and CCSs are present in duplicate derived from whole genome duplication, in sharp contrast to their predominantly single-copy Arabidopsis orthologs. Drought stress triggered plant-wide down-regulation of the plastidic copper SODs (CSDs, with concomitant up-regulation of plastidic iron SODs (FSDs in GS poplar relative to the wild type; this was confirmed at the activity level. We also found evidence for coordinated down-regulation of other copper proteins, including plastidic CCSs and polyphenol oxidases, in GS poplar under drought conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Both gene duplication and expression divergence have contributed to the expansion and transcriptional diversity of the Populus SOD/CCS families. Coordinated down-regulation of major copper proteins in drought-tolerant GS poplars supports the copper cofactor economy model where copper supply is preferentially allocated for plastocyanins to sustain photosynthesis during drought. Our results also extend previous findings on the compensatory regulation between chloroplastic CSDs and FSDs, and suggest that this

  5. Waste management plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Plant Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain. The waste management plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the LEFPC remedial action. Most of the solid wastes will be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y- 12 facilities. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, along with possible low-level or mixed wastes (> 35 pCi/g). Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary and capable of being disposed of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant, except sanitary sewage.

  6. Production potential of 36 poplar clones grown at medium length rotation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Brauner; Madsen, Palle; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2014-01-01

    years. The estimated mean annual increment of above ground biomass ranged from 1 to 9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at age 13 years. A hybrid clone O.P. 42 (synonyms Hybrid 275, NE 42) Populus maximowiczii × trichocarpa, performed best, but also clones of the species Populus trichocarpa had a high biomass production....... In general the hybrids using P. maximowiczii as a parent were well performing. Lowest production had pure species Populus nigra and Populus deltoides as well as their hybrids. The choice of species hybrid combination had a very strong impact on biomass production, but less influence on quality and health......The importance of choosing suitable clones for production of timber and biomass has long been recognized. The aims of this study were to describe the genetic variation and production potential among 36 poplar clones grown in a rotation of 5–13 years and evaluate the different species and hybrid...

  7. Waste management plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Plant Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain. The waste management plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the LEFPC remedial action. Most of the solid wastes will be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y- 12 facilities. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, along with possible low-level or mixed wastes (> 35 pCi/g). Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary and capable of being disposed of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant, except sanitary sewage

  8. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Smith, John; Eller, Virginia; DeRolph, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  9. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products

  10. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  11. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mehlhorn, Tonia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lester, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Morris, Jesse [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lowe, Kenneth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2016-04-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  12. The poplar phi class glutathione transferase: expression, activity and structure of GSTF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri ePégeot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione transferases (GSTs constitute a superfamily of enzymes with essential roles in cellular detoxification and secondary metabolism in plants as in other organisms. Several plant GSTs, including those of the Phi class (GSTFs, require a conserved catalytic serine residue to perform glutathione (GSH-conjugation reactions. Genomic analyses revealed that terrestrial plants have around 10 GSTFs, 8 in the Populus trichocarpa genome, but their physiological functions and substrates are mostly unknown. Transcript expression analyses showed a predominant expression of all genes both in reproductive (female flowers, fruits, floral buds and vegetative organs (leaves, petioles. Here, we show that the recombinant poplar GSTF1 (PttGSTF1 possesses peroxidase activity towards cumene hydroperoxide and GSH-conjugation activity towards model substrates such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, benzyl and phenetyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitrophenyl butyrate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal but interestingly not on previously identified GSTF-class substrates. In accordance to analytical gel filtration data, crystal structure of PttGSTF1 showed a canonical dimeric organization with bound GSH or MES molecules. The structure of these protein-substrate complexes allowed delineating the residues contributing to both the G and H sites that form the active site cavity. In sum, the presence of GSTF1 transcripts and proteins in most poplar organs especially those rich in secondary metabolites such as flowers and fruits, together with its GSH-conjugation activity and its documented stress-responsive expression suggest that its function is associated with the catalytic transformation of metabolites and/or peroxide removal rather than with ligandin properties as previously reported for other GSTFs.

  13. Biomass and volume yield after 6 years in multiclonal hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Julien [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gagnon, Daniel [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada); Truax, Benoit; Lambert, France [Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper the potential of five hybrid poplar clones (Populus spp.) to provide biomass and wood volume in the riparian zone is assessed in four agroecosystems of southern Quebec (Canada). For all variables measured, significant Site effects were detected. Survival, biomass yield and volume yield were highest at the Bromptonville site. After 6 years of growth, total aboveground biomass production (stems + branches + leaves) reached 112.8 tDM/ha and total leafless biomass production (stems + branches) reached 101.1 tDM/ha at this site, while stem wood volume attained 237.5 m{sup 3}/ha. Yields as low as 14.2 tDM/ha for total biomass and 24.8 m{sup 3}/ha for total stem volume were also observed at the Magog site. Highest yields were obtained on the most fertile sites, particularly in terms of NO{sub 3} supply rate. Mean stem volume per tree was highly correlated with NO{sub 3} supply rate in soils (R{sup 2} = 0.58, p < 0.001). Clone effects were also detected for most of the variables measured. Total aboveground biomass and total stem volume production were high for clone 3729 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) (73.1 tDM/ha and 134.2 m{sup 3}/ha), although not statistically different from clone 915311 (P. maximowiczii x P. balsamifera). However, mean whole-tree biomass (including leaves) was significantly higher for clone 3729 (38.8 kgDM/tree). Multifunctional agroforestry systems such as hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips are among the most sustainable ways to produce a high amount of biomass and wood in a short time period, while contributing to alleviate environmental problems such as agricultural non-point source pollution. (author)

  14. Life cycle assessment: an application to poplar for energy cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Bacenetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the bioenergy sector has led to an increasing interest in energy crops. Short rotation coppices (SRC are forestry management systems in which fast-growing tree species are produced under intensive cultivation practices to obtain high wood chips yields. In Italy, most SRC plantations consist of poplar biomass-clones. SRC plantations can be carried out with different management systems with diverse cutting times; consequently, the cultivation system can be crucial for attaining high yields depending on: i short and ii medium cutting frequency. Nowadays, the larger part of Italian SRC is based on 2-year cutting short rotation forestry (SRF but the best quality of wood chips is linked to 5-year plantation medium rotation forestry (MRF. This work compares an SRF and an MRF poplar plantation located in the Po Valley in northern Italy. In particular, a life cycle assessment (LCA was carried out to evaluate their energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The LCA software SimaPro 7.10 was used to create the LCA model and to assure an accurate impact assessment calculation. The analysis shows several differences between MRF and SRF in terms of fertiliser requirements and intensive agricultural activities. Results highlight that MRF produces a more sustainable wood chip production than SRF according to energy and environmental concerns. Furthermore, hot spots were identified in both SRF and MRF due to the high energy consumption and the related emissions. These hot spots were: i mineral fertilisation; ii mechanical weed-control; iii harvesting and biomass transport.

  15. Variability of N{sub 2}O emissions during the production of poplar and rye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Juergen; Hellebrand, Hans Juergen; Scholz, Volkhard [ATB Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail: jkern@atb-potsdam.de

    2008-07-01

    The emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil has a significant impact on the greenhouse gas balance of energy crops. Soil type, temperature, precipitation, tillage practice and level of fertilization may affect the source strength of N{sub 2}O emissions and fertilizer-induced N{sub 2}O emissions. The N{sub 2}O-fluxes from different sites of an experimental field were measured by the flux chamber method over a period of four years (2003-2006). Poplar and rye as one perennial and one annual crop were fertilized at levels of 0 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, 75 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and 150 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Enhanced N{sub 2}O emission spots with maxima of up to 1653 {mu}g N{sub 2}O m{sup -2} h{sup -1} were observed at fertilized sites for several weeks. The emissions ranged between 0.4 kg N{sub 2}O-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and 2.7 kg N{sub 2}O-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} depending on fertilization level, crop variety and year. The mean conversion factor was 2.1% for poplar and 0.9% for rye. The CO{sub 2}-advantage of energy crops is reduced by N{sub 2}O emissions by up to 10%. (author)

  16. Adsorption Mechanisms of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid by Corn Straw and Poplar Leaf Biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Yang, Xixiang; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Ling; Lv, Yizhong

    2017-09-22

    Biochar is an eco-friendly, renewable, and cost-effective material that can be used as an adsorbent for the remediation of contaminated environments. In this paper, two types of biochar were prepared through corn straw and poplar leaf pyrolysis at 300 °C and 700 °C (C300, C700, P300, P700). Brunaer-Emmett-Teller N₂ surface area, scanning electron microscope, elemental analysis, and infrared spectra were used to characterize their structures. These biochars were then used as adsorbents for the adsorption of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA). The microscopic adsorption mechanisms were studied by using infrared spectra, 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and electron spin resonance spectra. The surface area and pore volume of C700 (375.89 m²/g and 0.2302 cm³/g) were the highest among all samples. Elemental analysis results showed that corn straw biochars had a higher aromaticity and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio than the poplar leaf biochars. High temperature caused the increase of carbon content and the decrease of oxygen content, which also gave the biochars a higher adsorption rate. Pseudo-second order kinetic provided a better fit with the experimental data. Adsorption isotherm experiments showed that the adsorption isotherm of C300 fit the linear model. For other biochars, the adsorption isotherms fitted Langmuir model. Biochars with high temperatures exhibited enhanced adsorption capacity compared with ones at low temperatures. The q max values of biochars to DBSA followed the order of P700 > C700 > P300. The adsorption mechanisms were complex, including partition, anion exchange, the formation of H bonds, covalent bonds, and charge transfer. The adsorption by covalent bonding might be the key mechanism determining the adsorption capacity of P700.

  17. Adsorption Mechanisms of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid by Corn Straw and Poplar Leaf Biochars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is an eco-friendly, renewable, and cost-effective material that can be used as an adsorbent for the remediation of contaminated environments. In this paper, two types of biochar were prepared through corn straw and poplar leaf pyrolysis at 300 °C and 700 °C (C300, C700, P300, P700. Brunaer–Emmett–Teller N2 surface area, scanning electron microscope, elemental analysis, and infrared spectra were used to characterize their structures. These biochars were then used as adsorbents for the adsorption of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA. The microscopic adsorption mechanisms were studied by using infrared spectra, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and electron spin resonance spectra. The surface area and pore volume of C700 (375.89 m2/g and 0.2302 cm3/g were the highest among all samples. Elemental analysis results showed that corn straw biochars had a higher aromaticity and carbon to nitrogen (C/N ratio than the poplar leaf biochars. High temperature caused the increase of carbon content and the decrease of oxygen content, which also gave the biochars a higher adsorption rate. Pseudo-second order kinetic provided a better fit with the experimental data. Adsorption isotherm experiments showed that the adsorption isotherm of C300 fit the linear model. For other biochars, the adsorption isotherms fitted Langmuir model. Biochars with high temperatures exhibited enhanced adsorption capacity compared with ones at low temperatures. The qmax values of biochars to DBSA followed the order of P700 > C700 > P300. The adsorption mechanisms were complex, including partition, anion exchange, the formation of H bonds, covalent bonds, and charge transfer. The adsorption by covalent bonding might be the key mechanism determining the adsorption capacity of P700.

  18. Water use of a multigenotype poplar short-rotation coppice from tree to stand scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Fichot, Régis; Horemans, Joanna A; Broeckx, Laura S; Verlinden, Melanie S; Zenone, Terenzio; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-02-01

    Short-rotation coppice (SRC) has great potential for supplying biomass-based heat and energy, but little is known about SRC's ecological footprint, particularly its impact on the water cycle. To this end, we quantified the water use of a commercial scale poplar ( Populus ) SRC plantation in East Flanders (Belgium) at tree and stand level, focusing primarily on the transpiration component. First, we used the AquaCrop model and eddy covariance flux data to analyse the different components of the stand-level water balance for one entire growing season. Transpiration represented 59% of evapotranspiration (ET) at stand scale over the whole year. Measured ET and modelled ET were lower as compared to the ET of reference grassland, suggesting that the SRC only used a limited amount of water. Secondly, we compared leaf area scaled and sapwood area scaled sap flow ( F s ) measurements on individual plants vs. stand scale eddy covariance flux data during a 39-day intensive field campaign in late summer 2011. Daily stem diameter variation (∆ D ) was monitored simultaneously with F s to understand water use strategies for three poplar genotypes. Canopy transpiration based on sapwood area or leaf area scaling was 43.5 and 50.3 mm, respectively, and accounted for 74%, respectively, 86%, of total ecosystem ET measured during the intensive field campaign. Besides differences in growth, the significant intergenotypic differences in daily ∆ D (due to stem shrinkage and swelling) suggested different water use strategies among the three genotypes which were confirmed by the sap flow measurements. Future studies on the prediction of SRC water use, or efforts to enhance the biomass yield of SRC genotypes, should consider intergenotypic differences in transpiration water losses at tree level as well as the SRC water balance at stand level.

  19. Poplar demand.

    OpenAIRE

    Holton, W C

    1998-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common industrial solvent that poses a particular pollution problem in groundwater; while TCE disappears from surface water within a few weeks, groundwater contamination can take months or years to degrade. Humans have not conclusively been shown to develop cancer in response to TCE exposure, but rats and mice exposed to TCE have an increased incidence of liver and lung cancers.

  20. Black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as an alternative indicator of urban air pollution by chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric air pollution by chemical elements were tested against epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) and Physcia adscendens (Fr.). Concentrations of 40 macro and trace elements were determined using epicadmium and instrumental NAA. The data obtained were processed using non-parametric tests. A good correlation was found between concentrations of majority of elements in bark and lichens. On the accumulation capability bark turned out to be competitive with both lichens examined. The main inorganic components of black poplar-tree bark were revealed. A substrate influence on the concentrations of some elements in epiphytic lichens was established. An optimized procedure of bark pre-irradiation treatment was suggested. (author)

  1. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  2. Fertilizer regime impacts on abundance and diversity of soil fauna across a poplar plantation chronosequence in coastal Eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Shaojun Wang; Han Y. H. Chen; Yan Tan; Huan Fan; Honghua Ruan

    2016-01-01

    Soil fauna are critical for ecosystem function and sensitive to the changes of soil fertility. The effects of fertilization on soil fauna communities, however, remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of fertilization form and quantity on the abundance, diversity and composition of soil fauna across an age-sequence of poplar plantations (i.e., 4-, 9- and 20-yr-old) in the coastal region of eastern China. We found that the effects of fertilization on faunal abundance, diversity, and c...

  3. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Rog, Christopher J; Papritz, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-03-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain

  5. Crop-tree release increases growth of 12-year-old yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Precommercial thinning was done in a 12-year-old Appalachian hardwood sapling stand in West Virginia. Two crop-tree release techniques were used--crown touching and crown touching plus 5 feet. Results indicated that both treatments significantly increased 5-year d.b.h. growth for released yellow-poplar and black cherry crop trees. Although there was a major increase in...

  6. High-temperature drying of 7/4 yellow-poplar flitches for S-D-R studs

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sidney Boone; Robert R. Maeglin

    1980-01-01

    Yellow-poplar was dried as 7/4 flitches at high temperatures and subsequently ripped into studs to meet National Grading Rule Standards for STUD grade. The effects of growth stresses in these flitches from smaller logs appear to be minimized by this process. Dry bulb temperatures from 235° to 295° F were explored in five drying trials. Best results were by drying for...

  7. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus???jrtyschensis from two distantly related species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Background The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus???jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. Resu...

  8. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain.

  9. Interaction between isoprene and ozone fluxes at ecosystem level in a poplar plantation and its impact at European level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Hendriks, C.; Brilli, F.; Gioli, B.; Portillo Estrada, M.; Schaap, M.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-12-01

    The emissions of Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation, mainly in form of isoprenoids, play an important role in the tropospheric ozone (O3) formation. The potential large expansion of isoprene emitter species (e.g. poplar) as biofuels feedstock might impact the ground level O3 formation. Here we report the simultaneous observations, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique, of isoprene, O3 and CO2 fluxes in a short rotation coppice (SRC) of poplar. The impact of current poplar plantations and associated isoprene emissions on ground level ozone concentrations for Europe was evaluated using a chemistry transport model (CTM) LOTOS-EUROS. The isoprene fluxes showed a well-defined seasonal and daily cycle that mirrored with the stomata O3 uptake. The isoprene emission and the stomata O3 uptake showed significant statistical relationship especially at elevated temperature. Isoprene was characterized by a remarkable peak of emissions (e.g. 38 nmol m-2s-1) occurring for few days as a consequence of the rapid variation of the air and surface temperature. During these days the photosynthetic apparatus (i.e. the CO2 fluxes) and transpiration rates did not show significant variation while we did observe a variation of the energy exchange and a reduction of the bowen ratio. The response of isoprene emissions to ambient O3 concentration follows the common form of the hormetic dose-response curve with a considerable reduction of the isoprene emissions at [O3] > 80 ppbv indicating a potential damping effect of the O3 levels on isoprene. Under the current condition the impact of SRC plantations on ozone concentrations / formation is very limited in Europe. Our findings indicate that, even with future scenarios with more SRC, or conventional poplar plantations, the impact on Ozone formation is negligible.

  10. Factors Influencing the Tissue Culture and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Hybrid Aspen and Poplar Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, M

    1990-07-01

    Tissue culture conditions and transformation have been established for both aspen and poplar. The use of previously described culture conditions resulted in shoot tip necrosis in the shoot cultures and necrosis of stem and leaf explants. Shoot tip necrosis could be overcome by buffering the medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and Ca-gluconate and by growing the shoots below 25 degrees C. Necrosis of the explants was probably due to an accumulation of ammonium in the explants and could be overcome by adapting the NO(3) (-)/NH(4) (+) ratio of the media. Stem explants of established shoot cultures of the aspen hybrid Populus alba x P. tremula and of the poplar hybrid Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides were cocultivated with Agrobacterium strains having chimeric bar and neo genes on their disarmed tDNAs. Transformed aspen shoots were obtained from 30 to 40% of the explants, while transformed poplar shoots were obtained from 10% of the explants. Extracts from the transformed trees contained high phosphinotricin acetyltransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase activities, and the trees contained one to three copies of the chimeric genes. The transformed trees were completely resistant to the commercial preparations of the herbicide phosphinotricin (glufosinate), while control trees were not.

  11. RNAi-mediated downregulation of poplar plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) changes plasma membrane proteome composition and affects leaf physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhen; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uehlein, Norbert; Zimmer, Ina; Mühlhans, Stefanie; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Palme, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Block, Katja

    2015-10-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are one subfamily of aquaporins that mediate the transmembrane transport of water. To reveal their function in poplar, we generated transgenic poplar plants in which the translation of PIP genes was downregulated by RNA interference investigated these plants with a comprehensive leaf plasma membrane proteome and physiome analysis. First, inhibition of PIP synthesis strongly altered the leaf plasma membrane protein composition. Strikingly, several signaling components and transporters involved in the regulation of stomatal movement were differentially regulated in transgenic poplars. Furthermore, hormonal crosstalk related to abscisic acid, auxin and brassinosteroids was altered, in addition to cell wall biosynthesis/cutinization, the organization of cellular structures and membrane trafficking. A physiological analysis confirmed the proteomic results. The leaves had wider opened stomata and higher net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates as well as greater mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) and leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). Based on these results, we conclude that PIP proteins not only play essential roles in whole leaf water and CO2 flux but have important roles in the regulation of stomatal movement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, C.; De Angelis, P.; Scarascia-Mungozza, G.; Gielen, B.; Ceulemans, R.; Galema, A. N. J.; Lukac, M.; Moscatelli, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    The possible contribution of short rotation cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations was investigated using the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technique. Three poplar species were grown in an SRC plantation for three growing seasons. Above-ground and below-ground biomass increased by 15 to 27 per cent and by 22 to 38 per cent, respectively; light-efficiency also increased as a result. Depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil increased after three growing seasons at elevated carbon dioxide levels, but carbon dioxide showed no effect on stem wood density. Stem wood density also differed significantly from species to species. These results confirmed inter-specific differences in biomass production in poplar, and demonstrated that elevated carbon dioxide enhanced biomass productivity and light-use efficiency of a poplar short rotation cultivation ecosystem without changing biomass allocation. The reduction in soil nitrogen raises the possibility of reduced long-term biomass productivity. 60 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F(sub 2) progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar

  14. Bridging the gap between feedstock growers and users: the study of a coppice poplar-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chang; Gustafson, Rick; Bura, Renata

    2018-01-01

    In the biofuel industry, land productivity is important to feedstock growers and conversion process product yield is important to the biorefinery. The crop productivity, however, may not positively correlate with bioconversion yield. Therefore, it is important to evaluate sugar yield and biomass productivity. In this study, 2-year-old poplar trees harvested in the first coppice cycle, including one low-productivity hybrid and one high-productivity hybrid, were collected from two poplar tree farms. Through steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the bioconversion yields of low- and high-productivity poplar hybrids were compared for both sites. The low-productivity hybrids had 9-19% higher sugar yields than the high-productivity hybrids, although they have the similar chemical composition. Economic calculations show the impact on the plantation and biorefinery of using the two feedstocks. Growing a high-productivity hybrid means the land owner would use 11-26% less land (which could be used for other crops) or collect $2.53-$3.46 MM/year extra revenue from the surplus feedstock. On the other side, the biorefinery would receive 5-10% additional revenue using the low-productivity hybrid. We propose a business model based on the integration of the plantation and the biorefinery. In this model, different feedstocks are assessed using a metric of product tonnage per unit land per year. Use of this new economic metric bridges the gap between feedstock growers and users to maximize the overall production efficiency.

  15. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  16. Determination of As in tree-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D M; Novović, I; Vilotić, D; Ignjatović, Lj

    2009-04-01

    An argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with a system for aerosol introduction was used for determination of As in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. After optimization of the operating parameters and selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (30 s), the limit of detection for As was reduced to 15.0 ng/mL. This detection limit obtained with the optimal integration time was compared with those for other methods: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) and improved thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS). Arsenic is toxic trace element which can adversely affect plant, animal and human health. As an indicator of environment pollution we collected poplar tree-rings from two locations. The first area was close to the "Nikola Tesla" (TENT-A) power plant, Obrenovac, while the other was in the urban area of Novi Sad. In all cases elevated average concentrations of As were registered in poplar tree-rings from the Obrenovac location.

  17. Clone-Specific Response in Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity among Unrelated Hybrid Poplars in relation to Soil Nitrate Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fortier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this field study, we used in vivo NRA activity in hybrid poplar leaves as an indicator of NO3- assimilation for five unrelated hybrid poplar clones. We also examined if leaf NRA of these clones is influenced to the same extent by different levels of soil NO3- availability in two riparian agroforestry systems located in pastures. Leaf NRA differences of more than one order of magnitude were observed between the clones, clearly showing their different abilities to reduce NO3- in leaves. Clone DxN-3570, a P. deltoides x P. nigra hybrid (Aigeiros intrasectional hybrid, always had the highest leaf NRA during the field assays. This clone was also the only one to increase its leaf NRA with increasing NO3- soil availability, which resulted in a significant Site x Clone interaction and a positive relationship between soil NO3- concentration and NRA. All of the four other clones studied had one or both parental species from the Tacamahaca section. They had relatively low leaf NRA and they did not increase their leaf NRA when grown on the NO3- rich site. These results provide evidence that NO3- assimilation in leaves varies widely among hybrid poplars of different parentages, suggesting potential preferences for N forms.

  18. Phytoremediation potential of poplar and willow species in small scale constructed wetland for boron removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Kubilay; Kasım, Gözde Çıtır

    2018-03-01

    Boron (B) pollution is an expanding environmental problem throughout the world due to intensive mining practices and extensive usage of B in agricultural chemicals and industrial products in recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate B removal performance of four poplar and four willow species in small scale Constructed Wetland (CW). Rooted cuttings of tested species were treated with simulated wastewater having five elevated B concentrations (0.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm). All the tested species could resist up to 20 ppm wastewater B supply and could regrow from their roots in the soil having maximum 15 mg/kg B content. The result of the study indicated that 65% ± 5.3 of B was removed from the wastewater in 5 ppm B treatment while the same efficiency decreased to 45% ± 4.6 at 40 ppm B supply. The average effect of sediment on B removal was found to be approximately 20% for all B treatments while the remaining part of the loaded B was removed from the CW within effluent (35-54%). Therefore, actual effects of plant species on B removal was ranged from 45% to 25% between 5 and 40 ppm B treatments. Mass B removal within plant body (phytextraction) comprised the 13-10% of total loaded B in CW while the remaining part of the loaded B (31-15%) was stabilized into the sediment with the effects of poplar and willow roots. These results presented clear understanding of effective B purification mechanisms in CWs. Boron phytextraction capacity of a plant species was less effective than its phytstabilization efficiency which increase filtering capacity of the sediment and stabilization of more B around the rhizosphere. In terms of their B removal ability, P.nigra and S.anatolica had the highest B removal capacities with phytextraction (20-11%) while S.alba, P.alba and S.babylonica had more phytstabilizaiton performance (40-15%) in CW. Disposal of B loaded plant material create another environmental costs for CW applications. Therefore, B loaded

  19. Potential of poplar short rotation coppice cultivation for bioenergy in Southern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Sandrina; Costa, Mário; Graça Carvalho, Maria da; Rodrigues, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the potential of poplar coppice cultivation for bioenergy. • Biomass costs from 76.9 to 120.5 Euro/ton and net energy from 34.7 to 75.4 PJ. • Biomass co-firing in power plants reduces CO_2 emissions between 8.2% and 16.5%. • A scenario of CO_2 allowances trading can turn the project financially viable. - Abstract: This manuscript examines the potential of poplar short rotation coppice cultivation for bioenergy in the Alentejo region, Southern Portugal. The biomass is intended to fulfil, at least, 10% (energy basis) of the fuel needs of two Portuguese coal-fired power plants (Sines and Pego), using co-firing technology. The study considers the overall production chain from cradle to power plant gate, cultivated in scrubland areas with duration of 12 years, harvested every three years and with 6667 plants per ha, covering a land area of about 52,250 ha. Three different biomass annual yields are assumed. The results show that the biomass selling prices range from 76.9 to 120.5 Euro ton"−"1, to match the production costs. The net energy of the overall project ranges from 34.7 to 75.4 PJ and the project cost from 619 to 823.9 MEuro. The main environmental impact of the project is the reduction of the CO_2 emissions due to the biomass co-firing, instead of burning coal alone. The power plants can reduce CO_2 emissions over the project lifetime between 8.2% and 16.5% of the current values. The financial analysis demonstrates that the project is not financially feasible without external grants, but a policy scenario of carbon allowances trading may be instrumental on turning it financially feasible, depending on allowances and coal market prices. Finally, with a reduction of 50% in the main costs, the project becomes financially feasible under a CO_2 emissions trading scenario for a biomass yield of 20 dry ton ha"−"1 per year.

  20. Expression and molecular evolution of two DREB1 genes in black poplar (Populus nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanguang Chu

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses such as low temperature, drought, and high salinity significantly affect plant growth and yield. As selective forces, these adverse factors play essential roles in shaping phenotypic variation in plant populations. Black poplar (Populus nigra is an economically and ecologically important forest tree species with widely distributed populations and is thus suitable for experiments detecting evolutionary footprints left by stress. Here, we performed expression and evolutionary analysis of two duplicated DREB A1-subgroup (DREB1 genes, PnDREB68 and PnDREB69, encoding transcription factors that are involved in stress responses. The two genes showed partially overlapping but distinct expression patterns in response to stresses. These genes were strongly and rapidly induced by cold stress in leaves, stems, and roots. In leaf tissue, dehydration stress induced the expression of PnDREB68 but not PnDREB69. PnDREB69 displayed more rapid responses and longer expression durations than PnDREB68 under salt and ABA stress, respectively. Based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis, we found significant population genetic differentiation, with a greater FST value (0.09189 for PnDREB69 than for PnDREB68 (0.07743. Nucleotide diversity analysis revealed a two-fold higher πT for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69 (0.00563 vs. 0.00243, reflecting strong purifying selection acting on the former. The results suggest that positive selection acted on PnDREB69, as evidenced by neutral testing using Tajima's D statistic. The distinct selective forces to which each of the genes was subjected may be associated with expression divergence. Linkage disequilibrium (LD was low for the sequenced region, with a higher level for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69. Additionally, analysis of the relationship among carbon isotope ratios, SNP classes and gene expression, together with motif and domain analysis, suggested that 14 polymorphisms within the two genes may be

  1. Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments.

  2. Lignin Sulfonation and SO2 Addition Enhance the Hydrolyzability of Deacetylated and Then Steam-Pretreated Poplar with Reduced Inhibitor Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Dou, Xiaoli; Hu, Jinguang; Jiang, Jianxin; Saddler, Jack N

    2018-01-01

    The merit of deacetylation of corn stover prior to pretreatment is decreasing the formation of inhibitors and improving enzyme hydrolysis, proved in dilute acid pretreatment. However, few studies are done on how deacetylation would affect bioconversion process containing steam explosion. In this study, the effect of deacetylation on steam explosion was conducted using poplar as substrate. About 57 to 90% of acetyl group in poplar, depending on alkaline types and concentration, was removed by dilute alkaline deacetylation in 6 h. Deacetylation eliminated over 85% of inhibitor formation during downstream steam explosion. However, deacetylation prior to steam explosion decreased the dissolution of hemicellulose, thus reducing the cellulose accessibility of pretreated poplar, finally resulting in 5-20% decrease in glucose yield and 20-35% decrease in xylose yield. The addition of 5% SO 2 during steam explosion significantly improved the hydrolysis of deacetylated and pretreated poplar without significantly increasing the concentration of inhibitors. Incorporating 45 mmol/kg sulfoacid group in lignin fraction of deacetylated and then pretreated poplar dramatically improved the xylose yield to about 100% and increased the glucose yield by 30%.

  3. Enhancement of Lignin Biopolymer Isolation from Hybrid Poplar by Organosolv Pretreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource that has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of biomaterials and biofuels. In the present study, the fractionation of different lignin biopolymers from hybrid poplar based on organosolv pretreatments using 80% aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol at 220°C for 30 min was investigated. The isolated lignin fractions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the lignin fraction obtained with aqueous ethanol (EOL possessed the highest yield and the strongest thermal stability compared with other lignin fractions. In addition, other lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (1.16–1.46% though lignin preparation extracted with 1-butanol (BOL was incongruent (7.53%. 2D HSQC spectra analysis revealed that the four lignin fractions mainly consisted of β-O-4′ linkages combined with small amounts of β-β′ and β-5′ linkages. Furthermore, substitution of Cα in β-O-4′ substructures had occurred due to the effects of dissolvent during the autocatalyzed alcohol organosolv pretreatments. Therefore, aqueous ethanol was found to be the most promising alcoholic organic solvent compared with other alcohols to be used in noncatalyzed processes for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery.

  4. Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marcel; Macdonald, Brian A; Wagner, Gregory L; Joyce, Stephen A; Rector, Kirk D

    2010-08-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass offers economic and environmental advantages over corn starch for biofuels production. However, its fractionation currently requires energy-intensive pretreatments, due to the lignin chemical resistance and complex cell wall structure. Recently, ionic liquids have been used to dissolve biomass at high temperatures. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen by ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) pretreatment at room temperature. The samples contract when rinsed with deionized water. The controlled expansion and contraction of the wood structure can be used to incorporate enzymes and catalysts deep into the wood structure for improved pretreatments and accelerated cellulose hydrolysis. As a proof of concept, silver and gold nanoparticles of diameters ranging from 20 to 100 nm were incorporated at depths up to 4 mum. Confocal surface-enhanced Raman images at different depths show that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the pretreated sample, and they remained on the samples after rinsing. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence microanalyses indicate that the majority of nanoparticle incorporation occurs after an ionic liquid pretreatment of less than 1 h. In addition to improved pretreatments, the incorporation of materials and chemicals into wood and paper products enables isotope tracing, development of new sensing, and imaging capabilities.

  5. Microstructural and Topochemical Characterization of Thermally Modified Poplar (Populus cathayaha Cell Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have been conducted on the wood property and chemical changes caused by thermal modification, little has been reported on the microstructural and topochemical changes occurring in the cell wall during heat treatment. In this study, poplar (Populus cathayaha was treated within a temperature range from 180 to 220 °C for 4 h. Chemical analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR indicated that heat treatment resulted in deacetylation of hemicelluloses and cleavage of lignin chains, thus generating new carbonyl and phenolic linkages. Transformation of matrix substances contributed to microstructural changes that appeared in clearly distorted and collapsed fiber and vessel walls along with the delamination of compound middle lamella (CML and secondary walls (S, which showed a reduced capability to resist deformation. It was also observed by fluorescence microscopy (FM and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA that the concentration of lignin increased, probably because of the degradation of hemicelluloses and the generation of new carbonyl groups. These results on cell wall microstructure and topochemistry can help explain the altered wood properties revealed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and equilibrium moisture content (EMC testing after heat treatment.

  6. High Titer Ethanol and Lignosulfonate Production from SPORL Pretreated Poplar at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Haifeng [Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Zhu, J. Y., E-mail: jzhu@fs.fed.us; Gleisner, Roland [Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Qiu, Xueqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Horn, Eric [BioPulping International, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L.) wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH 1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS). An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) of 3.3 was used to scale the sulfite pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L{sup -1} with a yield of 247 L tonne wood{sup -1} was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL)-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH) content, though it was less sulfonated and had a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing. The conversion efficiency achieved through process integration and simplification, demonstrated here, has significant importance to the entire supply chain of biofuel production from woody biomass.

  7. High titer ethanol and lignosulfonate production from SPORL pretreated poplar at pilot-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong (J.Y. eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L. wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH  1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS. An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF of 3.3 was used to scale the pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L-1 with a yield of 247 L tonne wood-1 was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from SPORL-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH content although it is less sulfonated and has a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing.

  8. Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

  9. Post construction report for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project, Phase 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Phase 1 Remedial Action (RA) effort was conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. The LEFPC, Phase 1 RA removed approximately 5,560 yd 3 of mercury-contaminated soils, ≥ 400 ppm, from selected portions of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) site LEFPC floodplain from July 8, 1996--September 14, 1996. During excavation activities, pockets of elevated radiologically contaminated soils (greater than 35 pCi/g) were located by the continuous monitoring of the excavation areas and contaminated soils with radiological monitoring instruments. Through characterization sampling it has been determined that ∼ 90 yd 3 are less than 35 pCi/g uranium contaminated and will be transported to the Y-12 Landfill V for disposal and the remaining ∼40 yd 3 do not meet the WAC for radiological constituents included in the Special Waste Permit for Landfill V. The radiologically contaminated soil will be placed in 21st Century containers for storage at the K-25 site

  10. Effects of high temperature on photosynthesis and related gene expression in poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High temperature, whether transitory or constant, causes physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that adversely affect tree growth and productivity by reducing photosynthesis. To elucidate the photosynthetic adaption response and examine the recovery capacity of trees under heat stress, we measured gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, electron transport, water use efficiency, and reactive oxygen-producing enzyme activities in heat-stressed plants. Results We found that photosynthesis could completely recover after less than six hours of high temperature treatment, which might be a turning point in the photosynthetic response to heat stress. Genome-wide gene expression analysis at six hours of heat stress identified 29,896 differentially expressed genes (15,670 up-regulated and 14,226 down-regulated), including multiple classes of transcription factors. These interact with each other and regulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes in response to heat stress, controlling carbon fixation and changes in stomatal conductance. Heat stress of more than twelve hours caused reduced electron transport, damaged photosystems, activated the glycolate pathway and caused H2O2 production; as a result, photosynthetic capacity did not recover completely. Conclusions This study provides a systematic physiological and global gene expression profile of the poplar photosynthetic response to heat stress and identifies the main limitations and threshold of photosynthesis under heat stress. It will expand our understanding of plant thermostability and provides a robust dataset for future studies. PMID:24774695

  11. Fly Ash and Composted Biosolids as a Source of Fe for Hybrid Poplar: A Greenhouse Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lombard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils of northwest New Mexico have an elevated pH and CaCO3 content that reduces Fe solubility, causes chlorosis, and reduces crop yields. Could biosolids and fly ash, enriched with Fe, provide safe alternatives to expensive Fe EDDHA (sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate fertilizers applied to Populus hybrid plots? Hybrid OP-367 was cultivated on a Doak sandy loam soil amended with composted biosolids or fly ash at three agricultural rates. Fly ash and Fe EDDHA treatments received urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, biosolids, enriched with N, did not. Both amendments improved soil and plant Fe. Heavy metals were below EPA regulations, but high B levels were noted in leaves of trees treated at the highest fly ash rate. pH increased in fly ash soil while salinity increased in biosolids-treated soil. Chlorosis rankings improved in poplars amended with both byproducts, although composted biosolids offered the most potential at improving Fe/tree growth cheaply without the need for synthetic inputs.

  12. Studies on the products resulting from the conversion of aspen poplar to an oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M; Zohdi, H

    1981-01-01

    The reactions involved in the conversion of aspen poplar into a variety of chemical products as a result of its interaction with CO and H/sub 2/O in the presence of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ at elevated temperatures and pressures are considered. The original C content of the wood is distributed between an oil phase, a complex mixture of highly oxygenated H/sub 2/O-soluble products many of which were identified as low-molecular-weight aliphatic alcohols, ketones, and acids, and a gaseous phase consisting of mainly H and CO/sub 2/. Using model substances (cellulose, cellobiose, -D-glucose, D-fructose, D-xylose, sorbitol, glycerol, and an isolated lignin) information was obtained on the origin of the oil and of the H/sub 2/O-soluble products. Studies at 160 degrees - 360 degrees revealed a marked exothermic reaction occurring at 200-240 degrees for wood and cellulose, which was reflected in the nature of the resulting product. With increasing temperature an increase in the yields of the H/sub 2/O-souluble derivatives and also a change in their relative abundance was observed.

  13. Synergetic Effects of Alcohol/Water Mixing on the Catalytic Reductive Fractionation of Poplar Wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renders, Tom; Van den Bosch, Sander; Vangeel, Thijs; Ennaert, Thijs; Koelewijn, Steven-Friso; Van den Bossche, Gil; Courtin, Christophe M.; Schutyser, Wouter; Sels, Bert F.

    2016-12-05

    One of the foremost challenges in lignocellulose conversion encompasses the integration of effective lignin valorization in current carbohydrate-oriented biorefinery schemes. Catalytic reductive fractionation (CRF) of lignocellulose offers a technology to simultaneously produce lignin-derived platform chemicals and a carbohydrate-enriched pulp via the combined action of lignin solvolysis and metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis. Herein, the solvent (composition) plays a crucial role. In this contribution, we study the influence of alcohol/water mixtures by processing poplar sawdust in varying MeOH/water and EtOH/water blends. The results show particular effects that strongly depend on the applied water concentration. Low water concentrations enhance the removal of lignin from the biomass, while the majority of the carbohydrates are left untouched (scenario A). Contrarily, high water concentrations favor the solubilization of both hemicellulose and lignin, resulting in a more pure cellulosic residue (scenario B). For both scenarios, an evaluation was made to determine the most optimal solvent composition, based on two earlier introduced empirical efficiency descriptors (denoted LFDE and LFFE). According to these measures, 30 (A) and 70 vol % water (B) showed to be the optimal balance for both MeOH/water and EtOH/water mixtures. This successful implementation of alcohol/water mixtures allows operation under milder processing conditions in comparison to pure alcohol solvents, which is advantageous from an industrial point of view.

  14. Enhanced salt tolerance of transgenic poplar plants expressing a manganese superoxide dismutase from Tamarix androssowii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu Cheng; Qu, Guan Zheng; Li, Hong Yan; Wu, Ying Jie; Wang, Chao; Liu, Gui Feng; Yang, Chuan Ping

    2010-02-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) play important role in stress tolerance of plants. In this study, an MnSOD gene (TaMnSOD) from Tamarix androssowii, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, was introduced into poplar (Populus davidiana x P. bolleana). The physiological parameters, including SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity (REC) and relative weight gain, of transgenic lines and wild type (WT) plants, were measured and compared. The results showed that SOD activity was enhanced in transgenic plants, and the MDA content and REC were significantly decreased compared to WT plants when exposed to NaCl stress. In addition, the relative weight gains of the transgenic plants were 8- to 23-fold of those observed for WT plants after NaCl stress for 30 days. The data showed that the SOD activities that increased in transgenic lines are 1.3-4-folds of that increased in the WT plant when exposed to NaCl stress. Our analysis showed that increases in SOD activities as low as 0.15-fold can also significantly enhance salt tolerance in transgenic plants, suggesting an important role of increased SOD activity in plant salt tolerance

  15. Risk-based decision making: The East Fork Poplar Creek case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Teed, R.S.

    1999-12-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment revealed that methylmercury released from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 weapons facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, poses moderate risks to mink and kingfishers residing near the receiving waters of East Fork Poplar Creek. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from this facility pose severe risks to mink but little risk to kingfishers. The objective of this study was to use a risk-based decision-making approach to select remedial cleanup levels for each of these contaminants. The authors conducted Monte Carlo simulations to estimate total daily intakes of each contaminant by mink (mercury and PCBs) and kingfishers (PCBs only) for a range of exposure-reduction scenarios. The resulting exposure distributions were then integrated with their respective dose-response curves to estimate postremediation risks. The results indicated that total mercury levels in surface water would need to be reduced from current levels (mean = 0.225 {micro}g/L) to 0.03 to 0.05 {micro}g/L to reduce risks to very low levels (<5% probability of {ge}20% mortality) for both mink and kingfishers. If interested parties define acceptable risk as, for example, a 20% probability of {gt} 10% mortality, then mercury levels would need to be reduced to 0.14 {micro}g/L. The PCBs analysis indicated that reducing water-borne exposures would produce only a modest reduction in risk to mink because much of the current exposure is through terrestrial exposure pathways.

  16. An inventory of wetlands in the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    An inventory of wetlands within the floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee was conducted during October, 1991 through May, 1992 for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District. About 15 miles of EFPC channel and 500 acres of its floodplain are contaminated with mercury and other contaminants released from the Y-12 Plant on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The wetland inventory will serve as baseline information for DOE`s remedial action planning and National Environmental Policy Act compliance efforts related to the contamination. In order to provide broad wetland determinations beyond which future wetland definitions are unlikely to expand, the 1989 Federal Manual for Identifying And Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands was utilized. Using the manual`s methodology in a contaminated system under the approved health and safety plan presented some unique problems, resulting in intrusive sampling for field indicators of hydric soils being accomplished separately from observation of other criteria. Beginning with wetland areas identified on National Wetland Inventory Maps, the entire floodplain was examined for presence of wetland criteria, and 17 wetlands were identified ranging from 0.01 to 2.81 acres in size. The majority of wetlands identified were sized under 1 acre. Some of the wetlands identified were not delineated on the National Wetland Inventory Maps, and much of the wetland area delineated on the maps did not meet the criteria under the 1989 manual.

  17. Lessons learned at Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, K.L.; Page, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) used several innovative strategies and technologies in conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) activities for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These innovations helped to cost-effectively characterize the 270-ha (670-acre), 23.3-km (14.5-mile) floodplain and to obtain a 400-parts per million (ppm) cleanup level for mercury in soil. Lessons learned during the project involve management, investigation, and risk assessment strategies and techniques. Management lessons learned include (a) how to handle the large OU, (b) how to effectively involve the community in decisions, and (c) how to select a remedy that incorporates the needs of many involved agencies. Investigation lessons learned include (a) how to design an effective sampling strategy for the site, (b) how to cost-effectively analyze a large number of samples, and (c) which of several treatment technologies is best-suited to the site. Risk assessment lessons learned include (a) how to determine an appropriate cleanup level for human health and the environment, (b) how to quantify uncertainty in the human health risk assessment, (c) how to reconcile different solubilities of different mercury species, and (d) how to best conduct the ecological risk assessment. Other CERCLA sites can benefit from lessons learned during this project whether still in the investigative stage or further along in the process. Applying these lessons can substantially reduce costs and make more efficient use of Superfund resources

  18. The influence of fire retardants on the properties of beech and poplar veneers and plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demands for fire resistance properties of wood construction and elements matching new standards have been an important part of building codes during the last decade. On the other side, lack of more detailed research on interaction between wood species and selected fire retardant chemicals even with basically one is evident. This is particularly truth with domestic wood species. In this research, beech and poplar veneers were immersed in 25% solutions of monoammonium phosphate (MP and sodium acetate (SA and impregnated for different periods of time. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermo gravimetric (DTG methods were used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed. The next properties of impregnated and no impregnated veneers and plywood were determined: absorption of imp regnant solution (A, weight percent gain (WPG of imp regnant, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, pH values, and in the case of plywood, strength and fire resistance. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardant, monoammonium phosphate, had the same result as TG/DTG analyses, which pointed out the validity of TG methods in predicting fire resistance of future products.

  19. Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant.

  20. Reinforcement of Bolted Timber Joints Using GFRP Sheets in Poplar and Pine Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrab Madhoushi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure in timber structures occurs mainly in crucial points such as joints areas. Therefore, the idea of using composite sheets in timber joints has been intro-duced as a method in order to increase the strength and ductility behaviour of timber joints. This research aims to study the behaviour of bolted joints in poplar and pine woods, which are reinforced by two types of GFRP sheets. A single shear bolted joint consisted of 3 timber members whose length and width were 30 cm in length and 5 cm in width. The thickness of each member was 4 cm for internal part and 2 cm for external part. The employed steel bolt was 10 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter. In this respect, one layer of GFRP sheet was used to be bonded to timber members by using epoxy resin and left between the clamps for 24 hours. They were then kept at room temperature for three weeks. Also the effect of adding a wood veneer on the reinforced joints was investigated. The tensile strength of the reinforced and control samples (un-reinforced joints was measured according to ASTM D5652-92 standard. The results show that the reinforced samples have higher tensile strength compared to that of reinforced joints, although it is not statistically signifcant. Also, two types of sheets infuence the joint behaviour as the reinforced joints display more ductility behaviour.

  1. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATION AND HOT-PRESS DRYING ON POPLAR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and hot-press drying were used to improve the properties of poplar wood. The wood was impregnated with the prepolymer using a pulse-dipping machine. The impregnated timbers were compressed and dried by a multilayer hot-press drying kiln. The drying rate was more rapid during the chemical modification and hot-press drying than conventional kiln-drying. In addition, the properties of timber were also enhanced obviously. When the compression rate was 28.6%, the basic density, oven dry density and air-dried density of modified wood improved 22%, 71%, and 70%, respectively. The bending strength and compressive strength parallel to grain increased 60% and 40%. The water uptake of treated wood was significantly decreased compared with the untreated wood. The FTIR analysis successfully showed that the intensity of hydroxyl and carbonyl absorption peaks decreased significantly, which was attributed to a reaction of the NHCH2OH of urea-formaldehyde prepolymer with the wood carboxyl (C=O and hydroxyl (-OH groups. The XRD results indicated that the degree of crystallinity increased from 35.09% to 36.91%. The morphologic models of chemical within wood were discovered by SEM.

  2. A DIGE analysis of developing poplar leaves subjected to ozone reveals major changes in carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Sacha; Bagard, Matthieu; Oufir, Mouhssin; Planchon, Sébastien; Hoffmann, Lucien; Jolivet, Yves; Hausman, Jean-François; Dizengremel, Pierre; Renaut, Jenny

    2007-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone pollution is described as having major negative effects on plants, compromising plant survival. Carbon metabolism is especially affected. In the present work, the effects of chronic ozone exposure were evaluated at the proteomic level in developing leaves of young poplar plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 35 days. Soluble proteins (excluding intrinsic membrane proteins) were extracted from leaves after 3, 14 and 35 days of ozone exposure, as well as 10 days after a recovery period. Proteins (pI 4 to 7) were analyzed by 2-D DIGE experiments, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF identification. Additional observations were obtained on growth, lesion formation, and leaf pigments analysis. Although treated plants showed large necrotic spots and chlorosis in mature leaves, growth decreased only slightly and plant height was not affected. The number of abscised leaves was higher in treated plants, but new leaf formation was not affected. A decrease in chlorophylls and lutein contents was recorded. A large number of proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified. In particular, proteins associated with the Calvin cycle and electron transport in the chloroplast were down-regulated. In contrast, proteins associated with glucose catabolism increased in response to ozone exposure. Other identified enzymes are associated with protein folding, nitrogen metabolism and oxidoreductase activity.

  3. Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant

  4. Transcriptome analysis of poplar rust telia reveals overwintering adaptation and tightly coordinated karyogamy and meiosis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eHACQUARD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most rust fungi have a complex life cycle involving up to five different spore-producing stages. The telial stage that produces melanised overwintering teliospores is one of these and plays a fundamental role for generating genetic diversity as karyogamy and meiosis occur at that stage. Despite the importance of telia for the rust life cycle, almost nothing is known about the fungal genetic programs that are activated in this overwintering structure. In the present study, the transcriptome of telia produced by the poplar rust fungus M. larici-populina has been investigated using whole genome exon oligoarrays and RT-qPCR. Comparative expression profiling at the telial and uredinial stages identifies genes specifically expressed or up-regulated in telia including osmotins/thaumatin-like proteins and aquaporins that may reflect specific adaptation to overwintering as well numerous lytic enzymes acting on plant cell wall, reflecting extensive cell wall remodelling at that stage. The temporal dynamics of karyogamy was followed using combined RT-qPCR and DAPI-staining approaches. This reveals that fusion of nuclei and induction of karyogamy-related genes occur simultaneously between the 25-39 days post inoculation time frame. Transcript profiling of conserved meiosis genes indicate a preferential induction right after karyogamy and corroborate that meiosis begins prior to overwintering and is interrupted in Meiosis I (prophase I, diplonema stage until teliospore germination in early spring.

  5. Post construction report for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project, Phase 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This Phase 1 Remedial Action (RA) effort was conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. The LEFPC, Phase 1 RA removed approximately 5,560 yd{sup 3} of mercury-contaminated soils, {ge} 400 ppm, from selected portions of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) site LEFPC floodplain from July 8, 1996--September 14, 1996. During excavation activities, pockets of elevated radiologically contaminated soils (greater than 35 pCi/g) were located by the continuous monitoring of the excavation areas and contaminated soils with radiological monitoring instruments. Through characterization sampling it has been determined that {approximately} 90 yd{sup 3} are less than 35 pCi/g uranium contaminated and will be transported to the Y-12 Landfill V for disposal and the remaining {approximately}40 yd{sup 3} do not meet the WAC for radiological constituents included in the Special Waste Permit for Landfill V. The radiologically contaminated soil will be placed in 21st Century containers for storage at the K-25 site.

  6. Comparing growth rate in a mixed plantation (walnut, poplar and nurse trees with different planting designs: results from an experimental plantation in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pelleri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Results of a mixed plantation with poplar, walnut and nurse trees established in winter 2003 in Northern Italy, are reported. Main tree species (poplar and walnut were planted according to a rectangular design (10 x 11m, with different spacings and alternate lines. The experimental trial was carried out to verify the following working hypotheses: (i possibility to combine main trees with different growth levels (common walnut, hybrid walnut, and different poplar clones and test two different poplar and walnut spacings (5.0 and 7.4 m in the same plantation; (ii opportunity to reduce cultivation’s workload, in comparison with poplar monoculture, using mixtures with different poplar clones and N-fixing nurse trees; (iii verifying the growth pattern of two new poplar clones in comparison with the traditional clones cultivated for different purposes in Italy.The use of different valuable crop trees’ mixtures intercropped with nurse trees and shrubs (including N-fixing trees allows to decrease the cultivation’s workload. In fact, a heavy reduction of cultural practices - fertilizers, weed control, irrigation and pesticides applications (-61% are the main concurrent, supplementary benefits. The best growth performances (DBH and tree height, associated with the higher competition towards walnuts, were recorded with the new clones Lena and Neva in comparison with the I214 and Villafranca. The closer spacing (5 m between poplar and walnut trees was found to be unsuited to get merchantable poplars sized 30 cm without developing a heavy competition towards walnut trees. The wider spacing (7.4 m resulted vice versa suitable to get poplar trees sized as requested by veneer factories and to maintain an acceptable competitive level with walnut. Within this plantation design, a shorter rotation (8 yrs is needed for Lena and Neva clones in comparison with I214 and Villafranca (10 yrs. Walnut intercropped with poplar showed cone-shaped crowns, light

  7. The effects of gamma irradiation on growth and expression of genes encoding DNA repair-related proteins in Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Mitsuru; Nanjo, Tokihiko; Yoshida, Kazumasa

    2012-07-01

    In this study, to elucidate the mechanisms of adaptation and tolerance to ionizing radiation in woody plants, we investigated the various biological effects of γ-rays on the Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra L. var. italica Du Roi). We detected abnormal leaf shape and color, fusion, distorted venation, shortened internode, fasciation and increased axillary shoots in γ-irradiated poplar plants. Acute γ-irradiation with a dose of 100Gy greatly reduced the height, stem diameter and biomass of poplar plantlets. After receiving doses of 200 and 300Gy, all the plantlets stopped growing, and then most of them withered after 4-10 weeks of γ-irradiation. Comet assays showed that nuclear DNA in suspension-cultured poplar cells had been damaged by γ-rays. To determine whether DNA repair-related proteins are involved in the response to γ-rays in Lombardy poplars, we cloned the PnRAD51, PnLIG4, PnKU70, PnXRCC4, PnPCNA and PnOGG1 cDNAs and investigated their mRNA expression. The PnRAD51, PnLIG4, PnKU70, PnXRCC4 and PnPCNA mRNAs were increased by γ-rays, but the PnOGG1 mRNA was decreased. Moreover, the expression of PnLIG4, PnKU70 and PnRAD51 was also up-regulated by Zeocin known as a DNA cleavage agent. These observations suggest that the morphogenesis, growth and protective gene expression in Lombardy poplars are severely affected by the DNA damage and unknown cellular events caused by γ-irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional analyses of PtRDM1 gene overexpression in poplars and evaluation of its effect on DNA methylation and response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Ali; Zhang, Jiaxin; Sun, Weibo; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Almasi Zadeh Yaghuti, Amir; Wei, Hui; Wu, Xiaolong; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Epigenetic modification by DNA methylation is necessary for all cellular processes, including genetic expression events, DNA repair, genomic imprinting and regulation of tissue development. It occurs almost exclusively at the C5 position of symmetric CpG and asymmetric CpHpG and CpHpH sites in genomic DNA. The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RDM1) gene is crucial for heterochromatin and DNA methylation. We overexpressed PtRDM1 gene from Populus trichocarpa to amplify transcripts of orthologous RDM1 in 'Nanlin895' (P. deltoides × P. euramericana 'Nanlin895'). This overexpression resulted in increasing RDM1 transcript levels: by ∼150% at 0 mM NaCl treatment and by ∼300% at 60 mM NaCl treatment compared to WT (control) poplars. Genomic cytosine methylation was monitored within 5.8S rDNA and histone H3 loci by bisulfite sequencing. In total, transgenic poplars revealed more DNA methylation than WT plants. In our results, roots revealed more methylated CG contexts than stems and leaves whereas, histone H3 presented more DNA methylation than 5.8S rDNA in both WT and transgenic poplars. The NaCl stresses enhanced more DNA methylation in transgenic poplars than WT plants through histone H3 and 5.8 rDNA loci. Also, the overexpression of PtRDM1 resulted in hyper-methylation, which affected plant phenotype. Transgenic poplars revealed significantly more regeneration of roots than WT poplars via NaCl treatments. Our results proved that RDM1 protein enhanced the DNA methylation by chromatin remodeling (e.g. histone H3) more than repetitive DNA sequences (e.g. 5.8S rDNA). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  11. Phase 2 confirmatory sampling data report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    A Remedial Investigation of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) concluded that mercury is the principal contaminant of concern in the EFPC floodplain. The highest concentrations of mercury were found to be in a visually distinct black layer of soil that typically lies 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in.) below the surface. Mercury contamination was found to be situated in distinct areas along the floodplain, and generally at depths > 20 cm (8 in.) below the surface. In accordance with Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a feasibility study was prepared to assess alternatives for remediation, and a proposed plan was issued to the public in which a preferred alternative was identified. In response to public input, the plan was modified and US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision in 1995 committing to excavating all soil in the EFPC floodplain exceeding a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) of mercury. The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) remedial action (RA) focuses on the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the city of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its associated floodplain. Specific areas were identified that required remediation at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Site along Illinois Avenue and at the Bruner Site along the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The RA was conducted in two separate phases. Phase 2, conducted from February to October 1997, completed the remediation efforts at the NOAA facility and fully remediated the Bruner Site. During both phases, data were collected to show that the remedial efforts performed at the NOAA and Bruner sites were successful in implementing the Record of Decision and had no adverse impact on the creek water quality or the city of Oak Ridge publicly owned treatment works.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  13. Spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in two hybrid poplar-hay crop systems in southern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Canadian agricultural operations contribute approximately 8% of national GHG emissions each year, mainly from fertilizers, enteric fermentation, and manure management (Environment Canada, 2010). With improved management of cropland and forests, it is possible to mitigate GHG emissions through carbon (C) sequestration while enhancing soil and crop productivity. Tree-based intercropped (TBI) systems, consisting of a fast-growing woody species such as poplar (Populus spp.) planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, were one of the technologies prioritized for investigation by the Agreement for the Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program (AAGGP), because fast growing trees can be a sink for atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2) as well as a long-term source of farm income (Montagnini and Nair, 2004). However, there are relatively few estimates of the C sequestration in the trees or due to tree inputs (e.g., fine root turnover, litterfall that gets incorporated into SOC), and hybrid poplars grow exponentially in the first 8-10 years after planting. With the current study, our objectives were (1) to evaluate spatial variation in soil C and nitrogen (N) storage, CO2 and nitrogen oxide (N20), and tree and crop productivity for two hybrid poplar-hay intercrop systems at year 9, comparing TBI vs. non-TBI systems, and (2) to evaluate TBI systems in the current context of C trading markets, which value C sequestration in trees, unharvested crop components, and soils of TBI systems. The study results will provide meaningful measures that indicate changes due to TBI systems in the short-term and in the long-term, in terms of GHG mitigation, enhanced soil and crop productivity, as well as the expected economic returns in TBI systems.

  14. Effects of long-term ambient ozone exposure on biomass and wood traits in poplar treated with ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriero, G.; Emiliani, G.; Giovannelli, A.; Hoshika, Y.; Manning, W.J.; Traversi, M.L.; Paoletti, E.

    2015-01-01

    This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O 3 ). Effects of long-term ambient O 3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O 3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (−51%) and below-ground biomass (−47%) was reduced by O 3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O 3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%). No other change in the physical wood structure was observed. A comparison with a previous assessment in the same experiment suggested that O 3 effects on biomass partitioning to above-ground organs depend on the tree ontogenetic stage. The root/shoot ratios did not change, suggesting that previous short-term observations of reduced allocation to tree roots may be overestimated. - Highlights: • 6-y ambient O 3 exposure was investigated in a sensitive poplar clone. • EDU irrigation protected poplar against ambient O 3 exposure. • O 3 reduced biomass of roots and stem, but did not change biomass allocation. • O 3 decreased stem diameter only in the lower third of the stem. • O 3 increased moisture content of the wood along the stem. - Ozone exposure reduced lateral branching, leaves and roots in younger trees, and affected stem and roots in older trees, while shoot/root ratios did not change.

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  16. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Blum, O.B.; Filby, R.H.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  17. Phase II confirmatory sampling data report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Remedial Investigation of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) concluded that mercury is the principal contaminant of concern in the EFPC floodplain. The highest concentrations of mercury were found to be in a visually distinct black layer of soil that typically lies 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in.) below the surface. Mercury contamination was found to be situated in distinct areas along the floodplain, and generally at depths > 20 cm (8 in.) below the surface. In accordance with Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a feasibility study was prepared to assess alternatives for remediation, and a proposed plan was issued to the public in which a preferred alternative was identified. In response to public input, the plan was modified and US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision in 1995 committing to excavating all soil in the EFPC floodplain exceeding a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) of mercury. The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) remedial action (RA) focuses on the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the city of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its associated floodplain. Specific areas were identified that required remediation at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Site along Illinois Avenue and at the Bruner Site along the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The RA was conducted in two separate phases. Phase 2, conducted from February to October 1997, completed the remediation efforts at the NOAA facility and fully remediated the Bruner Site. During both phases, data were collected to show that the remedial efforts performed at the NOAA and Bruner sites were successful in implementing the Record of Decision and had no adverse impact on the creek water quality or the city of Oak Ridge publicly owned treatment works

  18. The poplar MYB master switches bind to the SMRE site and activate the secondary wall biosynthetic program during wood formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqin Zhong

    Full Text Available Wood is mainly composed of secondary walls, which constitute the most abundant stored carbon produced by vascular plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling secondary wall deposition during wood formation is not only an important issue in plant biology but also critical for providing molecular tools to custom-design wood composition suited for diverse end uses. Past molecular and genetic studies have revealed a transcriptional network encompassing a group of wood-associated NAC and MYB transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of the secondary wall biosynthetic program during wood formation in poplar trees. Here, we report the functional characterization of poplar orthologs of MYB46 and MYB83 that are known to be master switches of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. In addition to the two previously-described PtrMYB3 and PtrMYB20, two other MYBs, PtrMYB2 and PtrMYB21, were shown to be MYB46/MYB83 orthologs by complementation and overexpression studies in Arabidopsis. The functional roles of these PtrMYBs in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis were further demonstrated in transgenic poplar plants showing an ectopic deposition of secondary walls in PtrMYB overexpressors and a reduction of secondary wall thickening in their dominant repressors. Furthermore, PtrMYB2/3/20/21 together with two other tree MYBs, the Eucalyptus EgMYB2 and the pine PtMYB4, were shown to differentially bind to and activate the eight variants of the 7-bp SMRE consensus sequence, composed of ACC(A/TA(A/C(T/C. Together, our results indicate that the tree MYBs, PtrMYB2/3/20/21, EgMYB2 and PtMYB4, are master transcriptional switches that activate the SMRE sites in the promoters of target genes and thereby regulate secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation.

  19. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  1. In vitro and in vivo effect of poplar bud (Populi gemma Extracts on late blight (Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint János

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of populin extract from black poplar (Populus nigra on late blight was assessed under laboratory and field conditions. The growth rate of hyphae was found to be significantly lower after 1v/v% populin application, and no hyphae growth was detected under 3 and 6v/v% populin application. Populin also reduced the light blight severity on potato leaves under field conditions. From our results, we have concluded that populin extract can be considered as a new and environmentally-friendly alternative for the control of late blight under field conditions.

  2. Environmental compliance plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    Remedial action for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, as defined by the Record of Decision, requires that soil contaminated with >400 ppM mercury be excavated and disposed. Based on the remediation goal, soil will be excavated from areas located at the NOAA site and the Bruner site and disposed at the Industrial Landfill V at the Y-12 Plant. Objective is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to CERCLA and the Federal Facility Agreement (DOE 1992)

  3. Influence of brick air scrubber by-product on growth and development of corn and hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Owino, Tom O; Chastain, John P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of spent reagent from air pollution control scrubbers used at a brick manufacturing facility on emergence, growth, and physiological responses of corn and hybrid poplar plants. Scrubber by-product was obtained from General Shale Brick, Louisville, KY. Potting substrate was weighed and quantities of scrubber by-product were added to the substrate to obtain treatments of 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% scrubber by-product (w:w) for the corn study. Each treatment mix was potted into nine replicate polyethylene pots and four corn seeds were sown per pot. The pots were randomized in a greenhouse at Clemson University and the number of seedlings emerging from each treatment, dark-adapted leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, and shoot heights were measured at the end of a 21-day growth period. Then, dry shoot biomass was determined for plants from each treatment and plant tissues were analyzed for selected constituents. For the poplar study, nine-inch cuttings of hybrid poplar clone 15-29 (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and clone OP367 (P. deltoides x P. nigra) were planted in treatments of scrubber by-product-potting soil mixes of 0% , 5% , 10% , and 25% w:w. Leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured over six weeks and cumulative leaf area, dry biomass, and nutrient content of tissues were determined upon harvest. Results of these studies indicate that percent seedling emergence for corn plants decreased with increasing scrubber by-product application rates. Application rates up to 12.5% scrubber by-product w:w had no adverse effect on corn seedling emergence. Shoot elongation, biomass production, and the status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings were also not severely impaired at applications below this level. A critical value of 58.2% w:w scrubber by-product was estimated to cause 25% inhibition of seedling emergence. Biomass production, cumulative leaf area, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of

  4. Baseline and Postremediation Monitoring Program Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements to present the plan for baseline and postremediation monitoring as part of the selected remedy. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the requirements to monitor for soil and terrestrial biota in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain; sediment, surface water, and aquatic biota in LEFPC; wetland restoration in the LEFPC floodplain; and human use of shallow groundwater wells in the LEFPC floodplain for drinking water. This document describes the monitoring program that will ensure that actions taken under Phases I and II of the LEFPC remedial action are protective of human health and the environment

  5. Vascular Reactivity and Salt Sensitivity in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system activation (Everson, 2001). Cardiovascular reactivity ... personality factors and emotion (Everson, 2001). Race is equally ... cardiovascular or sympathetic nerve function. Subjects ..... a low sodium diet. The present study is also important in that identifying ... project on genetic basis of hypertension and renal. Epithelial ...

  6. Human and ecological remediation goals for soil mercury at East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafran, F.A.; Cornaby, B.W.; Hadden, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Mercury, used in the past production of enriched lithium by the Department of Energy, is the principal chemical of concern in the 14-mile floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). SAIC has developed risk-based remediation goal options (RGOS) for mercury in EFPC soils to protect the most sensitive human receptors. The existing chronic oral RfD for mercury is based on exposure of laboratory species to mercuric chloride. However, speciation and leaching/availability studies (conducted by EPA EMSL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) indicated less soluble and less toxic mercury species, principally mercuric sulfide, with measurable quantities of metallic mercury also present, predominate in EFPC floodplain soils. SAIC derived human health RGOs using deterministic and probabilistic methods and incorporated the probability density function for bioavailability of mercury species from leaching/availability data generated by ORNL. Monte Carlo simulation was used in uncertainty analysis and supported the derivation of a protective, but realistic risk-based remediation goal of 400 mg mercury/kg soil. For ecological risk assessment, RGOs were based on risks through food chains from contaminants in soil. The authors describe a terrestrial food-chain model of contaminant transfer to primary producers, first-order consumers, mid-level predators, and top-level predators. The model uses published toxicity data, site-specific contaminant concentrations, and bioaccumulation factors calculated from measured body burdens of floodplain organisms to compute RGOs for various combinations of exposure parameters. Model calculations show that under reasonably conservative conditions, mid-level predators have the highest exposures relative to dietary limits and, therefore, require the lowest soil-mercury RGOs. Mercury concentrations of ∼500 mg/kg are protective of the receptor populations exposed through food chains at this site

  7. Effect of temperature on postillumination isoprene emission in oak and poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Ratliff, Ellen A; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2011-02-01

    Isoprene emission from broadleaf trees is highly temperature dependent, accounts for much of the hydrocarbon emission from plants, and has a profound effect on atmospheric chemistry. We studied the temperature response of postillumination isoprene emission in oak (Quercus robur) and poplar (Populus deltoides) leaves in order to understand the regulation of isoprene emission. Upon darkening a leaf, isoprene emission fell nearly to zero but then increased for several minutes before falling back to nearly zero. Time of appearance of this burst of isoprene was highly temperature dependent, occurring sooner at higher temperatures. We hypothesize that this burst represents an intermediate pool of metabolites, probably early metabolites in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway, accumulated upstream of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP). The amount of this early metabolite(s) averaged 2.9 times the amount of plastidic DMADP. DMADP increased with temperature up to 35°C before starting to decrease; in contrast, the isoprene synthase rate constant increased up to 40°C, the highest temperature at which it could be assessed. During a rapid temperature switch from 30°C to 40°C, isoprene emission increased transiently. It was found that an increase in isoprene synthase activity is primarily responsible for this transient increase in emission levels, while DMADP level stayed constant during the switch. One hour after switching to 40°C, the amount of DMADP fell but the rate constant for isoprene synthase remained constant, indicating that the high temperature falloff in isoprene emission results from a reduction in the supply of DMADP rather than from changes in isoprene synthase activity.

  8. Modulation of Protein S-Nitrosylation by Isoprene Emission in Poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Elisa; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Velikova, Violeta; Ghirardo, Andrea; Lindermayr, Christian; Hauck, Stefanie M; Bernhardt, Jörg; Riedel, Katharina; Durner, Jörg; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have been examining the biological function(s) of isoprene in isoprene-emitting (IE) species for two decades. There is overwhelming evidence that leaf-internal isoprene increases the thermotolerance of plants and protects them against oxidative stress, thus mitigating a wide range of abiotic stresses. However, the mechanisms of abiotic stress mitigation by isoprene are still under debate. Here, we assessed the impact of isoprene on the emission of nitric oxide (NO) and the S-nitroso-proteome of IE and non-isoprene-emitting (NE) gray poplar (Populus × canescens) after acute ozone fumigation. The short-term oxidative stress induced a rapid and strong emission of NO in NE compared with IE genotypes. Whereas IE and NE plants exhibited under nonstressful conditions only slight differences in their S-nitrosylation pattern, the in vivo S-nitroso-proteome of the NE genotype was more susceptible to ozone-induced changes compared with the IE plants. The results suggest that the nitrosative pressure (NO burst) is higher in NE plants, underlining the proposed molecular dialogue between isoprene and the free radical NO Proteins belonging to the photosynthetic light and dark reactions, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein metabolism, and redox regulation exhibited increased S-nitrosylation in NE samples compared with IE plants upon oxidative stress. Because the posttranslational modification of proteins via S-nitrosylation often impacts enzymatic activities, our data suggest that isoprene indirectly regulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the control of the S-nitrosylation level of ROS-metabolizing enzymes, thus modulating the extent and velocity at which the ROS and NO signaling molecules are generated within a plant cell. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Modulation of Protein S-Nitrosylation by Isoprene Emission in Poplar1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Elisa; Velikova, Violeta; Ghirardo, Andrea; Lindermayr, Christian; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Riedel, Katharina; Durner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have been examining the biological function(s) of isoprene in isoprene-emitting (IE) species for two decades. There is overwhelming evidence that leaf-internal isoprene increases the thermotolerance of plants and protects them against oxidative stress, thus mitigating a wide range of abiotic stresses. However, the mechanisms of abiotic stress mitigation by isoprene are still under debate. Here, we assessed the impact of isoprene on the emission of nitric oxide (NO) and the S-nitroso-proteome of IE and non-isoprene-emitting (NE) gray poplar (Populus × canescens) after acute ozone fumigation. The short-term oxidative stress induced a rapid and strong emission of NO in NE compared with IE genotypes. Whereas IE and NE plants exhibited under nonstressful conditions only slight differences in their S-nitrosylation pattern, the in vivo S-nitroso-proteome of the NE genotype was more susceptible to ozone-induced changes compared with the IE plants. The results suggest that the nitrosative pressure (NO burst) is higher in NE plants, underlining the proposed molecular dialogue between isoprene and the free radical NO. Proteins belonging to the photosynthetic light and dark reactions, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein metabolism, and redox regulation exhibited increased S-nitrosylation in NE samples compared with IE plants upon oxidative stress. Because the posttranslational modification of proteins via S-nitrosylation often impacts enzymatic activities, our data suggest that isoprene indirectly regulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the control of the S-nitrosylation level of ROS-metabolizing enzymes, thus modulating the extent and velocity at which the ROS and NO signaling molecules are generated within a plant cell. PMID:26850277

  10. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Gatz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  11. Environmental Metabarcoding Reveals Contrasting Belowground and Aboveground Fungal Communities from Poplar at a Hg Phytomanagement Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Alexis; Maillard, François; Foulon, Julie; Gweon, Hyun S; Valot, Benoit; Chalot, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Characterization of microbial communities in stressful conditions at a field level is rather scarce, especially when considering fungal communities from aboveground habitats. We aimed at characterizing fungal communities from different poplar habitats at a Hg-contaminated phytomanagement site by using Illumina-based sequencing, network analysis approach, and direct isolation of Hg-resistant fungal strains. The highest diversity estimated by the Shannon index was found for soil communities, which was negatively affected by soil Hg concentration. Among the significant correlations between soil operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the co-occurrence network, 80% were negatively correlated revealing dominance of a pattern of mutual exclusion. The fungal communities associated with Populus roots mostly consisted of OTUs from the symbiotic guild, such as members of the Thelephoraceae, thus explaining the lowest diversity found for root communities. Additionally, root communities showed the highest network connectivity index, while rarely detected OTUs from the Glomeromycetes may have a central role in the root network. Unexpectedly high richness and diversity were found for aboveground habitats, compared to the root habitat. The aboveground habitats were dominated by yeasts from the Lalaria, Davidiella, and Bensingtonia genera, not detected in belowground habitats. Leaf and stem habitats were characterized by few dominant OTUs such as those from the Dothideomycete class producing mutual exclusion with other OTUs. Aureobasidium pullulans, one of the dominating OTUs, was further isolated from the leaf habitat, in addition to Nakazawaea populi species, which were found to be Hg resistant. Altogether, these findings will provide an improved point of reference for microbial research on inoculation-based programs of tailings dumps.

  12. Soil Physico-Bio-Chemical Properties under Poplar + Indian Mustard Inter Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Bahadur Ghimire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 2008-10 at Agroforestry Research Centre, Pantnagar, India with aim to examine the effect of different levels of recommended Nitrogen (N: Phosphorus (P: Potassium (K (NPK on soil physico-bio-chemical properties under varying poplar tree densities with mustard introcropping. Lower soil bulk density was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop in both the year. Soil bulk density (BD decreased underneath trees. However, soil pH, available N and K were not influenced by tree density in both the years. Electrical conductivity (EC and soil organic carbon (SOC increased underneath trees of either tree density compared to sole crop in both the years. Significantly (P<0.05 higher available P was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to 250 and 500 trees/ha densities including sole crop in 2008-09. Similarly, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC increased with increasing the tree density and significantly (P<0.01 higher value was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and sparse density both the years except 2009-10, where 500 and 1000 trees/ha densities remain statistically at par. On the other hand, dehydrogenase activity (DA was maximum under 500 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and 1000 trees/ha density in both the years. Among the fertility levels, the maximum SOC and available N were recorded with 75% compared to 50, 100 and 125% of recommended NPK in 2008-09, except available N with 100% of recommended NPK. But, available P was more with 100% of recommended NPK in 2008-09. Similarly, maximum SMBC were recorded with 75 % compared to higher doses of recommended NPK in both the years. Similarly, BD, EC, SOC, available N, P and K were recorded maximum and soil pH minimum in 0-15 cm soil layers compared deeper layers.

  13. Comparison the performance of different catalysts in chemical modification of Poplar wood with Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ندا اسماعیلی

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different catalysts on chemical modification of poplar wood and physical properties of the resulting product was evaluated. 12.5% HCl and water soluble salts containing ZnCl2, CaCl2, AlCl3, MgCl2 (based on the weight of glutaraldehyde and 1% Al2O3, SiO2 and ZnO nano particles (based on the weight of glutaraldehyde were used. After heating in oven for 48 hour, modification with glutaraldehyde and MgCl2, ZnO nano particles, SiO2, Al2O3, ZnCl2, AlCl3, CaCl2 and HCl as catalysts were resulted to 14.5, 12.57, 10.62, 8.69, 8.51, 7.19, 5.97 and 5.41 % weight gain respectively. After 24h soaking in water, the physical properties of modified specimens, such as water absorption, volume swelling and ASE were measured. The highest and lowest bulking were calculated for Mgcl2 and Hcl catalysts with 6.98 and 2.37% respectively. The modification in presence of Mgcl2 catalyst was shown highest increase of density with average of 0.55 g/cm3. The highest and lowest water absorption was measured 79.61 and 45.32% in the modification with HCl and MgCl catalysts. Hcl with acidic quality, can break ether bonds in hemiacetal and even acetal structure. Modification with MgCl2 was shown best result in comparison with other catalysts. It is likely that the formation a complex of magnesium with oxygen, could resulted to activate carbonyl groups in glutaraldehyde and created the crosslink.

  14. Remedial design work plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been prepared. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative, as stated in the Record of Decision (ROD) was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Thereafter, a public hearing was held to review the proposed plan. Comments were incorporated. The revised selected remedy, per the ROD is to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated above the remediation goal of 400 parts per million mercury. The approved ROD with this goal will be the basis for remedial design (RD). The RD work plan (RDWP) is composed of six chapters. An introductory chapter describes the purpose and scope of the RDWP, the selected remedy as identified by the ROD; the roles and responsibilities of the RD team members, and the site background information, including site history, contaminants of concern, and site characteristics. Chapter 2 contains the design objectives, RD approach, regulatory considerations during RD, and the design criteria with assumptions. Chapter 3 presents the RD planning process to prepare this RDWP, as well as secondary RD support plans. Chapter 4 describes the scope of the RD activities in more detail and identifies what will be included in the design package. Chapter 5 presents the schedule for performance of the RD activities, identifying key RD milestones. Specific documents used in the preparation of this document are referenced in Chapter 6

  15. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos; Wieshammer, Gerlinde; Vega, Rosa; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2007-01-01

    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of (μM) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg -1 d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg -1 d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg -1 d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves

  16. Studies on fertilizing process of multi-maleparents of poplar using 3H-labelled nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yifan; Du Shengming; Pang Guangchang

    1986-01-01

    P. Poplar is a hybrib by crossing P. simonii with P. pyramisaliz and Salix matsudana. The hybrid is highly toleant to infertile and soil. In this experiment the second male parent (Salix matsudana) was labelled by 3 H-thymidine and 3 H-adenosine to study its function in fertilization process. The results showed the nucleic acid of Salix matsudana has entered into the fertilized embryo sac, as shown by the silver spots on the radiogaraphs of paraffin section from embryo sac 5-8 days after pollination. The radiation intensity of the hybrid seeds of Salix matsudana labelled with 3 H-A+ 3 H-T as male parent was about two times higher than that of the background and also higher than that of the controls. The more important character was that the trunk color and the winter-bud of P. poplar were similar to those of Salix matsutana. In conclusion, not only the nucleic acids of Salix matsudana entered into the fertilized egg, but also some characters of salix matsudana in the hybrid

  17. Adsorption of Acid Red 18 (AR18 by Activated Carbon from Poplar Wood- A Kinetic and Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shokoohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption process by activated carbon is widely used for removal of dyes. Because of economical limits, activated carbon derived from low cost materials seem to be economical. The aim of this work is preparation of activated carbon from poplar wood and investigation of its ability to removal of (AR18 dye. In this work, we prepared the activated carbon by chemical activation method in electric furnace. In addition we have investigated effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time, dye concentration and adsorbent dosage on dye removal. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models have been investigated. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and modified pseudo-first order kinetic models have been used for experimental data. The results showed that removal efficiency was increased with increasing of adsorbent dosage, contact time and decreasing of pH, but with increasing of dye concentration, the removal efficiency was decreased. Adsorption isotherm models showed that Langmuir isotherm model was best fitted onto collected data (r2>0.978. In addition, kinetic models showed that sorption of AR18 onto activated carbon prepared from poplar wood follows the pseudo-first order model (r2>0.9758.

  18. Transcript and metabolite profiling for the evaluation of tobacco tree and poplar as feedstock for the bio-based industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Colin; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair; Mortimer, Cara L; Kozlo, Amanda; Fraser, Paul D; Funke, Norma; Cesarino, Igor; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Morreel, Kris; Burgert, Ingo; Gierlinger, Notburga; Bulone, Vincent; Schneider, Vera; Stockero, Andrea; Navarro-Aviñó, Juan; Pudel, Frank; Tambuyser, Bart; Hygate, James; Bumstead, Jon; Notley, Louis; Persson, Staffan

    2014-05-16

    The global demand for food, feed, energy and water poses extraordinary challenges for future generations. It is evident that robust platforms for the exploration of renewable resources are necessary to overcome these challenges. Within the multinational framework MultiBioPro we are developing biorefinery pipelines to maximize the use of plant biomass. More specifically, we use poplar and tobacco tree (Nicotiana glauca) as target crop species for improving saccharification, isoprenoid, long chain hydrocarbon contents, fiber quality, and suberin and lignin contents. The methods used to obtain these outputs include GC-MS, LC-MS and RNA sequencing platforms. The metabolite pipelines are well established tools to generate these types of data, but also have the limitations in that only well characterized metabolites can be used. The deep sequencing will allow us to include all transcripts present during the developmental stages of the tobacco tree leaf, but has to be mapped back to the sequence of Nicotiana tabacum. With these set-ups, we aim at a basic understanding for underlying processes and at establishing an industrial framework to exploit the outcomes. In a more long term perspective, we believe that data generated here will provide means for a sustainable biorefinery process using poplar and tobacco tree as raw material. To date the basal level of metabolites in the samples have been analyzed and the protocols utilized are provided in this article.

  19. Quality Assurance Plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This quality assurance plan summarizes requirements for conducting work on the Upper East 9 Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA). The reader is referred to the Expanded Task Work Agreement for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for details regarding the activities, roles, and responsibilities summarized here. UEFPC is designated a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site and thus requires a remedial investigation (RI) and a feasibility study (FS). The RI objectives are to evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminates, to provide data to perform baseline ecological and human health risk assessments, and to support development and evaluation of remedial alternatives for the FS,. Existing data will be used as much as possible. Additional sampling may be required to fill data gaps. The goal of the RI is to prioritize the major sources of contaminants to exit pathways and to understand their characteristics for risk characterization and development of remedial alternatives. The FS objectives are to investigate technologies and develop and evaluate alternatives based on 2031 CERCLA guidance

  20. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid(IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developedfrom leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall..

  1. Deacetylation Followed by Fractionation of Yellow Poplar Sawdust for the Production of Toxicity-Reduced Hemicellulosic Sugar for Ethanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ju Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce bioethanol from yellow poplar sawdust without detoxification, deacetylation (mild alkali treatment was performed with aqueous ammonia solution. To select the optimal conditions, deacetylation was carried out under different conditions: NH4OH loading (2–10% (w/v and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:4–1:10 at 121 °C for 60 min. In order to assess the effectiveness of deacetylation, fractionation of deacetylated yellow poplar sawdust was performed using dilute acid (H2SO4, 0.5–2.0% (w/v at a reaction temperature of 130–150 °C for 10–80 min. The toxicity-reduced hemicellulosic hydrolyzates that were obtained through a two-step treatment at optimized conditions were fermented using Pichia stipitis for ethanol production, without any further detoxification. The maximum ethanol production was 4.84 g/L, corresponding to a theoretical ethanol yield of 82.52%, which is comparable to those of intentionally made hydrolyzates as controls.

  2. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek remedial action project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has three major operating facilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee: the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed by Lockheed Martin Environmental Research Corporation. All facilities are managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (Energy Systems) for the DOE. The Y-12 Plant is adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge and is also upstream from Oak Ridge along East Fork Poplar Creek. The portion of the creek downstream from the Y-12 Plant is Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC). This project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the LEFPC floodplain, transport the soils to Industrial Landfill V (ILF-V), and restore any affected areas. This project contains areas that were designated in 1989 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site. The site includes DOE property and portions of commercial, residential, agricultural, and miscellaneous areas within the city of Oak Ridge

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  4. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureysens, I.; Temmerman, L. de; Hastir, T.; Gysel, M. van; Ceulemans, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha -1 of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha -1 for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha -1 for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils

  5. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, Gerlinde [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Vega, Rosa [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wenzel, Walter W. [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: walter.wenzel@boku.ac.at

    2007-07-15

    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of ({mu}M) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg{sup -1} d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg{sup -1} d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves.

  6. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureysens, I. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: ilse.laureysens@ua.ac.be; Temmerman, L. de [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Hastir, T. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Gysel, M. van [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Ceulemans, R. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha{sup -1} of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha{sup -1} for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha{sup -1} for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils.

  7. Differentiation of Populus species using chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers--essential for comprehensible and reliable poplar breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, H; Hoeltken, A M; Fladung, M

    2012-03-01

    Within the genus Populus several species belonging to different sections are cross-compatible. Hence, high numbers of interspecies hybrids occur naturally and, additionally, have been artificially produced in huge breeding programmes during the last 100 years. Therefore, determination of a single poplar species, used for the production of 'multi-species hybrids' is often difficult, and represents a great challenge for the use of molecular markers in species identification. Within this study, over 20 chloroplast regions, both intergenic spacers and coding regions, have been tested for their ability to differentiate different poplar species using 23 already published barcoding primer combinations and 17 newly designed primer combinations. About half of the published barcoding primers yielded amplification products, whereas the new primers designed on the basis of the total sequenced cpDNA genome of Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray yielded much higher amplification success. Intergenic spacers were found to be more variable than coding regions within the genus Populus. The highest discrimination power of Populus species was found in the combination of two intergenic spacers (trnG-psbK, psbK-psbl) and the coding region rpoC. In barcoding projects, the coding regions matK and rbcL are often recommended, but within the genus Populus they only show moderate variability and are not efficient in species discrimination. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Some properties of LVL composed of poplar and beech veneer and possibilities of their application for window frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Vladislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was a research of physical and mechanical properties of LVL composed of peeled poplar veneers in core layers and only outer layers of beech peeled veneers, so as the examination of window frame glue joint strength produced of this material. LVL boards have been hot pressed in industrial conditions, using appropriate phenol formaldehyde (PP adhesive. Samples for corner window frame glue joint strength testing were glued with PVAc D4 class adhesive. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences both in moisture content and density of LVL boards regarding their thickness, while in the case of hardness this difference did not exist. Examinations of LVL glue line shear strength showed that both phenol formaldehyde (PP and PVAc D4 class adhesives fulfilled standard requirements. The results of corner window frame double tenon glue joint strength produced from combined poplar-beech veneer LVL indicated that such material could be used to produce window frame corner joint, strong enough to withstand the additional load, without an increase of the cross section.

  9. Specific gravity of hybrid poplars in the north-central region, USA: within-tree variability and site × genotype effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Richard B. Hall; Edmund O. Bauer; Bradford Bender; Bruce A. Birr; Raymond O. Miller; Jesse A. Randall; Adam H. Wiese

    2013-01-01

    Specific gravity is an important consideration for traditional uses of hybrid poplars for pulp and solid wood products, as well as for biofuels and bioenergy production. While specific gravity has been shown to be under strong genetic control and subject to within-tree variability, the role of genotype × environment interactions is poorly understood. Most...

  10. Evapotranspiration of a high-density poplar stand in comparison with a reference grass cover in the Czech–Moravian Highlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, M.; Trnka, M.; Kučera, J.; Deckmyn, G.; Orság, M.; Sedlák, Pavel; Žalud, Z.; Ceulemans, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 181, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 43-60 ISSN 0168-1923 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Evapotranspiration * Short-rotation poplar coppice * Grassland * Bowen ratio/energy balance method Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.894, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192313001846

  11. Annual and Intra-Annual Water Balance Components of a Short Rotation Poplar Coppice Based on Sap Flow and Micrometeorological and Hydrological Approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Pohanková, Eva; Hlavinka, Petr; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 991, JUN 04-07 (2013), s. 401-408 ISSN 0567-7572 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : short rotation poplar coppice * water balance * sap flow * Bowen ratio and energy balance method * modeling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Assessment of soil nitrogen and phosphorous availability under elevated CO2 and N-fertilization in a short rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagomarsino, A.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Angelis, de P.; Grego, S.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic stimulation by elevated [CO2] is largely regulated by nitrogen and phosphorus availability in the soil. During a 6 year Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment with poplar trees in two short rotations, inorganic forms of soil nitrogen, extractable phosphorus, microbial and total

  13. Breeding poplars with durable resistance to Melampsora larici-populina leaf rust: a multidisciplinary approach to understand and delay pathogen adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Jorge Dowkiw; M. Villar; E. Voisin; V. Guérin; P. Faivre-Rampant; A. Bresson; F. Bitton; S. Duplessis; P. Frey; B. Petre; C. Guinet; C. Xhaard; B. Fabre; F. Halkett; C. Plomion; C. Lalanne; C. Bastien

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, European poplar breeders learned the hard way that Melampsora larici-populina (commonly abbreviated as Mlp…) has an impressive adaptive potential (McDonald and Linde 2002). This fungal pathogen defeated all the deployed cultivars carrying qualitative (i.e., complete) resistances inherited from the...

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

  16. Tyloses and phenolic deposits in xylem vessels impede water transport in low-lignin transgenic poplars: a study by cryo-fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Kitin; Steven L. Voelker; Frederick C. Meinzer; Hans Beekman; Steven H. Strauss; Barbara. Lachenbruch

    2010-01-01

    Of 14 transgenic poplar genotypes (Populus tremula x Populus alba) with antisense 4-coumarate:coenzynle A ligase that were grown in the field for 2 years, five that had substantial lignin reductions also had greatly reduced xylem-specific conductivity compared with that of control trees and those transgenic events with small...

  17. Elimination behaviour and soil mineral nitrogen load in an organic system with lactating sows – comparing pasture based systems with and without access to poplar (Populus sp.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Malene; Hermansen, John Erik; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to introduce innovative strategies in the current free-range pig production to improve the environmental performance. Based on previous experiences, inclusion of a zone with poplar (Populus sp.) trees in individual sow paddocks was hypothesized to improve the system’s nitr...

  18. A survey of poplar (populus nigra rust and identification of fungal agent species with conventional and molecular approaches in Maragheh area of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Damadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a survey for rust diseases in Maragheh area rust symptoms were observed on poplars (Populus nigra in Maragheh city parks and orchards near the city. Uredinia and urediniospores typical of Melampsora were present on the underside of leaves. Paraphyses were clavate with walls evenly thick and Telia, formed on the leaves early in the autumn, were epiphyllous and subepidermal. DNA was extracted from urediniospores and the primers ITS1 and ITS4 were used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Based on the key provided by Bagyanarayana and the species description by Pei and Shang, and the result of sequencing, the causal agent was identified as Melampsora allii-populina Kelb. Melampsora species are mainly determined based on their morphology, alternate hosts and telial host range. However, in most cases, only one or two spore stages could be found at the time of observation and there is no information of the alternate hosts. This is the first study of poplar rust disease to the species level in the area. Rust disease is likely to be the most important disease on poplar in this area. As poplar rust can cause severe damages to nursery plants and young trees, there must be further research to understand the epidemiology of the rust disease. A key question to be answered is whether the rust goes through a full life-cycle, possible via known alternate host Allium spp. or only uredinial and telial stages are present in the studied area.

  19. Evaluation of two hybrid poplar clones as constructed wetland plant species for treating saline water high in boron and selenium, or waters only high in boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland mesocosms were constructed to assess two salt- and B-tolerant hybrid poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa ×P. deltoides×P. nigra '345-1' and '347-14') for treating saline water high in boron (B) and selenium (Se). In addition, a hydroponic experiment was performed to test the B tolerance and B...

  20. Overexpression of PtrMYB119, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor from Populus trichocarpa, promotes anthocyanin production in hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Seong; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Min-Ha; Eom, Seok Hyun; Lim, You Jin; Kim, Won-Chan; Park, Eung-Jun; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-09-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of colorful and bioactive natural pigments with important physiological and ecological functions in plants. We found an MYB transcription factor (PtrMYB119) from Populus trichocarpa that positively regulates anthocyanin production when expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that PtrMYB119 is highly homologous to Arabidopsis PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1), a well-known transcriptional activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Independently produced transgenic poplars overexpressing PtrMYB119 or PtrMYB120 (a paralogous gene to PtrMYB119) (i.e., 35S::PtrMYB119 and 35S::PtrMYB120, respectively) showed elevated accumulation of anthocyanins in the whole plants, including leaf, stem and even root tissues. Using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, we confirmed that the majority of the accumulated anthocyanin in our transgenic poplar is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. Gene expression analyses revealed that most of the genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were highly upregulated in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars compared with the nontransformed control poplar. Among these genes, expression of PtrCHS1 (Chalcone Synthase1) and PtrANS2 (Anthocyanin Synthase2), which catalyze the initial and last steps of anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively, was upregulated by up to 350-fold. Subsequent transient activation assays confirmed that PtrMYB119 activated the transcription of both PtrCHS1 and PtrANS2 Interestingly, expression of MYB182, a repressor of both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis, was largely suppressed in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars, while expression of MYB134, an activator of PA biosynthesis, was not changed significantly. More interestingly, high-level accumulation of anthocyanins in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars did not have an adverse effect on plant growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PtrMYB119 and PtrMYB120

  1. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  2. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  3. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jordan T; Shan, Chin Wei; Budsberg, Erik; Morgan, Hannah; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure compatible hydrocarbon biofuel proposed to qualify as renewable transportation fuel under the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) is evaluated. The process uses a hybrid poplar feedstock, which undergoes dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugars are fermented to acetic acid, which undergoes conversion to ethyl acetate, ethanol, ethylene, and finally a saturated hydrocarbon end product. An unfermentable lignin stream may be burned for steam and electricity production, or gasified to produce hydrogen. During biofuel production, hydrogen gas is required and may be obtained by various methods including lignin gasification. Both technical and economic aspects of the biorefinery are analyzed, with different hydrogen sources considered including steam reforming of natural gas and gasification of lignin. Cash operating costs for jet fuel production are estimated to range from 0.67 to 0.86 USD L -1 depending on facility capacity. Minimum fuel selling prices with a 15 % discount rate are estimated to range from 1.14 to 1.79 USD L -1 . Capacities of 76, 190, and 380 million liters of jet fuel per year are investigated. Capital investments range from 356 to 1026 million USD. A unique biorefinery is explored to produce a hydrocarbon biofuel with a high yield from bone dry wood of 330 L t -1 . This yield is achieved chiefly due to the use of acetogenic bacteria that do not produce carbon dioxide as a co-product during fermentation. Capital investment is significant in the biorefinery in part because hydrogen is required to produce a fully de-oxygenated fuel. Minimum selling price to achieve reasonable returns on investment is sensitive to capital financing options because of high capital costs. Various strategies, such as producing alternative, intermediate products, are investigated with the intent to reduce risk in building the proposed facility. It appears that producing and selling these

  4. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  5. An experimental test of fitness variation across a hydrologic gradient predicts willow and poplar species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojing; Savage, Jessica A; Riggs, Charlotte E; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-05-01

    Environmental filtering is an important community assembly process influencing species distributions. Contrasting species abundance patterns along environmental gradients are commonly used to provide evidence for environmental filtering. However, the same abundance patterns may result from alternative or concurrent assembly processes. Experimental tests are an important means to decipher whether species fitness varies with environment, in the absence of dispersal constraints and biotic interactions, and to draw conclusions about the importance of environmental filtering in community assembly. We performed an experimental test of environmental filtering in 14 closely related willow and poplar species (family Salicaceae) by transplanting cuttings of each species into 40 common gardens established along a natural hydrologic gradient in the field, where competition was minimized and herbivory was controlled. We analyzed species fitness responses to the hydrologic environment based on cumulative growth and survival over two years using aster fitness models. We also examined variation in nine drought and flooding tolerance traits expected to contribute to performance based on a priori understanding of plant function in relation to water availability and stress. We found substantial evidence that environmental filtering along the hydrologic gradient played a critical role in determining species distributions. Fitness variation of each species in the field experiment was used to model their water table depth optima. These optima predicted 68% of the variation in species realized hydrologic niches based on peak abundance in naturally assembled communities in the surrounding region. Multiple traits associated with water transport efficiency and water stress tolerance were correlated with species hydrologic niches, but they did not necessarily covary with each other. As a consequence, species occupying similar hydrologic niches had different combinations of trait values

  6. Expression of jasmonic ethylene responsive factor gene in transgenic poplar tree leads to increased salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiliang; Su, Xiaohua; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Zhang, Xianghua; Huang, Rongfeng

    2009-02-01

    The stress resistance of plants can be enhanced by regulating the expression of multiple downstream genes associated with stress resistance. We used the Agrobacterium method to transfer the tomato jasmonic ethylene responsive factors (JERFs) gene that encodes the ethylene response factor (ERF) like transcription factor to the genome of a hybrid poplar (Populus alba x Populus berolinensis). Eighteen resistant plants were obtained, of which 13 were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase PCR and Southern blot analyses as having incorporated the JERFs gene and able to express it at the transcriptional level. Salinity tests were conducted in a greenhouse with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl. In the absence of NaCl, the transgenic plants were significantly taller than the control plants, but no statistically significant differences in the concentrations of proline and chlorophyll were observed. With increasing salinity, the extent of damage was significantly less in transgenic plants than that in control plants, and the reductions in height, basal diameter and biomass were less in transgenic plants than those in control plants. At 200 and 300 mM NaCl concentrations, transgenic plants were 128.9% and 98.8% taller, respectively, and had 199.8% and 113.0% more dry biomass, respectively, than control plants. The saline-induced reduction in leaf water content and increase in root/crown ratio were less in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar proline concentration increased more in response to salt treatment in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar Na(+) concentration was higher in transgenic plants than in control plants. In the coastal area in Panjin of Liaoning where the total soil salt concentration is 0.3%, a salt tolerance trial of transgenic plants indicated that 3-year-old transgenic plants were 14.5% and 33.6% taller than the control plants at two field sites. The transgenic plants at the two field sites were growing

  7. UAV-Based Thermal Imaging for High-Throughput Field Phenotyping of Black Poplar Response to Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovisi, Riccardo; Tauro, Flavia; Salvati, Riccardo; Khoury, Sacha; Mugnozza Scarascia, Giuseppe; Harfouche, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Poplars are fast-growing, high-yielding forest tree species, whose cultivation as second-generation biofuel crops is of increasing interest and can efficiently meet emission reduction goals. Yet, breeding elite poplar trees for drought resistance remains a major challenge. Worldwide breeding programs are largely focused on intra/interspecific hybridization, whereby Populus nigra L. is a fundamental parental pool. While high-throughput genotyping has resulted in unprecedented capabilities to rapidly decode complex genetic architecture of plant stress resistance, linking genomics to phenomics is hindered by technically challenging phenotyping. Relying on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based remote sensing and imaging techniques, high-throughput field phenotyping (HTFP) aims at enabling highly precise and efficient, non-destructive screening of genotype performance in large populations. To efficiently support forest-tree breeding programs, ground-truthing observations should be complemented with standardized HTFP. In this study, we develop a high-resolution (leaf level) HTFP approach to investigate the response to drought of a full-sib F 2 partially inbred population (termed here 'POP6'), whose F 1 was obtained from an intraspecific P. nigra controlled cross between genotypes with highly divergent phenotypes. We assessed the effects of two water treatments (well-watered and moderate drought) on a population of 4603 trees (503 genotypes) hosted in two adjacent experimental plots (1.67 ha) by conducting low-elevation (25 m) flights with an aerial drone and capturing 7836 thermal infrared (TIR) images. TIR images were undistorted, georeferenced, and orthorectified to obtain radiometric mosaics. Canopy temperature ( T c ) was extracted using two independent semi-automated segmentation techniques, eCognition- and Matlab-based, to avoid the mixed-pixel problem. Overall, results showed that the UAV platform-based thermal imaging enables to effectively assess genotype

  8. UAV-Based Thermal Imaging for High-Throughput Field Phenotyping of Black Poplar Response to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Ludovisi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Poplars are fast-growing, high-yielding forest tree species, whose cultivation as second-generation biofuel crops is of increasing interest and can efficiently meet emission reduction goals. Yet, breeding elite poplar trees for drought resistance remains a major challenge. Worldwide breeding programs are largely focused on intra/interspecific hybridization, whereby Populus nigra L. is a fundamental parental pool. While high-throughput genotyping has resulted in unprecedented capabilities to rapidly decode complex genetic architecture of plant stress resistance, linking genomics to phenomics is hindered by technically challenging phenotyping. Relying on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based remote sensing and imaging techniques, high-throughput field phenotyping (HTFP aims at enabling highly precise and efficient, non-destructive screening of genotype performance in large populations. To efficiently support forest-tree breeding programs, ground-truthing observations should be complemented with standardized HTFP. In this study, we develop a high-resolution (leaf level HTFP approach to investigate the response to drought of a full-sib F2 partially inbred population (termed here ‘POP6’, whose F1 was obtained from an intraspecific P. nigra controlled cross between genotypes with highly divergent phenotypes. We assessed the effects of two water treatments (well-watered and moderate drought on a population of 4603 trees (503 genotypes hosted in two adjacent experimental plots (1.67 ha by conducting low-elevation (25 m flights with an aerial drone and capturing 7836 thermal infrared (TIR images. TIR images were undistorted, georeferenced, and orthorectified to obtain radiometric mosaics. Canopy temperature (Tc was extracted using two independent semi-automated segmentation techniques, eCognition- and Matlab-based, to avoid the mixed-pixel problem. Overall, results showed that the UAV platform-based thermal imaging enables to effectively assess genotype

  9. Environmental restoration of mercury contamination of East Fork Poplar Creek at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge, Tennessee, reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the open-quotes Cold Warclose quotes era, approximately 239,000 pounds of mercury were released from the Y-12 Nuclear Weapons Plant to the East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. As a result, approximately 75 tons of the contaminant resides within the floodplain soils beyond the confines of the DOE reservation, a Federal Superfund Site. The EFPC watershed encompasses multiple land uses whose ownership varies from private citizens, municipal government, and federal government. DOE, in cooperation with the State of Tennessee and EPA, proposes to clean up the contamination to a risk based standard of 400 ppm. This level has been determined to be protective of human health and the environment. The remedial process and development of the remedial alternative are the result of close interagency cooperation between the State, EPA, U.S. Fish ampersand Wildlife Service, and the Army Corps of Engineers. This case study outlines that process

  10. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

  11. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves� propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves� propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves� propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves� propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  12. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  13. Determination of effective moisture diffusivity and drying kinetics for poplar sawdust by thermogravimetric analysis under isothermal condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2012-03-01

    The current study presents a thermogravimetric method to determine the effective moisture diffusivity and drying kinetics of biomass. Drying experiments on poplar sawdust were performed at four temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90°C) by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The major assumption in experimentally determining effective diffusivity by Fick's diffusion equation is that drying is mass transfer limited and temperature remains isothermal during drying. The results indicated that TGA could well achieve these determining conditions. The drying process of sawdust mostly took place in the falling rate period. Midilli-Kucuk model showed the best fit for all experimental data. The effective diffusivity values changed from 9.38 × 10(-10)m(2)/s to 1.38 × 10(-9)m(2)/s within the given temperature range, and the activation energy was calculated to be 12.3 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere

  15. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTs) associated with the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surfacewater quality monitoring. Section 2.0 of this report contains background information regarding groundwater monitoring at the waste-management sites and USTs located in the UEFPCHR. An overview of the hydrogeologic system in the UEFPCHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1991 assessment data, and detailed descriptions of groundwater quality are presented in Section 4.0. Findings of the 1991 monitoring program are summarized in Section 5.0. Proposed modifications to the groundwater quality monitoring program in the UEFPCHR are presented

  16. The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Winder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of leaf litter from genetically-modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria significantly increased. β–Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051. Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a β-glucuronidase (GUS control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in tannin levels.

  17. The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Richard S; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C Peter; Hamelin, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria significantly increased. β-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a β-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in

  18. Lead uptake increases drought tolerance of wild type and transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba) overexpressing gsh 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilov, Sladjana; Lang, Friedericke; Djukic, Matilda; Djunisijevic-Bojovic, Danijela; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-09-01

    Growth and development of plants largely depends on their adaptation ability in a changing climate. This is particularly true on heavy metal contaminated soils, but the interaction of heavy metal stress and climate on plant performance has not been intensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to elucidate if transgenic poplars (Populus tremula x P. alba) with enhanced glutathione content possess an enhanced tolerance to drought and lead (Pb) exposure (single and in combination) and if they are good candidates for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil. Lead exposure reduced growth and biomass accumulation only in above-ground tissue of wild type poplar, although most of lead accumulated in the roots. Drought caused a decline of the water content rather than reduced biomass production, while Pb counteracted this decline in the combined exposure. Apparently, metals such as Pb possess a protective function against drought, because they interact with abscisic acid dependent stomatal closure. Lead exposure decreased while drought increased glutathione content in leaves of both plant types. Lead accumulation was higher in the roots of transgenic plants, presumably as a result of chelation by glutathione. Water deprivation enhanced Pb accumulation in the roots, but Pb was subject to leakage out of the roots after re-watering. Transgenic plants showed better adaptation under mild drought plus Pb exposure partially due to improved glutathione synthesis. However, the transgenic plants cannot be considered as a good candidate for phytoremediation of Pb, due to its small translocation to the shoots and its leakage out of the roots upon re-watering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochemical peculiarities of black poplar leaves (Populus nigra L.) in the sites with heavy metals intensive fallouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaltdinova, Albina; Baranovskaya, Natalya; Rikhvanov, Leonid; Matveenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the content of 28 chemical elements in the leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) growing in Ust-Kamenogorsk city area. It is the major industrial center of Kazakhstan Republic on the territory where the industrial giants of non-ferrous metallurgy and nuclear energy are situated. Comparative analysis with the similar data obtained from leaves ash of Populus nigra L. in Tomsk, Ekibastuz, and Pavlodar cities has revealed that in comparison with other urban areas, leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) from Ust-Kamenogorsk city is characterized by elevated concentration rates of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, As, Sb, Br, Sr and Na. Within the city, the sites and areas with abnormal contents of typomorphic pollutants have been revealed. In the central part of the city, in the vicinity of lead-zinc plant and Ulba metallurgical plant, the highest concentrations of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, Au, As, Sb, Cr and Fe were marked. In the northeast, where the titanium-magnesium plant is located, elevated concentrations of Br and Sr were stated. Thus, the impact of major city enterprises which are the main sources of heavy metals is reflected in the element composition. Zn, As, Sb, Ag and Au comes from lead-zinc plant and its refinery plants, while Ulba metallurgical plant can be considered source of Ta and U in the environment, producing tantalum and fuel pellets for nuclear power plants. These companies, due to the current objective circumstances, are located in the central part of the city, have a significant negative effect on the environment and form the risk factors for human health.

  20. Histone Acetylation Modifications Affect Tissue-Dependent Expression of Poplar Homologs of C4 Photosynthetic Enzyme Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications play important roles in regulating the expression of C4 photosynthetic genes. Given that all enzymes required for the C4 photosynthesis pathway are present in C3 plants, it has been hypothesized that this expression regulatory mechanism has been conserved. However, the relationship between histone modification and the expression of homologs of C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes has not been well determined in C3 plants. In the present study, we cloned nine hybrid poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra homologs of maize (Zea mays C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes, carbonic anhydrase (CA, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, and investigated the correlation between the expression levels of these genes and the levels of promoter histone acetylation modifications in four vegetative tissues. We found that poplar homologs of C4 homologous genes had tissue-dependent expression patterns that were mostly well-correlated with the level of histone acetylation modification (H3K9ac and H4K5ac determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A further confirmed the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of the nine target genes. Collectively, these results suggest that both H3K9ac and H4K5ac positively regulate the tissue-dependent expression pattern of the PsnCAs, PsnPPDKs, PsnPCKs, and PsnPEPCs genes and that this regulatory mechanism seems to be conserved among the C3 and C4 species. Our findings provide new insight that will aid efforts to modify the expression pattern of these homologs of C4 genes to engineer C4 plants from C3 plants.

  1. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus × jrtyschensis from two distantly related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-04-18

    The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus × jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. We collected 566 individuals from 45 typical populations of P. × jrtyschensis, P. nigra and P. laurifolia. We genotyped them based on the sequence variations of one maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragment and genetic polymorphisms at 20 SSR loci. We further sequenced eight nuclear genes for 168 individuals from 31 populations. Two groups of cpDNA haplotypes characteristic of P. nigra and P. laurifolia respectively were both recovered for P. × jrtyschensis. Genetic structures and coalescent tests of two sets of nuclear population genetic data suggested that P. × jrtyschensis originated from hybridizations between the two assumed parental species. All examined populations of P. × jrtyschensis comprise mainly F1 hybrids from interspecific hybridizations between P. nigra and P. laurifolia. In the habitats of P. × jrtyschensis, there are lower concentrations of soil nitrogen than in the habitats occupied by the other two species. Our extensive examination of the genetic composition of P. × jrtyschensis suggested that it is typical of F1-dominated hybrid zones. This finding plus the low concentration of soil nitrogen in the floodplain soils support the F1-dominated bounded hybrid superiority hypothesis of hybrid zone maintenance for this particular hybrid poplar.

  2. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  3. Characterization of white poplar and eucalyptus after ionic liquid pretreatment as a function of biomass loading using X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xueming [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); Duan, Yonghao [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); He, Lilin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Singh, Seema [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Gang [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-08

    A systematic study was done to understand interactions among biomass loading during ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment, biomass type and biomass structures. White poplar and eucalyptus samples were pretreated using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAc) at 110 °C for 3 h at biomass loadings of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. All of the samples were chemically characterized and tested for enzymatic hydrolysis. Physical structures including biomass crystallinity and porosity were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS), respectively. SANS detected pores of radii ranging from ~25 to 625 Å, enabling assessment of contributions of pores with different sizes to increased porosity after pretreatment. Contrasting dependences of sugar conversion on white poplar and eucalyptus as a function of biomass loading were observed and cellulose crystalline structure was found to play an important role.

  4. Methylobacterium populi sp. nov., a novel aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic, methane-utilizing bacterium isolated from poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Benoit; Peres, Caroline M; Doty, Sharon Lafferty; Yoon, Jong Moon; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2004-07-01

    A pink-pigmented, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain BJ001T, was isolated from internal poplar tissues (Populus deltoidesxnigra DN34) and identified as a member of the genus Methylobacterium. Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain BJ001T is related to Methylobacterium thiocyanatum, Methylobacterium extorquens, Methylobacterium zatmanii and Methylobacterium rhodesianum. However, strain BJ001T differed from these species in its carbon-source utilization pattern, particularly its use of methane as the sole source of carbon and energy, an ability that is shared with only one other member of the genus, Methylobacterium organophilum. In addition, strain BJ001T is the only member of the genus Methylobacterium to be described as an endophyte of poplar trees. On the basis of its physiological, genotypic and ecological properties, the isolate is proposed as a member of a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, Methylobacterium populi sp. nov. (type strain, BJ001T=ATCC BAA-705T=NCIMB 13946T).

  5. The MYB182 protein down-regulates proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin biosynthesis in poplar by repressing both structural and regulatory flavonoid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Ma, Dawei; Constabel, C Peter

    2015-03-01

    Trees in the genus Populus (poplar) contain phenolic secondary metabolites including the proanthocyanidins (PAs), which help to adapt these widespread trees to diverse environments. The transcriptional activation of PA biosynthesis in response to herbivory and ultraviolet light stress has been documented in poplar leaves, and a regulator of this process, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB134, has been identified. MYB134-overexpressing transgenic plants show a strong high-PA phenotype. Analysis of these transgenic plants suggested the involvement of additional MYB transcription factors, including repressor-like MYB factors. Here, MYB182, a subgroup 4 MYB factor, was found to act as a negative regulator of the flavonoid pathway. Overexpression of MYB182 in hairy root culture and whole poplar plants led to reduced PA and anthocyanin levels as well as a reduction in the expression of key flavonoid genes. Similarly, a reduced accumulation of transcripts of a MYB PA activator and a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor was observed in MYB182-overexpressing hairy roots. Transient promoter activation assays in poplar cell culture demonstrated that MYB182 can disrupt transcriptional activation by MYB134 and that the basic helix-loop-helix-binding motif of MYB182 was essential for repression. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants demonstrated that down-regulated targets of MYB182 also include shikimate pathway genes. This work shows that MYB182 plays an important role in the fine-tuning of MYB134-mediated flavonoid metabolism. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 6. Appendix VI-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 6, Appendix VI - X. These appendices cover the following areas: chain of custody, miscellaneous process calculations (residence time and orifice plate calculations), waste management (mercury and radiation confirmatory testing before and after final verification run), health and safety (training, respirator fit test and radiation work permits), and transportation (soil receipt documentation)

  7. Multiple stressor effects on water quality in Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods, Canada: a midge-based assessment of hypolimnetic oxygen conditions over the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Summers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid and Chaoborus (midge remains preserved in a dated sediment core from Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods (LOW, Ontario, Canada, were used to assess the effects of multiple stressors (e.g., recent warming and shoreline development on water quality over the past ~200 years. As monitoring data for LOW do not extend beyond recent decades, paleolimnological methods are used to reconstruct long-term limnological trends and to establish pre-disturbance conditions. The effects of recent warming and shoreline development on Poplar Bay water quality are examined using an index of hypolimnetic oxygen (O2 status based on the ratio of Chaoborus to chironomid remains (chaob:chir and a midge-inferred volume-weighted hypolimnetic oxygen (VWHO model. Our paleolimnological data indicate that hypolimnetic [O2] in Poplar Bay have been historically hypoxic (1-4 mg O2 L-1 but have declined further (generally <2 mg O2 L-1 over the last few decades. Significant relationships between air temperature and midge data indicate that substantial warming starting in the late-1970s has triggered a marked response in the midge assemblages that pre-dates the onset of cottage development (mid-1990s. These findings complement a diatom-based study on the same sediment core, likewise suggesting that recent warming has played a prominent role in structuring limnetic communities. However, it is likely that the full, compounded effects of recent warming and shoreline development have not yet been realized. Our study highlights the complexity of multiple stressor systems, such as Poplar Bay, and emphasizes the benefits of using multiple, independent lines of paleoenvironmental evidence in gaining a more complete understanding of historical water quality.

  8. The impact of poplar tree plantations for biomass production on the aquifer water budget and base flow in a Mediterranean basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folch, Albert, E-mail: folch.hydro@gmail.com [Hydrogeology Group (UPC-CSIC), Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Ferrer, Núria [Hydrogeology Group (UPC-CSIC), Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    Poplar plantations are used for biomass production in many countries. These plantations are often located in areas where the tree roots can reach the water table of shallow aquifers to reduce irrigation costs and increase evapotranspiration, mainly during the summer. This study aims to assess the effects of these plantations on an aquifer water budget and on the stream flow of a Mediterranean basin (Santa Coloma River, 321.3 km{sup 2} NE Spain). A numerical flow model was constructed to simulate shallow aquifers and to simulate the stream–aquifer interaction for a period of 9 years. Once the model was calibrated, different land use scenarios, such as deciduous forests, dry farming and irrigated farming, were simulated for comparison. The mass balance shows that poplar extracts an average of 2.40 hm{sup 3} from the aquifer, i.e., approximately 18% of the average recharge of the modelled area. This effect reduces the groundwater flow to the main stream and increases the infiltration from the stream to the aquifer. As a result, there is an average reduction in the main stream flow by 46% during the summer, when the lowest flow occurs and when the river is most sensitive. The results indicate that these impacts should be considered in basin management plans and in evaluating the benefits of this type of biomass production. - Highlights: • Poplar plantations can evapotranspirate aquifer groundwater in semiarid areas • A groundwater flow model is presented to quantify poplars’ impact on the water budget • 20% of the aquifer recharge is consumed by poplars • The main stream flow is reduced up to 46% during summer due to plantations uptake • Biomass production impacts must be considered for evaluating water resources planning.

  9. Overexpression of TaLEA gene from Tamarix androssowii improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gao

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ribonucleic acid (RNA gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11 showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.

  10. Overexpression of TaLEA gene from Tamarix androssowii improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weidong; Bai, Shuang; Li, Qingmei; Gao, Caiqiu; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Guangde; Tan, Feili

    2013-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA) was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra) via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11) showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.

  11. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) under boron toxicity revealed candidate genes responsible in boron uptake, transport and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Kubilay; Uylaş, Senem

    2016-12-01

    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for normal growth of plants. Despite its low abundance in soils, it could be highly toxic to plants in especially arid and semi-arid environments. Poplars are known to be tolerant species to B toxicity and accumulation. However, physiological and gene regulation responses of these trees to B toxicity have not been investigated yet. Here, B accumulation and tolerance level of black poplar clones were firstly tested in the current study. Rooted cutting of these clones were treated with elevated B toxicity to select the most B accumulator and tolerant genotype. Then we carried out a microarray based transcriptome experiment on the leaves and roots of this genotype to find out transcriptional networks, genes and molecular mechanisms behind B toxicity tolerance. The results of the study indicated that black poplar is quite suitable for phytoremediation of B pollution. It could resist 15 ppm soil B content and >1500 ppm B accumulation in leaves, which are highly toxic concentrations for almost all agricultural plants. Transcriptomics results of study revealed totally 1625 and 1419 altered probe sets under 15 ppm B toxicity in leaf and root tissues, respectively. The highest induction were recorded for the probes sets annotated to tyrosine aminotransferase, ATP binding cassette transporters, glutathione S transferases and metallochaperone proteins. Strong up regulation of these genes attributed to internal excretion of B into the cell vacuole and existence of B detoxification processes in black poplar. Many other candidate genes functional in signalling, gene regulation, antioxidation, B uptake and transport processes were also identified in this hyper B accumulator plant for the first time with the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Indirect Measurement Method of Seasonal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in a High-Density Short Rotation Coppice Culture of Poplar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tripathi, Abishek; Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Marek, Michal V.; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2016), s. 549-556 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer * litterfall * specific leaf area * poplar clone J-105 Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy

  13. Areopraon chaitophori n.sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) associated with Chaitophorus leucomelas Koch on poplars, with a key for European Areopraon Mackauer species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanović, Ž.; Petrović, A.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Starý, Petr; Toševski, I.; Bogdanović, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2009), s. 187-192 ISSN 0037-9271 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Grant - others:The Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia(CS) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Areopraon chaitophori n.sp. * Chaitophorus leucomelas * poplars Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2009

  14. An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

  15. Plantation forestry under global warming: hybrid poplars with improved thermotolerance provide new insights on the in vivo function of small heat shock protein chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Irene; Contreras, Angela; Jing, Zhong-Ping; Gallardo, Fernando; Cánovas, Francisco M; Gómez, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Climate-driven heat stress is a key factor affecting forest plantation yields. While its effects are expected to worsen during this century, breeding more tolerant genotypes has proven elusive. We report here a substantial and durable increase in the thermotolerance of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) through overexpression of a major small heat shock protein (sHSP) with convenient features. Experimental evidence was obtained linking protective effects in the transgenic events with the unique chaperone activity of sHSPs. In addition, significant positive correlations were observed between phenotype strength and heterologous sHSP accumulation. The remarkable baseline levels of transgene product (up to 1.8% of total leaf protein) have not been reported in analogous studies with herbaceous species. As judged by protein analyses, such an accumulation is not matched either by endogenous sHSPs in both heat-stressed poplar plants and field-grown adult trees. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses supported these observations and allowed us to identify the poplar members most responsive to heat stress. Interestingly, sHSP overaccumulation was not associated with pleiotropic effects that might decrease yields. The poplar lines developed here also outperformed controls under in vitro and ex vitro culture conditions (callus biomass, shoot production, and ex vitro survival), even in the absence of thermal stress. These results reinforce the feasibility of improving valuable genotypes for plantation forestry, a field where in vitro recalcitrance, long breeding cycles, and other practical factors constrain conventional genetic approaches. They also provide new insights into the biological functions of the least understood family of heat shock protein chaperones.

  16. Impact of two iron(III) chelators on the iron, cadmium, lead and nickel accumulation in poplar grown under heavy metal stress in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihucz, Victor G; Csog, Árpád; Fodor, Ferenc; Tatár, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminiţa; Záray, Gyula

    2012-04-15

    Poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. Kopeczkii) was grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) or Pb(II), and Fe as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations. The present study was designed to compare the accumulation and distribution of Fe, Cd, Ni and Pb within the different plant compartments. Generally, Fe and heavy-metal accumulation were higher by factor 2-7 and 1.6-3.3, respectively, when Fe(III) citrate was used. Iron transport towards the shoot depended on the Fe(III) chelate and, generally, on the heavy metal used. Lead was accumulated only in the root. The amounts of Fe and heavy metals accumulated by poplar were very similar to those of cucumber grown in an identical way, indicating strong Fe uptake regulation of these two Strategy I plants: a cultivar and a woody plant. The Strategy I Fe uptake mechanism (i.e. reducing Fe(III) followed by Fe(II) uptake), together with the Fe(III) chelate form in the nutrient solution had significant effects on Fe and heavy metal uptake. Poplar appears to show phytoremediation potential for Cd and Ni, as their transport towards the shoot was characterized by 51-54% and 26-48% depending on the Fe(III) supply in the nutrient solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential of the TCE-degrading endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve plant growth and reduce TCE phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration in poplar cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyens, Nele; Truyens, Sascha; Dupae, Joke; Newman, Lee; Taghavi, Safiyh; Lelie, Daniel van der; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2010-01-01

    The TCE-degrading poplar endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE was inoculated in poplar cuttings, exposed to 0, 200 and 400 mg l -1 TCE, that were grown in two different experimental setups. During a short-term experiment, plants were grown hydroponically in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution and exposed to TCE for 3 days. Inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE promoted plant growth, reduced TCE phytotoxicity and reduced the amount of TCE present in the leaves. During a mid-term experiment, plants were grown in potting soil and exposed to TCE for 3 weeks. Here, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE had a less pronounced positive effect on plant growth and TCE phytotoxicity, but resulted in strongly reduced amounts of TCE in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 400 mg l -1 TCE, accompanied by a lowered evapotranspiration of TCE. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), which are known intermediates of TCE degradation, were not detected. - The endophyte P. putida W619-TCE degrades TCE during its transport through the xylem, leading to reduced TCE concentrations in poplar, and decreased TCE evapotranspiration.

  18. Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D. M.; Novović, I.; Vilotić, D.; Ignjatović, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

  19. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  20. Herbivore-induced poplar cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP71 family convert aldoximes to nitriles which repel a generalist caterpillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmisch, Sandra; Clavijo McCormick, Andrea; Günther, Jan; Schmidt, Axel; Boeckler, Gerhard Andreas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Köllner, Tobias G

    2014-12-01

    Numerous plant species emit volatile nitriles upon herbivory, but the biosynthesis as well as the relevance of these nitrogenous compounds in plant-insect interactions remains unknown. Populus trichocarpa has been shown to produce a complex blend of nitrogenous volatiles, including aldoximes and nitriles, after herbivore attack. The aldoximes were previously reported to be derived from amino acids by the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP79 family. Here we show that nitriles are derived from aldoximes by another type of P450 enzyme in P. trichocarpa. First, feeding of deuterium-labeled phenylacetaldoxime to poplar leaves resulted in incorporation of the label into benzyl cyanide, demonstrating that poplar volatile nitriles are derived from aldoximes. Then two P450 enzymes, CYP71B40v3 and CYP71B41v2, were characterized that produce aliphatic and aromatic nitriles from their respective aldoxime precursors. Both possess typical P450 sequence motifs but do not require added NADPH or cytochrome P450 reductase for catalysis. Since both enzymes are expressed after feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, they are likely to be involved in herbivore-induced volatile nitrile emission in P. trichocarpa. Olfactometer experiments showed that these volatile nitriles have a strong repellent activity against gypsy moth caterpillars, suggesting they play a role in induced direct defense against poplar herbivores. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Limitations for phytoextraction management on metal-polluted soils with poplar short rotation coppice-evidence from a 6-year field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, E; Annicaerta, B; De Moor, S; Van Nevel, L; De Fraeye, M; Meiresonne, L; Vangronsveld, J; Tack, F M G; Ok, Y S; Meers, Erik

    2018-01-02

    Poplar clones were studied for their phytoextraction capacity in the second growth cycle (6-year growth) on a site in the Belgian Campine region, which is contaminated with Cd and Zn via historic atmospheric deposition of nearby zinc smelter activities. The field trial revealed regrowth problems for some clones that could not be predicted in the first growth cycle. Four allometric relations were assessed for their capacity to predict biomass yield in the second growth cycle. A power function based on the shoot diameter best estimates the biomass production of poplar with R 2 values between 0.94 and 0.98. The woody biomass yield ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 ton woody Dry Mass (DM) ha -1 y -1 . The primary goal was to reduce soil concentrations of metals caused by phytoextraction. Nevertheless, increased metal concentrations were determined in the topsoil. This increase can partially be explained by the input of metals from deeper soil layers in the top soil through litterfall. The phytoextraction option with poplar short rotation coppice in this setup did not lead to the intended soil remediation in a reasonable time span. Therefore, harvest of the leaf biomass is put forward as a crucial part of the strategy for soil remediation through Cd/Zn phytoextraction.

  2. Cell wall integrity, genotoxic injury and PCD dynamics in alfalfa saponin-treated white poplar cells highlight a complex link between molecule structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, Stefania; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Macovei, Anca; Biggiogera, Marco; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, eleven saponins and three sapogenins purified from Medicago sativa were tested for their cytotoxicity against highly proliferating white poplar (Populus alba L.) cell suspension cultures. After preliminary screening, four saponins with different structural features in terms of aglycone moieties and sugar chains (saponin 3, a bidesmoside of hederagenin; saponins 4 and 5, monodesmoside and bidesmoside of medicagenic acid respectively, and saponin 10, a bidesmoside of zanhic acid) and different cytotoxicity were selected and used for further investigation on their structure-activity relationship. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses provided for the first time evidence of the effects exerted by saponins on plant cell wall integrity. Exposure to saponin 3 and saponin 10 resulted into disorganization of the outer wall layer and the effect was even more pronounced in white poplar cells treated with the two medicagenic acid derivatives, saponins 4 and 5. Oxidative burst and nitric oxide accumulation were common hallmarks of the response of white poplar cells to saponins. When DNA damage accumulation and DNA repair profiles were evaluated by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, induction of single and double strand breaks followed by effective repair was observed within 24h. The reported data are discussed in view of the current issues dealing with saponin structure-activity relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential of the TCE-degrading endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve plant growth and reduce TCE phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration in poplar cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Dupae, J.; Newman, L.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-09-01

    The TCE-degrading poplar endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE was inoculated in poplar cuttings, exposed to 0, 200 and 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, that were grown in two different experimental setups. During a short-term experiment, plants were grown hydroponically in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution and exposed to TCE for 3 days. Inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE promoted plant growth, reduced TCE phytotoxicity and reduced the amount of TCE present in the leaves. During a mid-term experiment, plants were grown in potting soil and exposed to TCE for 3 weeks. Here, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE had a less pronounced positive effect on plant growth and TCE phytotoxicity, but resulted in strongly reduced amounts of TCE in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, accompanied by a lowered evapotranspiration of TCE. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), which are known intermediates of TCE degradation, were not detected. The endophyte P. putida W619-TCE degrades TCE during its transport through the xylem, leading to reduced TCE concentrations in poplar, and decreased TCE evapotranspiration.

  4. Nutrient cycling for biomass: Interactive proteomic/transcriptomic networks for global carbon management processes within poplar-mycorrhizal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cseke, Leland [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This project addresses the need to develop system-scale models at the symbiotic interface between ectomycorrhizal fungi (Laccaria bicolor) and tree species (Populus tremuloides) in response to environmental nutrient availability / biochemistry. Using our now well-established laboratory Laccaria x poplar system, we address the hypothesis that essential regulatory and metabolic mechanisms can be inferred from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic-level changes that occur in response to environmental nutrient availability. The project addresses this hypothesis by applying state-of-the-art protein-level analytic approaches to fill the gap in our understanding of how mycorrhizal regulatory and metabolic processes at the transcript-level translate to nutrient uptake, carbon management and ultimate net primary productivity of plants. In most cases, these techniques were not previously optimized for poplar trees or Laccaria. Thus, one of the major contributions of this project has been to provide avenues for new research in these species by overcoming the pitfalls that had previously prevented the use of techniques such as ChIP-Seq and SWATH-proteomics. Since it is the proteins that sense and interact with the environment, participate in signal cascades, activate and regulate gene expression, perform the activities of metabolism and ultimately sequester carbon and generate biomass, an understanding of protein activities during symbiosis-linked nutrient uptake is critical to any systems-level approach that links metabolic processes to the environment. This project uses a team of experts at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to address the above hypothesis using a multiple "omics" approach that combines gene and protein expression as well as protein modifications, and biochemical analyses (performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)) in poplar trees under mycorrhizal and

  5. Effects of two iron sources on iron and cadmium allocation in poplar (populus alba) plants exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, F.; Gaspar, L.; Cseh, E.; Sarvari, E. [Eotvos Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Plant Physiology; Morales, F.; Gogorcena, Y.; Abadia, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. de Nutricion Vegetal; Lucena, J.J. [Madrid Univ., Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Agricola; Kropfl, K. [Eotvos Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Technology and Environmental Chemistry

    2005-09-01

    The phytotoxicity of heavy metals is often manifested as inhibition of plant growth, nitrate assimilation and photosynthesis, as well as disturbances in plant ion and water balances. Many of these plant responses are a result of inhibition of enzyme activity caused by the binding of heavy metal ions to sulfhydryl groups in the active sites of enzymes and by substitution of essential metals. This study investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd) nitrate on the utilization and allocation of iron (Fe) in poplar plants grown in a nutrient solution with Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-citrate as the Fe source. The effects of Cd were also compared with those of Fe deprivation. Results indicated that the accumulation of Fe in roots was 10-fold higher in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-ETDA. In addition, cadmium increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and photosynthetic rates, and these decreases were more marked in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA. In both treatments, addition of Cd caused large increases in root and shoot apoplasmic and non-apoplasmic Cd contents and increases in root Fe content. However, Cd decreased shoot Fe content, especially in plants grown with Fe-citrate. New leaves of plants grown with Fe-citrate had small cellular Fe pools, whereas these pools were large in new leaves of plants grown with Fe-EDTA. Non-apoplasmic Cd pools in new leaves were smaller in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA, which indicated that inactivation of non-apoplasmic Cd pools is facilitated more by Fe-EDTA than by Fe-citrate. In the presence of Cd, Fe-EDTA was also superior to Fe-citrate in maintaining an adequate Fe supply to poplar shoots. It was concluded that because the amount of non-apoplasmic root Fe was higher in plants grown with Fe-citrate than with Fe-EDTA, the observed differences in plant responses to Fe-EDTA and Fe-citrate may reflect distances in long-distance transport of Fe rather than its acquisition of Fe by roots. 42 refs., 6

  6. Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Su

    Full Text Available Commercial and non-commercial plants face a variety of environmental stressors that often cannot be controlled. In this study, transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento' harboring five effector genes (vgb, SacB, JERF36, BtCry3A and OC-I were subjected to drought, salinity, waterlogging and insect stressors in greenhouse or laboratory conditions. Field trials were also conducted to investigate long-term effects of transgenic trees on insects and salt tolerance in the transformants. In greenhouse studies, two transgenic lines D5-20 and D5-21 showed improved growth, as evidenced by greater height and basal diameter increments and total biomass relative to the control plants after drought or salt stress treatments. The improved tolerance to drought and salt was primarily attributed to greater instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi in the transgenic trees. The chlorophyll concentrations tended to be higher in the transgenic lines under drought or saline conditions. Transformed trees in drought conditions accumulated more fructan and proline and had increased Fv/Fm ratios (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II under waterlogging stress. Insect-feeding assays in the laboratory revealed a higher total mortality rate and lower exuviation index of leaf beetle [Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting] larvae fed with D5-21 leaves, suggesting enhanced insect resistance in the transgenic poplar. In field trials, the dominance of targeted insects on 2-year-old D5-21 transgenic trees was substantially lower than that of the controls, indicating enhanced resistance to Coleoptera. The average height and DBH (diameter at breast height of 2.5-year-old transgenic trees growing in naturally saline soil were 3.80% and 4.12% greater than those of the control trees, but these increases were not significant. These results suggested that multiple stress-resistance properties in important crop tree species could be simultaneously improved, although

  7. [Effects of poplar-amaranth intercropping system on the soil nitrogen loss under different nitrogen applying levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jun; Xue, Jian-Hui; Wu, Dian-Ming; Jin, Mei-Juan; Wu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Characteristics of soil nitrogen loss were investigated based on field experiments in two types of poplar-amaranth intercropping systems (spacing: L1 2 m x 5 m, L2 2 m x 15 m) with four N application rates, i. e., 0 (N1), 91 (N2), 137 (N3) and 183 (N4) kg · hm(-2). The regulation effects on the soil surface runoff, leaching loss and soil erosion were different among the different types of intercropping systems: L1 > L2 > L3 (amaranth monocropping). Compared with the amaranth monocropping, the soil surface runoff rates of L1 and L2 decreased by 65.1% and 55.9%, the soil leaching rates of L1 and L2 with a distance of 0.5 m from the poplar tree row de- creased by 30.0% and 28.9%, the rates with a distance of 1. 5 m decreased by 25. 6% and 21.9%, and the soil erosion rates decreased by 65.0% and 55.1%, respectively. The control effects of two intercropping systems on TN, NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N in soil runoff and leaching loss were in the order of L1 > L2 > L3. Compared with the amaranth monocropping, TN, NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N loss rates in soil runoff of L1 decreased by 62.9%, 45.1% and 69.2%, while the loss rates of L2 decreased by 23.4%, 6.9% and 46.2% under N1 (91 kg · hm(-2)), respectively. High- er tree-planting density and closer positions to the polar tree row were more effective on controlling the loss rates of NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N caused by soil leaching. The loss proportion of NO(3-)-N in soil runoff decreased with the increasing nitrogen rate under the same tree-planting density, while that of NH(4+)-N increased. Leaching loss of NO(3-)-N had a similar trend with that of NH(4+)-N, i. e. , N3 > N2 > N1 > N0.

  8. Investigation of Increased Mercury Levels in the Fisheries of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Cornish, J.; Hart, A.; Southworth, G.; Simms, L.

    2006-01-01

    The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is supporting Oak Ridge's remediation efforts by performing this study. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has performed a series of literature reviews and bench-scale testing to further evaluate the mercury problem in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at Oak Ridge. The primary problem is that total mercury (HgT) levels in LEFPC water decrease, while HgT levels in sunfish muscle tissue increase, with distance away from the National Security Complex (NSC), despite extensive source control efforts at the facility. Furthermore, dissolved methylmercury (d-MeHg) levels increase downstream from the NSC, especially during warm weather and/or high flow events. MSE performed four test series that focused on conversion of dissolved and colloidal forms of elemental mercury (Hg deg.A) to methyl mercury (MeHg) by algal-bacterial bio-films (periphyton) present in the stream-bed of LEFPC; MeHg production by these bio-films under anoxic versus oxic conditions was the critical measurement taken. The bench-scale testing for Phase I was completed November 2005. The final reporting and the planning for Phase II testing are in progress. (authors)

  9. Wastewater Reuse: An Economic Perspective to Identify Suitable Areas for Poplar Vegetation Filter Systems for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest towards climate change, water and energy saving, and soil protection has led the research community to consider non-conventional water as a sustainable source for irrigation of energy crops. Vegetation filter systems are considered a reliable technique for sustainable biomass cultivation, enabling the use of reclaimed wastewater as water and nutrients sources during irrigation periods. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial model was developed to identify areas potentially suitable for creating vegetation filter systems with poplars to size the plants of energy production. An economic assessment allowed us to identify the cost-effectiveness areas for biomass production that can be fertigated by reclaimed wastewater. Considering the Basilicata region as the test region, a surface area of 258,512 ha was investigated, identifying 73,331 ha of SRF soils sited downstream of 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, considering only areas that have positive net present value and are economically attractive, results indicate 1606 ha of SRF falling within the areas of influence of 39 WWTPs. The results show that the sector of dedicated crops, adjacent and linked with WWTPs, expresses a total capacity of 50.56 MW for thermal, 8.25 MW for electricity, and 31 MW for cogeneration (25.07 MWt and 5.94 MWe plants.

  10. Postremediation monitoring program baseline assessment report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Ashwood, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Rash, C.D.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc. (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) and its floodplain are contaminated with mercury (Hg) from ongoing and historical releases from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A remedial investigation and feasibility study of LEFPC resulted in the signing of a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 1995. In response to the ROD, soil contaminated with mercury above 400 mg/kg was removed from two sites in LEFPC and the floodplain during a recently completed remedial action (RA). The Postremediation Monitoring Program (PMP) outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan was envisioned to occur in two phases: (1) a baseline assessment prior to remediation and (2) postremediation monitoring. The current report summarizes the results of the baseline assessment of soil, water, biota, and groundwater usage in LEFPC and its floodplain conducted in 1995 and 1996 by personnel of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). This report also includes some 1997 data from contaminated sites that did not undergo remediation during the RA (i.e., sites where mercury is greater than 200 mg/kg but less than 400 mg/kg). The baseline assessment described in this document is distinct and separate from both the remedial investigation/feasibility study the confirmatory sampling conducted by SAIC during the RA. The purpose of the current assessment was to provide preremediation baseline data for the LEFPC PMP outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan, using common approaches and techniques, as specified in that plan.

  11. Fertilizer regime impacts on abundance and diversity of soil fauna across a poplar plantation chronosequence in coastal Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojun; Chen, Han Y H; Tan, Yan; Fan, Huan; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-02-09

    Soil fauna are critical for ecosystem function and sensitive to the changes of soil fertility. The effects of fertilization on soil fauna communities, however, remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of fertilization form and quantity on the abundance, diversity and composition of soil fauna across an age-sequence of poplar plantations (i.e., 4-, 9- and 20-yr-old) in the coastal region of eastern China. We found that the effects of fertilization on faunal abundance, diversity, and composition differed among stand ages. Organic fertilizers increased the total abundance of soil fauna, whereas low level inorganic fertilizers imparted increases only in the 4- and 9-yr-old stands. The number of faunal groups did not change with fertilization, but Shannon's and Margalef diversity indices increased under low level organic fertilization, and decreased under inorganic fertilization in the 9- and 20-yr-old stands. Community composition of soil fauna differed strongly with fertilization and stand age. The changes in soil fauna were strongly associated with the changes in microbial biomass carbon, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium. Our findings suggest that the responses of soil fauna to fertilization may be mediated through the fertilization effects on soil nutrient availability.

  12. Laboratory-scale measurements of N2O and CH4 emissions from hybrid poplars (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, M C; Warland, J S; McBride, R A; Wagner-Riddle, C

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not young hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) could transport landfill biogas internally from the root zone to the atmosphere, thereby acting as conduits for landfill gas release. Fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the seedlings to the atmosphere were measured under controlled conditions using dynamic flux chambers and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyser (TDLTGA). Nitrous oxide was emitted from the seedlings, but only when extremely high soil N2O concentrations were applied to the root zone. In contrast, no detectable emissions of CH4 were measured in a similar experimental trial. Visible plant morphological responses, characteristic of flood-tolerant trees attempting to cope with the negative effects of soil hypoxia, were observed during the CH4 experiments. Leaf chlorosis, leaf abscission and adventitious roots were all visible plant responses. In addition, seedling survival was observed to be highest in the biogas 'hot spot' areas of a local municipal solid waste landfill involved in this study. Based on the available literature, these observations suggest that CH4 can be transported internally by Populus deltoides x Populus nigra seedlings in trace amounts, although future research is required to fully test this hypothesis.

  13. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    On December 21, 1989, the EPA placed the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the National Priorities List (NPL). On January 1, 1992, a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the DOE Field Office in Oak Ridge (DOE-OR), EPA Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) went into effect. This FFA establishes the procedural framework and schedule by which DOE-OR will develop, coordinate, implement and monitor environmental restoration activities on the ORR in accordance with applicable federal and state environmental regulations. The DOE-OR Environmental Restoration Program for the ORR addresses the remediation of areas both within and outside the ORR boundaries. This sampling and analysis plan focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the ORR and its associated floodplain. Both EFPC and its floodplain have been contaminated by releases from the Y-12 Plant since the mid-1950s. Because the EFPC site-designated as an ORR operable unit (OU) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is included on the NPL, its remediation must follow the specific procedures mandated by CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986

  14. Fly Ash and Composted Bio solids as a Source of Fe for Hybrid Poplar: A Greenhouse Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, K.; O'Neill, M.; Ulery, A.; Mexal, J.; Sammis, T.; Onken, B.; Forster-Cox, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soils of northwest New Mexico have an elevated ph and CaCo 3 content that reduces Fe solubility, causes chlorosis, and reduces crop yields. Could bio solids and fly ash, enriched with Fe, provide safe alternatives to expensive Fe EDDHA (sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate)) fertilizers applied to Populus hybrid plots? Hybrid OP-367 was cultivated on a Doak sandy loam soil amended with composted bio solids or fly ash at three agricultural rates. Fly ash and Fe EDDHA treatments received urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), bio solids, enriched with N, did not. Both amendments improved soil and plant Fe. Heavy metals were below EPA regulations, but high B levels were noted in leaves of trees treated at the highest fly ash rate. ph increased in fly ash soil while salinity increased in bio solids-treated soil. Chlorosis rankings improved in poplars amended with both byproducts, although composted bio solids offered the most potential at improving Fe/tree growth cheaply without the need for synthetic inputs.

  15. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  16. Phytoextraction potential of poplar (Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge) from calcareous agricultural soils contaminated by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Jin, Cheng; Wang, Ning; Luo, Huanzhang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phytoextraction potential of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for cadmium (Cd) contaminated calcareous soils, a concentration gradient experiment and a field sampling experiment (involving poplars of different ages) were conducted. The translocation factors for all experiments and treatments were greater than 1. The bioconcentration factor decreased from 2.37 to 0.25 with increasing soil Cd concentration in the concentration gradient experiment and generally decreased with stand age under field conditions. The Cd concentrations in P. pyramidalis organs decreased in the order of leaves > stems > roots. The shoot biomass production in the concentration gradient experiment was not significantly reduced with soil Cd concentrations up to or slightly over 50 mg kg(-1). The results show that the phytoextraction efficiency of P. pyramidalis depends on both the soil Cd concentration and the tree age. Populus pyramidalis is most suitable for remediation of slightly Cd contaminated calcareous soils through the combined harvest of stems and leaves under actual field conditions.

  17. Characterization of the Micromorphology and Topochemistry of Poplar Wood during Mild Ionic Liquid Pretreatment for Improving Enzymatic Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs as designer solvents have been applied in biomass pretreatment to increase cellulose accessibility and therefore improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. We investigated the characterization of the micromorphology and the topochemistry of poplar wood during 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment with mild conditions (90 °C for 20 and 40 min by multiple microscopic techniques (FE-SEM, CLSM, and CRM. Chemical composition analysis, XRD, cellulase adsorption isotherm, and enzymatic hydrolysis were also performed to monitor the variation of substrate properties. Our results indicated that the biomass conversion was greatly enhanced (from 20.57% to 73.64% due to the cell wall deconstruction and lignin dissolution (29.83% lignin was removed after incubation for 40 min, rather than the decrystallization or crystallinity transformation of substrates. The mild ILs pretreatment, with less energy input, can not only enhance enzymatic hydrolysis, but also provide a potential approach as the first step in improving the sequential pretreatment effectiveness in integrated methods. This study provides new insights on understanding the ILs pretreatment with low temperature and short duration, which is critical for developing individual and/or combined pretreatment technologies with reduced energy consumption.

  18. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate

  19. Plant growth promotion, metabolite production and metal tolerance of dark septate endophytes isolated from metal-polluted poplar phytomanagement sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Charlotte; Leyval, Corinne; Foulon, Julie; Chalot, Michel; Blaudez, Damien

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies address the distribution and the diversity of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) in the literature, but little is known about their ecological role and their effect on host plants, especially in metal-polluted soils. Seven DSE strains belonging to Cadophora, Leptodontidium, Phialophora and Phialocephala were isolated from roots of poplar trees from metal-polluted sites. All strains developed on a wide range of carbohydrates, including cell-wall-related compounds. The strains evenly colonized birch, eucalyptus and ryegrass roots in re-synthesis experiments. Root and shoot growth promotion was observed and was both plant and strain dependent. Two Phialophora and Leptodontidium strains particularly improved plant growth. However, there was no correlation between the level of root colonization by DSEs and the intensity of growth promotion. All strains produced auxin and six also stimulated plant growth through the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). SPME-GC/MS analyses revealed four major VOCs emitted by Cadophora and Leptodontidium The strains exhibited growth at high concentrations of several metals. The ability of metal-resistant DSE strains to produce both soluble and volatile compounds for plant growth promotion indicates interesting microbial resources with high potential to support sustainable production of bioenergy crops within the context of the phytomanagement of metal-contaminated sites. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors

  1. Postremediation monitoring program baseline assessment report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Ashwood, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Rash, C.D.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1998-04-01

    Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) and its floodplain are contaminated with mercury (Hg) from ongoing and historical releases from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A remedial investigation and feasibility study of LEFPC resulted in the signing of a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 1995. In response to the ROD, soil contaminated with mercury above 400 mg/kg was removed from two sites in LEFPC and the floodplain during a recently completed remedial action (RA). The Postremediation Monitoring Program (PMP) outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan was envisioned to occur in two phases: (1) a baseline assessment prior to remediation and (2) postremediation monitoring. The current report summarizes the results of the baseline assessment of soil, water, biota, and groundwater usage in LEFPC and its floodplain conducted in 1995 and 1996 by personnel of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). This report also includes some 1997 data from contaminated sites that did not undergo remediation during the RA (i.e., sites where mercury is greater than 200 mg/kg but less than 400 mg/kg). The baseline assessment described in this document is distinct and separate from both the remedial investigation/feasibility study the confirmatory sampling conducted by SAIC during the RA. The purpose of the current assessment was to provide preremediation baseline data for the LEFPC PMP outlined in the LEFPC Monitoring Plan, using common approaches and techniques, as specified in that plan

  2. Identification of proteins from cambium tissues of the chinese white poplar (populus tomentosa) sampled during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, J.; Liu, S.; Qi, Q.; Hou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Various protein extraction methods have been used to investigate Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa) proteomics. However, extracting and characterizing proteins from woody plants remains a challenge. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is a powerful, widely used method for the analysis of complex protein mixtures extracted from biological samples. The technique separates mixtures of proteins along two dimensions, by isoelectric point and molecular weight, and can resolve thousands of different proteins. Here, we report a new application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to investigate the proteomics of P. tomentosa cambium tissues over the course of a growing season. Of three protein extraction methods that we compared (the Tris-phenol method, trichloroacetic acid-acetone method, and trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol method), trichloroacetic acid-acetone was the most efficient approach for protein extraction from cambium tissues of P. tomentosa. After extraction, the proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein quantities of six spots changed over the course of the growing season from February to July. Five spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the sixth spot was identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proteins included enolase, class Ia chitinase, and four unnamed proteins. Our results show the best approach to proteomics in P. tomentosa and reveal trends in protein activities during a growing season in this tree species. (author)

  3. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  4. Biomass production of intensively grown poplars in the southernmost part of Sweden: Observations of characters, traits and growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Observation of possibilities and problems was performed when trying to optimise growing conditions for high biomass production by irrigation and fertilisation in a clone test of poplar on sandy soil in the south of Sweden. One hundred and eight clones of pure Populus trichocarpa and hybrids between P. trichocarpa and P. deltoides were evaluated for growth rate, phenology, quality, frost hardiness and pest resistance. Some fertilisation experiments were performed. In some years, some unfertilised clones produced up to 2 kg m -2 of woody dry biomass. Some fertilised clones produced almost twice as much in the years following fertilisation. Stem canker was the main cause of serious injuries in all hybrids, but pure P. trichocarpa stems were not affected. The cimbicid sawfly (Cimbex lutea) caused damage to the quality of the trees in the form of curved stems of some clones. Winter frost killed top shoots of the hybrids in a year with particularly low winter temperatures with long duration. Summer frost (in June) killed up to 1 m of some young top shoots in some clones in the first 3-4 years. The results are discussed in terms of radiation utilisation efficiency, energy efficient ratio, and water and nutrient use efficiency. The discussion finishes with the conclusion that fertilisation, but not irrigation, can be economically motivated. If irrigation is to be economic, then the main objective of the whole operation should be to produce drinkable water from water polluted by society. Biomass production would then be a bonus

  5. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Response to Cadmium-Induced Stress in Poplar (Populus yunnanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Excess amounts of heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with significant ecological and nutritional effects. Cdmium (Cd is of particular concern because of its widespread occurrence and high toxicity. We conducted physiological and proteomic analyses to improve our understanding of the responses of Populus yunnanensis to Cd stress. The plantlets experienced two apparent stages in their response to Cd stress. During the first stage, transiently induced defense-response molecules, photosynthesis- and energy-associated proteins, antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs accumulated to enhance protein stability and establish a new cellular homeostasis. This activity explains why plant photosynthetic capability during this period barely changed. During the second stage, a decline of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO and HSP levels led to imbalance of the plant photosynthetic system. Additionally, the expression of Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6 and a homeobox-leucine zipper protein was higher in the second stage. Higher expression of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT may regulate plant cell wall synthesis for greater Cd storage. These genes may be candidates for further research and use in genetic manipulation of poplar tolerance to Cd stress.

  6. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    On December 21, 1989, the EPA placed the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the National Priorities List (NPL). On January 1, 1992, a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the DOE Field Office in Oak Ridge (DOE-OR), EPA Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) went into effect. This FFA establishes the procedural framework and schedule by which DOE-OR will develop, coordinate, implement and monitor environmental restoration activities on the ORR in accordance with applicable federal and state environmental regulations. The DOE-OR Environmental Restoration Program for the ORR addresses the remediation of areas both within and outside the ORR boundaries. This sampling and analysis plan focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the ORR and its associated floodplain. Both EFPC and its floodplain have been contaminated by releases from the Y-12 Plant since the mid-1950s. Because the EFPC site-designated as an ORR operable unit (OU) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is included on the NPL, its remediation must follow the specific procedures mandated by CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986.

  7. Delineation of brine contamination in and near the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers in and near the East Poplar oil field is as much as 17.9 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone in contaminated areas. The brine contamination affects 15–37 billion gallons of groundwater. Brine contamination in the shallow aquifers east of the Poplar River generally moves to the southwest toward the river and then southward in the Poplar River valley. The likely source of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers is brine that is produced with crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area. Brine contamination has not only affected the water quality from privately owned wells in and near the East Poplar oil field, but also the city of Poplar’s public water-supply wells. Three water-quality types characterize water in the shallow aquifers; a fourth water-quality type in the study area characterizes the brine. Type 1 is uncontaminated water that is suitable for most domestic purposes and typically contains sodium bicarbonate and sodium/magnesium sulfate as the dominant ions. Type 2 is moderately contaminated water that is suitable for some domestic purposes, but not used for drinking water, and typically contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 is considerably contaminated water that is unsuitable for any domestic purpose and always contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 quality of water in the shallow aquifers is similar to Type 4, which is the brine that is produced with crude oil. Electromagnetic apparent conductivity data were collected in the 106 square-mile area and used to determine extent of brine contamination. These data were collected and interpreted in conjunction with water-quality data collected through 2009 to delineate brine plumes in the shallow aquifers. Monitoring wells subsequently were drilled in some areas without existing water wells to confirm most of the delineated brine plumes; however, several possible

  8. Investigation the Potential Replacement of the Old Corrugated Container (OCC) and Poplar Wood Flour Instead of Wheat Flour such as Urea-formaldehyde Adhesive Filler in the Plywood Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kazem D.Hosseini; Meysam Mahdinia; Elham Farhid; Abdollah Elyasi

    2012-01-01

    Considering the value and importance of wheat flour in our country, replacement of a new type of filler instead of wheat flour in glue combination in plywood industry is necessary. In this study the possibility of using wood flour of poplar and OCC (old corrugated container) fiber as filler in the combination of urea formaldehyde glue has been studied. The plywood was manufactured from Poplar species (in core of plywood) and Hornbeam veneer (in back and face of plywood) on the basis of the st...

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  11. Sapflow of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra L.xP. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') during phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalesny, Ronald S.; Wiese, Adam H.; Bauer, Edmund O.; Riemenschneider, Don E. [USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, 5985 Highway K, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Poplars are ideal for phytoremediation because of their high water usage, fast growth, and deep root systems. We measured in 2002 and 2003 the sapflow of hybrid poplars (Populus nigra L.xP. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') planted in 1999 for phytoremediation of a landfill in Rhinelander, WI, USA (45.6{sup o}N, 89.4{sup o}W). Mean sap velocity per tree was 100+/-10 and 120+/-10{mu}ms{sup -1} for 2002 and 2003, respectively. Mean sapflow per tree was 1.4000+/-0.1698 and 5.6760+/-0.2997kgh{sup -1} for 2002 and 2003, respectively. Sapflow was negatively correlated with temperature, wind speed, precipitation, and vapor pressure deficit for both years (0.002poplar genotypes exhibit great potential for phytoremediation applications where elevated water usage is critical. (author)

  12. Evapotranspiration of a high-density poplar stand in comparison with a reference grass cover in the Czech–Moravian Highlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Kučera, J.; Deckmyn, G.; Orság, Matěj; Sedlák, Pavel; Žalud, Z.; Ceulemans, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 181, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 43-60 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0056; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Evapotranspiration * Short-rotation poplar coppice * Grassland * Bowen ratio/energy balance method Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.894, year: 2013

  13. Comparison of transcriptional profiles of Clostridium thermocellum grown on cellobiose and pretreated yellow poplar using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eWei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, secretes multi-protein enzyme complexes, termed cellulosomes, which synergistically interact with the microbial cell surface and efficiently disassemble plant cell wall biomass. C. thermocellum has also been considered a potential consolidated bioprocessing (CBP organism due to its ability to produce the biofuel products, hydrogen and ethanol. We found that C. thermocellum fermentation of pretreated yellow poplar (PYP produced 30% and 39% of ethanol and hydrogen product concentrations, respectively, compared to fermentation of cellobiose. RNA-seq was used to analyze the transcriptional profiles of these cells. The PYP-grown cells taken for analysis at the late stationary phase showed 1211 genes up-regulated and 314 down-regulated by more than 2-fold compared to the cellobiose-grown cells. These affected genes cover a broad spectrum of specific functional categories. The transcriptional analysis was further validated by sub-proteomics data taken from the literature; as well as by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR analyses of selected genes. Specifically, 47 cellulosomal protein-encoding genes, genes for 4 pairs of SigI-RsgI for polysaccharide sensing, 7 cellodextrin ABC transporter genes, and a set of NAD(PH hydogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes were up-regulated for cells growing on PYP compared to cellobiose. These genes could be potential candidates for future studies aimed at gaining insight into the regulatory mechanism of this organism as well as for improvement of C. thermocellum in its role as a CBP organism.

  14. Differential expression of poplar sucrose nonfermenting1-related protein kinase 2 genes in response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Takebayashi, Arika; Demura, Taku; Ohtani, Misato

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge on the responses of woody plants to abiotic stress can inform strategies to breed improved tree varieties and to manage tree species for environmental conservation and the production of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genes encoding members of the sucrose nonfermenting1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family, which are core components of the abiotic stress response. The P. trichocarpa genome contains twelve SnRK2 genes (PtSnRK2.1- PtSnRK2.12) that can be divided into three subclasses (I-III) based on the structures of their encoded kinase domains. We found that PtSnRK2s are differentially expressed in various organs. In MS medium-grown plants, all of the PtSnRK2 genes were significantly upregulated in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, whereas osmotic and salt stress treatments induced only some (four and seven, respectively) of the PtSnRK2 genes. By contrast, soil-grown plants showed increased expression of most PtSnRK2 genes under drought and salt treatments, but not under ABA treatment. In soil-grown plants, drought stress induced SnRK2 subclass II genes in all tested organs (leaves, stems, and roots), whereas subclass III genes tended to be upregulated in leaves only. These results suggest that the PtSnRK2 genes are involved in abiotic stress responses, are at least partially activated by ABA, and show organ-specific responses.

  15. Contribution of various carbon sources toward isoprene biosynthesis in poplar leaves mediated by altered atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Trowbridge

    Full Text Available Biogenically released isoprene plays important roles in both tropospheric photochemistry and plant metabolism. We performed a (13CO(2-labeling study using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS to examine the kinetics of recently assimilated photosynthate into isoprene emitted from poplar (Populus × canescens trees grown and measured at different atmospheric CO(2 concentrations. This is the first study to explicitly consider the effects of altered atmospheric CO(2 concentration on carbon partitioning to isoprene biosynthesis. We studied changes in the proportion of labeled carbon as a function of time in two mass fragments, M41(+, which represents, in part, substrate derived from pyruvate, and M69(+, which represents the whole unlabeled isoprene molecule. We observed a trend of slower (13C incorporation into isoprene carbon derived from pyruvate, consistent with the previously hypothesized origin of chloroplastic pyruvate from cytosolic phosphenolpyruvate (PEP. Trees grown under sub-ambient CO(2 (190 ppmv had rates of isoprene emission and rates of labeling of M41(+ and M69(+ that were nearly twice those observed in trees grown under elevated CO(2 (590 ppmv. However, they also demonstrated the lowest proportion of completely labeled isoprene molecules. These results suggest that under reduced atmospheric CO(2 availability, more carbon from stored/older carbon sources is involved in isoprene biosynthesis, and this carbon most likely enters the isoprene biosynthesis pathway through the pyruvate substrate. We offer direct evidence that extra-chloroplastic rather than chloroplastic carbon sources are mobilized to increase the availability of pyruvate required to up-regulate the isoprene biosynthesis pathway when trees are grown under sub-ambient CO(2.

  16. Diurnal and seasonal changes in stem increment and water use by yellow poplar trees in response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Samuel B; Wullschleger, Stan D; Nosal, Miloslav

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate indicators of whole-tree physiological responses to climate stress, we determined seasonal, daily and diurnal patterns of growth and water use in 10 yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) trees in a stand recently released from competition. Precise measurements of stem increment and sap flow made with automated electronic dendrometers and thermal dissipation probes, respectively, indicated close temporal linkages between water use and patterns of stem shrinkage and swelling during daily cycles of water depletion and recharge of extensible outer-stem tissues. These cycles also determined net daily basal area increment. Multivariate regression models based on a 123-day data series showed that daily diameter increments were related negatively to vapor pressure deficit (VPD), but positively to precipitation and temperature. The same model form with slight changes in coefficients yielded coefficients of determination of about 0.62 (0.57-0.66) across data subsets that included widely variable growth rates and VPDs. Model R2 was improved to 0.75 by using 3-day running mean daily growth data. Rapid recovery of stem diameter growth following short-term, diurnal reductions in VPD indicated that water stored in extensible stem tissues was part of a fast recharge system that limited hydration changes in the cambial zone during periods of water stress. There were substantial differences in the seasonal dynamics of growth among individual trees, and analyses indicated that faster-growing trees were more positively affected by precipitation, solar irradiance and temperature and more negatively affected by high VPD than slower-growing trees. There were no negative effects of ozone on daily growth rates in a year of low ozone concentrations.

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  18. Hg isotopes reveal in-stream processing and legacy inputs in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Jason D; Blum, Joel D; Brooks, Scott C; Donovan, Patrick M; Riscassi, Ami L; Miller, Carrie L; Zheng, Wang; Gu, Baohua

    2018-04-25

    Natural abundance stable Hg isotope measurements were used to place new constraints on sources, transport, and transformations of Hg along the flow path of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), a point-source contaminated headwater stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Particulate-bound Hg in the water column of EFPC within the Y-12 National Security Complex, was isotopically similar to average metallic Hg(0) used in industry, having a mean δ202Hg value of -0.42 ± 0.09‰ (1SD) and near-zero Δ199Hg. On average, particulate fraction δ202Hg values increased downstream by 0.53‰, while Δ199Hg decreased by -0.10‰, converging with the Hg isotopic composition of the fine fraction of streambed sediment along the 26 km flow path. The dissolved fraction behaved differently. Although initial Δ199Hg values of the dissolved fraction were also near-zero, these values increased transiently along the flow path. Initial δ202Hg values of the dissolved fraction were more variable than in the particulate fraction, ranging from -0.44 to 0.18‰ among three seasonal sampling campaigns, but converged to an average δ202Hg value of 0.01 ± 0.10‰ (1SD) downstream. Dissolved Hg in the hyporheic and riparian pore water had higher and lower δ202Hg values, respectively, compared to dissolved Hg in stream water. Variations in Hg isotopic composition of the dissolved and suspended fractions along the flow path suggest that: (1) physical processes such as dilution and sedimentation do not fully explain decreases in total mercury concentrations along the flow path; (2) in-stream processes include photochemical reduction, but microbial reduction is likely more dominant; and (3) additional sources of dissolved mercury inputs to EFPC at baseflow during this study predominantly arise from the hyporheic zone.

  19. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; Opresko, D.M.; Talmage, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC

  20. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; Opresko, D.M.; Talmage, S.S. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC.

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  2. Photosynthetic responses of yellow poplar and white oak to long term atmospheric CO2 enrichment in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, C.A.; Norby, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A critical consideration in evaluating forest response to rising atmospheric CO 2 is whether the enhancement of net photosynthesis (P N ) by elevated CO 2 can be sustained over the long term. There are reports of declining enhancement of P N with duration of exposure to elevated CO 2 , associated with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency. We investigated whether this photosynthetic acclimation occurs in two tree species under field conditions. Seedlings of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) were planted in the ground within six open-top field chambers in May 1989 and have been exposed continuously to CO 2 enrichment during the last two growing seasons. The three CO 2 treatment levels were: ambient, ambient +150, and ambient +300 μL/L. Throughout the second season, gas exchange of upper, light-saturated leaves was surveyed periodically, and leaves of different ages and canopy positions were measured occasionally. Net photosynthesis remained higher at higher CO 2 levels (28-32% higher in +150 and 49-67% higher in +300 seedlings) in both species throughout the season, regardless of increasing leaf age and duration of exposure to CO 2 enrichment. Stomatal conductance remained unchanged or decreased slightly with increasing CO 2 , but instantaneous water use efficiency (P N /transpiration) increased significantly with CO 2 . Analysis of P N versus internal CO 2 concentration indicated no significant treatment differences in carboxylation efficiency, CO 2 -saturated P N , or CO 2 compensation point. There was no evidence of a downward acclimation of photosynthesis to CO 2 enrichment in this system

  3. Potential of the TCE-degrading endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve plant growth and reduce TCE phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration in poplar cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyens, Nele; Truyens, Sascha; Dupae, Joke; Newman, Lee; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2010-09-01

    The TCE-degrading poplar endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE was inoculated in poplar cuttings, exposed to 0, 200 and 400 mg l(-1) TCE, that were grown in two different experimental setups. During a short-term experiment, plants were grown hydroponically in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution and exposed to TCE for 3 days. Inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE promoted plant growth, reduced TCE phytotoxicity and reduced the amount of TCE present in the leaves. During a mid-term experiment, plants were grown in potting soil and exposed to TCE for 3 weeks. Here, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE had a less pronounced positive effect on plant growth and TCE phytotoxicity, but resulted in strongly reduced amounts of TCE in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 400 mg l(-1) TCE, accompanied by a lowered evapotranspiration of TCE. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), which are known intermediates of TCE degradation, were not detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  5. bZIP transcription factor CgAP1 is essential for oxidative stress tolerance and full virulence of the poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingjiao; Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Chengming

    2016-10-01

    Yeast AP1 transcription factor is a regulator of oxidative stress response. Here, we report the identification and characterization of CgAP1, an ortholog of YAP1 in poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The expression of CgAP1 was highly induced by reactive oxygen species. CgAP1 deletion mutants displayed enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress compared with the wil