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Sample records for salt transport extraction

  1. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  2. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  3. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  4. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  5. Extracting information from the molten salt database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzuric, Slobodan; Suh, Changwon; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle; Rajan, Krishna

    2006-12-01

    Molten salt technology is a catchall phrase that includes some very diverse technologies; electrochemistry, heat transfer, chemical oxidation/reduction baths, and nuclear reactors. All of these technologies are linked by the general characteristics of molten salts that can function as solvents, have good heat-transfer characteristics, function like a fluid, can attain very high temperatures, can conduct electricity, and also may have chemical catalytic properties. The Janz molten salt database is the most comprehensive compilation of property data about molten salts available today and is widely used for both fundamental and applied purposes. Databases are traditionally viewed as “static” documents that are used in a “search and retrieval” mode. These static data can be transformed by informatics and data mining tools into a dynamic dataset for analysis of the properties of the, materials and for making predictions. While this approch has been successful in the chemical and biochemical sciences in searching for and establishing structure-property relationships, it is not widely used in the materials science community. Because the design of the original molten salt database was not oriented toward this informatics goal, it was essential to evaluate this dataset in terms of data mining standards. Two techniques were used—a projection (principal components analysis (PCA)) and a predictive method (partial least squares (PLS))—in conjunction with fundamental knowledge acquired from the long-term practice of molten salt chemistry.

  6. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  7. Salting Out Effect of Electrolyte Solutions in The Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: The salting-out effect of various solutions of electrolyte in the extraction of tantalum and niobium using aqueous biphasic system (ABS) was ... using X-ray fluorescence method. The results show that the percentage ... Liquid/ liquid extraction separates the components of a homogeneous liquid mixture on the ...

  8. Proteome profile of salt gland-rich epidermis extracted from a salt-tolerant tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Ang, Yiqian; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-10-01

    Preparation of proteins from salt-gland-rich tissues of mangrove plant is necessary for a systematic study of proteins involved in the plant's unique desalination mechanism. Extraction of high-quality proteins from the leaves of mangrove tree species, however, is difficult due to the presence of high levels of endogenous phenolic compounds. In our study, preparation of proteins from only a part of the leaf tissues (i.e. salt gland-rich epidermal layers) was required, rendering extraction even more challenging. By comparing several extraction methods, we developed a reliable procedure for obtaining proteins from salt gland-rich tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. Protein extraction was markedly improved using a phenol-based extraction method. Greater resolution 1D protein gel profiles could be obtained. More promising proteome profiles could be obtained through 1D-LC-MS/MS. The number of proteins detected was twice as much as compared to TUTS extraction method. Focusing on proteins that were solely present in each extraction method, phenol-based extracts contained nearly ten times more proteins than those in the extracts without using phenol. The approach could thus be applied for downstream high-throughput proteomic analyses involving LC-MS/MS or equivalent. The proteomics data presented herein are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001691. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong Q; Weng, Naidong

    2013-06-01

    Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) applies the salting-out effect to separate water-miscible organic solvent such as acetonitrile from plasma or other aqueous biofluids, and can extract a wide range of drug and metabolites, including many hydrophilic compounds. In most cases, the separated organic phase can be directly injected for bioanalysis, or with a simple dilution. SALLE provides similar simplicity to protein precipitation, but cleaner extracts due to a true phase separation. SALLE is also faster, more environmentally friendly and more cost-efficient than conventional liquid-liquid extraction and SPE. Through 96-well automation, SALLE can be easily integrated into the overall high-throughput LC-MS/MS bioanalysis strategy to increase productivity. This article provides a critical overview of the literatures on SALLE and perspectives of the future bioanalytical application of this often overlooked extraction technique. Important parameters impacting SALLE-LC-MS/MS assays are also discussed.

  10. Efficient salt-aided aqueous extraction of bitter almond oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yu, Xiuzhu; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Lirong; Zhang, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Salt-aided aqueous extraction (SAAE) is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly method of oil extraction that is influenced by many factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAAE on bitter almond oil yield. This study used sodium bicarbonate solution as extraction solvent and the optimal extraction parameters predicted by Box-Behnken design (i.e., concentration of sodium bicarbonate, 0.4 mol L-1 ; solvent-to-sample ratio, 5:1; extraction temperature, 84 °C; extraction time, 60 min), for oil recovery of 90.9%. The physiochemical characteristics of the extracted oil suggest that the quality was similar to that of the aqueous enzymatic extracted oil. Moreover, the content of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in bitter almond oil was found to be less than 5 mg kg-1 , which was lower compared to that obtained by other reported methods. Results of microanalysis indicated that SAAE led to significant improvement in oil yield by allowing the release of oil and decreasing the emulsion fraction. Therefore, extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE is feasible. These results demonstrate that extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE based on the salt effect is feasible on a laboratory scale. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Salting Out Effect of Electrolyte Solutions in The Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    form aqueous biphasic are: PEG-Sodium carbonate or. PEG and phosphates, citrates or sulphates. ... of liquid-liquid extraction and also has a number of unique advantages due, in large part, to their aqueous nature. ... (wt/wt) sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) at PEG/salt ratio of. 1:1 (El Hussein, 2004) was also prepared. Equal.

  12. Diuretics and salt transport along the nephron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul L; Ellison, David H

    2011-11-01

    The clinical use of diuretics almost uniformly predated the localization of their site of action. The consequence of diuretic specificity predicts clinical application and side effect, and the proximity of the sodium transporters, one to the next, often dictates potency or diuretic efficiency. All diuretics function by inhibiting the normal transport of sodium from the filtrate into the renal tubular cells. This movement of sodium into the renal epithelial cells on the apical side is facilitated by a series of transporters whose function is, in turn, dependent on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent Na-K cotransporter on the basolateral side of the cell. Our growing understanding of the physiology of sodium transport has spawned new possibilities for diuretic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O’Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  14. A multidrug ABC transporter with a taste for salt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Velamakanni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available LmrA is a multidrug ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter from Lactococcus lactis with no known physiological substrate, which can transport a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents and toxins from the cell. The protein can functionally replace the human homologue ABCB1 (also termed multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein MDR1 in lung fibroblast cells. Even though LmrA mediates ATP-dependent transport, it can use the proton-motive force to transport substrates, such as ethidium bromide, across the membrane by a reversible, H(+-dependent, secondary-active transport reaction. The mechanism and physiological context of this reaction are not known.We examined ion transport by LmrA in electrophysiological experiments and in transport studies using radioactive ions and fluorescent ion-selective probes. Here we show that LmrA itself can transport NaCl by a similar secondary-active mechanism as observed for ethidium bromide, by mediating apparent H(+-Na(+-Cl(- symport. Remarkably, LmrA activity significantly enhances survival of high-salt adapted lactococcal cells during ionic downshift.The observations on H(+-Na(+-Cl(- co-transport substantiate earlier suggestions of H(+-coupled transport by LmrA, and indicate a novel link between the activity of LmrA and salt stress. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of investigations into the bioenergetics of substrate translocation by ABC transporters for our understanding of fundamental mechanisms in this superfamily. This study represents the first use of electrophysiological techniques to analyze substrate transport by a purified multidrug transporter.

  15. Salt tectonics and shallow subseafloor fluid convection: Models of coupled fluid-heat-salt transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Thermohaline convection associated with salt domes has the potential to drive significant fluid flow and mass and heat transport in continental margins, but previous studies of fluid flow associated with salt structures have focused on continental settings or deep flow systems of importance to petroleum exploration. Motivated by recent geophysical and geochemical observations that suggest a convective pattern to near-seafloor pore fluid flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoMex), we devise numerical models that fully couple thermal and chemical processes to quantify the effects of salt geometry and seafloor relief on fluid flow beneath the seafloor. Steady-state models that ignore halite dissolution demonstrate that seafloor relief plays an important role in the evolution of shallow geothermal convection cells and that salt at depth can contribute a thermal component to this convection. The inclusion of faults causes significant, but highly localized, increases in flow rates at seafloor discharge zones. Transient models that include halite dissolution show the evolution of flow during brine formation from early salt-driven convection to later geothermal convection, characteristics of which are controlled by the interplay of seafloor relief and salt geometry. Predicted flow rates are on the order of a few millimeters per year or less for homogeneous sediments with a permeability of 10−15 m2, comparable to compaction-driven flow rates. Sediment permeabilities likely fall below 10−15 m2 at depth in the GoMex basin, but such thermohaline convection can drive pervasive mass transport across the seafloor, affecting sediment diagenesis in shallow sediments. In more permeable settings, such flow could affect methane hydrate stability, seafloor chemosynthetic communities, and the longevity of fluid seeps.

  16. Seasonal Variability of Salt Transport During the Indian Ocean Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-27

    the global water budget which is one of the main forcing mechanisms of the thermohaline circulation . Increase in surface salinity when aided by deep...enced by water circulation and ocean-atmosphere coupled interactions such as the Maddcn-Julian Oscillation (MJO) [Joseph and Freeland, 2005]. As a...affects meridional circulation and aids the transport of salt [Sevellec et ai, 2008; Czaja, 2009]. Deep convection could be inhibited by the freshening

  17. Effect of Vegetation on Sediment Transport across Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D. J.; Kirwan, M. L.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Ganju, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes are a classic example of ecogeomorphology where interactions between plants and sediment transport govern the stability of a rapidly evolving ecosystem. In particular, plants slow water velocities which facilitates deposition of mineral sediment, and the resulting change in soil elevation influences the growth and species distribution of plants. The ability of a salt marsh to withstand sea level rise (SLR) is therefore dependent, among other factors, on the availability of mineral sediment. Here we measure suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) along a transect from tidal channel to marsh interior, exploring the role biomass plays in regulating the magnitude and spatial variability in vertical accretion. Our study was conducted in Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marshes along the Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts to Georgia. At each site, we deployed and calibrated optical back scatter turbidity probes to measure SSC in 15 minute intervals in a tidal channel, on the marsh edge, and in the marsh interior. We visited each site monthly to measure plant biomass via clip plots and vertical accretion via two types of sediment tiles. Preliminary results confirm classic observations that biomass is highest at the marsh edge, and that SSC and vertical accretion decrease across the marsh platform with distance from the channel. We expect that when biomass is higher, such as in southern sites like Georgia and months late in the growing season, SSC will decay more rapidly with distance into the marsh. Higher biomass will likely also correspond to increased vertical accretion, with the greatest effect at marsh edge locations. Our study will likely demonstrate how salt marsh plants interact with sediment transport dynamics to control marsh morphology and thus contribute to marsh resilience to SLR.

  18. Structure, Ion Transport, and Rheology of Nanoparticle Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho

    2014-07-08

    Above a critical surface chemistry-dependent particle loading associated with nanoscale interparticle spacing, ligand-ligand interactions-both electrostatic and steric-come into play and govern the structure and dynamics of charged oligomer-functionalized nanoparticle suspensions. We report in particular on the structure, ion transport, and rheology of suspensions of nanoparticle salts created by cofunctionalization of silica particles with tethered sulfonate salts and oligomers. Dispersion of the hairy ionic particles into medium and high dielectric constant liquids yields electrolytes with unique structure and transport properties. We find that electrostatic repulsion imparted by ion dissociation can be tuned to control the dispersion state and rheology through counterion size (i.e., Li+, Na+, and K+) and dielectric properties of the dispersing medium. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) structure factors and the mechanical modulus shows that when the interparticle spacing approaches nanometer dimensions, weakly entangled anchored ligands experience strong and long-lived topological constraints analogous to those normally found in well-entangled polymeric fluids. This finding provides insight into the molecular origins of the surprisingly similar rubbery plateau moduli observed in hairy nanoparticle suspensions and entangled polymers of the same chemistry as the tethered ligands. Additionally, we find that a time-composition superposition (TCS) principle exists for the suspensions, which can be used to substantially extend the observation time over which dynamics are observed in jammed, soft glassy suspensions. Application of TCS reveals dynamical similarities between the suspensions and entangled solutions of linear polymer chains; i.e., a hairy particle trapped in a cage appears to exhibit analogous dynamics to a long polymer chain confined to a tube. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Seasonal variability of salinity and salt transport in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    D’Addezio, J.M.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Nyadjro, E.S.; Murty, V.S.N.

    of salinity at the surface and at depths up to 200 m, surface salt transport in the top 5-m layer, and depth-integrated salt transports revealed different salinity processes in the NIO that are dominantly related to the semiannual monsoons. Aquarius proves a...

  20. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  1. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  2. Improved methodologies for extraction of salt in halophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Morais

    2014-06-01

    This method yield rates in Salicornia appear to be higher than the expected based on previous publication. The data suggests other elements of interest may be differently distributed between the two genera. A nutritional profile, which we intend to do, may elucidate about the contents of vegetable salt.

  3. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  4. Recovery of nitrotoluenes from wastewater by solvent extraction enhanced with salting-out effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Wei, Kuo-Ming

    2007-08-17

    Toluene extraction enhanced by salting-out effect was employed to recover dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) from wastewater of toluene nitration processes (e.g. dinitration or trinitration). The batchwise experiments were conducted to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the extracting performance, including concentrations and species of inorganic salts, such as NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4) and MgSO4, acidity of wastewater, volume ratios of solvent versus wastewater and extraction stages in existence of inorganic salts. It was found that recovery of total organic compounds (TOC) was significantly elevated with increasing concentrations of salts, whose promoting effects were in the following order: NaCl>Na(2)SO(4)>K(2)SO(4)>MgSO4>KCl on the weight basis of wastewater. Besides, high volume ratio of toluene/wastewater (ca. 2.0) was more suitable for recovery of TOC from wastewater with or without addition of NaCl, of which extractable priority was as follows: 2,6-DNT>2,4-DNT>2,4,6-TNT. It is remarkable that TOC in wastewater would be almost completely recovered by sequential four stages toluene extraction, promoted continuously by salting-out effect.

  5. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, V.L.; Hurd, J.R.; Sedlacek, W.E.; Scarborough, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen molten salt extraction residues were assayed by conventional and prototype nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to be compared with destructive chemical analysis in an effort to identify acceptable NDA measurement methods for this matrix. NDA results on seven samples and destructive results on four samples are presented.

  7. Recovery of aniline from wastewater by nitrobenzene extraction enhanced with salting-out effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Hai

    2010-06-01

    Nitrobenzene extraction enhanced by salting-out effect was employed to recover aniline from wastewater at 25 degrees C. Batchwise experiments were conducted to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the extracting performance, including acidity of wastewater, initial aniline concentration, ratios of solvent to wastewater, extraction stages, concentrations and different types of inorganic salts, such as NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), CaCl(2) and K(2)SO(4). Nitrobenzene with a concentration of 20% and a pH value of 9.1 at the temperature of 25 degrees C together with NaCl of a concentration of 14 wt.% realized nearly 100% aniline recovery at the fifth stage of wastewater treatment. High pH values and volume ratios of nitrobenzene/wastewater are more suitable for recovery of aniline. In addition, recovery of aniline is significantly elevated with increase of the concentration of salts, whose promoting effects are in the following order: NaCl>Na(2)SO(4)>K(2)SO(4)>CaCl(2)>KCl on the weight basis of wastewater. Furthermore, aniline in wastewater can be almost completely recovered by five-stage sequential nitrobenzene extraction, which is promoted continuously by the salting-out effect. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were ...

  9. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

    2012-12-18

    The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAP±SEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.6±29.8) was significantly higher than control (113.2±3.0; P<0.05), HS (90.0±7.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.4±8.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.9±11.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable.

  10. Water and Salt Transport Properties of Triptycene-Containing Sulfonated Polysulfone Materials for Desalination Membrane Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongxi; Aboki, Joseph; Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ruilan; Geise, Geoffrey M

    2018-01-31

    A series of triptycene-containing sulfonated polysulfone (TRP-BP) materials was prepared via condensation polymerization, and the desalination membrane-relevant fundamental water and salt transport properties (i.e., sorption, diffusion, and permeability coefficients) of the polymers were characterized. Incorporating triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone increased the water content of the material compared to sulfonated polysulfone materials that do not contain triptycene. No significant difference in salt sorption was observed between TRP-BP membranes and other sulfonated polysulfone membranes, suggesting that the presence of triptycene in the polymer did not dramatically affect thermodynamic interactions between salt and the polymer. Both water and salt diffusion coefficients in the TRP-BP membranes were suppressed relative to other sulfonated polysulfone materials with comparable water content, and these phenomena may result from the influence of triptycene on polymer chain packing and/or free-volume distribution, which could increase the tortuosity of the transport pathways in the polymers. Enhanced water/salt diffusivity selectivity was observed for some of the TRP-BP membranes relative to those materials that did not contain triptycene, and correspondingly, incorporation of triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone resulted in an increase, particularly for acid counterion form TRP-BP materials, in water/salt permeability selectivity, which is favorable for desalination membrane applications.

  11. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  12. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  13. Effects of lead mineralogy on soil washing enhanced by ferric salts as extracting and oxidizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Park, Sang-Min; Yoon, Geun-Seok; Tsang, Daniel C W; Baek, Kitae

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using ferric salts including FeCl3 and Fe(NO3)3 as extracting and oxidizing agents for a soil washing process to remediate Pb-contaminated soils. We treated various Pb minerals including PbO, PbCO3, Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2, PbSO4, PbS, and Pb5(PO4)3(OH) using ferric salts, and compared our results with those obtained using common washing agents of HCl, HNO3, disodium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na2-EDTA), and citric acid. The use of 50 mM Fe(NO3)3 extracted significantly more Pb (above 96% extraction) from Pb minerals except PbSO4 (below 55% extraction) compared to the other washing agents. In contrast, washing processes using FeCl3 and HCl were not effective for extraction from Pb minerals because of PbCl2 precipitation. Yet, the newly formed PbCl2 could be dissolved by subsequent wash with distilled water under acidic conditions. When applying our washing method to remediate field-contaminated soil from a shooting range that had high concentrations of Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 and PbCO3, we extracted more Pb (approximately 99% extraction) from the soil using 100 mM Fe(NO3)3 than other washing agents at the same process conditions. Our results show that ferric salts can be alternative washing agents for Pb-contaminated soils in view of their extracting and oxidizing abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meridional transport of salt in the global ocean from an eddy-resolving model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguier, A. M.; Deshayes, J.; Le Sommer, J.; Lique, C.; Madec, G.; Penduff, T.; Molines, J.-M.; Barnier, B.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Talandier, C.

    2014-04-01

    The meridional transport of salt is computed in a global eddy-resolving numerical model (1/12° resolution) in order to improve our understanding of the ocean salinity budget. A methodology is proposed that allows a global analysis of the salinity balance in relation to surface water fluxes, without defining a "freshwater anomaly" based on an arbitrary reference salinity. The method consists of a decomposition of the meridional transport into (i) the transport by the time-longitude-depth mean velocity, (ii) time-mean velocity recirculations and (iii) transient eddy perturbations. Water is added (rainfall and rivers) or removed (evaporation) at the ocean surface at different latitudes, which creates convergences and divergences of mass transport with maximum and minimum values close to ±1 Sv. The resulting meridional velocity effects a net transport of salt at each latitude (±30 Sv PSU), which is balanced by the time-mean recirculations and by the net effect of eddy salinity-velocity correlations. This balance ensures that the total meridional transport of salt is close to zero, a necessary condition for maintaining a quasi-stationary salinity distribution. Our model confirms that the eddy salt transport cannot be neglected: it is comparable to the transport by the time-mean recirculation (up to 15 Sv PSU) at the poleward and equatorial boundaries of the subtropical gyres. Two different mechanisms are found: eddy contributions are localized in intense currents such as the Kuroshio at the poleward boundary of the subtropical gyres, while they are distributed across the basins at the equatorward boundaries. Closer to the Equator, salinity-velocity correlations are mainly due to the seasonal cycle and large-scale perturbations such as tropical instability waves.

  15. Influence of deformation on the fluid transport properties of salt rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peach, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    While the fluid transport properties of rocks are well understood under hydrostatic conditions, little is known regarding these properties in rocks undergoing crystal plastic deformation. However, such data are needed as input in the field of radioactive waste disposal in salt formations. They

  16. Influence of deformation on the fluid transport properties of salt rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peach, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    While the fluid transport properties of rocks are well understood under hydrostatic conditions, little is known regarding these properties in rocks undergoing crystal plastic deformation. However, such data are needed as input in the field of radioactive waste disposal in salt formations. They are

  17. Salt transport and crystallization in plaster layers: A nuclear magnetic resonance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, J.; Pel, L.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2005-01-01

    The durability and performance of specially developed restoration plasters or renders, are not always as good as expected. Salt crystallization is one of the causes of the observed degradation processes. To understand these processes in more detail, we investigated whether transport in the plasters

  18. Ion transport mechanisms in lamellar phases of salt-doped PS-PEO block copolymer electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan; Mogurampelly, Santosh; Ganesan, Venkat

    2017-11-01

    We use a multiscale simulation strategy to elucidate, at an atomistic level, the mechanisms underlying ion transport in the lamellar phase of polystyrene-polyethylene oxide (PS-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) electrolytes doped with LiPF6 salts. Explicitly, we compare the results obtained for ion transport in the microphase separated block copolymer melts to those for salt-doped PEO homopolymer melts. In addition, we also present results for dynamics of the ions individually in the PEO and PS domains of the BCP melt, and locally as a function of the distance from the lamellar interfaces. When compared to the PEO homopolymer melt, ions were found to exhibit slower dynamics in both the block copolymer (overall) and in the PEO phase of the BCP melt. Such results are shown to arise from the effects of slower polymer segmental dynamics in the BCP melt and the coordination characteristics of the ions. Polymer backbone-ion residence times analyzed as a function of distance from the interface indicate that ions have a larger residence time near the interface compared to that near the bulk of lamella, and demonstrates the influence of the glassy PS blocks and microphase segregation on the ion transport properties. Ion transport mechanisms in BCP melts reveal that there exist five distinct mechanisms for ion transport along the backbone of the chain and exhibit qualitative differences from the behavior in homopolymer melts. We also present results as a function of salt concentration which show that the mean-squared displacements of the ions decrease with increasing salt concentration, and that the ion residence times near the polymer backbone increase with increasing salt concentration.

  19. Ion transport mechanisms in lamellar phases of salt-doped PS–PEO block copolymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan

    2017-10-23

    We use a multiscale simulation strategy to elucidate, at an atomistic level, the mechanisms underlying ion transport in the lamellar phase of polystyrene–polyethylene oxide (PS–PEO) block copolymer (BCP) electrolytes doped with LiPF6 salts. Explicitly, we compare the results obtained for ion transport in the microphase separated block copolymer melts to those for salt-doped PEO homopolymer melts. In addition, we also present results for dynamics of the ions individually in the PEO and PS domains of the BCP melt, and locally as a function of the distance from the lamellar interfaces. When compared to the PEO homopolymer melt, ions were found to exhibit slower dynamics in both the block copolymer (overall) and in the PEO phase of the BCP melt. Such results are shown to arise from the effects of slower polymer segmental dynamics in the BCP melt and the coordination characteristics of the ions. Polymer backbone-ion residence times analyzed as a function of distance from the interface indicate that ions have a larger residence time near the interface compared to that near the bulk of lamella, and demonstrates the influence of the glassy PS blocks and microphase segregation on the ion transport properties. Ion transport mechanisms in BCP melts reveal that there exist five distinct mechanisms for ion transport along the backbone of the chain and exhibit qualitative differences from the behavior in homopolymer melts. We also present results as a function of salt concentration which show that the mean-squared displacements of the ions decrease with increasing salt concentration, and that the ion residence times near the polymer backbone increase with increasing salt concentration.

  20. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of climate change on the production and transport of sea salt aerosol on European seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on sea salt aerosol production, dispersion, and fate over Europe is studied using four offline regional chemistry transport models driven by the climate scenario SRES A1B over two periods: 1990–2009 and 2040–2059. This study is focused mainly on European seas: Baltic, Black, North, and Mediterranean. The differences and similarities between the individual models' predictions of the impact on sea salt emission, concentration, and deposition due to changes in wind gusts and seawater temperature are analysed. The results show that the major driver for the sea salt flux changes will be the seawater temperature, as wind speed is projected to stay nearly the same. There are, however, substantial differences between the model predictions and their sensitivity to changing seawater temperature, which demonstrates substantial lack of current understanding of the sea salt flux predictions. Although seawater salinity changes are not evaluated in this study, sensitivity of sea salt aerosol production to salinity is similarly analysed, showing once more the differences between the different models. An assessment of the impact of sea salt aerosol on the radiative balance is presented.

  2. Salt-dependent expression of a nitrate transporter and two amino acid transporter genes in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga V; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Golldack, Dortje

    2003-06-01

    Uptake and transport of inorganic nitrogen and allocation of amino acids are essential for plant growth and development. To study the effects of salinity on the regulation of transporters for nitrogenous compounds, we characterized the putative nitrate transporter McNRT1 and the amino acid transporters McAAT1 and McAAT2 from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. By transcript analyses, McAAT1 was found in leaves, McAAT2 in roots, and McNRT1 in both tissues. By in situ PCR McNRT1 was localized, for example, to epidermal and vascular cells whereas McAAT2 was abundant in most cell types in mature roots and McAAT1 in the mesophyll and cells neighbouring xylem vessels in leaves. In response to salt stress, expression of McAAT2 and McNRT1 was stimulated in the root vasculature. In addition, McNRT1 and McAAT1 signals increased in the leaf phloem. Growth of yeast mutants deficient in histidine uptake was restored by McAAT2 whereas both McAAT1 and McAAT2 complemented a yeast mutant carrying a defect in proline uptake. The differential and cell-specific transcriptional activation of genes encoding nitrogen and amino acid transporters under salt stress suggest complex coordinated regulation of these transporter families to maintain uptake and distribution of nitrogenous compounds and amino acids under conditions of high salinity in plants.

  3. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kier, R.S.; Showalter, P.A.; Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-05-30

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes.

  4. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters.

  5. Another glimpse over the salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction in acetonitrile/water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Inês Maria; Gonçalves, Luís Moreira; Rodrigues, José António

    2013-09-20

    The use of the salting-out effect in analytical chemistry is very diverse and can be applied to increase the volatility of the analytes in headspace extractions, to cause the precipitation of proteins in biological samples or to improve the recoveries in liquid-liquid extractions. In the latter, the salting-out process can be used to create a phase separation between water-miscible organic solvents and water. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) is an advantageous sample preparation technique aiming HPLC-UV analysis when developing analytical methodologies. In fact, some new extraction methodologies like QuEChERS include the SALLE concept. This manuscript discusses another point of view over SALLE with particular emphasis over acetonitrile-water mixtures for HPLC-UV analysis; the influence of the salting-out agents, their concentration and the water-acetonitrile volume ratios were the studied parameters. α-dicarbonyl compounds and beer were used as test analytes and test samples, respectively. The influence of the studied parameters was characterized by the obtained phase separation volume ratio and the fraction of α-dicarbonyls extracted to the acetonitrile phase. Results allowed the distribution of salts within three groups according to the phase separation and their extractability: (1) chlorides and acetates, (2) carbonates and sulfates and (3) magnesium sulfate; of all tested salts, sodium chloride had the highest influence on the α-dicarbonyls fraction extracted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient Extraction of Vanadium from Vanadium–Titanium Magnetite Concentrate by Potassium Salt Roasting Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renmin Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, potassium salt roasting additives were applied to extract vanadium from vanadium–titanium magnetite concentrate. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of potassium salt roasting and acid leaching kinetics were investigated. The results indicate that potassium salt roasting additives are more efficient than sodium and calcium salt and that K2SO4 works best. Under certain conditions (a dosage of K2SO4 of 4 wt %, a roasting temperature of 900 °C, a roasting time of 1 h, a leaching temperature of 95 °C, a sulfuric acid concentration of 10% (v/v, and a leaching time of 1.5 h with a liquid to solid ratio of 3 mL/g the vanadium leaching efficiency reached 71.37%, an increase of 30.20% compared to that of blank roasting. Additionally, XRD and related SEM-EDS analyses indicated that K2SO4 fully destroyed the structure of vanadium-bearing minerals such as magnetite, and promoted the generation of soluble KVO3 to inhibit the formation of insoluble Ca(VO32 in the roasting process. Furthermore, it promoted the dissolution of sphene and the release of its vanadium in the leaching process, which increased the vanadium leaching efficiency significantly. Meanwhile, leaching kinetics analyses showed that the leaching process was controlled by internal diffusion; the apparent activation energy decreased from 37.43 kJ/mol with blank roasting to 26.31 kJ/mol with potassium salt roasting. The reaction order, with regards to the sulfuric acid concentration, decreased from 0.6588 to 0.5799. Therefore, potassium salt roasting could improve mineral activity, accelerating the leaching process and reducing the dependence on high temperature and high acidity.

  7. ATP11C targets basolateral bile salt transporter proteins in mouse central hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waart, Dirk R; Naik, Jyoti; Utsunomiya, Karina S; Duijst, Suzanne; Ho-Mok, Kam; Bolier, A Ruth; Hiralall, Johan; Bull, Laura N; Bosma, Piter J; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Paulusma, Coen C

    2016-07-01

    ATP11C is a homolog of ATP8B1, both of which catalyze the transport of phospholipids in biological membranes. Mutations in ATP8B1 cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type1 in humans, which is characterized by a canalicular cholestasis. Mice deficient in ATP11C are characterized by a conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and an unconjugated hypercholanemia. Here, we have studied the hypothesis that ATP11C deficiency interferes with basolateral uptake of unconjugated bile salts, a process mediated by organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B2. ATP11C localized to the basolateral membrane of central hepatocytes in the liver lobule of control mice. In ATP11C-deficient mice, plasma total bilirubin levels were 6-fold increased, compared to control, of which ∼65% was conjugated and ∼35% unconjugated. Plasma total bile salts were 10-fold increased and were mostly present as unconjugated species. Functional studies in ATP11C-deficient mice indicated that hepatic uptake of unconjugated bile salts was strongly impaired whereas uptake of conjugated bile salts was unaffected. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated near absence of basolateral bile salt uptake transporters OATP1B2, OATP1A1, OATP1A4, and Na(+) -taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide only in central hepatocytes of ATP11C-deficient liver. In vivo application of the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, partially restored expression of these proteins, but not their localization. Furthermore, we observed post-translational down-regulation of ATP11C protein in livers from cholestatic mice, which coincided with reduced OATP1B2 levels. ATP11C is essential for basolateral membrane localization of multiple bile salt transport proteins in central hepatocytes and may act as a gatekeeper to prevent hepatic bile salt overload. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and unconjugated hypercholanemia and loss of OATP expression in ATP11C-deficient liver strongly resemble the characteristics of Rotor

  8. [Research progress in salting-out extraction of bio-based chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianying; Liu, Chunjiao; Sun, Yaqin; Xiu, Zhilong

    2013-10-01

    Bio-refinery using cheap biomass focuses mainly on strain improvement and fermentation strategies whereas less effort is made on down-stream processing. Using cheap biomass more impurities are introduced into the fermentation broths than mono-sugar substrate, thus down-stream processing for bio-based chemicals becomes the key problem in industrial production. The technique called salting-out extraction (SOE) was introduced in this review, which is used to separate target products from fermentation broth on the basis of partition difference of chemicals in two phases formed by mixing salts and organic solvents (or amphipathic chemicals) with broth at suitable ratios. The effect of solvents and salts on the formation of two aqueous phases, especially short chain alcohols and inorganic salts, and the application of SOE in recovery of bio-based chemicals, such as lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and acetoin were summarized. The bio-chemicals were efficiently recovered from fermentation broth, and most of the impurities (cells and proteins) were removed in the same step. This technique is promising in the separation of bio-based chemicals, especially the recovery of hydrophilic molecules with low molecular weights.

  9. The role of lipids and salts in two-dimensional crystallization of the glycine-betaine transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Ching-Ju; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    The osmoregulated and chill-sensitive glycine-betaine transporter (BetP) from Corynebacterium glutamicum was reconstituted into lipids to form two-dimensional (2D) crystals. The sensitivity of BetP partly bases on its interaction with lipids. Here we demonstrate that lipids and salts influence...... for 2D crystallization were compared. Only the use of lipids extracted from C. glutamicum cells led to the formation of large, well-ordered crystalline areas. To understand the lipid-derived influence on crystallinity, lipid extracts from different stages of the crystallization process were analyzed...

  10. FY:15 Transport Properties of Run-of-Mine Salt Backfill ? Unconsolidated to Consolidated.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leigh, Christi D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-28

    The nature of geologic disposal of nuclear waste in salt formations requires validated and verified two-phase flow models of transport of brine and gas through intact, damaged, and consolidating crushed salt. Such models exist in other realms of subsurface engineering for other lithologic classes (oil and gas, carbon sequestration etc. for clastics and carbonates) but have never been experimentally validated and parameterized for salt repository scenarios or performance assessment. Models for waste release scenarios in salt back-fill require phenomenological expressions for capillary pressure and relative permeability that are expected to change with degree of consolidation, and require experimental measurement to parameterize and validate. This report describes a preliminary assessment of the influence of consolidation (i.e. volume strain or porosity) on capillary entry pressure in two phase systems using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP). This is to both determine the potential usefulness of the mercury intrusion porosimetry method, but also to enable a better experimental design for these tests. Salt consolidation experiments are performed using novel titanium oedometers, or uniaxial compression cells often used in soil mechanics, using sieved run-of-mine salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as starting material. Twelve tests are performed with various starting amounts of brine pore saturation, with axial stresses up to 6.2 MPa (~900 psi) and temperatures to 90°C. This corresponds to UFD Work Package 15SN08180211 milestone “FY:15 Transport Properties of Run-of-Mine Salt Backfill – Unconsolidated to Consolidated”. Samples exposed to uniaxial compression undergo time-dependent consolidation, or creep, to various degrees. Creep volume strain-time relations obey simple log-time behavior through the range of porosities (~50 to 2% as measured); creep strain rate increases with temperature and applied stress as expected. Mercury porosimetry

  11. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  12. Effects of subfornical organ extracts on salt-water balance in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summy-Long, J. Y.; Crawford, I. L.; Severs, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular structure located at the junction of the lamina terminalis and the tela choroidea of the third cerebral ventricle. SFO is histologically regarded as a neurosecretory structure, although the physiological effects or biochemical nature of such secretions are not yet ascertained. Results are presented for an experimental study designed to determine whether SFO extracts alter parameters associated with salt-water balance in the rat. The data obtained support the conclusion that SFO contains some water-soluble substance(s), easily released by incubation, dialyzable and heat stable, which influences the salt-water balance after injection into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Whether other brain tissues or plasma contains the same or similar material is not yet convincingly established. The observation that one or more active constituents are easily released from SFO upon incubation in potassium-enriched medium may be of value.

  13. Effect of propolis extract on angelfish larval performance and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas da Cruz Mattos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence propolis extract inclusion to the feed mixture for juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare on larval performance and transport. Levels of propolis extract inclusion consisted of 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 mg.kg-1 of feed. After 14 days of hatching, unmetamorphosed larvae with a total length of 18.4 mm and 0.11 g initial weight were used. Six-hundred larvae were divided into 20 experimental units, totalizing 30 larvae each. Experimental units consisted of polythene containers with independent water input and output and a level controller. Each unit was controlled for maintenance of 40 L water within a recirculation system. After offering feed containing propolis extract, five fish from each experimental unit were packed in bags for transportation only with atmospheric air, without pure oxygen addition. The bags were filled with 300 mL water on a 2:1 basis of air and water respectively. The total transport time was considered until the death of the third fish in package. At the end of the experiment, data underwent statistical analysis through Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2001. Results showed there was no significant difference (P < 0.05 neither for any of the studied zootechnical variables (standard length, total length, height, and weight nor for the transport of juveniles. In conclusion, propolis extract addition to angelfish feed was ineffective for larval performance and for transportation of juveniles, at the levels tested here.

  14. Effect of Hydration State of Martian Perchlorate Salts on Their Decomposition Temperatures During Thermal Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Samuel H.; Montgomery, Wren; Kounaves, Samuel P.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2017-12-01

    Three Mars missions have analyzed the composition of surface samples using thermal extraction techniques. The temperatures of decomposition have been used as diagnostic information for the materials present. One compound of great current interest is perchlorate, a relatively recently discovered component of Mars' surface geochemistry that leads to deleterious effects on organic matter during thermal extraction. Knowledge of the thermal decomposition behavior of perchlorate salts is essential for mineral identification and possible avoidance of confounding interactions with organic matter. We have performed a series of experiments which reveal that the hydration state of magnesium perchlorate has a significant effect on decomposition temperature, with differing temperature releases of oxygen corresponding to different perchlorate hydration states (peak of O2 release shifts from 500 to 600°C as the proportion of the tetrahydrate form in the sample increases). Changes in crystallinity/crystal size may also have a secondary effect on the temperature of decomposition, and although these surface effects appear to be minor for our samples, further investigation may be warranted. A less than full appreciation of the hydration state of perchlorate salts during thermal extraction analyses could lead to misidentification of the number and the nature of perchlorate phases present.

  15. Over‐expression of an Na+‐ and K+‐permeable HKT transporter in barley improves salt tolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mian, Afaq; Oomen, Ronald J.F.J; Isayenkov, Stanislav; Sentenac, Hervé; Maathuis, Frans J.M; Véry, Anne‐Aliénor

    2011-01-01

    ... + uptake, translocation and compartmentalization. Na + transporters belonging to the HKT family have been shown to be involved in tolerance to mild salt stress in glycophytes such as Arabidopsis, wheat and rice by contributing to Na...

  16. Influence of Modern Stormwater Management Practices on Transport of Road Salt to Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Joel W; Moore, Joel; Lev, Steven M; Casey, Ryan E; Ownby, David R; Flora, Robert F; Izzo, Grant

    2017-04-18

    Application of road salts in regions with colder climates is leading to ground and surface water contamination. However, we know little about how modern stormwater management practices affect the movement of road salt through urban watersheds. We investigated groundwater contamination and transport of road salts at two stormwater ponds in Baltimore County, Maryland. In association with the ponds, we documented a plume of contaminated groundwater that resulted in Cl - loadings to the adjacent stream of 6574 to 40 008 kg Cl - per winter, depending on winter snowfall. We also monitored Na + and Cl - ion concentrations and the temporal dynamics of conductivity at a range of stream sites in watersheds with and without stormwater management ponds. Streams draining watersheds with stormwater ponds had consistently higher conductivities and Cl - concentrations during base flow conditions and often exhibited greater peaks in Cl - and conductivity associated with winter storms and subsequent melting events, despite the degree of watershed development. Our results indicate that modern stormwater management practices are not protecting surface waters from road salt contamination and suggest they create contaminated plumes of groundwater that deliver Cl - and Na + to streams throughout the year.

  17. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Salt Solution on the Transport Properties of Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoob Farnam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical interaction between calcium chloride (CaCl2 and cementitious binder may alter the transport properties of concrete which are important in predicting the service life of infrastructure elements. This paper presents a series of fluid and gas transport measurements made on cementitious mortars before and after exposure to various solutions with concentrations ranging from 0% to 29.8% CaCl2 by mass. Fluid absorption, oxygen diffusivity, and oxygen permeability were measured on mortar samples prepared using Type I and Type V cements. Three primary factors influence the transport properties of mortar exposed to CaCl2: (1 changes in the degree of saturation, (2 calcium hydroxide leaching, and (3 formation of chemical reaction products (i.e., Friedel’s salt, Kuzel’s salt, and calcium oxychloride. It is shown that an increase in the degree of saturation decreases oxygen permeability. At lower concentrations (~12%, the formation of chemical reaction products (mainly calcium oxychloride is a dominant factor decreasing the fluid and gas transport in concrete.

  18. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, V.L.; Scarborough, A.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1987-01-01

    Impure plutonium metal is routinely processed by molten salt extraction (MSE) to reduce the amount of americium in the metal product. Individuals form four technical groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) participated in a study designed to evaluate the accuracy of various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for measuring the plutonium content in MSE residues. This study was performed to improve in-house accountability of these items and to identify assay methods that would be acceptable for determining receiver's values for MSE salts from off-site sources. Recent upgrades have been made in a segmented gamma scan system, in a thermal neutron coincidence counter, and in the software of a gamma isotopic system that supports the calorimeters at LAPF. The authors evaluated the newer systems against the older systems versus destructive qualitative analyses. Fourteen containers of MSE residues were selected to be studied. Seven of these salts originated at LAPF and seven originated at Rockwell International Rocky Flats plant. Measurements have been performed on these items in their original containers, and the items have been repackaged into a different geometry and assayed again.

  19. A retrotransposon in an HKT1 family sodium transporter causes variation of leaf Na+ exclusion and salt tolerance in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Cao, Yibo; Wang, Zhiping; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Shi, Junpeng; Liang, Xiaoyan; Song, Weibin; Chen, Qijun; Lai, Jinsheng; Jiang, Caifu

    2017-11-15

    Soil salinity is one of several major abiotic stresses that constrain maize productivity worldwide. An improved understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms will thus enhance the breeding of salt-tolerant maize and boost productivity. Previous studies have indicated that the maintenance of leaf Na+ concentration is essential for maize salt tolerance, and the difference in leaf Na+ exclusion has previously been associated with variation in salt tolerance between maize varieties. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a maize salt-tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL), Zea mays Na+ Content1 (ZmNC1), which encodes an HKT-type transporter (designated as ZmHKT1). We show that a natural ZmHKT1 loss-of-function allele containing a retrotransposon insertion confers increased accumulation of Na+ in leaves, and salt hypersensitivity. We next show that ZmHKT1 encodes a plasma membrane-localized Na+ -selective transporter, and is preferentially expressed in root stele (including the parenchyma cells surrounding the xylem vessels). We also show that loss of ZmHKT1 function increases xylem sap Na+ concentration and causes increased root-to-shoot Na+ delivery, indicating that ZmHKT1 promotes leaf Na+ exclusion and salt tolerance by withdrawing Na+ from the xylem sap. We conclude that ZmHKT1 is a major salt-tolerance QTL and identifies an important new gene target in breeding for improved maize salt tolerance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Salt-bridge Swapping in the EXXERFXYY Motif of Proton Coupled Oligopeptide Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aduri, Nanda G; Prabhala, Bala K; Ernst, Heidi A

    2015-01-01

    Proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs) couple the inwards transport of di- or tripeptides with an inwards-directed transport of protons. Evidence from several studies of different POTs have pointed towards involvement of a highly conserved sequence motif, E1XXE2RFXYY (from here on referred......-motif salt bridge, i.e. R-E2 to R-E1, which is consistent with previous structural studies. Molecular dynamics simulations of the motif variants E1XXE2R and E1XXQ2R support this mechanism. The simulations showed that upon changing conformation, arginine pushes Helix V, through interactions with the highly...... conserved FYING motif, further away from the central cavity, in what could be a stabilization of an inward-facing conformation. As E2 has been suggested to be the primary site for protonation, these novel findings show how protonation may drive conformational changes through interactions of two highly...

  1. Groundwater flow and salt transport in a subterranean estuary driven by intensified wave conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clare; Xin, Pei; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model, was conducted to investigate flow and salt transport in a nearshore aquifer under intensified wave conditions caused by offshore storms. Temporally varying onshore hydraulic gradients due to wave setup were determined as the seaward boundary condition for the simulated aquifer. The results showed a rapid increase in influxes across the aquifer-ocean interface in response to the wave event followed by a more gradual increase in effluxes. The upper saline plume first widened horizontally as the wave setup point moved landward. It then expanded vertically with recirculating seawater pushed downward by the wave-induced hydraulic gradient. The time for the salt distribution to return to the prestorm condition was up to a hundred days and correlated strongly with the time for seawater to recirculate through the aquifer. The pathways of recirculating seawater and fresh groundwater were largely modified by the wave event. These pathways crossed through the same spatial locations at similar times, indicating significant salt-freshwater mixing. The flow and salt transport dynamics were more responsive to wave events of longer duration and higher intensity, especially in more permeable aquifers with lower fresh groundwater discharge. Despite their larger response, aquifers with higher permeability and beach slope recovered more rapidly postevent. The rapid recovery of the flows compared with the salinity distribution should be considered in field data interpretation. Due to their long-lasting impact, wave events may significantly influence the geochemical conditions and the fate of chemicals in a subterranean estuary.

  2. A comparison of sea salt emission parameterizations in northwestern Europe using a chemistry transport model setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric sea salt particles affect chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. These particles provide surface area for condensation and reaction of nitrogen, sulfur, and organic species and are a vehicle for the transport of these species. Additionally, HCl is released from sea salt. Hence, sea salt has a relevant impact on air quality, particularly in coastal regions with high anthropogenic emissions, such as the North Sea region. Therefore, the integration of sea salt emissions in modeling studies in these regions is necessary. However, it was found that sea salt concentrations are not represented with the necessary accuracy in some situations.In this study, three sea salt emission parameterizations depending on different combinations of wind speed, salinity, sea surface temperature, and wave data were implemented and compared: GO03 (Gong, 2003, SP13 (Spada et al., 2013, and OV14 (Ovadnevaite et al., 2014. The aim was to identify the parameterization that most accurately predicts the sea salt mass concentrations at different distances to the source regions. For this purpose, modeled particle sodium concentrations, sodium wet deposition, and aerosol optical depth were evaluated against measurements of these parameters. Each 2-month period in winter and summer 2008 were considered for this purpose. The shortness of these periods limits generalizability of the conclusions on other years.While the GO03 emissions yielded overestimations in the PM10 concentrations at coastal stations and underestimations of those at inland stations, OV14 emissions conversely led to underestimations at coastal stations and overestimations at inland stations. Because of the differently shaped particle size distributions of the GO03 and OV14 emission cases, the deposition velocity of the coarse particles differed between both cases which yielded this distinct behavior at inland and coastal stations. The PM10 concentrations produced by the SP13 emissions

  3. Bath salts components mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) act synergistically at the human dopamine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Krasnodara N; Kolanos, Renata; Solis, Ernesto; Glennon, Richard A; De Felice, Louis J

    2013-04-01

    Bath salts is the street name for drug combinations that contain synthetic cathinone analogues, among them possibly mephedrone (MEPH) and certainly methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). In animal studies, cathinone and certain cathinone analogues release dopamine (DA), similar to the action of amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH). AMPH and METH act on the human DA transporter (hDAT); thus, we investigated MEPH and MDPV acting at hDAT. We recorded electrical currents mediated by hDAT expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and exposed to: DA, METH, a known hDAT stimulant and DA releaser, MEPH, MDPV, MEPH + MDPV, or cocaine, a known hDAT inhibitor. DA, METH and MEPH induce an inward current (depolarizing) when the oocyte is held near the resting potential (-60 mV), therefore acting as excitatory hDAT substrates. Structurally analogous MDPV induces an outward (hyperpolarizing) current similar to cocaine, therefore acting as an inhibitory non-substrate blocker. Two components of bath salts, MEPH and MDPV, produce opposite effects at hDAT that are comparable with METH and cocaine, respectively. In our assay, MEPH is nearly as potent as METH; however, MDPV is much more potent than cocaine and its effect is longer lasting. When applied in combination, MEPH exhibits faster kinetics than MDPV, viz., the MEPH depolarizing current occurs seconds before the slower MDPV hyperpolarizing current. Bath salts containing MEPH (or a similar drug) and MDPV might then be expected initially to release DA and subsequently prevent its reuptake via hDAT. Such combined action possibly underlies some of the reported effects of bath salts abuse. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  5. Using solid phase micro extraction to determine salting-out (Setschenow) constants for hydrophobic organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Muijs, Barry

    2010-06-01

    With increasing ionic strength, the aqueous solubility and activity of organic chemicals are altered. This so-called salting-out effect causes the hydrophobicity of the chemicals to be increased and sorption in the marine environment to be more pronounced than in freshwater systems. The process can be described with empirical salting-out or Setschenow constants, which traditionally are determined by comparing aqueous solubilities in freshwater and saline water. Aqueous solubilities of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) however are difficult to determine, which might partly explain the limited size of the existing data base on Setschenow constants for these chemicals. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach for determining the constants, which is based on the use of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) fibers. Partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to SPME fibers increased about 1.7 times when going from de-ionized water to seawater. From the log-linear relationship between SPME fiber-water partition coefficients and ionic strength, Setschenow constants were derived, which measured on average 0.35 L mol(-1). These values agreed with literature values existing for some of the investigated PAHs and were independent of solute hydrophobicity or molar volume. Based on the present data, SPME seems to be a convenient and suitable alternative technique to determine Setschenow constants for HOCs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by diesel exhaust particle extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Le Vee

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP, whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute

  7. The Role of Na+ and K+ Transporters in Salt Stress Adaptation in Glycophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekoum V. M. Assaha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionic stress is one of the most important components of salinity and is brought about by excess Na+ accumulation, especially in the aerial parts of plants. Since Na+ interferes with K+ homeostasis, and especially given its involvement in numerous metabolic processes, maintaining a balanced cytosolic Na+/K+ ratio has become a key salinity tolerance mechanism. Achieving this homeostatic balance requires the activity of Na+ and K+ transporters and/or channels. The mechanism of Na+ and K+ uptake and translocation in glycophytes and halophytes is essentially the same, but glycophytes are more susceptible to ionic stress than halophytes. The transport mechanisms involve Na+ and/or K+ transporters and channels as well as non-selective cation channels. Thus, the question arises of whether the difference in salt tolerance between glycophytes and halophytes could be the result of differences in the proteins or in the expression of genes coding the transporters. The aim of this review is to seek answers to this question by examining the role of major Na+ and K+ transporters and channels in Na+ and K+ uptake, translocation and intracellular homeostasis in glycophytes. It turns out that these transporters and channels are equally important for the adaptation of glycophytes as they are for halophytes, but differential gene expression, structural differences in the proteins (single nucleotide substitutions, impacting affinity and post-translational modifications (phosphorylation account for the differences in their activity and hence the differences in tolerance between the two groups. Furthermore, lack of the ability to maintain stable plasma membrane (PM potentials following Na+-induced depolarization is also crucial for salt stress tolerance. This stable membrane potential is sustained by the activity of Na+/H+ antiporters such as SOS1 at the PM. Moreover, novel regulators of Na+ and K+ transport pathways including the Nax1 and Nax2 loci regulation of SOS1

  8. Extraction mechanism of sulfamethoxazole in water samples using aqueous two-phase systems of poly(propylene glycol) and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xueqiao; Wang Yun; Han Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan Yongsheng, E-mail: yys@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2011-02-14

    Based on the poly(propylene glycol){sub 400} (PPG{sub 400})-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), a green, economical and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the separation and determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The extraction yield of SMX in PPG{sub 400}-salt ATPS is influenced by various factors, including the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, and the temperature. Under the optimum conditions, most of SMX was partitioning into the polymer-rich phase with the average extraction efficiency of 99.2%, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction and salting-out effect. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to the analysis of SMX in real water samples with the recoveries of 96.0-100.6%, the detection limits of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and the linear ranges of 2.5-250.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}.

  9. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  10. A Mouse Model of Anaphylaxis and Atopic Dermatitis to Salt-Soluble Wheat Protein Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yining; Ebaugh, Sarah; Martens, Anna; Gao, Haoran; Olson, Eric; Ng, Perry K W; Gangur, Venu

    2017-01-01

    Wheat allergy and other immune-mediated disorders triggered by wheat proteins are growing at an alarming rate for reasons not well understood. A mouse model to study hypersensitivity responses to salt-soluble wheat protein (SSWP) extract is currently unavailable. Here we tested the hypothesis that SSWP extract from wheat will induce sensitization as well as allergic disease in mice. Female BALB/cJ mice were weaned onto a plant protein-free diet. The mice were injected a total of 4 times with an SSWP (0.01 mg/mouse) fraction extracted from durum wheat along with alum as an adjuvant. Blood was collected biweekly and SSWP-specific IgE (SIgE) and total IgE (TIgE) levels were measured using ELISA. Systemic anaphylaxis upon intraperitoneal injection with SSWP was quantified by hypothermia shock response (HSR). Mucosal mast cell degranulation was measured by the elevation of mMCP-1 in the blood. The mice were monitored for dermatitis. Skin tissues were used in histopathology and for measuring cytokine/chemokine/adhesion molecule levels using a protein microarray system. Injection with SSWP resulted in time-dependent SIgE antibody responses associated with the elevation of TIgE concentration. Challenge with SSWP elicited severe HSR that correlated with a significant elevation of plasma mMCP-1 levels. Sensitized mice developed facial dermatitis associated with mast cell degranulation. Lesions expressed significant elevation of Th2/Th17/Th1 cytokines and chemokines and E-selectin adhesion molecule. Here we report a mouse model of anaphylaxis and atopic dermatitis to SSWP extract that may be used for further basic and applied research on wheat allergy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Metagenomic cloning and characterization of Na⁺ transporters from Huamachi Salt Lake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Miao; Tao, Li; Chen, Sanfeng

    2013-02-22

    Moderately halophilic bacteria are a kind of extreme environment microorganism that can tolerate moderate salt concentrations ranging from 0.5M to 2.5M. Here, via a metagenomic library screen, we identified four putative Na(+) transporters, designated H7-Nha, H16-Mppe, H19-Cap and H35-Mrp, from moderately halophilic community in the hypersaline soil of Huamachi Salt Lake, China. Functional complementation observed in a Na(+)(Ca(2+))/H(+) antiporter-defective Escherichia coli mutant (KNabc) suggests that the four putative Na(+) transporters could confer cells a capacity of Na(+) resistance probably by enhancing Na(+) or Ca(2+) efflux, but not Li(+) or K(+) exchange. Blastp analysis of the deduced amino-acid sequences indicates that H7-Nha has 71% identity to the NhaG Na(+)/H(+) antiporter of Bacillus subtilis, while H19-Cap shows 99% identity to Enterobacter cloacae Ca(2+) antiporter. Interestingly, H16-Mppe shares 59% identity to the metallophosphoesterase of Bacillus cellulosilyticus and H35-Mrp shows 68% identity to multidrug resistance protein of Lysinibacillus sphaericus. This is the first report that predicts a potential role of metallophosphoesterase in Na(+) resistance in halophilic bacteria. Furthermore, everted membrane vesicles prepared from E. coli cells harboring H7-Nha exhibit Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity, but not Li(+) (K(+))/H(+) antiporter activity, confirming that H7-Nha supports Na(+) resistance mainly via Na(+)/H(+) antiport. Our report also demonstrates that metagenomic library screen is a convenient and effective way to explore more novel types of Na(+) transporters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of soil organic matter extracted from a Brazilian mangrove and Spanish salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perobelli Ferreira, F.; Buurman, P.; Macias, F.; Otero, X.L.; Boluda, R.

    2009-01-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) extracted under different vegetation types from a Brazilian mangrove (Pai Matos Island, São Paulo State) and from three Spanish salt marshes (Betanzos Ría and Corrubedo Natural Parks, Galícia, and the Albufera Natural Park, Valencia) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas

  13. Stepwise extraction of valuable components from red mud based on reductive roasting with sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Liu, Mingxia; Rao, Mingjun; Jiang, Tao; Zhuang, Jinqiang; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2014-09-15

    The feasibility of an integrated technological route for comprehensive utilization of red mud was verified in this study. Valuable components in the mud, including Fe2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 were stepwise extracted by magnetic separation and sulfuric acid leaching from reduced red mud, and meanwhile TiO2 was enriched in the leaching residue. Sodium salts were proved to be favorable for the magnetic separation of metallic iron and the subsequent acid leaching of Al and Si, through facilitating the reduction of iron oxides and the growth of metallic iron grains, together with enhancing the activation of Al and Si components during the roasting process. After reductive roasting in the presence of 6% Na2CO3 and 6% Na2SO4, a magnetic concentrate containing 90.2% iron with iron recovery of 95.0% was achieved from the red mud by magnetic separation. Subsequently, 94.7% Fe, 98.6% Al and 95.9% Si were extracted by dilute sulfuric acid leaching from the upper-stream non-magnetic material, yielding a TiO2-rich material with 37.8% TiO2. Furthermore, value-added products of silica gel and Al(OH)3 were prepared from the leachate by ripening and neutralizing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Salt extraction by the Solovetsky monastery on the eve of the 1764 secularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. BOGDANOVA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the circumstances ofthe Solovetsky monastery salt production at the eve of the secularization that took place in 1764. The Author’s goal is to examine the economic value of the Solovetsky monastery salt production at the time of its lost as a result of the secularization reform. This examination was based on the study of the archival documents. Therefore the following issues were considered: (1 the structure of the salt business in Russia in the 18th century; (2 the value of the Pomorian salt in the all-Russian salt market in the middle of the 18th century; (3 the value of the Solovetsky monastery salt production share in the all-Russian Pomorian salt delivery; (4 estimation of the volume and profitability of the salt business for the Solovetsky monastery at the eve of 1764. The analysis shows a significant market decline of the Pomorian salt in the 18th century, about half of which was the salt produced by the Solovetsky monastery. First of all it was caused by the appearance of a significant number of competing salt manufacturers with lower salt costs œming from cheaper primecost and cheaper delivery. In particular the market of Vologda, formerly the largest place for Solovetsky salt sales was fully occupied by other suppliers by the middle of the 18th century. The overall Solovetsky monastery’s salt production shrinked to a half of its middle of the 17th century value. By the time of secularization reform the salt production was not earing significant profit to the Solovetsky monastery. Under the strong state monopoly the salt business transformed into a labor-consuming national service obligation. Bereaved of the land estates together with its salt mines the Solovetsky monastery was also set free from a hard economical obligation.

  15. Inactivation of Ca2+-induced ciliary reversal by high-salt extraction in the cilia of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutomi, Osamu; Seki, Makoto; Nakamura, Shogo; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Munenori

    2013-10-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) induces ciliary reversal and backward swimming in Paramecium. However, it is not known how the Ca(2+) signal controls the motor machinery to induce ciliary reversal. We found that demembranated cilia on the ciliated cortical sheets from Paramecium caudatum lost the ability to undergo ciliary reversal after brief extraction with a solution containing 0.5 M KCl. KNO(3), which is similar to KCl with respect to chaotropic effect; it had the same effect as that of KCl on ciliary response. Cyclic AMP antagonizes Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal. Limited trypsin digestion prevents endogenous A-kinase and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of an outer arm dynein light chain and induces ciliary reversal. However, the trypsin digestion prior to the high-salt extraction did not affect the inhibition of Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal caused by the high-salt extraction. Furthermore, during the course of the high-salt extraction, some axonemal proteins were extracted from ciliary axonemes, suggesting that they may be responsible for Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal.

  16. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Univ. of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO{sub 4})) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA){sub 3}TDAHA(A{sup {minus}} = Cl{sup {minus}} or ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}). The values of the equilibrium constant K{sub T,S} have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined.

  17. Northern Indian Ocean Salt Transport (NIOST): Estimation of Fresh and Salt Water Transports in the Indian Ocean using Remote Sensing, Hydrographic Observations and HYCOM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    flux environment. The freshwater influx leads to intense salinity stratification and helps maintain warmer surface temperature. The current...budget terms suggest that in the JSC region the salt tendency is an interplay between the freshwater forcing and horizontal advection terms with...the freshwater forcing term. RESULTS 1. Long-term mean Salt Flux in the Indian Ocean The long-term monthly means of near-surface meridional

  18. Miniaturized salting-out liquid-liquid extraction in a coupled-syringe system combined with HPLC-UV for extraction and determination of sulfanilamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshti, Hassan; Khosraviani, Marzieh; Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    In salting-out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) technique, water-miscible organic solvents are used for extraction of polar analytes from saline solutions. In this study, for the first time, a coupled 1-mL syringes system was utilized to perform a miniaturized SALLE method. Sulfanilamide antibiotic was extracted and determined via the developed method followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction process was carried out by rapid shooting of acetonitrile as extraction solvent (syringe B) into saline aqueous sample solution (syringe A), and then the shooting was repeated several times at a rate of 1 cycles(-1). Thereby, an extremely large contact surface area was created between phases and led to a rapid equilibrium and mass transfer. In order to improve the efficiency of the method, the effect of extraction solvent (type and volume), shooting times, salt concentration, and pH on the extraction efficiency was investigated. The best performance of the method was achieved with 250 µL of acetonitrile, salt concentration of 250 mg mL(-1), pH of 7, and shooting times of 5. The linear dynamic range was 0.001-10 µg mL(-1) with the determination coefficient of 0.9999. The relative standard deviation (RSD; n=3, C=5 µg mL(-1)), and the limit of detection (LOD) were 1.55% and 0.3 ng mL(-1), respectively. The developed technique was successfully applied to genuine samples of tea, water, milk, honey, human urine, plasma and blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transport of salt and suspended sediments in a curving channel of a coastal plain estuary: Satilla River, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jackson O.; Seim, Harvey; Alexander, Clark; Amft, Julie; Kineke, Gail

    2003-08-01

    This study describes the transport of salt and suspended sediment in a curving reach of a shallow mesotidal coastal plain estuary. Circulation data revealed a subtidal upstream bottom flow during neap tide, indicating the presence of a gravitational circulation mode throughout the channel. During spring tide, landward bottom flow weakened considerably at the upstream end of the channel and changed to seaward in the middle and downstream areas of the reach, suggesting the importance of tidal pumping. Salt flux near-bottom was landward at both ends of the channel during neap tide. At spring, however, the salt flux diverged along the bottom of the thalweg suggesting that tidal pumping caused a transfer of salt vertically and laterally into the intertidal zone. Thus, landward flux of salt is maintained even in the presence of subtidal seaward flow along the bottom at the downstream end of the channel. Landward bottom stress is greater than seaward stress, preferentially transporting suspended sediments upstream. Compared with salt, however, the weight of the suspended sediments causes less upward transfer of sediments into the intertidal zone. Flood flow carried more suspended sediments landward at the upstream end compared with the downstream end. We speculate that secondary flow in the curving channel picks up increasing amounts of suspended sediments along the sides during flood and adds them to the axial flow in the thalweg. Since the landward flow along the bottom of the thalweg weakens and even reverses during spring tide, there appears to be a complex re-circulation system for sediments re-suspended in curving channels that complicates the picture of a net transport of sediments landward.

  20. Expression of heterologous transporters in Saccharomyces kudriavzevii: A strategy for improving yeast salt tolerance and fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibalova-Culakova, Hana; Alonso-Del-Real, Javier; Querol, Amparo; Sychrova, Hana

    2018-03-02

    S. kudriavzevii has potential for fermentations and other biotechnological applications, but is sensitive to many types of stress. We tried to increase its tolerance and performance via the expression of various transporters from different yeast species. Whereas the overexpression of Z. rouxii fructose uptake systems (ZrFfz1 and ZrFsy1) or a glycerol importer (ZrStl1) did not improve the ability of S. kudriavzevii to consume fructose and survive osmotic stress, the expression of alkali-metal-cation exporters (ScEna1, ScNha1, YlNha2) improved S. kudriavzevii salt tolerance, and that of ScNha1 also the fermentation performance. The level of improvement depended on the type and activity of the transporter suggesting that the natural sensitivity of S. kudriavzevii cells to salts is based on a non-optimal functioning of its own transporters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The upward transport of inclusions in Newtonian and power-law salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Roberto Ferrez

    1993-12-01

    This paper studies the ability of salt diapirs to lift large inclusions of dense rocks (rafts). Dense inclusions will be lifted if salt in the diapir rises faster than the inclusions sink. The power-law rheologies of six different salts, and viscosities estimated for Newtonian salt are used to calculate the settling velocity of these inclusions as a function of their radii and densiy as well as the temperature of the salt. This is done using the known equation describing the velocity of solid spheres settling in unbounded power-law fluid. Two-dimensional numerical models are used to study he effect of the ellipticity of inclusions on their sinking velocity, as a function of the power-law exponent n. The calculations of the settling velocities of inclusions neglect several other factors discussed in the paper: the ambient fluid (salt) is finite (bounded); more than one inclusion translates in the salt; further strain-rate softening of salt is caused by its diapiric ascent. The results suggest that, whereas Newtonian salt of 10 17-10 18 Pa s and the power-law salt of the Vacherie Dome would have to rise at unreasonably high speeds in order to lift large inclusions, most power-law salt diapirs would be capable of lifting inclusions of the sizes observed in the Iranian domes (up to 3-6 km 2) if these rise at geologically reasonable velocities and temperatures.

  2. Study on Salting Out-Steam Distillation Extraction Technology and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil From Cumin Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Hu, Qing-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different factors on the yield of essential oil from were discussed, and the extraction conditions of essential oil from cumin seeds by salting out-steam distillation technology based on single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, as well as its antibacterial activities on several common food spoilage bacteria were studied in this paper. The results showed that, the impact order of the influence factors was liquid/solid ratio > distilling time > NaCl concentration, and optimi...

  3. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this ...

  4. Determination of atorvastatin in human serum by salting out assisted solvent extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography–UV detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Hassan; Seyed Hamid Bahrani

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid technique based on salting out assisted solvent extraction was developed for extraction of atorvastatin from serum sample and high performance liquid chromatography–UV was used for its detection. In the present study, 1.0 mL serum was extracted by 0.5 mL of acetonitrile and some parameters that can affect extraction such as type and volume of extraction solvent, type of salt, and pH were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, the calibration curve was found to ...

  5. Flexible Mechanical Conveyors for Regolith Extraction and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.; Vollmer, Hubert J.

    2013-01-01

    A report describes flexible mechanical conveying systems for transporting fine cohesive regolith under microgravity and vacuum conditions. They are totally enclosed, virtually dust-free, and can include enough flexibility in the conveying path to enable an expanded range of extraction and transport scenarios, including nonlinear drill-holes and excavation of enlarged subsurface openings without large entry holes. The design of the conveyors is a modification of conventional screw conveyors such that the central screw-shaft and the outer housing or conveyingtube have a degree of bending flexibility, allowing the conveyors to become nonlinear conveying systems that can convey around gentle bends. The central flexible shaft is similar to those used in common tools like a weed whacker, consisting of multiple layers of tightly wound wires around a central wire core. Utilization of compliant components (screw blade or outer wall) increases the robustness of the conveying, allowing an occasional oversized particle to pass hough the conveyor without causing a jam or stoppage

  6. Transport of organic cationic drugs: effect of ion-pair formation with bile salts on the biliary excretion and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I S; Choi, M K; Shim, W S; Shim, C K

    2013-04-01

    More than 40% of clinically used drugs are organic cations (OCs), which are positively charged at a physiologic pH, and recent reports have established that these drugs are substrates of membrane transporters. The transport of OCs via membrane transporters may play important roles in gastrointestinal absorption, distribution to target sites, and biliary and/or renal elimination of various OC drugs. Almost 40 years ago, a molecular weight (Mw) threshold of 200 was reported to exist in rats for monoquaternary ammonium (mono QA) compounds to be substantially (e.g., >10% of iv dose) excreted to bile. It is well known that some OCs interact with appropriate endogenous organic anions in the body (e.g., bile salts) to form lipophilic ion-pair complexes. The ion-pair formation may influence the affinity or binding of OCs to membrane transporters that are relevant to biliary excretion. In that sense, the association of the ion-pair formation with the existence of the Mw threshold appears to be worthy of examination. It assumes the ion-pair formation of high Mw mono QA compounds (i.e., >200) in the presence of bile salts in the liver, followed by accelerated transport of the ion-pair complexes via relevant bile canalicular transporter(s). In this article, therefore, the transport of OC drugs will be reviewed with a special focus on the ion-pair formation hypothesis. Such information will deepen the understanding of the pharmacokinetics of OC drugs as well as the physiological roles of endogenous bile salts in the detoxification or phase II metabolism of high Mw QA drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), major constituents of "bath salts," produce opposite effects at the human dopamine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Krasnodara; Kolanos, Renata; Vekariya, Rakesh; Verkariya, Rakesh; De Felice, Louis; Glennon, Richard A

    2013-06-01

    Psychoactive "bath salts" represent a relatively new drug of abuse combination that was placed in Schedule I in October 2011. Two common ingredients of bath salts include the cathinone analogs: mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). The mechanism of action of these synthetic cathinone analogs has not been well investigated. Because cathinone and methcathinone are known to act as releasing agents at the human dopamine transporter (hDAT), mephedrone and MDPV were investigated at hDAT expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whereas mephedrone was found to have the signature of a dopamine-releasing agent similar to methamphetamine or methcathinone, MDPV behaved as a cocaine-like reuptake inhibitor of dopamine. Mephedrone and MDPV produce opposite electrophysiological signatures through hDAT expressed in oocytes. Implications are that the combination (as found in bath salts) might produce effects similar to a combination of methamphetamine and cocaine.

  8. Phenotypic plasticity in response to dietary salt stress: Na+ and K+ transport by the gut of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikkhwah, Wida; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Drosophila provides a useful model system for studies of the mechanisms involved in regulation of internal ion levels in response to variations in dietary salt load. This study assessed whether alterations in Na(+) and K(+) transport by the gut of larval D. melanogaster reared on salt-rich diets contribute to haemolymph ionoregulation. Na(+) and K(+) fluxes across the isolated guts of third instar larvae reared on control or salt-rich diets were measured using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). K(+) absorption across the anterior portion of the posterior midgut of larvae reared on diet in which the concentration of KCl was increased 0.4 mol l(-1) above that in the control diet was reduced eightfold relative to the same gut segment of larvae reared on the control diet. There was also an increase in the magnitude and extent of K(+) secretion across the posterior half of the posterior midgut. Na(+) was absorbed across the ileum of larvae reared on the control diet, but was secreted across the ileum of larvae reared on diet in which the concentration of NaCl was increased 0.4 mol l(-1) above that in the control diet. There was also a small reduction in the extent of Na(+) absorption across the middle midgut of larvae reared on the NaCl-rich diet. The results indicate considerable phenotypic plasticity with respect to K(+) and Na(+) transport by the gut epithelia of larval D. melanogaster. SIET measurements of K(+) and Na(+) fluxes along the length of the gut show that ion transport mechanisms of the gut are reconfigured during salt stress so that there are reductions in K(+) and Na(+) absorption and increases in K(+) and Na(+) secretion. Together with previously described changes in salt secretion by the Malpighian tubules, these changes contribute to haemolymph ionoregulation.

  9. Simulating Salt Movement and Transformation using a Coupled Reactive Transport Model in Variably-Saturated Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kivi, S.; Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T.

    2016-12-01

    Salinization is one of the major concerns in irrigated agricultural landscapes. Increasing salinity concentrations are due principally to evaporative concentration; dissolution of salts from weathered minerals and bedrock; and a high water table that results from excessive irrigation, canal seepage, and a lack of efficient drainage systems; leading to decreasing crop yield. High groundwater salinity loading to nearby river systems also impacts downstream areas, with saline river water diverted for application on irrigated fields. In this study, a solute transport model coupled with equilibrium chemistry reactions has been developed to simulate transport of individual salt ions in regional-scale aquifer systems and thereby investigate strategies for salinity remediation. The physically-based numerical model is based on the UZF-RT3D variably-saturated, multi-species groundwater reactive transport modeling code, and accounts for advection, dispersion, carbon and nitrogen cycling, oxidation-reduction reactions, and salt ion equilibrium chemistry reactions such as complexation, ion exchange, and precipitation/dissolution. Each major salt ion (sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium) is included. The model has been tested against measured soil salinity at a small scale (soil profile) and against soil salinity, groundwater salinity, and groundwater salinity loading to surface water at the regional scale (500 km2) in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (LARV) in southeastern Colorado, an area acutely affected by salinization for many decades and greatly influenced by gypsum deposits. Preliminary results of using the model in scenario analysis suggest that increasing irrigation efficiency, sealing earthen canals, and rotational fallowing of land can decrease the groundwater salt load to the Arkansas River by 50 to 70% and substantially lower soil salinity in the root zone.

  10. Ectopic expression of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum sodium transporter McHKT2 provides salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Taiga; Furuhashi, Megumi; Sakaoka, Satomi; Morikami, Atsushi; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka

    2017-11-01

    Most plants do not tolerate highly saline environments; the development of salt stress tolerance is crucial for improving crop yield. An efficient way of finding genes involved in salt tolerance is to study and use data from halophytes. In this study, we used the Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant) expression data-set and selected for further study the gene McHKT2, which encodes for the Arabidopsis sodium transporter ortholog AtHKT1. In comparison with the HKT1 amino acid sequences from other plants, McHKT2 has several unique features. It seems to be localized to the plasma membrane, and its overexpression confers strong salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results indicate that McHKT2 is a suitable candidate protein that can induce salt tolerance in non-halophytes. Like McHKT2, using transcriptome data-sets from halophytes such as ice plant give us an efficiency way to obtain new gene resources that might involve in plant salt tolerance.

  11. Isotopic ratios and effective power determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy vs mass spectroscopy for molten salt extraction residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, V.L.; Cremers, T.L.; Sedlacek, W.A.; Long, S.M.; Scarborough, A.M.; Hurd, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Impure plutonium metal is routinely processed by molten salt extraction (MSE) to reduce the amount of americium in the metal product. Throughput at various facilities where similar processes are performed has made it essential to evaluate uncertainties and possible discrepancies in the analyses of these difficult MSE materials. In an effort to evaluate the plutonium isotopic ratios and americium concentrations obtained from gamma-ray spectral data analyzed by the computer code GRPAUT, measurements were made on ten MSE salts as received and after pulverization and blending. These results were then compared to the specific powers obtained from isotopic ratios determined by mass spectrometry on these same ten samples. Americium values ranged from a few thousand parts-per-million of total plutonium to greater than 50,000 ppM. Our results indicate a small discrepancy between specific powers as determined by GRPAUT on as received'' vs pulverized and blended MSE salts. The specific powers obtained via GRPAUT on the pulverized salts agree somewhat better with specific powers obtained from the mass spectroscopy data. This work may indicate that a small discrepancy exists in the specific powers by using GRPAUT on heterogeneous, high americium samples. 5 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Sodium transport and distribution in sweet pepper during and after salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.

    2000-01-01

    In hydroponic systems often saline water is used in nutrient solutions. Transpiration leads to a steady increase of the salt concentration. To avoid unfavourable salt conditions, solutions are renewed, regularly. So, plants are exposed to varying sodium concentrations. In this paper, the sodium

  13. Changes in cholangiocyte bile salt transporter expression and bile duct injury after orthotopic liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, H.; Op Den Dries, S.; Buis, C.I.; Khan, A.A.; Gouw, A.S.H.; Groothuis, G.M.M.; Lisman, T.; Porte, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Bile salts have been shown to contribute to bile duct injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Cholangiocytes modify bile composition by reabsorption of bile salts (cholehepatic shunt) and contribute to bile flow by active secretion of sodium and water via cystic fibrosis

  14. Different actions of salt and pyrophosphate on protein extraction from myofibrils reveal the mechanism controlling myosin dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingwu W; Swartz, Darl R; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Yue; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-04-01

    Myosin is the major functional protein in muscle foods for water retention, protein binding/gelation and fat holding/emulsification. To maximize its functionality, myosin needs to be released from thick filaments. Understanding of the mechanism controlling myosin extraction will help improve quality traits of meat products. The data obtained show that actomyosin binding is the rate-limiting constraint for myosin release in rigor condition. Magnesium pyrophosphate (MgPPi) increased myosin extraction by weakening actomyosin interaction and maximized myosin extraction at 0.4 mol L(-1) NaCl, which was not attained at 1.0 mol L(-1) NaCl in the absence of PPi. Interaction between myosin rod domains is another critical constraint for myosin extraction, which is, rather than PPi, salt dependent. Further, our data suggest that MyBP-C (myosin binding protein C) and M-line might not be of significance in the process of NaCl-induced myosin extraction, though further study was needed. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism that controls myosin extraction from intact sarcomere, which could be applied to maximize myosin function and to improve meat quality in practice. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Validation and application of a two-dimensional model to simulate soil salt transport under mulched drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Huiqing; Zhao, Chengyi; Sheng, Yu; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianchu; Li, Baoguo

    2017-04-01

    Water shortage and soil salinization increasingly become the main constraints for sustainable development of agriculture in Southern Xinjiang, China. Mulched drip irrigation, as a high-efficient water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in Southern Xinjiang for cotton production. In order to analyze the reasonability of describing the three-dimensional soil water and salt transport processes under mulched drip irrigation with a relatively simple two-dimensional model, a field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2015 at Aksu of Southern Xinjiang, and soil water and salt transport processes were simulated through the three-dimensional and two-dimensional models based on COMSOL. Obvious differences were found between three-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations for soil water flow within the early 12 h of irrigation event and for soil salt transport in the area within 15 cm away from drip tubes during the whole irrigation event. The soil water and salt contents simulated by the two-dimensional model, however, agreed well with the mean values between two adjacent emitters simulated by the three-dimensional model, and also coincided with the measurements as corresponding RMSE less than 0.037 cm3 cm-3 and 1.80 g kg-1, indicating that the two-dimensional model was reliable for field irrigation management. Subsequently, the two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the dynamics of soil salinity for five numerical situations and for a widely adopted irrigation pattern in Southern Xinjiang (about 350 mm through mulched drip irrigation during growing season of cotton and total 400 mm through flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting). The simulation results indicated that the contribution of transpiration to salt accumulation in root layer was about 75% under mulched drip irrigation. Moreover, flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting were of great importance for salt leaching of arable layer, especially in bare strip where

  16. Fluvial modulation of hydrodynamics and salt transport in a highly stratified estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Abreu D'Aquino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An oceanographic campaign was conducted in the Araranguá river estuary during the period from May 11th to 13th of 2006 in order to produce a first hydrographic characterization of this system. The campaign was carried out during the spring tide period, and coincidentally after an intense rain event in the region which produced a peak in river discharge. Water level, currents and salinity time series were recorded hourly during a 50-hour period, at a site nearly 7 km upstream from the estuarine mouth. Two longitudinal distributions of salinity along the estuary were also recorded. The hydrographic data time-series were used to compute the advective salt flux in order to investigate the changes in the transport terms as a function of the change in discharge. The results showed that the estuarine structure was strongly modulated by the river discharge. The drop in water level of about 0.5 m during the first 24 hours was directly related to the ebb phase of the river flood. The water column was highly stratified throughout the period, therefore the stratification increased during the last 24 hours. The currents were stronger, ebbing and uni-directional at the beginning and became weaker and bidirectional as the water level went down, assuming a tidal pattern. The total salt transport in the first 25 hours was of -13.6 kg.m-1.s-1 (seawards, decreasing to 3 Kg.m-1.s-1 during the last 25 hours (landwards. It was also noticeable that the pH in the estuary, recorded together with the salinity, was around 5, showing that the water quality in the estuary is affected by the coal mining activity in the hydrographic basin.Uma campanha oceanográfica foi realizada no estuário do rio Araranguá durante o período de 11 e 13 de maio de 2006, objetivando fazer uma primeira caracterização hidrográfica do sistema. A campanha foi realizada em condição de maré de sizígia, e coincidentemente após um evento de chuvas intensas na região que produziu um pico

  17. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kien Y.; Ott, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable--and indeed is preferred--for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  18. Molten Salt Heat Transport Loop: Materials Corrosion and Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Mark Anderson; Dr. Michael Corradini; Dr. Todd Allen; Luke Olson; James Ambrosek; Daniel Ludwig

    2008-07-09

    An experimental system for corrosion testing of candidate materials in molten FLiNaK salt at 850 degree C has been designed and constructed. While molten FLiNaK salt was the focus of this study, the system can be utilized for evaluation of materials in other molten salts that may be of interest in the future. Using this system, the corrosion performance of a number of code-certified alloys of interest to NGNP as well as the efficacy of Ni-electroplating have been investigated. The mechanisums underlying corrosion processes have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the materials after the corrosion tests, as well as by the post-corrosion analysis of the salts using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques.

  19. Identity of hepatic membrane transport systems for bile salts, phalloidin, and antamanide by photoaffinity labeling.

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, T.; Nassal, M.; Kramer, W.; Fricker, G; Bickel, U; Kurz, G.

    1984-01-01

    Phalloidin, a bicyclic heptapeptide, and antamanide, a monocyclic decapeptide from the poisonous mushroom Amanita phalloides, interact with bile-salt-binding polypeptides of the hepatocyte membrane, as demonstrated by photoaffinity labeling using the photolabile bile salt derivative 7,7,-azo-3 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid, either unconjugated or taurine conjugated. With the photolabile derivatives of phalloidin, N-delta-(4-[(1-azi-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) benzoyl]-beta-ala...

  20. Optimizing the extraction of soluble salts from porous materials by poultices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heritage, A.; Lubelli, B.A.; Voronina, V.; Pel, L.

    2013-01-01

    The removal of salts from large non-movable objects such as architectural surfaces (e.g. wall paintings and stone masonry) presents a particular challenge to the conservator, since these objects require treatment in situ. One of the most common approaches to this problem is to use a poultice

  1. Using solid phase micro extraction to determine salting-out (Setschenow) constants for hydrophobic organic chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175518793; Muijs, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194995526

    2010-01-01

    With increasing ionic strength, the aqueous solubility and activity of organic chemicals are altered. This so-called salting-out effect causes the hydrophobicity of the chemicals to be increased and sorption in the marine environment to be more pronounced than in freshwater systems. The process can

  2. Effect of quaternary ammonium salts in the process of extracting oil filled rubber from latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, much attention is paid to the improvement of production technology of synthetic rubber. Much attention is given to rubber is produced by emulsion polymerization. This is due to the fact that rubbers produced by emulsion polymerization have a number of positive characteristics, and are widely used in the tire and rubber industry, in composite formulations for various purposes. In recent years, the technology of production of synthetic rubbers are widely used quaternary ammonium salts which are produced on an industrial scale. Application low and high molecular weight quaternary ammonium salts to reduce pollution of environ-mental protection, exclude the use of mineral salts without significant changes in the process flowsheet. It is found that quaternary ammonium salts react with the components of the emulsion system to form insoluble complexes, which are captured produced rubber crumb. However, Applications, quaternary salts in the manufacture of oil-filled rubber in the literature sources have not been given due attention. The study presents the results of research on the effect of the concentration of a coagulating agent, tempera tours and concentration of the dispersed phase in the process of coagulation of latex in the preparation of oil-filled rubber stamps SCS-30 ARKM-15. The concentration of the coagulating agent does not significantly affect the process of separation of the rubber from the latex. The process of isolation rubber latex is advantageously carried out at a reduced temperature. The concentration of the dispersed phase also provides material effect on the coagulation process. The lead researches mouthestablished that produced rubber, rubber compounds and vulcanizates based on these indicators correspond to their requirements.

  3. Complementary experimental-simulational study of surfactant micellar phase in the extraction process of metallic ions: Effects of temperature and salt concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Ángeles, Alan Gustavo; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, María del Rosario; Soto-Figueroa, César; Vicente, Luis

    2018-02-01

    The thermoresponsive micellar phase behaviour that exhibits the Triton-X-100 micelles by temperature effect and addition of salt in the extraction process of metallic ions was explored from mesoscopic and experimental points. In the theoretical study, we analyse the formation of Triton-X-100 micelles, load and stabilization of dithizone molecules and metallic ions extraction inside the micellar core at room temperature; finally, a thermal analysis is presented. In the experimental study, the spectrophotometric outcomes confirm the solubility of the copper-dithizone complex in the micellar core, as well as the extraction of metallic ions of aqueous environment via a cloud-point at 332.2 K. The micellar solutions with salt present a low absorbance value compared with the micellar solutions without salt. The decrease in the absorbance value is attributed to a change in the size of hydrophobic region of colloidal micelles. All transitory stages of extraction process are discussed and analysed in this document.

  4. Identity of hepatic membrane transport systems for bile salts, phalloidin, and antamanide by photoaffinity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, T; Nassal, M; Kramer, W; Fricker, G; Bickel, U; Kurz, G

    1984-08-01

    Phalloidin, a bicyclic heptapeptide, and antamanide, a monocyclic decapeptide from the poisonous mushroom Amanita phalloides, interact with bile-salt-binding polypeptides of the hepatocyte membrane, as demonstrated by photoaffinity labeling using the photolabile bile salt derivative 7,7,-azo-3 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid, either unconjugated or taurine conjugated. With the photolabile derivatives of phalloidin, N-delta-(4-[(1-azi-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) benzoyl]-beta-alanyl)-delta-aminophalloin, (N epsilon-[4-(1-azi-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)benzoyl]lys6)-anta manide, the same membrane polypeptides with apparent MrS of 54,000 and 48,000 were labeled as with the photolabile derivatives of unconjugated and conjugated bile salts. The presence of bile salts decreased markedly the extent of labeling of these phalloidin- and antamanide-binding polypeptides. These results indicate that hepatic uptake systems for bile salts, phallotoxins, and the cycloamanide antamanide are identical, thus explaining the organotropism of phallotoxins.

  5. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three

  6. Extraction of quaternary ammonium salts from aqueous solutions by sorption with hydrolyzed lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, A.F.; Astaf' eva, O.V.; Lobukhina, T.V.

    1987-12-01

    The sorption of surfactant quaternary ammonium salts by hydrolized lignin, recovered from the hydrolysis of wood and other plant materials, was studied in the context of the purification of low-concentration aqueous effluents. Infrared spectroscopy of the samples was conducted. Calculations showed that the relative intensity of the absorption bands of the hydrolized lignin before and after sorption of the surfactant changed by 0.8 to 5%. Sorption isotherms were also determined.

  7. Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous-media: A multi-domain approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambhekar, Vishal Arun; Schmid, Karen Sophie; Helmig, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Introduction: Evaporative salinization a major concern worldwide is observed across many environmental, agricultural and engineering applications. In the context of agriculture, salinization caused due to excess irrigation and use of artificial fertilizers in last few decades deteriorated productive land to a large extent. Many scientists have conducted experimental and numerical studies related to evaporative salinization [1, 2]. However, to our knowledge most of the performed numerical studies neglect the influence of atmospheric processes and free-flow pours-media interaction, which could play a significant role for salinization in a natural system. With our model concept we attempt to study and analyze the influence of atmospheric processes on dissolved salt transport, evaporation dynamics and salt-precipitation. Evaporation is mainly driven by diffusion, related to the vapor pressure gradient across liquid-air interface and advection, related to the tangential wind velocity at the soil surface. Moreover, it is also affected by the complex interactions between the flow and transport processes in the atmosphere and the porous-medium. On the atmosphere side, it is influenced by wind velocity, air temperature, humidity, radiation etc. On the porous-medium side, it is strongly related to the advective and diffusive fluxes, heterogeneity in salinity distribution (causes osmosis) and salt precipitation (causes pore clogging). As discussed in [1] evaporation of saline solutions can be explained into three different stages. Model: Our model is capable to handle coupled single-phase-compositional free and three-phase-compositional porous-media flow and transport. It is based on a two-domain approach, where non-isothermal sub-models are used for free-flow and porous-media sub-domains [3]. The sub-models are coupled using interface conditions ensuring continuity of mass, momentum and energy. This facilitates to describe evaporation independent of any boundary condition at

  8. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  9. The Mitochondrial Phosphate Transporters Modulate Plant Responses to Salt Stress via Affecting ATP and Gibberellin Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guodong; Wu, Changai; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT) plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana. PMID:22937061

  10. Creatine salts provide neuroprotection even after partial impairment of the creatine transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, E.; Garbati, P.; Salis, A.; Damonte, G; Millo, E.; Balestrino, M

    2017-01-01

    Creatine, a compound that is critical for energy metabolism of nervous cells, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the neuronal plasma membrane with difficulty, and only using its specific transporter. In the hereditary condition where the creatine transporter is defective (creatine transporter deficiency) there is no creatine in the brain, and administration of creatine is useless lacking the transporter. The disease is severe and incurable. Creatine-derived molecules that could cross B...

  11. Extraction of chromium(VI) by salting-out with a homogeneous, mixed solvent of water and 2-propanol: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaratunga, Sethsiri S; Nishimoto, Jun; Tabata, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    Chromium enters into the aquatic environment as a result of effluent discharge from steel works, electroplating, leather tanning industries and chemical industries. As the Cr(VI) is very harmful to living organisms, it should be quickly removed from the environment when it happens to be contaminated. Therefore, the aim of this laboratory research was to develop a rapid, simple and adaptable solvent extraction system to quantitatively remove Cr(VI) from polluted waters. Aqueous salt-solutions containing Cr(VI) as CrO4(2-) at ppm level (4-6 ppm) were prepared. Equal volumes (5 ml) of aqueous and organic (2-PrOH) phases were mixed in a 10 ml centrifuge tube for 15 min, centrifuged and separated. Concentrations of Cr(VI), in both the aqueous and organic phases, were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of salt and acid concentrations, and phase-contact time on the extraction of Cr(VI) were investigated. In addition, the extraction of Cr(VI) was assessed in the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) in 2-PrOH phase. Effects of some other metals, (Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)), on the extraction of Cr(VI) were also investigated. The Cr(VI) at ppm level was extracted quantitatively by salting-out the homogeneous system of water and 2-propanol(2-PrOH) using chloride salts, namely CaCl2 or NaCl, under acidic chloride media. The extracted chemical species of Cr(VI) was confirmed to be the CrO3Cl-. The ion-pair complex extracted into the organic phase was rationalized as the solvated ion-pair complex of [2-PrOH2+, CrO3Cl-]. The complex was no longer stable. It implied the reaction between extracted species. Studies revealed that salts and acid directly participated in the formation of the above complex. Use of extracting agents (TMAC) didn't show any significant effect on the extraction of Cr(VI) under high salting-out conditions. There is no significant interference effect on the extraction of Cr(VI) by the presence of other metals

  12. Hygroscopic growth of water-soluble matter extracted from remote marine aerosols over the western North Pacific: Influence of pollutants transported from East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, K

    2016-07-01

    We examined the hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) nebulized from water extracts of total suspended particles (TSP) collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during January to September 2003. The hygroscopic growth factor g(RH) of the aerosol particles was measured using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) with an initial dry particle diameter of 100nm and relative humidity (RH) of 5-95%. The measured growth factor at 90% RH, g(90%), ranged from 1.51 to 2.14 (mean: 1.76±0.15), significantly lower than that of sea salts (2.1), probably owing to the heterogeneous reactions associated with chloride depletion in sea-salt particles and water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The g(90%) maximized in summer and minimized in spring. The decrease in spring was most likely explained by the formation of less hygroscopic salts or particles via organometallic reactions during the long-range transport of Asian dust. Cl(-) and Na(+) dominate the mass fractions of WSM, followed by nss-SO4(2-) and WSOM. Based on regression analysis, we confirmed that g(90%) at Chichijima Island largely increased due to the dominant sea spray; however, atmospheric processes associated with chloride depletion in sea salts and WSOM often suppressed g(90%). Furthermore, we explored the deviation (average: 18%) between the measured and predicted g(90%) by comparing measured and model growth factors. The present study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic pollutants (SO2, NOx, organics, etc.) and the interactions with sea-salt particles often suppress the hygroscopic growth of marine aerosols over the western North Pacific, affecting the remote background conditions. The present study also suggests that the HCl liberation leads to the formation of less hygroscopic aerosols over the western North Pacific during long-range transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance evaluation of cast iron pipe for crude oil and salt water transportation; Avaliacao e desempenho de duto de aco fundido no transporte de petroleo com aguas salgadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Alexandre Martins da [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mainier, Fernando B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The present paper aims to study and to evaluate the performance of casting iron pipe for transportation of salty and produced waters, presented in the oil industry, where salt contents ranging on very large values. The cast iron above mentioned has an yield strength of 23 kg/mm{sup 2}, tensile strength of de 46 kg/mm{sup 2} (minimum) and an elongation of 15%, and contents of some chemical alloys, such as Cr (0,8 -1,3 %), Mn (1,5 % max) and Si (1,%). Nevertheless it is an exploratory study, the dynamic tests of weight loss carried out in laboratory, with specimens machined from a used pipe piece, with salty solution (3,5 % NaCl) aerated media, has shown very promising results, enabling to qualify, satisfactorily, such material for using in transportation and transferring operations of fluids with a high salty contents, such as crude oil. (author)

  14. Salting-out extraction of allicin from garlic (Allium sativum L.) based on ethanol/ammonium sulfate in laboratory and pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Qiao; Wu, Shuanggen; Tan, Zhijian

    2017-02-15

    Salting-out extraction (SOE) based on lower molecular organic solvent and inorganic salt was considered as a good substitute for conventional polymers aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) used for the extraction of some bioactive compounds from natural plants resources. In this study, the ethanol/ammonium sulfate was screened as the optimal SOE system for the extraction and preliminary purification of allicin from garlic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to optimize the major conditions. The maximum extraction efficiency of 94.17% was obtained at the optimized conditions for routine use: 23% (w/w) ethanol concentration and 24% (w/w) salt concentration, 31g/L loaded sample at 25°C with pH being not adjusted. The extraction efficiency had no obvious decrease after amplification of the extraction. This ethanol/ammonium sulfate SOE is much simpler, cheaper, and effective, which has the potentiality of scale-up production for the extraction and purification of other compounds from plant resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combining in situ measurements and altimetry to estimate volume, heat and salt transport variability through the Faroe–Shetland Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Berx

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From 1994 to 2011, instruments measuring ocean currents (Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers; ADCPs have been moored on a section crossing the Faroe–Shetland Channel. Together with CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth measurements from regular research vessel occupations, they describe the flow field and water mass structure in the channel. Here, we use these data to calculate the average volume transport and properties of the flow of warm water through the channel from the Atlantic towards the Arctic, termed the Atlantic inflow. We find the average volume transport of this flow to be 2.7 ± 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s–1 between the shelf edge on the Faroe side and the 150 m isobath on the Shetland side. The average heat transport (relative to 0 °C was estimated to be 107 ± 21 TW (1 TW = 1012 W and the average salt import to be 98 ± 20 × 106 kg s−1. Transport values for individual months, based on the ADCP data, include a large level of variability, but can be used to calibrate sea level height data from satellite altimetry. In this way, a time series of volume transport has been generated back to the beginning of satellite altimetry in December 1992. The Atlantic inflow has a seasonal variation in volume transport that peaks around the turn of the year and has an amplitude of 0.7 Sv. The Atlantic inflow has become warmer and more saline since 1994, but no equivalent trend in volume transport was observed.

  16. Antioxidant Activity and Thermal Stability of Oleuropein and Related Phenolic Compounds of Olive Leaf Extract after Separation and Concentration by Salting-Out-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A fast, clean, energy-saving, non-toxic method for the stabilization of the antioxidant activity and the improvement of the thermal stability of oleuropein and related phenolic compounds separated from olive leaf extract via salting-out-assisted cloud point extraction (CPE was developed using Tween 80. The process was based on the decrease of the solubility of polyphenols and the lowering of the cloud point temperature of Tween 80 due to the presence of elevated amounts of sulfates (salting-out and the separation from the bulk solution with centrifugation. The optimum conditions were chosen based on polyphenols recovery (%, phase volume ratio (Vs/Vw and concentration factor (Fc. The maximum recovery of polyphenols was in total 95.9%; Vs/Vw was 0.075 and Fc was 15 at the following conditions: pH 2.6, ambient temperature (25 °C, 4% Tween 80 (w/v, 35% Na2SO4 (w/v and a settling time of 5 min. The total recovery of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, at optimum conditions, was 99.8%, 93.0%, 87.6%, 99.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Polyphenolic compounds entrapped in the surfactant-rich phase (Vs showed higher thermal stability (activation energy (Ea 23.8 kJ/mol compared to non-entrapped ones (Ea 76.5 kJ/mol. The antioxidant activity of separated polyphenols remained unaffected as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.

  17. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Wan Xia; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, J P; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaeskylae, Finland. An open sup 2 sup 2 sup 3 Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling sup 2 sup 1 sup 9 Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  18. Overview of the effect of salts on biphasic ionic liquid/water solvent extraction systems: anion exchange, mutual solubility, and thermomorphic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, David; Depuydt, Daphne; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-06-04

    Hydrophobic (water-immiscible) ionic liquids (ILs) are frequently used as organic phase in solvent extraction studies. These biphasic IL/water extraction systems often also contain metal salts or mineral acids, which can significantly affect the IL trough (un)wanted anion exchange and changes in the solubility of IL in the aqueous phase. In the case of thermomorphic systems, variations in the cloud point temperature are also observed. All these effects have important repercussions on the choice of IL, suitable for a certain extraction system. In this paper, a complete overview of the implications of metal salts on biphasic IL/water systems is given. Using the Hofmeister series as a starting point, a range of intuitive prediction models are introduced, supported by experimental evidence for several hydrophobic ILs, relevant to solvent extraction. Particular emphasis is placed on the IL betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hbet][Tf2N]. The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the observed effects of metal salts, so that it can be used to predict the effect on any given biphasic IL/water system instead of relying on case-by-case reports. These prediction tools for the impact of metal salts can be useful to optimize IL synthesis procedures, extraction systems and thermomorphic properties. Some new insights are also provided for the rational design of ILs with UCST or LCST behavior based on the choice of IL anion.

  19. Extraction of amylase from fermentation broth in poly (Ethylene Glycol salt aqueous two-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pedrosa Bezerra

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the partition of amylase from Bacillus subtilis in a minimal medium at 37 ºC and 110 rpm. Enzyme recovery was carried out in aqueous two-phase system PEG-Phosphate salt were carried out. The best purification factor (5.4 was obtained in system PEG 1000 (16.7% w/w with potassium phosphate (14.8% w/w, at pH 6.0, resulting in a recovery of 45.2% activity enzymatic in the salt-rich phase.Enzimas amilolíticas têm sido amplamente investigadas com a finalidade de melhorar os processos industriais para a degradação do amido. Foi determinado que a extração da enzima em sistema bifásico aquosos é um método aplicável para separação e purificação de biomoléculas em misturas. Vários sistemas compostos de soluções aquosas de polietilenoglicol e fosfato foram avaliados. Estudos de produção em meio mínimo suplementado, à 37ºC, com uma velocidade de agitação de 110rpm e recuperação da amilase a partir do Bacillus subtilis em sistema bifásico aquoso PEG-fosfato foram avaliados. O melhor fator de purificação (5.4 foi obtido no sistema PEG 1000 (16.7% w/w com fosfato de potássio (14.8% w/w, a pH 6.0, resultando na recuperação da atividade enzimática de 45.2% na fase rica em sal.

  20. "Salting-out" concentration of phytoplankton pigment extracts previous to their analysis by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Garrido

    2014-04-01

    The recoveries of different pigments varied depending on their chemical nature and the degree of enrichment of the extract. Carotenoids and non-polar chlorophylls were recovered above 85 % with 5M saline solutions, while the recovery of acidic clorophylls (c3 and c2 decreased with enrichment factors.

  1. High-throughput salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction and ultrafast LC for same-day delivery of first-in-human bioanalytical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Myasein, Francis; Rodila, Ramona; Wu, Huaiqin; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2009-07-01

    With the need of fast-paced drug development, rapid delivery of bioanalytical data becomes a trend. Here, we present a strategy to demonstrate same-day data delivery. A novel salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction (SALLE) with acetonitrile and a MS-friendly salt was used to extract analyte from the first-in-human study plasma samples and the extract was successfully injected into ultrafast chromatography. The strategic combination of SALLE and ultrafast chromatography minimizes the turnaround time and allows the same-day delivery of bioanalytical data. The time saving from both extraction and injection was translated to a fast delivery of bioanalytical data. The first-in-human pharmacokinetic data of an investigational new drug candidate was delivered in approximately 4.5 work h after receiving the samples of each dose group using high-throughput SALLE and ultrafast LC. Incurred sample reassay results proved uncompromised data quality with the high-speed bioanalysis.

  2. Extraction of Vanadium from Vanadium Slag Via Non-salt Roasting and Ammonium Oxalate Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Du, Hao; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Shaona; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Biao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Zhang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    A clean method featuring non-salt roasting followed by (NH4)2C2O4 leaching to recover vanadium from vanadium slag was proposed. The carcinogenic Cr6+ compounds and exhaust gases were avoided, and the water generated from vanadate precipitation may be recycled and reused in this new leaching process. The leaching residues may be easily used by a blast furnace. Moreover, (NH4)2C2O4 solution was used as a leaching medium to avoid expensive and complicated ammonium controlling operations as a result of the stability of (NH4)2C2O4 at a high temperature. The transformation mechanisms of vanadium- and chromium-bearing phases were systematically investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-disperse x-ray spectrometry, respectively. In addition, the effects of oxygen concentration, roasting temperature, and holding time on vanadium recovery were investigated. Finally, the effects of leaching variables on the vanadium leaching rate were also examined.

  3. Study on Salting out-Steam Distillation Extraction Technology and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from Cumin Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different factors on the yield of essential oil from were discussed, and the extraction conditions of essential oil from cumin seeds by salting out-steam distillation technology based on single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, as well as its antibacterial activities on several common food spoilage bacteria were studied in this paper. The results showed that, the impact order of the influence factors was liquid/solid ratio > distilling time > NaCl concentration, and optimized extraction conditions were as follows, liquid to material ratio 15:1, soaking time 1 h, 4% NaCl, steam distilling time 3 h. The yield of essential oil was up to 4.48% under these conditions. The results of antibacterial activity assays showed that the essential oil from cumin seeds exhibited the different antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens, especially it presented the best inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL respectively, followed by Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus, the lowest for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae

  4. Modelling coupled chemico-osmotic and advective-diffusive transport of nitrate salts in the Callovo-Oxfordian Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S.; Croisé, J.; Altmann, S.

    2012-12-01

    Chemico-osmosis is a recognized phenomenon taking place in clay mineral-rich sedimentary formations and a number of questions have been raised concerning its potential effects on pressure fields in and around underground radioactive waste repositories installed in such formations. Certain radioactive waste packages contain large quantities of nitrate salts whose release might result in the presence of highly concentrated salt solutions in the disposal cells, during their resaturation after closure of the facility. This would lead to large solute concentration gradients within the formation's porewater which could then potentially induce significant chemico-osmotic fluxes. In this paper, we assess the impact of chemico-osmotic fluxes on the water pressure during the post-closure period of a typical disposal cell for intermediate-level, long-lived bituminised radioactive waste in the Callovo-Oxfordian Clay formation. A numerical model of chemico-osmotic water flow and solute transport has been developed based on the work of Bader and Kooi (2005) [5], and including Bresler's dependence of osmotic efficiency on concentration and compaction state [9]. Model validity has been extended to highly concentrated solutions by incorporating a concentration-dependent activity coefficient, based on the Pitzer's equations. Results show that due to the strong dependence of the osmotic coefficient on concentration, the impact of chemico-osmosis on water flow and on the pressure field around the disposal cell is relatively low. A maximum overpressure of the order of 1 MPa was obtained. No difference in the simulation results were noticed for disposal cell solutions having concentrations higher than 1 M NaNO3. Differences between simulations were found to be almost entirely due to Bresler's relationship i.e., the model of the dependence between osmotic efficiency and concentration, and only slightly on the activity coefficient correction. Questions remain regarding the appropriate

  5. A single-component multidrug transporter of the major facilitator superfamily is part of a network that protects Escherichia coli from bile salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Stephanie; Alegre, Kamela O; Holdsworth, Scarlett R; Rice, Matthew; Brown, James A; McVeigh, Paul; Kelly, Sharon M; Law, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to high concentrations of bile salts in the human intestinal tract is vital for the survival of enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Although the tripartite AcrAB-TolC efflux system plays a significant role in this resistance, it is purported that other efflux pumps must also be involved. We provide evidence from a comprehensive suite of experiments performed at two different pH values (7.2 and 6.0) that reflect pH conditions that E. coli may encounter in human gut that MdtM, a single-component multidrug resistance transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, functions in bile salt resistance in E. coli by catalysing secondary active transport of bile salts out of the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, assays performed on a chromosomal ΔacrB mutant transformed with multicopy plasmid encoding MdtM suggested a functional synergism between the single-component MdtM transporter and the tripartite AcrAB-TolC system that results in a multiplicative effect on resistance. Substrate binding experiments performed on purified MdtM demonstrated that the transporter binds to cholate and deoxycholate with micromolar affinity, and transport assays performed on inverted vesicles confirmed the capacity of MdtM to catalyse electrogenic bile salt/H(+) antiport. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. AP2 adaptor complex mediates bile salt export pump internalization and modulates its hepatocanalicular expression and transport function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisamitsu; Inamura, Kaori; Aida, Kensuke; Naoi, Sotaro; Horikawa, Reiko; Nagasaka, Hironori; Takatani, Tomozumi; Fukushima, Tamio; Hattori, Asami; Yabuki, Takashi; Horii, Ikuo; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2012-06-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP) mediates the biliary excretion of bile salts and its dysfunction induces intrahepatic cholestasis. Reduced canalicular expression of BSEP resulting from the promotion of its internalization is one of the causes of this disease state. However, the molecular mechanism underlying BSEP internalization from the canalicular membrane (CM) remains unknown. We have shown previously that 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA), a drug used for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), inhibited internalization and subsequent degradation of cell-surface-resident BSEP. The current study found that 4PBA treatment decreased significantly the expression of α- and μ2-adaptin, both of which are subunits of the AP2 adaptor complex (AP2) that mediates clathrin-dependent endocytosis, in liver specimens from rats and patients with OTCD, and that BSEP has potential AP2 recognition motifs in its cytosolic region. Based on this, the role of AP2 in BSEP internalization was explored further. In vitro analysis with 3×FLAG-human BSEP-expressing HeLa cells and human sandwich-culture hepatocytes indicates that the impairment of AP2 function by RNA interference targeting of α-adaptin inhibits BSEP internalization from the plasma membrane and increases its cell-surface expression and transport function. Studies using immunostaining, coimmunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase pulldown assay, and time-lapse imaging show that AP2 interacts with BSEP at the CM through a tyrosine motif at the carboxyl terminus of BSEP and mediates BSEP internalization from the CM of hepatocytes. AP2 mediates the internalization and subsequent degradation of CM-resident BSEP through direct interaction with BSEP and thereby modulates the canalicular expression and transport function of BSEP. This information should be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of severe liver diseases associated with intrahepatic cholestasis. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver

  7. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  8. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  9. Salicornia Extract Ameliorates Salt-Induced Aggravation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Suk, Sujin; Jang, Woo Jung; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-07-01

    High-fat and high-salt intakes are among the major risks of chronic diseases including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Salicornia is a halophytic plant known to exert antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic effects, and Salicornia-extracted salt (SS) has been used as a salt substitute. In this study, the effects of SS and purified salt (PS) on the aggravation of NAFLD/NASH were compared. C57BL/6J male mice (8-wk-old) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo and divided into 3 dietary groups, which were additionally fed HFD, HFD + SS, and HFD + PS for 13 wk. PS induced aggravation of NAFLD/NASH in HFD-fed mice. Although the actual salt intake was same between the PS and SS groups as 1% of the diet (extrapolated from the World Health Organization [WHO] guideline), SS induced less liver injury and hepatic steatosis compared to PS. The hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis marker were significantly lower in the SS group than the PS group. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Results of the component analysis showed that the major polyphenols that exhibited antioxidant activity in the Salicornia water extract were ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and isorhamnetin. These results suggest that even the level of salt intake recommended by WHO can accelerate the progression of liver disease in obese individuals consuming HFD. It is proposed that SS can be a salt substitute for obese individuals who consume HFD. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Socioeconomic Assessment of Meat Protein Extracts (MPE as a New Means of Reducing the U.S. Population’s Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Henning Nielsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive salt intake causes a number of cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and hypertension. This is a burden on the individual as well as on society, because these diseases are fatal and costly to treat and live with. Much of the salt comes from processed meat such as sausages, ham, and bacon and has, so far, been hard to avoid because of consumer taste preference as well as the technological benefits. Meat protein extract (MPE is a broth of hydrolyzed protein which can reduce the salt in processed meat by more than one third without compromising on taste and functionality. This study estimates the socioeconomic impacts of implementing MPE widely across the United States (US by relating the national salt intake reduction potential of MPE (5% to a broad range of health, societal, and individual factors derived from the literature. Results show that benefits for society are substantial and MPE could be part of the solution for the problem of excessive salt intake. MPE could deliver 25% of the U.S. ‘National Salt Reduction Initiative’ goals, avoid approximately 1 million hypertension cases and save around USD 1.6 billion in annual direct healthcare costs. Verification indicates that these estimates are conservative.

  11. Salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction with acetonitrile: a new high throughput sample preparation technique for good laboratory practice bioanalysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Huaiqin; Kim, Elaine; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2009-04-01

    Acetonitrile, an organic solvent miscible with aqueous phase, has seen thousands of publications in the literature as an efficient deproteinization reagent. The use of acetonitrile for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), however, has seen very limited application due to its miscibility with aqueous phase. The interest in LLE with acetonitrile has been pursued and reported in the literature by significantly lowering the temperature of the mixture or increasing the salt concentration in the mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous phase, resulting in the separation of the acetonitrile phase from aqueous phase, as observed in conventional LLE. However, very limited application of these methods has been reported. The throughput was limited. In this report, we report a new sample preparation technique, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile, for high-throughput good laboratory practice sample analysis using LCMS, Two compounds from an approved drug, Kaletra, were used to demonstrate the extractability of drugs from human plasma matrix. Magnesium sulfate was used as the salting-out reagent. Extracts were diluted and then injected into a reversed phase LC-MS/MS system directly. One 96-well plate was extracted with this new approach to evaluate multiple parameters of a good laboratory practice analytical method. Results indicate that the method is rapid, reliable and suitable for regulated bioanalysis. With minimal modification, this approach has been used for high-throughput good laboratory practice analysis of a number of compounds under development at Abbott.

  12. ATP11C targets basolateral bile salt transporter proteins in mouse central hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waart, Dirk R.; Naik, Jyoti; Utsunomiya, Karina S.; Duijst, Suzanne; Ho-Mok, Kam; Bolier, A. Ruth; Hiralall, Johan; Bull, Laura N.; Bosma, Piter J.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

    2016-01-01

    ATP11C is a homolog of ATP8B1, both of which catalyze the transport of phospholipids in biological membranes. Mutations in ATP8B1 cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type1 in humans, which is characterized by a canalicular cholestasis. Mice deficient in ATP11C are characterized by a

  13. Logistics of water and salt transport through the plant: structure and functioning of the xylem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.H.; Volkov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The xylem is a long-distance transport system that is unique to higher plants. It evolved into a very sophisticated plumbing system ensuring controlled loading/unloading of ions and water and their effective translocation to the required sinks. The focus of this overview will be the intrinsic

  14. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when...... properties of undisturbed soil from more easily measurable soil properties are developed. The importance of soil properties with respect to contaminant migration during remediation by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the unsaturated zone was investigated using numerical simulations....

  15. Estimation of Salt and Fresh Water Transports in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    physical parameters that control the salinity budget are examined in the BoB. We have published two journal articles from this project and one more...transport in the Indian Ocean is investigated using the high 1/12° global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Mechanisms and physical parameters that...Marine Geodesy (in press). • Conference/Workshop presentations 1. Grunseich, G., and B. Subrahmanyam (2011). Validation of SMOS salinity data and

  16. Salting-out solvent extraction for the off-line preconcentration of benzalkonium chloride in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, T S; Huie, C W

    2001-07-01

    The use of salting-out effect for the off-line preconcentration of charged analytes in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated for the first time. Using benzalkonium chloride (BAK) as model compound, a mixture of cationic surfactants consisting of even-numbered alkylbenzyl quaternary ammonium homologues (C8-C18), the addition of appropriate amounts of sodium chloride and acetonitrile in the sample solution (2 mL sample volume) was found to be capable of providing ca. 40-fold enhancement in detection sensitivity. In addition to affording a preconcentrating effect due to the extraction of BAK in the smaller volume water-miscible organic solvent phase (acetonitrile), the organic solvent also serves to improve the peak area and shape of the longer chain surfactants. Optimal experimental conditions, such as volume of acetonitrile and concentration of sodium chloride, for the preconcentration of BAK with good preconcentration factors and reproducibility were investigated. The usefulness of the present method was demonstrated for the improved determination of BAK present in commercially available industrial and pharmaceutical products.

  17. Modelling of the reactive transport for rock salt-brine in geological repository systems based on improved thermodynamic database (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W.; Alkan, H.; Xie, M.; Moog, H.; Sonnenthal, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    The release and migration of toxic contaminants from the disposed wastes is one of the main issues in long-term safety assessment of geological repositories. In the engineered and geological barriers around the nuclear waste emplacements chemical interactions between the components of the system may affect the isolation properties considerably. As the chemical issues change the transport properties in the near and far field of a nuclear repository, modelling of the transport should also take the chemistry into account. The reactive transport modelling consists of two main components: a code that combines the possible chemical reactions with thermo-hydrogeological processes interactively and a thermodynamic databank supporting the required parameters for the calculation of the chemical reactions. In the last decade many thermo-hydrogeological codes were upgraded to include the modelling of the chemical processes. TOUGHREACT is one of these codes. This is an extension of the well known simulator TOUGH2 for modelling geoprocesses. The code is developed by LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Univ. of California) for the simulation of the multi-phase transport of gas and liquid in porous media including heat transfer. After the release of its first version in 1998, this code has been applied and improved many times in conjunction with considerations for nuclear waste emplacement. A recent version has been extended to calculate ion activities in concentrated salt solutions applying the Pitzer model. In TOUGHREACT, the incorporated equation of state module ECO2N is applied as the EOS module for non-isothermal multiphase flow in a fluid system of H2O-NaCl-CO2. The partitioning of H2O and CO2 between liquid and gas phases is modelled as a function of temperature, pressure, and salinity. This module is applicable for waste repositories being expected to generate or having originally CO2 in the fluid system. The enhanced TOUGHREACT uses an EQ3/6-formatted database

  18. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in high salinity and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zongliang; Yu, Chunwei; He, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jun; Wen, Yingying

    2017-09-05

    A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of four pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) in high salinity and biological samples. Several parameters including sample pH, salting-out solution volume and salting-out solution pH influencing the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated with the aid of orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions of SALLE were: 4mL of salting-out solution with pH=4 and the sample pH=3. Under the optimum extraction and determination conditions, good responses for four PYRs were obtained in a range of 5-5000ng/mL, with linear coefficients greater than 0.998. The recoveries of the four PYRs ranged from 74% to 110%, with standard deviations ranging from 1.8% to 9.8%. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were between 1.5-60.6ng/mL. The method was applied to the determination of PYRs in urine, seawater and wastewater samples with a satisfactory result. The results demonstrated that this SALLE-GC-MS method was successfully applied to determine PYRs in high salinity and biological samples. SALLE avoided the need for the elimination of salinity and protein in the sample matrix, as well as clean-up of the extractant. Most of all, no centrifugation or any special apparatus are required, make this a promising method for rapid sample preparation procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples. Copyright © 2015

  20. Oscillating Hydrofoils for Tidal Energy Extraction: Experiments, Simulations and Salt Water Field Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandre, S.; Franck, J.; Breuer, K.; Fawzi, A.; Cardona, J.; Miller, M. J.; Su, Y.; Medina, A.; Loera Loera, C.; Junquera, E.; Simeski, F.; Volkmann, K.; Lorick, R.; Cowles, S.; Luiz Rocha Ribeiro, B.; Winckler, S.; Derecktor, T.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the development of a new oscillating hydrofoil technology for tidal flow energy harvesting. A series of flume experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed over a wide range of frequencies, f, heave amplitudes, h, and pitch angles, θ. The flume model has chord, c, of 10 cm and aspect ratio of 4.5. Mechanical power extracted is estimated from the foil trajectory, force and moment data. A robust real-time algorithm has been developed to identify the kinematics that optimizes either the total power or the Betz efficiency. Optimal efficiency is found when the pitch and heave cycles are 90 degrees out of phase, oscillating at a reduced frequency, fc/U, of approximately 0.15, with a heave amplitude of approximately 1c, and a pitch amplitude of θ=75 degrees. The high pitch amplitude and sharp leading edge of the foil generates a transient leading edge vortex on the suction side of the foil, significantly enhancing the vertical force and power. The optimal frequency ensures that the vortex generation and ultimate shedding maximize these unsteady hydrodynamic effects. The flume results, including power and efficiency, as well as flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) exhibit excellent agreement with the CFD. Furthermore, extensive CFD and physical experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of operating in confined or shallow channels. It is found that the efficiency and power generation can significantly increase in confined areas due to the acceleration of the freestream flow around the device. Finally, the Leading Edge team has designed, built, and as of this date, is currently field-testing a 1kW prototype device consisting of two foils operating in parallel. The prototype is attached to the underside of a pontoon boat, and testing is currently underway in the Narragansett Bay near Providence RI. On completion of the field tests, in October 2015, data from the prototype will be analyzed

  1. Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) ortholog in the marine skateLeucoraja erinaceais not a physiological bile salt transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongke; Zhang, Han; Lionarons, Daniel A; Boyer, James L; Cai, Shi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    The Na + -dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is a hepatocyte-specific solute carrier, which plays an important role in maintaining bile salt homeostasis in mammals. The absence of a hepatic Na + -dependent bile salt transport system in marine skate and rainbow trout raises a question regarding the function of the Slc10a1 gene in these species. Here, we have characterized the Slc10a1 gene in the marine skate, Leucoraja erinacea The transcript of skate Slc10a1 (skSlc10a1) encodes 319 amino acids and shares 46% identity to human NTCP (hNTCP) with similar topology to mammalian NTCP. SkSlc10a1 mRNA was mostly confined to the brain and testes with minimal expression in the liver. An FXR-bile salt reporter assay indicated that skSlc10a1 transported taurocholic acid (TCA) and scymnol sulfate, but not as effectively as hNTCP. An [ 3 H]TCA uptake assay revealed that skSlc10a1 functioned as a Na + -dependent transporter, but with low affinity for TCA ( K m = 92.4 µM) and scymnol sulfate ( K i = 31 µM), compared with hNTCP (TCA, K m = 5.4 µM; Scymnol sulfate, K i = 3.5 µM). In contrast, the bile salt concentration in skate plasma was 2 µM, similar to levels seen in mammals. Interestingly, skSlc10a1 demonstrated transport activity for the neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and estrone-3-sulfate at physiological concentration, similar to hNTCP. Together, our findings indicate that skSlc10a1 is not a physiological bile salt transporter, providing a molecular explanation for the absence of a hepatic Na + -dependent bile salt uptake system in skate. We speculate that Slc10a1 is a neurosteroid transporter in skate that gained its substrate specificity for bile salts later in vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Google Earth elevation data extraction and accuracy assessment for transportation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinsong; Zou, Yajie; Henrickson, Kristian; Wang, Yinhai; Tang, Jinjun; Park, Byung-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Roadway elevation data is critical for a variety of transportation analyses. However, it has been challenging to obtain such data and most roadway GIS databases do not have them. This paper intends to address this need by proposing a method to extract roadway elevation data from Google Earth (GE) for transportation applications. A comprehensive accuracy assessment of the GE-extracted elevation data is conducted for the area of conterminous USA. The GE elevation data was compared with the ground truth data from nationwide GPS benchmarks and roadway monuments from six states in the conterminous USA. This study also compares the GE elevation data with the elevation raster data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (USGS NED), which is a widely used data source for extracting roadway elevation. Mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) are used to assess the accuracy and the test results show MAE, RMSE and standard deviation of GE roadway elevation error are 1.32 meters, 2.27 meters and 2.27 meters, respectively. Finally, the proposed extraction method was implemented and validated for the following three scenarios: (1) extracting roadway elevation differentiating by directions, (2) multi-layered roadway recognition in freeway segment and (3) slope segmentation and grade calculation in freeway segment. The methodology validation results indicate that the proposed extraction method can locate the extracting route accurately, recognize multi-layered roadway section, and segment the extracted route by grade automatically. Overall, it is found that the high accuracy elevation data available from GE provide a reliable data source for various transportation applications.

  3. Characteristics and behaviour of liposomes when incubated with natural bile salt extract: implications for their use as oral drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Laura G; Sabés-Xamaní, Manuel; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon

    2014-09-21

    The use of liposomes for oral administration of drugs and for food applications is based on their ability to preserve entrapped substances and to increase their bioavailability. Bile salts are one of the agents that affect the liposome structure during intestinal digestion and the main reported studies on liposome/bile salt systems used only one bile salt. The aim of this work is to characterise the interaction of liposomes with a natural bile salt extract (BSE) at physiological pH and temperature. Three types of liposomes (fluid, gel-state and liquid-ordered bilayers) were studied. Phase diagrams were obtained and a very different behaviour was found. Fluid bilayers were completely permeable to an entrapped dye with partial or complete disruption of vesicles (final size 10 nm). Gel-state bilayers released their content but BSE led to the formation of large mixed structures (2000 nm). Liquid-ordered bilayers formed mixed vesicles (1000 nm) and, surprisingly, retained a high percentage of their aqueous content (about 50%). As a consequence, each type of liposome offers singular features to be used in oral applications due to their specific interaction with bile salts.

  4. An integrated model of tritium transport and corrosion in Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) – Part I: Theory and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John D., E-mail: john.stempien@inl.gov; Ballinger, Ronald G., E-mail: hvymet@mit.edu; Forsberg, Charles W., E-mail: cforsber@mit.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A model was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. • Model results match results of tritium diffusion experiments. • Corrosion simulations show reasonable agreement with molten salt loop experiments. • This is the only existing model of tritium transport and corrosion in FHRs. • Model enables proposing and evaluating tritium control options in FHRs. - Abstract: The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) is a pebble bed nuclear reactor concept cooled by a liquid fluoride salt known as “flibe” ({sup 7}LiF-BeF{sub 2}). A model of TRITium Diffusion EvolutioN and Transport (TRIDENT) was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. TRIDENT is the first model to integrate the effects of tritium production in the salt via neutron transmutation, with the effects of the chemical redox potential, tritium mass transfer, tritium diffusion through pipe walls, tritium uptake by graphite, selective chromium attack by tritium fluoride, and corrosion product mass transfer. While data from a forced-convection polythermal loop of molten salt containing tritium did not exist for comparison, TRIDENT calculations were compared to data from static salt diffusion tests in flibe and flinak (0.465LiF-0.115NaF-0.42KF) salts. In each case, TRIDENT matched the transient and steady-state behavior of these tritium diffusion experiments. The corrosion model in TRIDENT was compared against the natural convection flow-loop experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from the 1960s and early 1970s which used Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel-salt containing UF{sub 4}. Despite the lack of data required by TRIDENT for modeling the loops, some reasonable results were obtained. The TRIDENT corrosion rates follow the experimentally observed dependence on the square root of the product of the chromium solid-state diffusion coefficient with time. Additionally the TRIDENT model predicts mass

  5. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    The ash material generated from the MSW incineration contains large amounts of alkali metals, heavy metals, chlorine and sulfur mainly deposited as inorganic salts and/or oxides on the surface of the Si-rich ash particles. In this work, the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt...

  6. Comparison of salting-out and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction methods for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly and their co-extracted protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xijuan; Sun, Fanyi; Wu, Siyuan; Liu, Weiyi; Gao, Zhaosheng; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-01-15

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (h-LLE) has been receiving considerable attention as a sample preparation method due to its simple and fast partition of compounds with a wide range of polarities. To better understand the differences between the two h-LLE extraction approaches, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and sugaring-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SULLE), have been compared for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly, and for the co-extraction of proteins. Effects of the amount of phase partition agents and the concentration of acetonitrile (ACN) on the h-LLE were discussed. Results showed that partition efficiency of 10-HDA depends on the phase ratio in both SALLE and SULLE. Though the partition triggered by NaCl and glucose is less efficient than MgSO4 in the 50% (v/v) ACN-water mixture, their extraction yields can be improved to be similar with that in MgSO4 SALLE by increasing the initial concentration of ACN in the ACN-water mixture. The content of co-extracted protein was correlated with water concentration in the obtained upper phase. MgSO4 showed the largest protein co-extraction at the low concentration of salt. Glucose exhibited a large protein co-extraction in the high phase ratio condition. Furthermore, NaCl with high initial ACN concentration is recommended because it produced high extraction yield for 10-HDA and the lowest amount of co-extracted protein. These observations would be valuable for the sample preparation of royal jelly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alkali Salt-Doped Highly Transparent and Thickness-Insensitive Electron-Transport Layer for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongguo; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xi; Jin, Yaocheng; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Qing-Hua; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2018-01-17

    Solution-processable highly transparent and thickness-insensitive hybrid electron-transport layer (ETL) with enhanced electron-extraction and electron-transport properties for high-performance polymer solar cell was reported. With the incorporation of Cs 2 CO 3 into the poly[(9,9-bis(6'-((N,N-diethyl)-N-ethylammonium)-hexyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-1,4-diphenylsulfide]dibromide (PF6NPSBr) ETL, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of resulted polymer solar cells (PSCs) was significantly enhanced due to the favorable interfacial contact, energy-level alignment, and thus facile electron transport in the PSC device. These organic-inorganic hybrid ETLs also exhibited high transparency and high electron mobility. All of these combined properties ensured us to design novel thickness-insensitive ETLs that avoid the parasitic absorption of ETL itself simultaneously. With the conventional device structure with poly{4,8-bis[5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-4,6-diyl} (PTB7-Th) as a donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) as an acceptor, devices with hybrid ETLs exhibited PCE of 8.30-9.45% within a wide range of ETL thickness. A notable PCE of 10.78% was achieved with the thick active layer poly(2,5-thiophene-alt-5,5'-(5,10-bis(4-(2-octyldodecyl)thiophen-2-yl)naphtho[1,2-c:5,6-c']bis([1,2,5]thiadiazole)) (PTNT812):PC 71 BM. These findings indicated that doping alkali salt into the organic interfacial materials can be a promising strategy to design highly efficient and thickness-insensitive ETL, which may be suitable for large-area PSC modules device fabrication with roll-to-roll printing technique.

  8. Ionic liquid-salt aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfonamides in water and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juan; Wang, Yun; Liu, Yan; Li, Yanfang; Lu, Yang; Yan, Yongsheng; Ni, Liang

    2013-02-01

    Ionic liquid-salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in water and food samples. In the procedure, the analytes were extracted from the aqueous samples into the ionic liquid top phase in one step. Three sulfonamides, sulfamerazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethizole were selected here as model compounds for developing and evaluating the method. The effects of various experimental parameters in extraction step were studied using two optimization methods, one variable at a time and Box-Behnken design. The results showed that the amount of sulfonamides did not have effect on the extraction efficiency. Therefore, a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design with three factors, which combined the response surface modeling, was used to optimize sulfonamides extraction. Under the most favorable extraction parameters, the detection limits (S/N = 3) and quantification limits (S/N = 10) of the proposed method for the target compounds were achieved within the range of 0.15-0.3 ng/mL and 0.5-1.0 ng/mL from spiked samples, respectively, which are lower than or comparable with other reported approaches applied to the determination of the same compounds. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfonamide compounds in different water and food samples and satisfactory recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained.

  9. Determination of atorvastatin in human serum by salting out assisted solvent extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography–UV detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid technique based on salting out assisted solvent extraction was developed for extraction of atorvastatin from serum sample and high performance liquid chromatography–UV was used for its detection. In the present study, 1.0 mL serum was extracted by 0.5 mL of acetonitrile and some parameters that can affect extraction such as type and volume of extraction solvent, type of salt, and pH were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, the calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 0.001–10 ng mL−1 in human serum and the correlation coefficient (R2 and the limits of detection were >0.99 and 0.0005 ng mL−1, respectively. The accuracy of the method in terms of average recovery of the compound in spiked serum and water samples was better than 90%.

  10. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  11. Salting-out assisted extraction method coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography for determination of selected β-blockers and their metabolites in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kolanowska, Anna; Baranowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of β-blockers (metoprolol, propranolol, carvedilol) and their metabolites (5'-hydroxycarvedilol, O-desmethylcarvedilol, α-hydroxymetoprolol, O-desmethylmetoprolol, 5-hydroxypropranolol) in human urine. A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) procedure was used for sample preparation. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and method sensitivity including the type and volume of the extraction solvent, the type and quantity of the inorganic salt, extraction time and sample pH were investigated. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HILIC-UV) was used for the determination of all analytes. During method development, the effects of mobile phase components (type, pH, concentration of salt, organic modifier type and content, flow rate, column temperature) on the retention and separation of β-blockers and metabolites on the five different HILIC columns were examined. The method was linear for concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 8.0μg/mL, with determination coefficients higher than 0.993 for all analytes. The limits of quantification were in the range from 0.1 to 0.2μg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 0.1 to 8.9%, and accuracy was within±13% interval for all analytes. Under the optimized conditions, extraction efficiency was greater than 83.4% for determined compounds. The validated method was then applied to the measurement of β-blockers and their metabolites in human urine samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Road and Roadside Feature Extraction Using Imagery and LIDAR Data for Transportation Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, S.; Shan, J.; Romero, M. A.; Tarko, A.

    2015-03-01

    Transportation agencies require up-to-date, reliable, and feasibly acquired information on road geometry and features within proximity to the roads as input for evaluating and prioritizing new or improvement road projects. The information needed for a robust evaluation of road projects includes road centerline, width, and extent together with the average grade, cross-sections, and obstructions near the travelled way. Remote sensing is equipped with a large collection of data and well-established tools for acquiring the information and extracting aforementioned various road features at various levels and scopes. Even with many remote sensing data and methods available for road extraction, transportation operation requires more than the centerlines. Acquiring information that is spatially coherent at the operational level for the entire road system is challenging and needs multiple data sources to be integrated. In the presented study, we established a framework that used data from multiple sources, including one-foot resolution color infrared orthophotos, airborne LiDAR point clouds, and existing spatially non-accurate ancillary road networks. We were able to extract 90.25% of a total of 23.6 miles of road networks together with estimated road width, average grade along the road, and cross sections at specified intervals. Also, we have extracted buildings and vegetation within a predetermined proximity to the extracted road extent. 90.6% of 107 existing buildings were correctly identified with 31% false detection rate.

  13. ROAD AND ROADSIDE FEATURE EXTRACTION USING IMAGERY AND LIDAR DATA FOR TRANSPORTATION OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ural

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation agencies require up-to-date, reliable, and feasibly acquired information on road geometry and features within proximity to the roads as input for evaluating and prioritizing new or improvement road projects. The information needed for a robust evaluation of road projects includes road centerline, width, and extent together with the average grade, cross-sections, and obstructions near the travelled way. Remote sensing is equipped with a large collection of data and well-established tools for acquiring the information and extracting aforementioned various road features at various levels and scopes. Even with many remote sensing data and methods available for road extraction, transportation operation requires more than the centerlines. Acquiring information that is spatially coherent at the operational level for the entire road system is challenging and needs multiple data sources to be integrated. In the presented study, we established a framework that used data from multiple sources, including one-foot resolution color infrared orthophotos, airborne LiDAR point clouds, and existing spatially non-accurate ancillary road networks. We were able to extract 90.25% of a total of 23.6 miles of road networks together with estimated road width, average grade along the road, and cross sections at specified intervals. Also, we have extracted buildings and vegetation within a predetermined proximity to the extracted road extent. 90.6% of 107 existing buildings were correctly identified with 31% false detection rate.

  14. Comparison of extraction and beam transport simulations with emittance measurements from the ECR ion source venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklehner, D; Todd, D; Benitez, J; Strohmeier, M; Leitner, D [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley (United States); Grote, D, E-mail: winklehner@frib.msu.ed [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The versatility of ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources makes them the injector of choice for many heavy ion accelerators. However, the design of the LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) systems for these devices is challenging, because it has to be matched for a wide variety of ions. In addition, due to the magnetic confinement fields, the ion density distribution across the extraction aperture is inhomogeneous and charge state dependent. In addition, the ion beam is extracted from a region of high axial magnetic field, which adds a rotational component to the beam. In this paper the development of a simulation model (in particular the initial conditions at the extraction aperture) for ECR ion source beams is described. Extraction from the plasma and transport through the beam line are then simulated with the particle-in-cell code WARP. Simulations of the multispecies beam containing Uranium ions of charge state 18+ to 42+ and oxygen ions extracted from the VENUS ECR ion source are presented and compared to experimentally obtained emittance values.

  15. Logistic Principles Application for Managing the Extraction and Transportation of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin, Alexey

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the cost of resources in solid mineral extraction is an urgent task. For its solution the article proposes logistic approach use to management of mining company all resources, including extraction processes, transport, mineral handling and storage. The account of the uneven operation of mining, transport units and complexes for processing and loading coal into railroad cars allows you to identify the shortcomings in the work of the entire enterprise and reduce resources use at the planned production level. In the article the mining planning model taking into account the dynamics of the production, transport stations and export coal to consumers rail transport on example of Krasnoyarsk region Nazarovo JSC «Razrez Sereul'skiy». Rolling planning methods use and data aggregation allows you to split the planning horizon (month) on equal periods and to use of dynamic programming method for building mining optimal production programme for the month. Coal mining production program definition technique will help align the work of all enterprise units, to optimize resources of all areas, to establish a flexible relationship between manufacturer and consumer, to take into account the irregularity of rail transport.

  16. Logistic Principles Application for Managing the Extraction and Transportation of Solid Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyurin Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the cost of resources in solid mineral extraction is an urgent task. For its solution the article proposes logistic approach use to management of mining company all resources, including extraction processes, transport, mineral handling and storage. The account of the uneven operation of mining, transport units and complexes for processing and loading coal into railroad cars allows you to identify the shortcomings in the work of the entire enterprise and reduce resources use at the planned production level. In the article the mining planning model taking into account the dynamics of the production, transport stations and export coal to consumers rail transport on example of Krasnoyarsk region Nazarovo JSC «Razrez Sereul'skiy». Rolling planning methods use and data aggregation allows you to split the planning horizon (month on equal periods and to use of dynamic programming method for building mining optimal production programme for the month. Coal mining production program definition technique will help align the work of all enterprise units, to optimize resources of all areas, to establish a flexible relationship between manufacturer and consumer, to take into account the irregularity of rail transport.

  17. Effects of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. (Alliaceae) rhizome methanolic extract on kidney function and morphology in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moodley, Kogi; Naidoo, Yougasphree; Mackraj, Irene

    2014-01-01

    .... It could, therefore, prove beneficial in ameliorating renal pathology associated with hypertension. To evaluate the effects of long-term administration of Tulbaghia violacea on renal function and morphology in the Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rat model...

  18. Analysis of biogenic amines in wines by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rui Miguel; Valente, Inês Maria; Rodrigues, José António

    2014-06-01

    Biogenic amines are nitrogenous organic compounds of low molecular weight that are either formed or metabolized in cells of living organisms and can be found in several food products, being produced mainly by amino acid decarboxylation. When ingested in high concentrations they can induce several health problems in humans. In alcoholic beverages, and especially in wine, they are formed during the vinification process as a result of the action of microorganisms. In this work it is proposed a new methodology for the determination of biogenic amines in wines, which includes a sample preparation approach based on salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction, the use of dansyl chloride for the derivatization and chromatographic separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. The salting-out effect is used to promote phase separation between water and a water-miscible organic solvent, while improving the extraction of organic or inorganic species. Several extraction parameters were optimized, such as the dansyl chloride concentration, pH and the effects caused by the order in which the extraction and derivatization were performed. Extraction of amines, and consequent detection, depends on the presence of dansyl chloride in solution prior to extraction. The results showed the possibility to simultaneously perform the extraction and the derivatization, making sample preparation easier and less time-consuming. The methodology was successfully applied to the determination of biogenic amines in five wines (white, red and rosé). This method has the potential to be a good alternative to existing methods since it is cheaper, easier and simplifies the sample preparation step. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma biochemistry and haematological indices of salt-loaded rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Ikewuchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on plasma marker enzymes, plasma chemistry and the haematological profile of salt-loaded rats were studied. The control group received only a commercial feed, whilst the four test groups received a diet consisting of the commercial feed and salt, although the reference treatment group was reverted to the normal feed at the end of 6 weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg body weight to two test groups, respectively; whilst the test control, reference and control groups received equivalent volumes of water by the same route. The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, but it did produce leukocytosis, significantly increased (p < 0.05 plasma calcium and potassium levels and significantly decreased (p < 0.05 plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to the test control animals. This result supports the traditional use of Sansevieria senegambica in the management of hypertension, whilst suggesting that the extract may be a potassium-sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be achieved through alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances, or through calcium-mediated changes in vascular muscle tone.

  20. Microextraction by packed sorbent and salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of aromatic amines formed from azo dyes in textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel del Nogal; Santos, Patricia Martín; Sappó, Cristina Pérez; Pavón, José Luis Pérez; Cordero, Bernardo Moreno

    2014-02-01

    EU legislation prohibits the use of certain azo dyes which, on reduction, form any of 22 aromatic amines listed in Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 at concentrations above the threshold limit of 30 mg Kg(-1). Two different extraction techniques for the determination of aromatic amines formed from azo dyes in textiles in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are described. The first one is based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and the other approach involves salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE). The influence of several parameters on the efficiency of the extraction using MEPS (sorbent material, sample volume, elution solvent, elution volume and washing steps, among others) and SALLE (extraction volume and amount of salt) were investigated. In addition, chromatographic separation was optimized and quadrupole mass spectrometry was evaluated using the synchronous SIM/scan data acquisition mode. The repeatability (n=8, S/N=3) of the methods, calculated as the relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 15 and 11% for all compounds when MEPS and SALLE were used, respectively. Standard additions procedure was used to quantify the aromatic amines in the textil samples. The detection limits in the samples for both methods were lower than the maximum value allowed by legislation. The results obtained in the analysis of textiles revealed the presence of o-anisidine, p-chloroaniline, 4-chloro-o-toluidine, 2-naphthylamine and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine in some of them. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deformation and transport processes in salt rocks : An experimental study exploring effects of pressure and stress relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhammad, Nawaz|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357286537

    2015-01-01

    The presence of evaporitic formations in sedimentary basins, often dominated by the salt mineral halite, is of great influence on the structural style developed during tectonic events. On a somewhat smaller scale, salt rocks often host a variety of deep solution mined caverns, which are increasingly

  2. Beneficial roles of melatonin on redox regulation of photosynthetic electron transport and synthesis of D1 protein in tomato seedlings under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is important in the protection of plants suffering various forms of abiotic stress. The molecular mechanisms underlying the melatonin-mediated protection of their photosynthetic machinery are not completely resolved. This study investigates the effects of exogenous melatonin applications on salt-induced damage to the light reaction components of the photosynthetic machinery of tomato seedlings. The results show that melatonin pretreatments can help maintain growth and net photosynthetic rate (PN under salt stress conditions. Pretreatment with melatonin increased the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII, the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP and the proportion of PSII centers that are ‘open’ (qL under saline conditions. In this way, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PET in photosystem II (PSII is mitigated. In addition, melatonin pretreatment facilitated the repair of PSII by maintaining the availability of D1 protein that was otherwise reduced by salinity. The ROS levels and the gene expressions of the chloroplast TRXs and PRXs were also investigated. Salt stress resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which were mitigated by melatonin. In tomato leaves under salt stress, the expressions of PRXs and TRXf declined but the expressions of TRXm1/4 and TRXm2 increased. Melatonin pretreatment promoted the expression of TRXf and the abundances of TRXf and TRXm gene products but had no effects on the expressions of PRXs. In summary, melatonin improves the photosynthetic activities of tomato seedlings under salt stress. The mechanism could be that: (1 Melatonin controls ROS levels and prevents damaging elevations of ROS caused by salt stress. (2 Melatonin facilitates the recovery of PET and D1 protein synthesis, thus enhancing the tolerance of photosynthetic activities to salinity. (3 Melatonin induces the expression of TRXf and regulates the abundance of TRXf and TRXm gene

  3. Determination of sulfonamides in swine muscle after salting-out assisted liquid extraction with acetonitrile coupled with back-extraction by a water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chen, Ho-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Wern; Huang, Joh-Jong; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2010-01-15

    A salting-out assisted liquid extraction coupled with back-extraction by a water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the extraction and determination of sulfonamides in solid tissue samples. After the homogenization of the swine muscle with acetonitrile and salt-promoted partitioning, an aliquot of 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract containing a small amount of dichloromethane (250-400 microL) was alkalinized with diethylamine. The clear organic extract obtained by centrifugation was used as a donor phase and then a small amount of water (40-55 microL) could be used as an acceptor phase to back-extract the analytes in the water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system. In the back-extraction procedure, after mixing and centrifuging, the sedimented phase would be water and could be withdrawn easily into a microsyringe and directly injected into the HPLC system. Under the optimal conditions, recoveries were determined for swine muscle fortified at 10 ng/g and quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. The calibration curves of five sulfonamides showed linearity with the coefficient of estimation above 0.998. Relative recoveries for the analytes were all from 96.5 to 109.2% with relative standard deviation of 2.7-4.0%. Preconcentration factors ranged from 16.8 to 30.6 for 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract. Limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/g. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2013-12-15

    A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 μM) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 μM dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and partial least squares regression to assay low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons leached from soils and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lucas P.; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Schmidt, Marcella E. P.; Faccin, Henrique; de Machado, Leandro Carvalho; Bohrer, Denise

    2017-02-01

    A novel method was developed to determine low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous leachates from soils and sediments using a salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry and a multivariate calibration technique. Several experimental parameters were controlled and the optimum conditions were: sodium carbonate as the salting-out agent at concentration of 2 mol L- 1, 3 mL of acetonitrile as extraction solvent, 6 mL of aqueous leachate, vortexing for 5 min and centrifuging at 4000 rpm for 5 min. The partial least squares calibration was optimized to the lowest values of root mean squared error and five latent variables were chosen for each of the targeted compounds. The regression coefficients for the true versus predicted concentrations were higher than 0.99. Figures of merit for the multivariate method were calculated, namely sensitivity, multivariate detection limit and multivariate quantification limit. The selectivity was also evaluated and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons did not interfere in the analysis. Likewise, high performance liquid chromatography was used as a comparative methodology, and the regression analysis between the methods showed no statistical difference (t-test). The proposed methodology was applied to soils and sediments of a Brazilian river and the recoveries ranged from 74.3% to 105.8%. Overall, the proposed methodology was suitable for the targeted compounds, showing that the extraction method can be applied to spectrofluorometric analysis and that the multivariate calibration is also suitable for these compounds in leachates from real samples.

  6. Coupling of acetonitrile deproteinization and salting-out extraction with acetonitrile stacking in chiral capillary electrophoresis for the determination of warfarin enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Cai, Zongwei; Xu, Lin

    2011-07-01

    Concurrent sample clean-up and enhancement in detection sensitivity for chiral capillary electrophoresis was demonstrated based on the coupling of salting-out extraction with acetonitrile stacking and the use of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector for the sensitive and enantioselective separation of warfarin enantiomers in urine samples. By optimizing the pH of salting-out extraction, warfarin enantiomers can be efficiently extracted from the aqueous sample solution into a smaller volume organic solvent (acetonitrile) phase. The pressure injection of the enriched acetonitrile phase (containing ca. 1% NaCl) into the CE capillary at 10% capillary volume resulted in additional concentration of the warfarin enantiomers. The limit of detection for both warfarin enantiomers was as low as 1.5 ng/mL in urine sample. Our results show that the novel strategy offers improved sensitivity compared to conventional CE analysis, reaching a combined enrichment factor higher than 1000. Calibration curves of warfarin enantiomers in urine samples were found to be linear between 10 and 1000 ng/mL, and intra- and inter-day precision (N=9) for both warfarin enantiomers in terms of migration time and peak area were found to be within the range of 0.1-0.8% and 1.0-6.7%, respectively. The recovery of warfarin enantiomers from urine was ca. 90%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Forcing functions governing salt transport processes in coastal navigation canals and connectivity to surrounding marshes in South Louisiana using Houma Navigation Canal as a surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how circulation and mixing processes in coastal navigation canals influence the exchange of salt between marshes and coastal ocean, and how those processes are modulated by external physical processes, is critical to anticipating effects of future actions and circumstance. Examples of such circumstances include deepening the channel, placement of locks in the channel, changes in freshwater discharge down the channel, changes in outer continental shelf (OCS) vessel traffic volume, and sea level rise. The study builds on previous BOEM-funded studies by investigating salt flux variability through the Houma Navigation Canal (HNC). It examines how external physical factors, such as buoyancy forcing and mixing from tidal stirring and OCS vessel wakes, influence dispersive and advective fluxes through the HNC and the impact of this salt flux on salinity in nearby marshes. This study quantifies salt transport processes and salinity variability in the HNC and surrounding Terrebonne marshes. Data collected for this study include time-series data of salinity and velocity in the HNC, monthly salinity-depth profiles along the length of the channel, hourly vertical profiles of velocity and salinity over multiple tidal cycles, and salinity time series data at three locations in the surrounding marshes along a transect of increasing distance from the HNC. Two modes of vertical current structure were identified. The first mode, making up 90% of the total flow field variability, strongly resembled a barotropic current structure and was coherent with alongshelf wind stress over the coastal Gulf of Mexico. The second mode was indicative of gravitational circulation and was linked to variability in tidal stirring and the longitudinal salinity gradients along the channel’s length. Diffusive process were dominant drivers of upestuary salt transport, except during periods of minimal tidal stirring when gravitational circulation became more important. Salinity in the

  8. Salting-out homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction approach applied in sample pre-processing for the quantitative determination of entecavir in human plasma by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Juan; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Jin; Davey, Andrew K; Wang, Ji-Ping

    2012-01-15

    A convenient, robust, economical and selective sample preparation method for the quantitative determination of entecavir in human plasma by LC-MS was developed and validated. Entecavir and the internal standard of acyclovir were extracted from 500 μL of human plasma by a salting-out homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction approach (SHLLE) with acetonitrile as the organic extractant and magnesium sulfate as the salting-out reagent. They were analyzed on a Hanbon® Lichrospher RP C18 HPLC column (150 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) with gradient elution. The mobile phase comprised 0.1% acetic acid-0.2 mmol ammonium acetate in water (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B). The flow rate is 0.2 mL/min. The analytes were detected by a LC-MS 2010 single quadrupole mass spectrometer instrument equipped with an electrospray ionization interface using selective ion monitoring positive mode. A "post cut" column switch technique was incorporated into the method to remove interferences of earlier and later eluting matrix components than entecavir and internal standard, including salting-out reagent used in sample pre-processing. The method was validated over the concentration range of 0.05-20 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the assay, as measured by the coefficient of variation (%CV), was within 3.59%, and the intra-day assay accuracy was found to be within 4.88%. The average recovery of entecavir was about 50% and the ion suppression was approximately 44% over the standard curve. Comparison of matrix effect between SHLLE and SPE by continuous post column infusion showed that these two methods got similar, slight ion suppression. The SHLLE method has been successfully utilized for the analysis of entecavir in post-dose samples from a clinical study. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological adjustment to salt stress in Jatropha curcas is associated with accumulation of salt ions, transport and selectivity of K+, osmotic adjustment and K+/Na+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E N; Silveira, J A G; Rodrigues, C R F; Viégas, R A

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the capacity of Jatropha curcas to physiologically adjust to salinity. Seedlings were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 mm) for 15 days. Treatment without NaCl was adopted as control. Shoot dry weight was strongly reduced by NaCl, reaching values of 35% to 65% with 25 to 100 mm NaCl. The shoot/root ratio was only affected with 100 mm NaCl. Relative water content (RWC) increased only with 100 mm NaCl, while electrolyte leakage (EL) was much enhanced with 50 mm NaCl. The Na(+) transport rate to the shoot was more affected with 50 and 100 mm NaCl. In parallel, Cl(-) transport rate increased with 75 and 100 mm NaCl, while K(+) transport rate fell from 50 mm to 100 mm NaCl. In roots, Na(+) and Cl(-) transport rates fell slightly only in 50 mm (to Na(+)) and 50 and 100 mm (to Cl(-)) NaCl, while K(+) transport rate fell significantly with increasing NaCl. In general, our data demonstrate that J. curcas seedlings present changes in key physiological processes that allow this species to adjust to salinity. These responses are related to accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in leaves and roots, K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis, transport of K(+) and selectivity (K-Na) in roots, and accumulation of organic solutes contributing to osmotic adjustment of the species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haitao; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  11. Screening of Salt-stress, Antioxidant Enzyme, and Antimicrobial Activity of Leave extracts of Mangroves Avicennia marina L. from Hodaidah, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A. Al Maqtari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the salinity stress, antioxidant enzyme and antimicrobial activities of leaf extract of Avicennia marinawere investigated. As visualized from SDS-PAGE, no differences was found in number of protein band, but the intensities of several protein bands having apparent molecular mass by reduced severely in salt treated samples with enhanced activities of CAT, POX and GPX. Escherichia coli (ATCC8739, Staphylococus aureus (ATCC 6538, and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC6633 and fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 2091, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 were used as the test pathogenic bacteria and fungi, respectively in this study. The Avicennia marina extract possessed antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis (12, 6, and 7 mm respectively, with antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger (9 and 10 mm.

  12. Heat, Salt, and Mass Transports in the Eastern Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean: an Insight from Two Years of Mooring Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnyushkov, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the recent decade, the Arctic Ocean (AO) has experienced dramatic changes evident in all components of the climate system, e.g., in sea ice cover, thermohaline state, and freshwater budget; and there is no indication that they will discontinue in the near future. The role of deep ocean processes in these changes is still poorly understood. For instance, the peculiarities of Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) - the topographically-controlled current that carries Atlantic Water (AW) around the AO and transports a vast amount of mass, heat, and salt from the Nordic Seas around the polar basin - may play a crucial role in these changes in the Eurasian Basin (EB). Using observations collected in 2013-15 at six moorings distributed at the continental slope of the Laptev Sea we quantify the volume, heat and salt transports of the AW in the eastern EB of the Arctic Ocean. The utilized moorings were deployed in September 2013 as a part of the Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System (NABOS) program along the 125°E meridian, providing a detailed picture of structure and variability of the ACBC in this region. Collected 2013-15 observations suggest that at the central Laptev Sea slope the ACBC carries 5.1 Sv of water in the upper 800 m layer; 3.1 Sv of this volumetric water transport is associated with the AW. The mean heat transport carried by the AW was as high as 9.6±0.4 TW, estimated using a zero degree reference temperature (the lower temperature limit of the AW), and 32.7±1.3 TW relative to the freezing point (-1.8 °C). At the Laptev Sea slope, the AW heat transport constitutes 71% of the net heat transport in the entire layer spanned by NABOS mooring instruments (46.0±1.7 TW), confirming the dominant role of AW heat in the thermal balance of the EB. According to the mooring records, the water, heat and salt transports across the Laptev Sea slope experienced strong annual changes and demonstrated significant negative trends in 2013-15.

  13. Combination of counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a novel microextraction of drugs in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akramipour, Reza; Fattahi, Nazir; Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Gheini, Simin

    2016-02-15

    The counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) joined with the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) has been developed as a high preconcentration technique for the determination of different drugs in urine samples. Amphetamines were employed as model compounds to assess the extraction procedure and were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In this method, initially, NaCl as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of urine and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture, NaCl is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected acetonitrile is removed with a syringe and mixed with 30.0μL 1-undecanol (extraction solvent). In the second step, the 5.00mLK2CO3 solution (2% w/v) is rapidly injected into the above mixture placed in a test tube for further DLLME-SFO. Under the optimum conditions, calibration curves are linear in the range of 1-3000μgL(-1) and limit of detections (LODs) are in the range of 0.5-2μgL(-1). The extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 78 to 84% and 157 to 168, respectively. Repeatability (intra-day) and reproducibility (inter-day) of method based on seven replicate measurements of 100μgL(-1) of amphetamines were in the range of 3.5-4.5% and 4-5%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of amphetamines in the actual urine samples. The relative recoveries of urine samples spiked with amphetamine and methamphetamine are 90-108%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The addition of salt in the water media containing zeolite and active charcoal on closed system transportation of gourami fish fry Osphronemus goramy Lac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of fish fry with high density in closed system will reduce levels of O2, increasing CO2 and NH3, will also elevate the fish stress so that increase fish mortality. To reduce the effects of increased CO2 and NH3 can be applied by using zeolite and activated charcoal, while to reduce the fish stress is through the addition of salt. This study aims to determine the dose of salt added into the water containing zeolite and activated charcoal in a closed transportation system with a high fry density for 72 hours. The study was conducted two stages, namely the preliminary study and the primary study. The preliminary study involved the observation of the survival rate of fish fry during fasting, oxygen consumption rate of fish fry, the rate of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN excretion of fish fry, and the adsorption capacity of TAN by zeolite and activated charcoal. In the primary study, fry transport simulations was carried out for 72 hours in the laboratory. Gourami fry (body length of 4 cm and body weight of 1.7 g with the fry density of 50 fish/L were placed in the packing bag which has been filled with zeolite as much as 20 g/L and activated charcoal as much as 10 g/L. The study used a completely randomized design with five treatments and two replications: A: blank (without zeolite, activated charcoal, and salt, B: control (20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal, C: 20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 1 g/L salt, D: 20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 3 g/L of salt, and E: 20 g/ L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 5 g/L salt. The results of preliminary study showed that the survival rate of fish fry was 100% and active swimming for five days without food, the level of oxygen consumption as much as 1340.28 mgO2, produce NH3 as much as 22.64 mg/L, while zeolite and activated charcoal adsorbs >50% of TAN in time of 120 seconds. In the primary study, the survival rate of fish fry during the 72-hour transportation for

  15. Aluminothermic Reduction-Molten Salt Electrolysis Using Inert Anode for Oxygen and Al-Base Alloy Extraction from Lunar Soil Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaiyu; Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Hu, Xianwei; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen

    2017-10-01

    Aluminothermic reduction-electrolysis using an inert anode process is proposed to extract oxygen and metals from Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1 (MLS-1). Effective aluminothermic reduction between dissolved MLS-1 and dissolved metal aluminum was achieved in cryolite salt media. The product phases obtained by aluminothermic reduction at 980°C for 4 h were Al, Si, and Al5FeSi, while the chemical components were 79.71 mass% aluminum, 12.03 mass% silicon, 5.91 mass% iron, and 2.35 mass% titanium. The cryolite salt containing Al2O3 was subsequently electrolyzed with Fe0.58-Ni0.42 inert anode at 960°C for 4 h. Oxygen was evolved at the anode with an anodic current efficiency of 78.28%. The results demonstrate that this two-step process is remarkably feasible for the extraterrestrial extraction of oxygen and metals. This process will help expand the existing in situ resource utilization methods.

  16. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants.

  17. Hydronium-dominated ion transport in carbon-dioxide-saturated electrolytes at low salt concentrations in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Jensen, Kristian; Kristensen, Jesper Toft; Crumrine, Andrew Michael

    2011-01-01

    the nanochannel conductance at low salt concentrations and identify a conductance minimum before saturation at a value independent of salt concentration in the dilute limit. Via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, our model self-consistently couples chemical-equilibrium dissociation models of the silica wall...... and of the electrolyte bulk, parametrized by the dissociation reaction constants. Experimental data with aqueous KCl solutions in 165-nm-high silica nanochannels are described well by our model, both with and without extra hydronium from added HCl....

  18. Interactions between bile salts, gut microbiota, and hepatic innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Kristin; Olde Damink, Steven W M; von Bergen, Martin; Schaap, Frank G

    2017-09-01

    Bile salts are the water-soluble end products of hepatic cholesterol catabolism that are released into the duodenum and solubilize lipids due to their amphipathic structure. Bile salts also act as endogenous ligands for dedicated nuclear receptors that exert a plethora of biological processes, mostly related to metabolism. Bile salts are actively reclaimed in the distal part of the small intestine, released into the portal system, and subsequently extracted by the liver. This enterohepatic cycle is critically dependent on dedicated bile salt transporters. In the intestinal lumen, bile salts exert direct antimicrobial activity based on their detergent property and shape the gut microbiota. Bile salt metabolism by gut microbiota serves as a mechanism to counteract this toxicity and generates bile salt species that are distinct from those of the host. Innate immune cells of the liver play an important role in the early recognition and effector response to invading microbes. Bile salts signal primarily via the membrane receptor TGR5 and the intracellular farnesoid-x receptor, both present in innate immune cells. In this review, the interactions between bile salts, gut microbiota, and hepatic innate immunity are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of chlorophenols in wine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingying; Hu, Shibin; Liu, Shuhui

    2014-12-01

    A novel procedure of sample preparation combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is introduced for the analysis of highly chlorinated phenols (trichlorophenols, tetrachlorophenols, and pentachlorophenol) in wine. The main features of the proposed method are (i) low-toxicity diethyl carbonate as extraction solvent to selectively extract the analytes without matrix effect, (ii) the combination of salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction to achieve an enrichment factor of 334-361, and (iii) the extract is analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to avoid derivatization. Under the optimum conditions, correlation coefficients (r) were >0.997 for calibration curves in the range 1-80 ng/mL, detection limits and quantification limits ranged from 0.19 to 0.67 and 0.63 to 2.23 ng/mL, respectively, and relative standard deviation was <8%. The method was applied for the determination of chlorophenols in real wines, with recovery rates in the range 82-104%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Monitoring the oleuropein content of olive leaves and fruits using ultrasound- and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction optimized by response surface methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili, Ahmad; Heydari, Rouhollah; Rezaeepour, Reza

    2016-01-01

    A novel and rapid ultrasound- and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been optimized by response surface methodology for the determination of oleuropein from olive leaves. Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing the main parameters including ultrasound time (A), pH (B), salt concentration (C), and volume of miscible organic solvent (D). In this technique, a mixture of plant sample and extraction solvent was subjected to ultrasound waves. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, phase separation was performed by the addition of salt to the liquid phase. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of oleuropein were ultrasound time, 30 min; volume of organic solvent, 2.5 mL; salt concentration, 25% w/v; and sample pH, 4. Experimental data were fitted with a quadratic model. Analysis of variance results show that BC interaction, A(2) , B(2) , C(2) , and D(2) are significant model terms. Unlike the conventional extraction methods for plant extracts, no evaporation and reconstitution operations were needed in the proposed technique. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characterization of Two HKT1;4 Transporters from Triticum monococcum to Elucidate the Determinants of the Wheat Salt Tolerance Nax1 QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Sana; Ben Amar, Siwar; Masmoudi, Khaled; Sentenac, Hervé; Brini, Faiçal; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2016-10-01

    TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are two Na(+) transporter genes that have been identified as associated with the salt tolerance Nax1 locus found in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) line issued from a cross with T. monococcum. In the present study, we were interested in getting clues on the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL). By analyzing the phylogenetic relationships between wheat and T. monococcum HKT1;4-type genes, we found that durum and bread wheat genomes possess a close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A1, but no functional close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A2. Furthermore, performing real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments, we showed that TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are similarly expressed in the leaves but that TmHKT1;4-A2 is more strongly expressed in the roots, which would enable it to contribute more to the prevention of Na(+) transfer to the shoots upon salt stress. We also functionally characterized the TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 transporters by expressing them in Xenopus oocytes. The two transporters displayed close functional properties (high Na(+)/K(+) selectivity, low affinity for Na(+), stimulation by external K(+) of Na(+) transport), but differed in some quantitative parameters: Na(+) affinity was 3-fold lower and the maximal inward conductance was 3-fold higher in TmHKT1;4-A2 than in TmHKT1;4-A1. The conductance of TmHKT1;4-A2 at high Na(+) concentration (>10 mM) was also shown to be higher than that of the two durum wheat HKT1;4-type transporters so far characterized. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that TmHKT1;4-A2 is responsible for the Nax1 trait and provide new insight into the understanding of this QTL. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Production of γ-cyclodextrin by Bacillus cereus cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase using extractive bioconversion in polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu Kiat; Show, Pau Loke; Yap, Yee Jiun; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Mohammad Annuar, Mohammad Suffian; Lai, Oi Ming; Tang, Teck Kim; Juan, Joon Ching; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) extractive bioconversion provides a technique which integrates bioconversion and purification into a single step process. Extractive bioconversion of gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) from soluble starch with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) enzyme derived from Bacillus cereus was evaluated using polyethylene glycol (PEG)/potassium phosphate based on ATPS. The optimum condition was attained in the ATPS constituted of 30.0% (w/w) PEG 3000 g/mol and 7.0% (w/w) potassium phosphate. A γ-CD concentration of 1.60 mg/mL with a 19% concentration ratio was recovered after 1 h bioconversion process. The γ-CD was mainly partitioned to the top phase (YT=81.88%), with CGTase partitioning in the salt-rich bottom phase (KCGTase=0.51). Repetitive batch processes of extractive bioconversion were successfully recycled three times, indicating that this is an environmental friendly and a cost saving technique for γ-CD production and purification. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mcarmen eMartinez-Ballesta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolatesExposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress

  4. A Conserved Salt Bridge between Transmembrane Segment 1 and 10 Constitutes an Extracellular Gate in the Dopamine Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Vingborg; Andreassen, Thorvald Faurschou; Løland, Claus Juul

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters play an important role in termination of synaptic transmission by mediating reuptake of neurotransmitter, but the molecular processes behind translocation are still unclear. The crystal structures of the bacterial homologue, LeuT, provided valuable insight into the s....../E493R) in the serotonin transporter also rescues [(3)H](S)-citalopram binding, suggesting a conserved feature. Taken together, these data suggest that the extracellular thin gate is present in monoamine transporters and that a dynamic interaction is required for substrate transport....

  5. Liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes of cobalt(II-4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol with ditetrazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divarova Vidka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes between Co(II-4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR anionic chelates and cations of three ditetrazolium chlorides were studied: Blue Tetrazolium chloride (BTC, Neotetrazolium chloride (NTC and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium chloride (NBT. The optimum conditions for the formation and solvent extraction of the ion-association comlpex chelates were determined. It has been found that in the systems of Co(II-PAR-DTS, the reactants are reacted in molar ratios 1:2:1 and the general formula of complexes was suggested. The extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized by the equilibrium constants and the recovery factors. The analytical characteristics of the complexes were calculated.

  6. Evaluation of anti-hypertensive activity of Ulmus wallichiana extract and fraction in SHR, DOCA-salt- and L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Anees A; Lahiri, Shibani; Mohan, Divya; Valicherla, Guru R; Gupta, Anand P; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Kumar, Sudhir; Maurya, Rakesh; Hanif, Kashif; Gayen, Jiaur R

    2016-12-04

    Ulmus wallichiana Planchon (Himalayan Elm), a traditional medicinal plant, used in fracture healing in folk tradition of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India. It is also used as diuretic. U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for hypertension (WHO). U. macrocarpa has antihypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. However, no detailed studies related to hypertension have been reported previously, so we have explored the antihypertensive activity of U. wallichiana. To investigate the pharmacological effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and butanolic fraction (BF) of U. wallichiana in hypertensive rats. SHR, DOCA-salt- and L-NAME-induced hypertension models were used. Treatment was performed by oral administration of EE and BF of U. wallichiana (500mg/kg/day and 50mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Then blood pressure was measured by non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement technique. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) was also reported to support the NIBP data. Concentrations of plasma renin, angiotensin II (Ang II), nitrate/nitrite (NO), cGMP were estimated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and ROS activity were also estimated. Blood pressure was significantly higher in SHR as compared to normotensive wistar group (170.59±0.83mmHg vs 121.54±1.24mmHg, respectively). SBP was increased in DOCA-salt induced group compared to their control (132.77±3.90mmHg vs 107.85±5.95mmHg, respectively) and L-NAME-induced group compared to their control (168.55±5.07mmHg vs 113.03±4.13mmHg, respectively). The treatment of extract and fraction of U. wallichiana significantly decreased the blood pressure in SHR+EE (151.26±1.85mmHg, phypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-throughput salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction with acetonitrile for the simultaneous determination of simvastatin and simvastatin acid in human plasma with liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Rodila, Ramona; Gage, Eric; Hautman, Mathew; Fan, Leimin; King, Linda L; Wu, Huaiqin; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2010-02-28

    Simvastatin (SS) is an effective cholesterol-lowering medicine, and is hydrolyzed to simvastatin acid (SSA) after oral administration. Due to SS and SSA inter-conversion and its pH and temperature dependence, SS and SSA quantitation is analytically challenging. Here we report a high-throughput salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction (SALLE) method with acetonitrile and mass spectrometry compatible salts for simultaneous LC-MS/MS analysis of SS and SSA. The sample preparation of a 96-well plate using SALLE was completed within 20 min, and the SALLE extract was diluted and injected into an LC-MS/MS system with a cycle time of 2.0 min/sample. The seamless interface of SALLE and LC-MS eliminated drying down step and thus potential sample exposure to room or higher temperature. The stability of SS and SSA in various concentration ratios in plasma was evaluated at room and low (4 degrees C) temperature and the low temperature (4 degrees C) was found necessary to maintain sample integrity. The short sample preparation time along with controlled temperature (2-4 degrees C) and acidity (pH 4.5) throughout sample preparation minimized the conversion of SS-->SSA to SS to 0.00% The method was validated with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.094 ng mL(-1) for both SS and SSA and a sample volume of 100 microL. The method was used for a bioequivalence study with 4048 samples. Incurred sample reproducibility (ISR) analysis of 362 samples from the study exceeded ISR requirement with 99% re-analysis results within 100+/-20% of the original analysis results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  9. Transport of antimony salts by Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts over-expressing the human multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Landry; Picault, Nathalie; Cazalé, Anne-Claire; Beyly, Audrey; Lucas, Philippe; Jacquet, Hélène; Suso, Henri-Pierre; Vavasseur, Alain; Peltier, Gilles; Forestier, Cyrille

    2006-12-22

    ABC transporters from the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) subfamily are glutathione S-conjugate pumps exhibiting a broad substrate specificity illustrated by numerous xenobiotics, such as anticancer drugs, herbicides, pesticides and heavy metals. The engineering of MRP transporters into plants might be interesting either to reduce the quantity of xenobiotics taken up by the plant in the context of "safe-food" strategies or, conversely, in the development of phytoremediation strategies in which xenobiotics are sequestered in the vacuolar compartment. In this report, we obtained Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing human MRP1. In these plants, expression of MRP1 did not increase plant resistance to antimony salts (Sb(III)), a classical glutathione-conjugate substrate of MRP1. However, the transporter was fully translated in roots and shoots, and targeted to the plasma membrane. In order to investigate the functionality of MRP1 in Arabidopsis, mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) were isolated from transgenic plants and transport activities were measured by using calcein or Sb(III) as substrates. Expression of MRP1 at the plasma membrane was correlated with an increase in the MCPs resistance to Sb(III) and a limitation of the metalloid content in the protoplasts due to an improvement in Sb(III) efflux. Moreover, Sb(III) transport was sensitive to classical inhibitors of the human MRP1, such as MK571 or glibenclamide. These results demonstrate that a human ABC transporter can be functionally introduced in Arabidopsis, which might be useful, with the help of stronger promoters, to reduce the accumulation of xenobiotics in plants, such as heavy metals from multi-contaminated soils.

  10. Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-10-21

    The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can

  11. Salt stress alters fluid and ion transport by Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikkhwah, Wida; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2011-10-15

    Drosophila are tolerant of high levels of dietary salt and can provide a useful model for studies of the physiology of salt stress. The effects of NaCl- and KCl-rich diets on haemolymph ionoregulation and Malpighian tubule (MT) fluid secretion, Na(+) and K(+) secretion and transepithelial potential were examined in larval and adult Drosophila melanogaster. K(+) concentrations in the haemolymph of adults reared on the KCl-rich (0.4 mol l(-1)) diet did not differ from the values for insects reared on the control diet. In the haemolymph of larvae reared on the K-rich diet, K(+) concentrations increased from 23 to 75 mmol l(-1) after 6 h, then returned to the control value within 48 h. Na(+) concentrations in the haemolymph of adults or larvae reared for 1-7 days on the NaCl-rich (0.4 mol l(-1)) diet increased by ~50% relative to values for insects reared on the control diet. Rates of secretion of fluid, Na(+) and K(+) by MTs isolated from larvae reared on the Na-rich diet for >6 h and bathed in control saline containing 20 mmol l(-1) K(+) did not differ from the values for tubules of larvae reared on the control diet. Evidence of phenotypic plasticity was seen in the response of MTs isolated from larvae reared on the K-rich diet for >6 h and bathed in saline containing 60 mmol l(-1) K(+); secretion of fluid and K(+) increased by >50% relative to the values for tubules of larvae reared on the control diet. Secretion of fluid, Na(+) and K(+) increased when tubules were bathed in haemolymph collected from larvae reared on the Na- or K-rich diets. Secretion was further increased by addition of exogenous cAMP but not by addition of thapsigargin to the haemolymph. The results show that haemolymph ionoregulation in larvae reared on salt-rich diets involves both alterations in the basal secretion rates of Na(+) and/or K(+) as well as stimulatory effects of diuretic factors present in the haemolymph. The results suggest that such factors stimulate tubule fluid and ion

  12. Molecular phylogenetic study and expression analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family in Oryza sativa in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayita; Sengupta, Atreyee; Gupta, Kamala; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2015-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a large gene superfamily that utilizes the energy released from ATP hydrolysis for transporting myriad of substrates across the biological membranes. Although many investigations have been done on the structural and functional analysis of the ABC transporters in Oryza sativa, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression pattern of the complete ABC family in rice. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis constructing neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood trees based on various statistical methods of different ABC protein subfamily of five plant lineages including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green algae), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Selaginella moellendorffii (lycophyte), Arabidopsis thaliana (dicot) and O. sativa (monocot) to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these ABC genes. We have identified several conserved motifs in nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of ABC proteins among all plant lineages during evolution. Amongst the different ABC protein subfamilies, 'ABCE' has not yet been identified in lower plant genomes (algae, moss and lycophytes). The result indicated that gene duplication and diversification process acted upon these genes as a major operative force creating new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. We have demonstrated that rice ABCI subfamily consists of only half size transporters that represented highly dynamic members showing maximum sequence variations among the other rice ABC subfamilies. The evolutionary and the expression analysis contribute to a deep insight into the evolution and diversity of rice ABC proteins and their roles in response to salt stress that facilitate our further understanding on rice ABC transporters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptation in Caco-2 Human Intestinal Cell Differentiation and Phenolic Transport with Chronic Exposure to Blackberry (Rubus sp.) Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redan, Benjamin W; Albaugh, George P; Charron, Craig S; Novotny, Janet A; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2017-04-05

    As evidence mounts for a health-protective role of dietary phenolics, the importance of understanding factors influencing bioavailability increases. Recent evidence has suggested chronic exposure to phenolics may impact their absorption and metabolism. To explore alterations occurring from chronic dietary exposure to phenolics, Caco-2 cell monolayers were differentiated on Transwell inserts with 0-10 μM blackberry (Rubus sp.) total phenolics extracts rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. Following differentiation, apical to basolateral transport of phenolics was assessed from an acute treatment of 100 μM blackberry phenolics from 0 to 4 h. Additionally, differences in gene expression of transport and phase II metabolizing systems including ABC transporters, organic anion transporters (OATs), and uridine 5'-diphospho (UDP) glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) were probed. After 4 h, 1 μM pretreated monolayers showed a significant (P transport including less epicatechin (42.1 ± 0.53), kaempferol glucoside (23.5 ± 0.29), and dicaffeoylquinic acid (31.9 ± 0.20) compared to control. Finally, significant (P transport proteins were observed with treatment. Therefore, adaptation to blackberry extract exposure may impact intestinal transport and metabolism of phenolics.

  14. Effects of yeast extract and vitamin D on turkey mortality and cellulitis incidence in a transport stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated yeast extract (YE) and vitamin D (VD) in turkeys treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at intervals designed to simulate transport stress during a 3 stage growout. YE but not VD decreased early mortality (P = 0.001) and mortality at wk 7 (P= 0.02) and wk 12 (P = 0.002) but not wk 16. Celluli...

  15. Geochemical and environmental controls on the genesis of soluble efflorescent salts in Coastal Mine Tailings Deposits: A discussion based on reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, S. A.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.; Saaltink, M. W.; Dold, B.

    2010-01-01

    Water-soluble efflorescent salts often form on tailings in hyperarid climates. Their high solubility together with the high risk of human exposure to heavy metals such as Cu, Ni, Zn, etc., makes this occurrence a serious environmental problem. Understanding their formation (genesis) is therefore key to designing prevention and remediation strategies. A significant amount of these efflorescences has been described on the coastal area of Chañaral (Chile). There, highly soluble salts such as halite (NaCl) and eriochalcite (CuCl 2·2H 2O) form on 4 km 2 of marine shore tailings. Natural occurrence of eriochalcite is rare: its formation requires extreme environmental and geochemical conditions such as high evaporation rate and low relative air humidity, and continuous Cl and Cu supply from groundwater, etc. Its formation was examined by means of reactive transport modeling. A scenario is proposed involving sea water and subsequently a mixture of sea water/freshwater in the groundwater composition in the formation of these efflorescences. The strong competition from other halides (i.e. halite and silvite (KCl)) for the Cl may inhibit the precipitation of eriochalcite. Therefore, the Cl/Na ratio trend > 1 is a key parameter in its formation. Cation-exchange between Na + and other major ions such as K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and Cu 2+ in the clay fraction of tailings is proposed to account for realistic Cl/Na ratios. With regard to preventing the formation of eriochalcite, a capillary barrier on the tailings surface is proposed as a suitable alternative. Its efficiency as a barrier is also tested by means of reactive transport models.

  16. Geochemical and environmental controls on the genesis of soluble efflorescent salts in coastal mine tailings deposits: a discussion based on reactive transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, S A; Ayora, C; Carrera, J; Saaltink, M W; Dold, B

    2010-01-15

    Water-soluble efflorescent salts often form on tailings in hyperarid climates. Their high solubility together with the high risk of human exposure to heavy metals such as Cu, Ni, Zn, etc., makes this occurrence a serious environmental problem. Understanding their formation (genesis) is therefore key to designing prevention and remediation strategies. A significant amount of these efflorescences has been described on the coastal area of Chañaral (Chile). There, highly soluble salts such as halite (NaCl) and eriochalcite (CuCl(2).2H(2)O) form on 4km(2) of marine shore tailings. Natural occurrence of eriochalcite is rare: its formation requires extreme environmental and geochemical conditions such as high evaporation rate and low relative air humidity, and continuous Cl and Cu supply from groundwater, etc. Its formation was examined by means of reactive transport modeling. A scenario is proposed involving sea water and subsequently a mixture of sea water/freshwater in the groundwater composition in the formation of these efflorescences. The strong competition from other halides (i.e. halite and silvite (KCl)) for the Cl may inhibit the precipitation of eriochalcite. Therefore, the Cl/Na ratio trend >1 is a key parameter in its formation. Cation-exchange between Na(+) and other major ions such as K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Cu(2+) in the clay fraction of tailings is proposed to account for realistic Cl/Na ratios. With regard to preventing the formation of eriochalcite, a capillary barrier on the tailings surface is proposed as a suitable alternative. Its efficiency as a barrier is also tested by means of reactive transport models.

  17. A salting out-acetonitrile homogeneous extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of thirteen N-nitrosamines in skin care cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Guo, Xindong; Xian, Yanping; Luo, Haiying; Wang, Bin; Wu, Yuluan

    2015-11-27

    A sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of thirteen N-nitrosamines (NAs) in skin care cosmetics. The cosmetics samples were firstly dispersed by water and subsequently extracted and purified using salting out-acetonitrile homogeneous extraction method. Finally, the extracting solution was concentrated by slow nitrogen gas blowing. All of the samples were separated by INNOWAX capillary chromatographic column, and detected by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by isotope internal standard method. The method was validated for linearity and range, accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Under the optimized condition, the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges of 2-500μg/L for all the thirteen analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R(2)) of greater than 0.996. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the method were 3-15μg/kg and 10-50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries were calculated at three levels of concentration spiked in two kinds of cosmetics (skin care cream and water). The values were found between 93.8% and 121.0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 2.5-7.2% for intra-day precision (n=6) and 3.3-6.7% for inter-day precision (n=5). The method was successfully applied to analyze twenty-two cosmetics samples and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in one sample with the concentration of 207μg/kg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Special licorice extracts containing lowered glycyrrhizin and enhanced licochalcone A prevented Helicobacter pylori-initiated, salt diet-promoted gastric tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Park, Sang-Ho; Hong, Kyung-Sook; Han, Young-Min; Jang, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2014-06-01

    In spite of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions, conventional licorice extracts (c-lico) were limitedly used due to serious side effects of glycyrrhizin. As our group had successfully isolated special licorice extracts (s-lico) lowering troublesome glycyrrhizin, but increasing licochalcone A, we have compared anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective actions of s-lico and c-lico against either in vitro or in vivo Helicobacter pylori infection. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to check anti-inflammatory action and electron spin resonance (ESR) and DCFDA spectroscopy to check antioxidative action. s-lico or c-lico was pretreated 1 hours before H. pylori infection on AGS cells. Interleukin-10 deficient mice inoculated H. pylori and followed with high salt containing pallet diets to produce H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumors, during which s-lico or c-lico-containing pellet diets were administered up to 24 weeks. s-lico had fabulous efficacy on scavenging ROS which was further confirmed by DCFDA study and ESR measurement. The expressions of COX-2, iNOS, VEGF, and IL-8 were increased after H. pylori infection, of which levels were significantly decreased with s-lico in a dose-dependent manner. s-lico significantly ameliorated hypoxia-induced or H. pylori-induced angiogenic activities. s-lico significantly ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastric damages as well as gastritis. Our animal model showed significant development of gastric tumors including adenoma and dysplasia relevant to H. pylori infection, and s-lico administration significantly attenuated incidence of H. pylori-induced gastric tumorigenesis. Special licorice extracts can be anticipating substance afforded significant attenuation of either H. pylori-induced gastritis or tumorigenesis based on potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic actions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The novel dry extract BNO 1011 stimulates chloride transport and ciliary beat frequency in human respiratory epithelial cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, James L; Chen, Bei; Kreitman, Yael; Kofonow, Jennifer; Adams, Kelly M; Cohen, Noam A

    2012-01-01

    Herbal remedies predate written history and continue to be used more frequently than conventional pharmaceutical medications. The novel dry extract BNO 1011 is based on a combination of five herbs that is used to treat acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. We evaluated the pharmacologic effects of the novel dry extract BNO 1011 on human respiratory epithelial cultures specifically addressing electrolyte transport and cilia beat frequency (CBF). Well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial cultures grown at an air-liquid interface were treated on the apical or basolateral surface with varying concentrations of dry extract BNO 1011. Changes in transepithelial sodium and chloride transport were determined in Ussing chambers under voltage-clamped conditions. Changes in CBF were determined using the Sissons-Ammons Video Analysis system (Ammons Engineering, Mt. Morris, MI). When applied to the apical surface, dry extract BNO 1011 activated forskolin-stimulated chloride secretion and ciliary beat in a dose-dependent fashion. Basolateral application of dry extract BNO 1011 did not alter the measured physiological properties. Apical application of dry extract BNO 1011 stimulates both chloride secretion and CBF and therefore may augment mucociliary clearance.

  20. Genes and Salt Tolerance: Bringing Them Together

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rana Munns

    2005-01-01

    Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots...

  1. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  2. Determination of Fusarium toxins in functional vegetable milks applying salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed M; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Vegetable milks are considered as functional foods due to their physiological benefits. Although the consumption of these products has significantly increased, they have received little attention in legislation with regard to contaminants. However, they may contain mycotoxins resulting from the use of contaminated raw materials. In this work, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed for the determination of the most relevant Fusarium toxins (fumonisin B1 and B2, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fusarenon-X) in different functional beverages based on cereals, legumes and seeds. Sample treatment consisted of a simple salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with no further clean-up. The method provided limits of quantification between 3.2 and 57.7 µg L-1, recoveries above 80% and precision with RSD lower than 12%. The method was also applied for studying the occurrence of these mycotoxins in market samples of vegetable functional beverages and deoxynivalenol was found in three oat-based commercial drinks.

  3. Efficacy of eugenol and the methanolic extract of Condalia buxifolia during the transport of the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen

    OpenAIRE

    Becker,Alexssandro Geferson; Cunha,Mauro Alves da; Garcia,Luciano de Oliveira; Zeppenfeld,Carla Cristina; Parodi,Thaylise Vey; Maldaner,Graciela; Morel,Ademir Farias; Baldisserotto,Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated extracts of Condalia buxifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. The effectiveness of eugenol and of the methanolic extract (ME) of C. buxifolia during the transport of this species was also assessed. Fish of two different weights (1.50±0.02 g and 165.70±22.50 g) were transferred to aquaria containing water with the C. buxifolia ME or with fractions obtained from the ME, such as the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butane and aqueou...

  4. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with the aid of experimental design for determination of benzimidazole fungicides in high salinity samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Yang, Fangfang; Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Weiran; Liao, Chunyang; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-03-15

    A novel method for the simultaneous separation and determination of four benzimidazole fungicides (i.e., carbendazim, fuberidazole, thiophanate-methyl and thiophanate) in high salinity samples was developed by using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) via water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Box-Behnken design and response surface were employed to assist the optimization of SALLE conditions, including volume of salting-out solvent, the pH of sample solution and salting-out solvent as variable factors. The optimal salting-out parameters were obtained as follows: 2 mL of acetonitrile was added to 2 mL of sample solution with pH=4 and then 2 mL salting-out solvent containing 5 mol L(-1) sodium chloride at a pH of 7 was added to the solution for extraction. This procedure afforded a convenient and cost-saving operation with good cleanup ability for the benzimidazole fungicides, such as good linear relationships (R>0.996) between peak area and concentration from 2.5 ng mL(-1) to 500 ng mL(-1), low limits of detection between 0.14 ng mL(-1) and 0.38 ng mL(-1) and the intra-day precisions of retention time below 1.0%. The method recoveries obtained at fortified three concentrations for three seawater samples ranged from 60.4% to 99.1%. The simple, rapid and eco-benign SALLE based method proved potentially applicable for trace benzimidazole fungicides analysis in high salinity samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  7. Efficacy of eugenol and the methanolic extract of Condalia buxifolia during the transport of the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandro Geferson Becker

    Full Text Available This study evaluated extracts of Condalia buxifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. The effectiveness of eugenol and of the methanolic extract (ME of C. buxifolia during the transport of this species was also assessed. Fish of two different weights (1.50±0.02 g and 165.70±22.50 g were transferred to aquaria containing water with the C. buxifolia ME or with fractions obtained from the ME, such as the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butane and aqueous fractions, at concentrations from 0-300 °L L-1. The C. buxifolia ME in the 0.5-120 °L L-1range caused only light sedation, and the fractions did not have an effect on the fish. In the second experiment, another group of fish was transported for 12 h in 15 plastic bags. The fish were divided into five groups: control, 1 or 2.5 °L L-1 eugenol and 25 or 50 °L L-1C. buxifolia ME. The non-ionized ammonia levels were lower at the end of transport in the groups with the compounds than in that with water alone. Moreover, both compounds decreased the Na+, Cl-, and K+ net effluxes; therefore, their addition to the water during transport is advisable because they reduce fish mortality and ion loss.

  8. Transportation-related data bases extracted from the national index of energy and environmental data bases. Part II. Detailed data base descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birss, E.W.; Yeh, J.W.

    1976-11-15

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) extracted a set of 135 transportation-related data bases from a computerized national index of energy and environmental data bases. LLL had produced the national index for the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The detailed transportation-related data base descriptions presented are part of a LLL ongoing research contract with the Information Division of the Transportation Systems Center of the U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT/TSC).

  9. Progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is associated with up-regulation of major sodium transporters in the mouse kidney cortex under a normal salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Xiao, Yao; Nurmukhambetova, Saule; Lees, Jason R

    2017-07-01

    Recent demonstrations of exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by high salt diets prompted us to study whether EAE stimulated Na absorption by the renal cortex, a primary regulatory site for Na balance, even under a normal NaCl diet. We found that as EAE progressed from mild to severe symptoms, there were parallel increases in the protein abundance of NHE3 and αENaC and the Na,K-ATPase activity with an affiliated elevation of its β1-subunit protein. These effects are associated with increases in the protein levels of the well-known regulators SGK1 and scaffold NHERF2, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. These effects of EAE could not be explained by reduction in water or food intake. We conclude that EAE progression is associated with up-regulation of major Na transporters, which is most likely driven by increased expression of SGK1 and NHERF2 and activation of ERK1/2. These data suggest that EAE progression increases Na absorption by the renal cortex. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  11. Salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction as a suitable approach for determination of methoxetamine in large sets of tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, Katerina; Jurasek, Bronislav; Sykora, David; Palenicek, Tomas; Miksatkova, Petra; Kuchar, Martin

    2016-02-01

    A new designer drug, a dissociative anesthetic, and a putative N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, methoxetamine (MXE) noted by the EU Early Warning System has been already identified as a cause of several fatalities worldwide. The primary objective of this work was to develop a suitable sample preparation method allowing for isolation of MXE and its main metabolites in high yields from rat brain, liver, and lungs. For the purpose of the project, MXE and five metabolites were synthesized in-house, specifically O-desmethyl-normethoxetamine, O-desmethylmethoxetamine, dihydro-O-desmethylmethoxetamine, normethoxetamine, and dihydromethoxetamine. A sample preparation procedure consisted in the homogenization of the tissue applying salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE). A subsequent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was based on reversed-phased chromatography hyphenated with a triple quad MS system in a positive electrospray mode. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for qualification and quantification of the analytes. The quantification was based on the application of an isotopically labeled internal standard, normethoxetamine-d3. The matrix-matched calibrations were prepared for each type of matrix with regression coefficients 0.9943-1.0000. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 2.5-250 ng g(-1). Limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated as 2.5 and 5 ng g(-1), respectively. Recovery (80-117%) and matrix effect (94-110%) at 100 ng g(-1) and intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision at low (2.5 ng g(-1)), middle (25 ng g(-1)), and upper (250 ng g(-1)) concentration levels for all the analytes in all three types of tissues were also determined. The developed analytical method was applied to a set of real samples gathered in toxicological trials on rats and MXE, and its metabolites were determined successfully.

  12. On extracting sediment transport information from measurements of luminescence in river sediment

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Harrison J; Mahan, Shannon A; McGuire, Chris; Rhodes, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Accurately quantifying sediment transport rates in rivers remains an important goal for geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers, and environmental scientists. However, current techniques for measuring transport rates are laborious, and formulae to predict transport are notoriously inaccurate. Here, we attempt to estimate sediment transport rates using luminescence, a property of common sedimentary minerals that is used by the geoscience community for geochronology. This method is advantageous because of the ease of measurement on ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand. We develop a model based on conservation of energy and sediment mass to explain the patterns of luminescence in river channel sediment from a first-principles perspective. We show that the model can accurately reproduce the luminescence observed in previously published field measurements from two rivers with very different sediment transport styles. The parameters from the model can then be used to estimate the time-averaged virtual velocity, charac...

  13. On extracting sediment transport information from measurements of luminescence in river sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Mahan, Shannon; McGuire, Chris; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Accurately quantifying sediment transport rates in rivers remains an important goal for geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers, and environmental scientists. However, current techniques for measuring long-time scale (102–106 years) transport rates are laborious, and formulae to predict transport are notoriously inaccurate. Here we attempt to estimate sediment transport rates by using luminescence, a property of common sedimentary minerals that is used by the geoscience community for geochronology. This method is advantageous because of the ease of measurement on ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand. We develop a model from first principles by using conservation of energy and sediment mass to explain the downstream pattern of luminescence in river channel sediment. We show that the model can accurately reproduce the luminescence observed in previously published field measurements from two rivers with very different sediment transport styles. The model demonstrates that the downstream pattern of river sand luminescence should show exponential-like decay in the headwaters which asymptotes to a constant value with further downstream distance. The parameters from the model can then be used to estimate the time-averaged virtual velocity, characteristic transport lengthscale, storage time scale, and floodplain exchange rate of fine sand-sized sediment in a fluvial system. The sediment transport values predicted from the luminescence method show a broader range than those reported in the literature, but the results are nonetheless encouraging and suggest that luminescence demonstrates potential as a sediment transport indicator. However, caution is warranted when applying the model as the complex nature of sediment transport can sometimes invalidate underlying simplifications.

  14. On extracting sediment transport information from measurements of luminescence in river sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Mahan, Shannon A.; McGuire, Chris; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2017-03-01

    Accurately quantifying sediment transport rates in rivers remains an important goal for geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers, and environmental scientists. However, current techniques for measuring long-time scale (102-106 years) transport rates are laborious, and formulae to predict transport are notoriously inaccurate. Here we attempt to estimate sediment transport rates by using luminescence, a property of common sedimentary minerals that is used by the geoscience community for geochronology. This method is advantageous because of the ease of measurement on ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand. We develop a model from first principles by using conservation of energy and sediment mass to explain the downstream pattern of luminescence in river channel sediment. We show that the model can accurately reproduce the luminescence observed in previously published field measurements from two rivers with very different sediment transport styles. The model demonstrates that the downstream pattern of river sand luminescence should show exponential-like decay in the headwaters which asymptotes to a constant value with further downstream distance. The parameters from the model can then be used to estimate the time-averaged virtual velocity, characteristic transport lengthscale, storage time scale, and floodplain exchange rate of fine sand-sized sediment in a fluvial system. The sediment transport values predicted from the luminescence method show a broader range than those reported in the literature, but the results are nonetheless encouraging and suggest that luminescence demonstrates potential as a sediment transport indicator. However, caution is warranted when applying the model as the complex nature of sediment transport can sometimes invalidate underlying simplifications.

  15. Effervescent-salt-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction using mesoporous hybrid materials coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of trace-level compounds in complicated plant preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Wan; Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Da, Jian-Hua; Dai, Han-Bin; Cao, Jun; Xu, Jing-Jing; Pang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-02-01

    A novel effervescent-salt-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction using mesoporous hybrid materials was developed for the extraction of minute traces of constituents in complicated plant preparations. In this study, a special tablet containing carbon dioxide sources (sodium dihydrogenphosphate and sodium carbonate) and the sorbent (mesoporous hybrid materials) was prepared. The effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as the concentration of salts, the type and concentration of mesoporous material, pH of diluent, and desorption solvents were investigated and optimized. Results show that the proposed method using green solvents (water) as extraction solutions required low consumption of sample amount and obtained high enrichment efficiency. Moreover, under optimized conditions, the tested tanshinones exhibited good linearity (r(2) > 0.994) in the concentration range of 0.5 to 80 ng mL(-1). The limits of detection values were lower than 0.0803 pg using UV-visible detection. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of trace tanshinones in compound Danshen dripping pill and Danqi tablet samples.

  16. Intestinal transport and absorption of bioactive phenolic compounds from a chemically characterized aqueous extract of Athrixia phylicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Sandra L; Ntamo, Yonela; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Kappo, Abidemi M P; Louw, Johan; Muller, Christo J F

    2017-03-22

    Athrixia phylicoides, popularly known as "bush tea", is an indigenous aromatic shrub found in mountainous and grassland areas of the northern and eastern parts of southern Africa. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of several ailments, including coughing, treating infected wounds, treating boils and sore throat, hypertension and heart disease. Potential anti-diabetic effects have also been demonstrated in vitro. To investigate the intestinal transport of prominent phenolic constituents, across a fully differentiated Caco-2 monolayer, using a characterized aqueous extract of A. phylicoides, previously shown to have bioactivity. HPLC-DAD and LC/MS analyses were used to identify the major phenolic compounds within the extract. Intestinal transport of the phenolic compounds was assessed using a differentiated Caco-2 monolayer model in order to predict bioavailability and identify metabolite formation. Rate of transport, efflux and percentage cross-over were calculated for the respective phenolic compounds. Nine prominent compounds, present in the aqueous extract of A. phylicoides, were identified. Of these, three phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid and para-coumaric acid), crossed the Caco-2 cell monolayer in significant amounts, with Papp values of 4.52, 4.35 (×10-6cm/s) and 2.38 (×10-5cm/s), respectively. para-Coumaric acid was shown to have the highest predicted bioavailability. Para-Coumaric acid, identified for the first time in A. phylicoides, was shown to have the highest predicted bioavailability suggesting that it could play a major role in the bioactivity of A. phylicoides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants with laxative properties on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jong-Chang; Tsai, Shuli; Chang, Weng-Cheng

    2004-02-01

    The effects of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants Dahuang (Rheum palmatum L.), Badou (Croton tiglium L.), and Huomaren (Cannabis sativa L.), on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia were studied. Rat intestinal epithelia mounted in an Ussing chamber attached with voltage/current clamp were used for measuring changes of the short-circuit current across the epithelia. The intestinal epithelia were activated with current raised by serosal administration of forskolin 5 microM. Ethanol extracts of the three plants all augmented the current additively when each was added after forskolin. In subsequent experiments, ouabain and bumetanide were added prior to ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants to determine their effect on Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The results suggest that ethanol extracts of the three medicinal plants may affect the Cl(-) movement more directly than Na(+) movement in the intestinal epithelial cells. The results provide evidence for the pharmacologic mechanism of the three Chinese medicinal plants on the intestinal tract.

  18. Role of the water extract from Coccinia indica stem on the stimulation of glucose transport in L8 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaweewan Jansakul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic effect of Coccinia indica used for treatment of diabetes in traditional remedies has known to relate with increased transport of glucose into peripheral tissues. However, the cellular mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. This present study reports that the water extract (WE of C. indica stem exhibited a dose-dependent induction of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG uptake in rat L8 myotubes. Maximal uptake was observed with approximately 3-fold increase in 2-DG transport in 16 h treatment compared with the control. Effect of WE was stronger than that of 1 mM metformin. The effects of insulin and WE were additive. WE-induced glucose uptake was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide and partially reversed by SB203580. GLUT1 protein was markedly increased in response to WE. Conversely, WE had no effect on GLUT4 protein level. Redistribution of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane was demonstrated. Triterpenoids and carbohydrates were detected in WE. In conclusion, new GLUT1 protein synthesis is necessary for WEstimulated glucose transport while p38-MAPK-dependent activation of transporter intrinsic activity partly contributes to WE action. These results may explain and support the use of C. indica for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  19. Fluid distribution in grain boundaries of natural fine-grained rock salt deformed at low differential stress (Qom Kuh salt fountain, central Iran): Implications for rheology and transport properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J.L.; Bresser, J.H.P. de

    2012-01-01

    We used a combination of broad ion beam cross-sectioning and cryogenic SEM to image polished surfaces and corresponding pairs of fractured grain boundaries in an investigation of grain boundary microstructures and fluid distribution in naturally deformed halite from the Qom Kuh salt glacier (central

  20. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  1. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  2. Cinnamon extract regulates glucose transporter and insulin-signaling gene expression in mouse adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamon has been used to treat people with type 2 diabetes based on the insulin-like activity of cinnamon polyphenol extract (CPE) observed in cell culture, animal, and human studies. Molecular characterization of the effect of CPE, however, is limited. This study tested the hypothesis that CPE has...

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of reverse osmosis separation of inorganic salts in aqueous solutions; Estudio teorico y experimental de parametros de transporte a traves de membranas de osmosis inversa : Efecto de varios tipos de sales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khavet, M.; Mengual, J. I.

    2004-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of reverse osmosis separation of inorganic salts in aqueous solutions have been carried out. In this study, a polyamide thin film composite membrane in spiral wound configuration was used. The free energy of different inorganic monovalent (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, NaBr, NaI, LiBr, KBr) and divalent (MgCl2, MnCl2, CaCl2, MgBr2) salts has been calculated. The solute transport parameters were related to the free energy of the corresponding cations and anions. The mass transfer coefficient at the high pressure feed side of the spiral wound module was determined for each type of salt. The obtained theoretical values were compared to the experimental ones. The good agreements observed between the experimental and theoretical results confirm the validity of the theoretical procedure, which may be applied in modelling solar reverse osmosis plants for the prediction of the separation factor of various types of inorganic salts. (Author)

  4. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  5. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  6. Ionic liquid and aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan-Jie; Jin, Yong-Ri; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Li, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    A method of ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides including Rg6 , F4 , 20(S)-Rg3 , 20(R)-Rg3 , Rk3 , Rk1 , and Rg5 in Xue-Sai-Tong injection. The injection was mixed with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution, and a mixture was obtained. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dipotassium phosphate into the mixture, the aqueous two-phase mixture was formed after ultrasonic treatment and centrifuged. Rare ginsenosides were extracted into the upper phase. To obtain a high extraction factors, various influences were considered systematically, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the pH value of system, and the time of ultrasonic treatment. Under the optimal condition, rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection were enriched and detected, the recoveries of seven rare ginsenosides ranged from 90.05 to 112.55%, while relative standard deviations were lower than 2.50%. The developed method was reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in the injections. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Simulation of cesium nitrate extraction by a calixarene. Application to supported liquid membranes transport; Modelisation de l`extraction du nitrate de cesium par un calixarene. Application a la modelisation du transport a travers des membranes liquides supportees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorel, C.

    1996-12-12

    This work fits into the general pattern of the CEA studies on the decontamination of liquid effluents containing long-lived radioactive isotopes. Some calixarenes have proved to be very effective to selectively extract the cesium of aqueous solutions whose composition simulates those of the effluents to be reprocessed. On account of the difficulty of the studied extraction mechanisms, a physical and chemical simulation has been necessary. The system takes into account: 1)a concentrated nitric acid aqueous phase and/or sodium nitrate 2)an organic phase constituted by the diluent 1,2-nitro-phenyl-octyl-ether and 1,3-diisopropoxy-calix(4)arene-couronne-6. The use of concentrated aqueous solutions requires to take into account variations to ideality by the mean of activity coefficients reckoning. The different theories on the reckoning of variations to ideality in aqueous or organic phases are described in the first part. The determination of cesium and sodium nitrates activity coefficients in very concentrated matrices has required an important theoretical and experimental study which is given in the second part. The aim of this study was indeed to complete the thermodynamic data of cesium and sodium nitrates aqueous solutions. The computerized tools required for the modeling are reviewed. The stoichiometry of the extracted species in the organic phase has been determined in the third part. The supported membrane technique is an original method of separation by liquid-liquid extraction. A membrane transport model has been developed and is given in the last part of this work. (O.M.). 128 refs.

  8. Optimizing tritium extraction from a Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) by dimensional design using different tritium transport modeling tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P., E-mail: pablomiguel.martinez@ciemat.es [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Martinez, I. [SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas, Provenca 392, 4a 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) has been conceived as the simplest, cost effective and reliable technology system dedicated to tritium extraction from breeding liquid metals. An optimal design of a PAV requires a detailed hydraulic design optimization for established operational ranges (HCLL at low velocities of {approx}1 mm/s or DCLL in the ranges of tens of cm/s). The present work analyses the PAV extraction efficiency dependency on the design parameters as optimum on-line Tritium Extraction System (TES). Three different models have been built for that purpose: one through physically refined 1D tritium transport computation using TMAP7 (unique simulation tool with QA for ITER); and two further detailed models on 2D/3D FEM tool (COMSOL Multi-physics 4.0). The geometry used in this work is a simplification of Fuskite{sup Registered-Sign} conceptual design developed at CIEMAT, consisting of a set of cylindrical and concentric {alpha}-Fe double membranes enclosing a vacuumed space and in contact with in-pipe flowing LiPb eutectic. The aim of this paper is to give the first steps to establish the optimal design parameters of a PAV and evaluate the state-of-the-art of these models.

  9. Skin permeability enhancement by low frequency sonophoresis: lipid extraction and transport pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Román, R; Merino, G; Kalia, Y N; Naik, A; Guy, R H

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to shed light on the mechanism(s) by which low-frequency ultrasound (20 KHz) enhances the permeability of the skin. The physical effects on the barrier and the transport pathway, in particular, were examined. The amount of lipid removed from the intercellular domains of the stratum corneum following sonophoresis was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Transport of the fluorescent probes nile red and calcein, under the influence of ultrasound, was evaluated by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The results were compared with the appropriate passive control data and with data obtained from experiments in which the skin was exposed simply to the thermal effects induced by ultrasound treatment. A significant fraction ( approximately 30%) of the intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum, which are principally responsible for skin barrier function, were removed during the application of low-frequency sonophoresis. Although the confocal images from the nile red experiments were not particularly informative, ultrasound clearly and significantly (again, relative to the corresponding controls) facilitated transport of the hydrophilic calcein via discrete permeabilized regions, whereas other areas of the barrier were apparently unaffected. Lipid removal from the stratum corneum is implicated as a factor contributing the observed permeation enhancement effects of low-frequency ultrasound. However, microscopic observations imply that sonophoresis induces localized (aqueous?) permeation pathways at discrete sites. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-07

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  11. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  12. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  13. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages after derivatization with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Archana; Gupta, Manju; Verma, Krishna K

    2015-11-27

    A new method for determining biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages is described involving reaction of biogenic amines with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate followed by extraction of 1-naphthylthiourea derivatives with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when solvents phase separation occurred using ammonium sulphate, a process called salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 254nm. The new reagent avoided many of the inconveniences as observed with existing derivatizing agents, such as dansyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, in regard to their inselectivity, instability, adverse effect of excess reagent, and necessity to remove excess reagent. The procedure has been optimized with respect to reaction time and temperature, water-miscible extraction solvent, and salt for solvents phase separation. Use of reagent as dispersed phase in aqueous medium produced derivatives in high yield. A linear calibration was obtained between the amount of biogenic amines in range 1-1000μgL(-1) and peak areas of corresponding thioureas formed; the correlation coefficient was 0.9965, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification found were 1.1μgL(-1) and 3.2μgL(-1), respectively. The pre-concentration method gave an average enrichment factor of 94. The application of the method has been demonstrated in the determination of biogenic amines in commercial samples of fruit juices and alcoholic beverages. In spiking experiments to real samples, the average recovery found by the present method was 94.5% that agreed well with 95.8% obtained by established comparison methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of multiphase transport models to field remediation by air sparging and soil vapor extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbeh, M E; Mohtar, R H

    2007-05-08

    The design and operation of air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE) remediation systems remains in large an art due to the absence of reliable physically based models that can utilize the limited available field data. In this paper, a numerical model developed for the design and operation of air sparging and soil vapor extractions systems was used to simulate two field case studies. The first-order mass transfer kinetics were incorporated into the model to account for contaminant mass transfer between the water and air (stripping), NAPL and water (dissolution), NAPL and air (volatilization), and water and soil (sorption/desorption), the model also accounted for soil heterogeneity. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) were the contaminants of concern in both case studies. In the second case study, the model was used to evaluate the effect of pulsed sparging on the removal rate of BTEX compounds. The pulsed sparging operation was approximated assuming uniform contaminant redistribution at the beginning of the shut-off period. The close comparison between the observed and simulated contaminant concentration in the aqueous phase showed that the approximation of the pulsed sparging operation yielded reasonable prediction of the removal process. Field heterogeneity was simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. The model predicted about 80-85% of the contaminant mass was removed by air-water mass transfer, which was similar to the average removal obtained by Monte Carlo analysis. The analysis of the removal/rebound cycles demonstrated that removal rate was controlled by the organic-aqueous distribution coefficient K(oc). Due to the lack of site-specific data, the aerobic first-order biodegradation coefficients (k(bio)) were obtained from a literature survey, therefore, uncertainty analysis of the k(bio) was conducted to evaluate the contribution of the aerobic biodegradation to total contaminant removal. Results of both case studies showed that

  15. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  16. Mathematical modeling of liquid/liquid hollow fiber membrane contactor accounting for interfacial transport phenomena: Extraction of lanthanides as a surrogate for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1994-08-04

    This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport.

  17. The chemistry of molten salt mixtures: application to the reductive extraction of lanthanides and actinides by a liquid metal; Chimie des melanges de sels fondus. Application a l'extraction reductrice d'actinides et de lanthanides par un metal liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finne, J

    2005-10-15

    The design of a process of An/Ln separation by liquid - liquid extraction can be used for on-line purification of the molten salt in a molten salt nuclear reactor (Generation IV) as well as reprocessing various spent fuels. In order to establish the chemical properties of An and Ln in molten salt mediums, E - pO{sub 2} - diagrams were established for the relevant chemical elements. With the purpose of checking the possibilities of separating the An from Ln, the real activity coefficients in liquid metals were measured. An experimental protocol was developed and validated on the Gd/Ga system. It was then transferred to radioactive environment to measure the activity coefficient of Pu in Ga. The results made it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the Pu extraction and its separation from Gd and Ce. The selectivity was shown to decrease with the temperature and Al and Ga showed a good selectivity between Pu and the Ce in fluoride medium. (author)

  18. Regulation of cation transporter genes by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice plants subjected to salinity suggests improved salt tolerance due to reduced Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Rosa; Aroca, Ricardo; Azcon, Rosario; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Rice is a salt-sensitive crop whose productivity is strongly reduced by salinity around the world. Plants growing in saline soils are subjected to the toxicity of specific ions such as sodium, which damage cell organelles and disrupt metabolism. Plants have evolved biochemical and molecular mechanisms to cope with the negative effects of salinity. These include the regulation of genes with a role in the uptake, transport or compartmentation of Na(+) and/or K(+). Studies have shown that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alleviates salt stress in several host plant species. However, despite the abundant literature showing mitigation of ionic imbalance by the AM symbiosis, the molecular mechanisms involved are barely explored. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of the AM symbiosis on the expression of several well-known rice transporters involved in Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and measure Na(+) and K(+) contents and their ratios in different plant tissues. Results showed that OsNHX3, OsSOS1, OsHKT2;1 and OsHKT1;5 genes were considerably upregulated in AM plants under saline conditions as compared to non-AM plants. Results suggest that the AM symbiosis favours Na(+) extrusion from the cytoplasm, its sequestration into the vacuole, the unloading of Na(+) from the xylem and its recirculation from photosynthetic organs to roots. As a result, there is a decrease of Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution and an increase of Na(+) accumulation in rice roots which seems to enhance the plant tolerance to salinity and allows AM rice plants to maintain their growing processes under salt conditions.

  19. Inhibition of the intestinal sodium-coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) by extracts and polyphenols from apple reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christine; Bangert, Adina; Kottra, Gabor; Geillinger, Kerstin Elisabeth; Schwanck, Bettina; Vollert, Henning; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Daniel, Hannelore

    2014-09-01

    There is a growing interest in food constituents that could reduce intestinal glucose absorption to prevent overshooting plasma glucose and insulin levels in patients with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus type 2. We here demonstrate that an extract and individual polyphenols from apple diminish sodium-coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) mediated glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of transport of sugars by SGLT1 was shown in Xenopus oocytes and in mice jejunal segments. Strongest inhibition was observed for phlorizin with IC50 values for transport inhibition of 0.46 ± 0.19 and 4.1 ± 0.6 μM in oocytes and intestinal segments, respectively. An oral glucose tolerance test performed in volunteers with prior administration of the apple extract reduced venous blood glucose and plasma insulin levels, similar to findings obtained in C57BL/6N mice. Analysis of human urine samples revealed that the extract increased modestly renal glucose loss that is most likely a result of inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption by phloretin derivatives found in plasma of the volunteers. Although the apple extract substantially decreased intestinal glucose absorption in all test systems, the finding that there are systemic effects that relate to inhibition of glucose transport processes beyond the intestine addresses safety issues that need further exploitation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  1. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, R.

    2002-02-01

    Plant responses to salt and water stress have much in common. Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in growth rate, along with a suite of metabolic changes identical to those caused by water stress. The initial reduction in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated by the roots. There may be salt-specific effects that later have an impact on growth; if excessive amounts of salt enter the plant, salt will eventually rise to toxic levels in the older transpiring leaves, causing premature senescence, and reduce the photosynthetic leaf area of the plant to a level that cannot sustain growth. These effects take time to develop. Salt-tolerant plants differ from salt-sensitive ones in having a low rate of Na+ and Cl-- transport to leaves, and the ability to compartmentalize these ions in vacuoles to prevent their build-up in cytoplasm or cell walls and thus avoid salt toxicity. In order to understand the processes that give rise to tolerance of salt, as distinct from tolerance of osmotic stress, and to identify genes that control the transport of salt across membranes, it is important to avoid treatments that induce cell plasmolysis, and to design experiments that distinguish between tolerance of salt and tolerance of water stress.

  2. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of tetracycline residues in infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-04-15

    The use of salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been evaluated for the determination of tetracyclines in infant foods based on meat and vegetables or in milk. To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized. Analytical performances of the method were satisfactory, obtaining limits of quantification lower than 0.48μgkg -1 in all cases. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (%, RSD) was below 11.3%. The extraction efficiency for fortified samples ranged from 89.2 to 96.8%, with RSDs lower than 7.3%. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples studied, being lower than |21|% in all cases. In relation to the low solvent consumption, the proposed methodology could be considered rapid, cheap and environmentally friendly. Its applicability has been successfully tested in a wide range of infant foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  4. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  5. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  6. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  7. Evaluation of the intestinal transport of a phenylethanoid glycoside-rich extract from Cistanche deserticola across the Caco-2 cell monolayer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    Full Text Available Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs, a class of polyphenolic compounds, are considered one of major bioactive constituents of Cistanche deserticola Y.C. Ma (CD, whose extract is orally used in traditional Chinese medicine. Although previous pharmacological studies have reported that PhGs exert many activities, their intestinal transport profiles have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the intestinal permeability of a PhG-rich extract (PRE from CD as an integrated system in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model using a bioassay system. The results showed that PRE is primarily transported via poorly absorbed passive diffusion down a concentration gradient without efflux, which provides the pharmacokinetic basis for the clinical application of PhGs in CD. We also determined the intestinal permeability of three major PhGs [acteoside (AC, isoacteoside (IS and echinacoside (EC] by HLPC. Furthermore, we developed a novel HPLC-fluorescence detection method to accurately determine the flux amount of AC and IS. As expected, the transport characteristics of the three PhGs are consistent with those of PRE, indicating that the present bioassay system is appropriate and reliable for the evaluation of the transport characteristics of active ingredient groups (AIG in PRE. Moreover, this system may also be suitable for other plant extracts given appropriate bioactivity.

  8. Evaluation of the intestinal transport of a phenylethanoid glycoside-rich extract from Cistanche deserticola across the Caco-2 cell monolayer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zong, Chuanjie; Liu, Fen; Fang, Lei; Cai, Runlan; Shi, Yue; Chen, Xi; Qi, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), a class of polyphenolic compounds, are considered one of major bioactive constituents of Cistanche deserticola Y.C. Ma (CD), whose extract is orally used in traditional Chinese medicine. Although previous pharmacological studies have reported that PhGs exert many activities, their intestinal transport profiles have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the intestinal permeability of a PhG-rich extract (PRE) from CD as an integrated system in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model using a bioassay system. The results showed that PRE is primarily transported via poorly absorbed passive diffusion down a concentration gradient without efflux, which provides the pharmacokinetic basis for the clinical application of PhGs in CD. We also determined the intestinal permeability of three major PhGs [acteoside (AC), isoacteoside (IS) and echinacoside (EC)] by HLPC. Furthermore, we developed a novel HPLC-fluorescence detection method to accurately determine the flux amount of AC and IS. As expected, the transport characteristics of the three PhGs are consistent with those of PRE, indicating that the present bioassay system is appropriate and reliable for the evaluation of the transport characteristics of active ingredient groups (AIG) in PRE. Moreover, this system may also be suitable for other plant extracts given appropriate bioactivity.

  9. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City...

  10. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT 84118...

  11. Comparison between an anionic exchanger of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt and a commercial exchanger in the extraction of available phosphorus in soils; Comparacao entre um trocador anionico de sal de amonio quaternario de quitosana e um trocador comercial na extracao de fosforo disponivel em solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves Junior, Affonso Celso; Nacke, Herbert, E-mail: herbertnacke@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Marechal Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Favere, Valfredo Tadeu de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DQ/UFSC), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Gomes, Gilmar Divino [Faculdade de Tecnologia Internacional, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The present work aimed modify chemically the chitosan (QTS) surface to obtain a reticulate chitosan quaternary ammonium salt (SAQQR), and compare this anionic exchanger with an commercial ion exchanger in the extraction of available phosphorus in soils. The results showed that the two exchangers are identical, extracting similar and proportional quantities of available phosphorus in the studied soils, and the anionic exchanger of SAQQR provides a high chemical stability, not affected by the pH difference of soils. (author)

  12. Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of aqueous extract of Annona squamosa L peel as biomaterial for the reduction of palladium salts into nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Kumar, Rajendran; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam

    2012-04-01

    In recent years the utilization of secondary metabolites from plant extract has emerged as a novel technology for the synthesis of various nanoparticles. In this paper we studied the potential of nanocrystalline palladium nanoparticles production using acaricidal, insecticidal and larvicidal efficacy of Annona squamosa L aqueous peel extract as the biomaterial for the first time. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as palladium nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and TEM analysis. The results clearly showed that the compounds containing -OH as a functional group played a critical role in capping the nanoparticles. Also the results highlight the possibility of green pathways to produce palladium nanoparticles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aproveitamento de peles de tilápia-do-nilo congeladas e salgadas para extração de gelatina em processo batelada Utilization of frozen and salted Nile tilapia skin for batch-processed gelatin extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Bordignon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar peles de tilápia-do-nilo, conservadas por congelamento e salga a seco, visando à extração de gelatina em processo batelada. Após a filetagem, as peles foram descarnadas e distribuídas em dois lotes. Um dos lotes foi congelado a -18 ºC por sete dias e o outro foi salgado e mantido a 25 ºC por sete dias. As peles foram lavadas, pesadas e pré-tratadas em solução de H2SO4 a10N (pH 3,0, na proporção de 1:6 (pele:água por uma hora a 24 ºC. Extraiu-se a gelatina em banho-maria a 50 ºC por uma hora e retirou-se uma amostra para análise do perfil molecular. O restante foi congelado a -18 ºC. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas das peles e das gelatinas líquidas, do perfil molecular com as gelatinas e análises microbiológicas das peles. As peles congeladas e salgadas apresentaram, respectivamente, 78,13 e 76,46% de umidade; 18,16 e 19,59% de proteína bruta; 2,26 e 1,90% de extrato etéreo e 1,44 e 2,06% de cinzas. Nas gelatinas líquidas extraídas das peles congeladas e salgadas, a umidade foi de 97,68 e 96,08%, o conteúdo de proteína bruta de 3,18 e 4,12%, de extrato etéreo 0,29 e 0,18% e de cinzas de 2,31 e 3,03%, respectivamente. Os valores da força de gel e viscosidade foram maiores para a gelatina de peles salgadas (200 g e 19,02mPas em comparação à gelatina de peles conservadas pelo congelamento (12,7 g e 9,16mPas. O perfil molecular foi menor na gelatina extraída a partir de peles congeladas, portanto houve perda de β e γ-componentes, que indica grande degradação do colágeno decorrente do método de conservação.The objective was to characterize Nile tilapia skins, freeze- and dry salt dry-preserved to extract gelatins by batch processing. After filleting, the skins were separated from the meat and distributed into two lots: In one, skins were frozen for 7 days (-18 ºC; and in the other, skins were salted for seven days (25 ºC. The skins were rinsed, weighed and pretreated in

  14. Development and application of salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction for multi-mycotoxin biomarkers analysis in pig urine with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suquan; Ediage, Emmanuel Njumbe; Wu, Aibo; De Saeger, Sarah

    2013-05-31

    Direct determination of urinary mycotoxins is a better approach to assess individual's exposure than the indirect estimation from average dietary intakes. In this study, a new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and T2 toxin and their metabolites in pig urine. In total 12 analytes were selected. A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction procedure was used for sample preparation. High performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 70-108%, with the intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 25% for most of the compounds at 3 different concentration levels. Meanwhile the method bias for all the analytes did not exceed 20%. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.07ngmL(-1) for ochratoxin A to 3.3ngmL(-1) for deoxynivalenol. Matrix effect was evaluated in this study and matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification. The developed method was also validated for human urine as an extension of its application. Finally, the developed method was applied in a pilot study to analyze 28 pig urine samples. Deoxynivalenol, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in these samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  16. Selective transport of ions and molecules across layer-by-layer assembled membranes of polyelectrolytes, p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes and Prussian Blue-type complex salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieke, Bernd; Toutianoush, Ali; Jin, Wanqin

    2005-11-30

    Our recent studies in the field of ultrathin membranes prepared upon layer-by-layer assembly of various polyionic compounds such as polyelectrolytes, calixarenes and polyelectrolytes, and metal hexacyanoferrate salts such as Prussian Blue are reviewed. It is demonstrated that polyelectrolyte multilayers can be used (a) as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes suitable for water softening and seawater desalination and (b) as molecular sieves and ion sieves for size-selective separation of neutral and charged aromatic compounds. Furthermore, hybrid membranes of p-sulfonato-calixarenes and cationic polyelectrolytes showing specific host-guest interactions with permeating ions are described. The membranes exhibit high selectivities for distinct metal ions. Finally, it is demonstrated that purely inorganic membranes of Prussian Blue (PB) and analogues can be prepared upon multiple sequential adsorption of transition metal cations and hexacyanoferrate anions. Due to the porous lattice of PB, the membranes are useful as ion filters able to separate cesium from sodium ions, for example.

  17. Haematological profile in salt loaded experimental rabbits treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the haematological profile of salt loaded rabbits treated with Acalypha wilkesiana ethanolic leaf extract. Twenty-four rabbits were randomized into four groups (A - D) of six animals each. Group A-C were fed salt-loaded diet for 35 days, subsequently group B were treated with extract for 7 days. Group C ...

  18. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  19. Studies on the selective Am{sup 3+} transport, irradiation stability and surface morphology of polymer inclusion membranes containing Cyanex-301 as carrier extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mohapatra, P.K., E-mail: mpatra@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Hassan, P.A. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} TBP plasticized PIMs yielded satisfactory Am transport when EDTA was used as the strippant in the receiver phase. {yields} NPOE plasticized PIMs were effective only in the presence of an auxiliary ligand along with Cyanex-301. {yields} The long term reusability of the membrane was not good if exposed to large amount of radioactivity. {yields} The roughness of the membranes, analyzed by atomic force microscopy was correlated to transport efficiency. - Abstract: Transport behaviour of Am{sup 3+} across cellulose triacetate (CTA) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing Cyanex-301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) as the carrier extractant and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) as the plasticizer was investigated from different feed and strip conditions. The TBP plasticized membrane resulted back transport of Am when alpha-hydroxy iso-butyric acid was used as the complexing agent in the strip phase while no such effect was seen when ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as the complexant. Effect of varying Cyanex-301 concentration and bipyridyl (bipy) concentration on Am transport was also investigated. Long term reusability of the membrane was studied by measuring the permeability coefficient (P) after exposing the PIMs to a maximum gamma ray dose of {approx}200 kGy. The surface morphology of the membranes was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and the roughness parameter was correlated to transport efficiency.

  20. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  1. Kinetic Study of Copper(II Simultaneous Extraction/Stripping from Aqueous Solutions by Bulk Liquid Membranes Using Coupled Transport Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto León

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals removal/recovery from industrial wastewater has become a prime concern for both economic and environmental reasons. This paper describes a comparative kinetic study of the removal/recovery of copper(II from aqueous solutions by bulk liquid membrane using two types of coupled facilitated transport mechanisms and three carriers of different chemical nature: benzoylacetone, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and tri-n-octylamine. The results are analyzed by means of a kinetic model involving two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions (extraction and stripping. Rate constants and efficiencies of the extraction (k1, EE and the stripping (k2, SE reactions, and maximum fluxes through the membrane, were determined for the three carriers to compare their efficiency in the Cu(II removal/recovery process. Counter-facilitated transport mechanism using benzoylacetone as carrier and protons as counterions led to higher maximum flux and higher extraction and stripping efficiencies due to the higher values of both the extraction and the stripping rate constants. Acceptable linear relationships between EE and k1, and between SE and k2, were found.

  2. Salt reduction initiatives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Hawkes, Corinna; Neal, Bruce C

    2011-06-01

    To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health.

  3. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  4. Efeito do enriquecimento de biscoitos tipo água e sal, com extrato de levedura (Saccharomyces sp. Effect of enrichment of water and salt biscuits with yeast (Saccharomyces sp. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Carelli Costa Santucci

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a caracterização química de um autolisado (AT de levedura (Saccharomyces sp. , subproduto da fermentação alcoólica e de seus derivados, fração solúvel (Ex e insolúvel (FI. O autolisado integral (AT e o extrato (Ex, depois de desidratados por atomização (spray dryer foram utilizados como enriquecedores do gosto e do aroma de biscoitos salgados do tipo água e sal. A adição ao biscoito de 5% de Ex elevou o escore de aminoácidos essenciais (EAE de 38% para 60% e o índice de utilização líquida da proteína (NPR de 1,0 para 2,0 (100%. Houve ainda uma melhora significativa na aceitabilidade e na preferência dos biscoitos enriquecidos, pelos consumidores.The objective of this investigation was to establish the composition of the yeast (Saccharomyces sp. obtained as a byproduct of the alcoholic fermentation industry, in the form of an autolysate (AT and their derivatives, extract (Ex and insoluble fraction (FI. The total autolysate (AT and the extract (Ex, after dehydration in spray dryer, were utilized as flavour enhancers in salted biscuits. Addition to the biscuits of 5% Ex improved the essential amino acid score (EAE from 38 to 60%, and the net protein utilization index (NPR from 1.0 to 2.0 (100%. There was also a significant improvement in the acceptability and preference of the enriched biscuits by the consumers.

  5. A numerical investigation into the ability of the Poisson PDE to extract the mass-density from land-based gravity data: A case study of salt diapirs in the north coast of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    AllahTavakoli, Yahya; Safari, Abdolreza

    2017-08-01

    This paper is counted as a numerical investigation into the capability of Poisson's Partial Differential Equation (PDE) at Earth's surface to extract the near-surface mass-density from land-based gravity data. For this purpose, first it focuses on approximating the gradient tensor of Earth's gravitational potential by means of land-based gravity data. Then, based on the concepts of both the gradient tensor and Poisson's PDE at the Earth's surface, certain formulae are proposed for the mass-density determination. Furthermore, this paper shows how the generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy can be used for enhancing the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, in a real case study, the formulae are applied to 6350 gravity stations located within a part of the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The case study numerically indicates that the proposed formulae, provided by Poisson's PDE, has the ability to convert land-based gravity data into the terrain mass-density which has been used for depicting areas of salt diapirs in the region of the case study.

  6. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  7. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  8. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  9. Unique inhibition of bile salt-induced apoptosis by lecithins and cytoprotective bile salts in immortalized mouse cholangiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komichi, Daisuke; Tazuma, Susumu; Nishioka, Tomoji; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Une, Mizuho; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2003-12-01

    Bile duct epithelium is physiologically exposed to high concentrations of bile salts, suggesting the presence of a cytoprotective mechanism(s). The aim of this study was to clarify whether bile salts cause bile duct cell damage and to elucidate the mechanism(s) providing protection against such an action of bile salts. Immortalized mouse cholangiocytes were incubated with taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), taurodeoxycholate, and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC), followed by flow-cytometric analysis and caspase activity assay to evaluate the induction of apoptosis. GCDC time-dependently induced caspase 3 (3.4-fold)- and caspase 9 (1.4-fold)-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocytes, but this was inhibited by lecithins and TUDC. Further, expression of cholangiocyte bile salt transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter [Asbt] and multidrug resistance protein 3 [Mrp3]) was examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, and cholangiocyte bile salt uptake was determined using radiolabeled bile salts. Expression of cholangiocyte Asbt and Mrp3 was increased by bile salts, whereas lecithins interestingly reduced bile salt uptake to inhibit cholangiocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, bile salts themselves cause cholangiocyte apoptosis when absorbed by and retained inside the cell, but this is inhibited by washing out cytotoxic bile salts according to Mrp3, a rescue exporting molecule. Biliary lecithin is seemingly another cytoprotective player against cytotoxic bile salts, reducing their uptake, and this is associated with a reduced expression of Mrp3.

  10. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Water and salt budget in the Azikode estuary during postmonsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Shyam, K.R.; Varma, P.U.; Pylee, A.

    Computed values of flux showed that seaward Eulerian residual flow of water was the major factor influencing the salt and water budget in the Azikode Estuary. Depth integrated residual flow was seaward at all depths. Upstream transport of salt...

  12. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  13. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  14. Fructus Gardenia Extract Ameliorates Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia with Renal Dysfunction in Mice by Regulating Organic Ion Transporters and mOIT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-hyperuricemia activities of Fructus Gardenia Extract (FGE have been well reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uricosuric and nephro-protective effects of FGE and explore its possible mechanisms of action in oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. FGE was orally administered to hyperuricemic and normal mice for 1 week. Serum and urinary levels of uric acid, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA were measured. The mRNA and protein levels of mouse urate transporter 1 (mURAT1, glucose transporter 9 (mGLUT9, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, 2 (mABCG2, organic anion transporter 1 (mOAT1, mOAT3, oncoprotein induced transcript 3 (mOIT3, organic cation/carnitine transporters in the kidney were analyzed. Simultaneously, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP levels in urine and kidney were detected. FGE significantly reduced serum urate levels and increased urinary urate levels and FEUA in hyperuricemic mice. It could also effectively reverse oxonate-induced alterations in renal mURAT1, mGLUT9, mOAT1 and mOIT3 expressions, as well as THP levels, resulting in the enhancement of renal uric acid excretion. Moreover, FGE decreased serum creatinine and BUN levels, and up-regulated expression of organic cation/carnitine transporters, improving renal dysfunction in this model. Furthermore, FGE decreased renal mABCG2 expressions in hyperuricemic mice, contributing to its beneficial actions. However, further investigation is needed in clinical trials of FGE and its bioactive components.

  15. The effect of salt on the morphologies of compositionally asymmetric block copolymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Whitney; Maslyn, Jacqueline; Oh, Hee Jeung; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising for applications in lithium metal solid-state batteries. Due to their ability to microphase separate into distinct morphologies, their ion transport and mechanical properties can be decoupled. The addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt to poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) has been shown to increase microphase separation in symmetric block copolymer systems due to an increase in the effective interaction parameter (χeff) ; however the effect of block copolymer compositional asymmetry is not well-understood. The effect of compositional asymmetry on polymer morphology was investigated through small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter was extracted from the scattering profiles in order to construct a phase diagram to demonstrate the effect of salt and compositional asymmetry on block copolymer morphology.

  16. The Near-iron Transporter (NEAT) Domains of the Anthrax Hemophore IsdX2 Require a Critical Glutamine to Extract Heme from Methemoglobin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsa, Erin S.; Owens, Cedric P.; Goulding, Celia W.; Maresso, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Several Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria employ near-iron transporter (NEAT) domains to acquire heme from hemoglobin during infection. However, the structural requirements and mechanism of action for NEAT-mediated heme extraction remains unknown. Bacillus anthracis exhibits a rapid growth rate during systemic infection, suggesting that the bacterium expresses efficient iron acquisition systems. To understand how B. anthracis acquires iron from heme sources, which account for 80% of mammalian iron stores, we investigated the properties of the five-NEAT domain hemophore IsdX2. Using a combination of bioinformatics and site-directed mutagenesis, we determined that the heme extraction properties of IsdX2 are dependent on an amino acid with an amide side chain within the 310-helix of the NEAT domain. Additionally, we used a spectroscopic analysis to show that IsdX2 NEAT domains only scavenge heme from methemoglobin (metHb) and that autoxidation of oxyhemoglobin to metHb must occur prior to extraction. We also report the crystal structures of NEAT5 wild type and a Q29T mutant and present surface plasmon resonance data that indicate that the loss of this amide side chain reduces the affinity of the NEAT domain for metHb. We propose a model whereby the amide side chain is first required to drive an interaction with metHb that destabilizes heme, which is subsequently extracted and coordinated in the aliphatic heme-binding environment of the NEAT domain. Because an amino acid with an amide side chain in this position is observed in NEAT domains of several genera of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, these results suggest that specific targeting of this or nearby residues may be an entry point for inhibitor development aimed at blocking bacterial iron acquisition during infection. PMID:23364793

  17. The near-iron transporter (NEAT) domains of the anthrax hemophore IsdX2 require a critical glutamine to extract heme from methemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsa, Erin S; Owens, Cedric P; Goulding, Celia W; Maresso, Anthony W

    2013-03-22

    Several gram-positive pathogenic bacteria employ near-iron transporter (NEAT) domains to acquire heme from hemoglobin during infection. However, the structural requirements and mechanism of action for NEAT-mediated heme extraction remains unknown. Bacillus anthracis exhibits a rapid growth rate during systemic infection, suggesting that the bacterium expresses efficient iron acquisition systems. To understand how B. anthracis acquires iron from heme sources, which account for 80% of mammalian iron stores, we investigated the properties of the five-NEAT domain hemophore IsdX2. Using a combination of bioinformatics and site-directed mutagenesis, we determined that the heme extraction properties of IsdX2 are dependent on an amino acid with an amide side chain within the 310-helix of the NEAT domain. Additionally, we used a spectroscopic analysis to show that IsdX2 NEAT domains only scavenge heme from methemoglobin (metHb) and that autoxidation of oxyhemoglobin to metHb must occur prior to extraction. We also report the crystal structures of NEAT5 wild type and a Q29T mutant and present surface plasmon resonance data that indicate that the loss of this amide side chain reduces the affinity of the NEAT domain for metHb. We propose a model whereby the amide side chain is first required to drive an interaction with metHb that destabilizes heme, which is subsequently extracted and coordinated in the aliphatic heme-binding environment of the NEAT domain. Because an amino acid with an amide side chain in this position is observed in NEAT domains of several genera of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, these results suggest that specific targeting of this or nearby residues may be an entry point for inhibitor development aimed at blocking bacterial iron acquisition during infection.

  18. The effects of restricted circulation on the salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1970-1972 water years a net load of dissolved solids of 0.26 billion tons moved from the south to north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, through the causeway of the Southern Pacific Transportation Co. The load loss from the south part during the 1972 water year was only 0.01 billion tons, thus indicating that the salt balance between the two parts of the lake was near equilibrium for inflow conditions such as those of 1972.

  19. Determination of the deliquesce point in double salts and in in-situ multicomponent salts with DVS equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated salt induced deterioration occurs by frequently changes across the deliquescence point. Therefore does the actual deliquescence point of the present salts have a major impact on preventive conservation being able to ensure a relative humidity not causing salt phase transition and to in......-situ desalination as dissolution of the salts is the essential criterion to enable transport of salt (ions) in the construction. In the present work deliquescence points were measured with dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) equipment in salt mixtures and the results are shown to be in agreement with values from...... the literature. Also in-situ-multi salt samples were measured including the difference between the second critical relative humidity and the efflorescence relative humidity being a measure for the critical supersaturation required for crystallization at the specific experimental conditions. The DVS equipment...

  20. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  2. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  3. Cinnamon extract and polyphenols affect the expression of tristetraprolin, insulin receptor, and glucose transporter 4 in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping; Polansky, Marilyn M; Anderson, Richard A

    2007-03-15

    Cinnamon improves glucose and lipid profiles of people with type 2 diabetes. Water-soluble cinnamon extract (CE) and HPLC-purified cinnamon polyphenols (CP) with doubly linked procyanidin type-A polymers display insulin-like activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon on the protein and mRNA levels of insulin receptor (IR), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36) in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Immunoblotting showed that CP increased IRbeta levels and that both CE and CP increased GLUT4 and TTP levels in the adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that CE (100mug/ml) rapidly increased TTP mRNA levels by approximately 6-fold in the adipocytes. CE at higher concentrations decreased IRbeta protein and IR mRNA levels, and its effect on GLUT4 mRNA levels exhibited a biphasic pattern in the adipocytes. These results suggest that cinnamon exhibits the potential to increase the amount of proteins involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and anti-inflammatory/anti-angiogenesis response.

  4. Inhibitory effect of Piper betel leaf extracts on copper-mediated LDL oxidation and oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation via inducing reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gwo-Chin; Wu, Pei-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2013-12-15

    Piper betel leaf (PBL) has the biological capabilities of detoxification and can work as an anti-inflammatory agent and an anti-oxidant. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of the extract of Piper betel leaves (PBLs) on the basis of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation, and its ability to prevent foam cell formation in a model for oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Our data demonstrated that PBLs were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and are able to reduce the lipid accumulation in macrophages. We showed the underlying mechanisms to be the following: PBLs up-regulated the protein levels of the class A and class B scavenger receptors, the membrane lipid transporter ABCA1, and its upstream regulator Liver X receptor (LXR) in the macrophages exposed to oxLDL. The results suggested that PBLs activated the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism to enhance the metabolism of the oxLDL that could prevent both lipid accumulation and foam cell formation and further minimise the possible damage of vessels caused by the oxLDL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electron stripping processes of H⁻ ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganic, I N

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H(-) Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H(-) ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H(-) beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H(-) ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H(-) ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  6. Extraction and low energy beam transport from a surface ion source at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A.; Ames, F.; Bricault, P.; Lassen, J.; Laxdal, A.; Mjos, A.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of radioactive beams produced and delivered at TRIUMF's isotope separator and accelerator facility, ISAC, are using either a surface ion source or a resonant ionization laser ion source, which share a common design. To characterize the operation of the ion sources, simulations were performed to determine the ion beam optics and beam envelope properties of the extracted beam. Furthermore ion-optics calculations were performed to determine the transmission parameters through the mass separator magnet. Emittances are measured in the ISAC low energy beam line right after the mass separator. The recent addition of a channeltron to the Allison emittance meter scanner now allows us to measure emittances for ion beams with intensities as low as 105 ions/s. This is particularly useful for establishing high resolution, high throughput mass separator tunes for radioactive isotope beams. This paper discusses emittance measurements of low intensity beams, typical emittance scans for the surface ion source and the resonant laser ionized source for different source parameters. The observed results are compared to the simulations and discussed.

  7. Extraction and low energy beam transport from a surface ion source at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, A., E-mail: asen.kvi@gmail.com; Ames, F.; Bricault, P.; Lassen, J.; Laxdal, A.; Mjos, A.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of radioactive beams produced and delivered at TRIUMF’s isotope separator and accelerator facility, ISAC, are using either a surface ion source or a resonant ionization laser ion source, which share a common design. To characterize the operation of the ion sources, simulations were performed to determine the ion beam optics and beam envelope properties of the extracted beam. Furthermore ion-optics calculations were performed to determine the transmission parameters through the mass separator magnet. Emittances are measured in the ISAC low energy beam line right after the mass separator. The recent addition of a channeltron to the Allison emittance meter scanner now allows us to measure emittances for ion beams with intensities as low as 10{sup 5} ions/s. This is particularly useful for establishing high resolution, high throughput mass separator tunes for radioactive isotope beams. This paper discusses emittance measurements of low intensity beams, typical emittance scans for the surface ion source and the resonant laser ionized source for different source parameters. The observed results are compared to the simulations and discussed.

  8. Specific features of the salting-out of oxyethylated nonylphenols using inorganic salts at 25°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, A. V.; Elokhov, A. M.; Denisova, S. A.; Kudryashova, O. S.; Lesnov, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    The solubility of oxyethylated nonylphenols (neonol AF 9-12 and neonol AF 9-25) in aqueous solutions of inorganic salts is studied at 25°C. Cation and anion abilities to salt out neonols from aqueous solutions are examined. It is found that anions are able to salt out neonols while cations are able to salt in neonols. The concentration parameters of extraction in water-neonol AF 9-12 (neonol AF 9-25)-(NH4)2SO4 systems are optimized.

  9. Multiphase CFD modelling of water evaporation and salt precipitation in micro-pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twerda, A.; O’Mahoney, T.S.D.; Velthuis, J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The precipitation of salt in porous reservoir rocks is an impairment to gas production, particularly in mature fields. Mitigation is typically achieved with regular water washes which dissolve the deposited salt and transport it in the water phase. However, since the process of salt precipitation is

  10. Numerical model of halite precipitation in porous sedimentary rocks adjacent to salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Reuning, Lars; Marquart, Gabriele; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Pengyun

    2017-10-01

    Salt diapirs are commonly seen in the North Sea. Below the Zechstein Group exist possibly overpressured salt-anhydrite formations. One explanation as to the salt precipitation in areas with salt diapirs is that salt cementation is thermally driven and occurs strongly in places adjacent to salt diapirs. This paper assumes that the sealing effect of the cap rock above the salt formations is compromised and overpressured fluids, carrying dissolved minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4) and salt mineral components (NaCl of halite), flow into the porous sedimentary layers above the salt formations. Additionally, a salt-diapir-like structure is assumed to be at one side of the model. The numerical flow and heat transport simulator SHEMAT-Suite was developed and applied to calculating the concentrations of species, and dissolution and precipitation amounts. Results show that the overpressured salt-anhydrite formations have higher pressure heads and the species elements sodium and chlorite are transported into porous sediment rocks through water influx (saturated brine). Halite can precipitate as brine with sodium and chlorite ions flows to the cooler environment. Salt cementation of reservoir rocks leads to decreasing porosity and permeability near salt domes, and cementation of reservoir formations decreases with growing distance to the salt diapir. The proposed approach in this paper can also be used to evaluate precipitation relevant to scaling problems in geothermal engineering.

  11. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  12. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  13. Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera lam. seeds flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was studied under various conditions of pH (2-10), time (5-60 minutes), salts (NaCl and CaCl ), salt concentrations (0-2 M) and solvent to flour ratio (10:1-30:1). 2 Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and ...

  14. The ways of transformation of salt production from the saline lakes of Apsheron peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    В. А. Мамедов; Х. Х. Халилова

    2016-01-01

    The issues of salt production at salt lakes of Apsheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan are reviewed here. The paper objective is to examine the brine formation process and analyze the ways of transformation of salt extraction from the lakes of Apsheron Peninsula under ever increasing industrial development and urbanization. The research on ecological state of salt lakes at the peninsula have shown that the decades-long development of oil and gas and other industries had a dramatical impact on the na...

  15. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  16. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  17. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  18. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway, 1987-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Miller, Craig W.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2000-01-01

    The Southern Pacific Transportation Company completed a rock-fill causeway across Great Salt Lake in 1959. The effect of the causeway was to change the water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake by creating two separate but interconnected parts of the lake, with more than 95 percent of freshwater surface inflow entering the lake south of the causeway.The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of the causeway that divides the lake into south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway consist of two 15-foot-wide culverts, a 290-foot-wide breach, and permeable rock-fill material.

  19. Residual fluxes and suspended sediment transport in the lower reaches of Muvattupuzha River, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Balachandran, K.K.; Xavier, J.K.; Rejendran, N.C.

    Spatial and seasonal variation of different physical processes governing the transport of salt and sediment of the Muvattupuzha River, in Kerala, India are discussed. Salt and suspended sediment due to tidal pumping was directed upstream, salt...

  20. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  1. Salt Rejection of Non-Ionic Polymeric Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, P.; Stannett, V.

    1976-01-01

    A modified solution-diffusion model for the description of salt and water transport through homogeneous membranes is introduced. It is compared with the current solution-diffusion model and the combined flow-diffusion model for the description of transport under reverse osmosis conditions. The ad...

  2. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-10-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

  3. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  4. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  5. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N

    2014-01-01

    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  6. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  7. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  8. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  9. [How does salt intake influence blood pressure? Associated aetiopathogenic mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llama, P; Calero, F

    2017-12-15

    Abundant evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has established a link between salt and blood pressure. However, there is heterogeneity in the blood pressure responses of humans to changes in sodium intake. Those individuals in whom a severe, abrupt change in salt intake causes the least change in arterial pressure and are termed salt-resistant, whereas in those in whom this leads to large changes in blood pressure, are called salt sensitive. Classically, Guyton's theory of the pressure-natriuresis phenomenon has been accepted to explain the pressor effect of salt, as well as the fundamental role played by the different protein sodium transporters of the renal tubules. In recent years, new theories have emerged pointing to the possible role of the immune system and the existence of a third sodium store in the body as aetiopathogenic factors. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  11. Production of magnesium from Great Salt Lake, Utah USA

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium metal has been commercially produced from the waters of Great Salt Lake since 1972. Worldwide use of magnesium has markedly increased over the last twenty years due to its unique properties of low density and high strength. Great Salt Lake is a valuable resource for the recovery of magnesium minerals due to its chemical composition, natural geography/climate and proximity to transportation and markets. US Magnesium LLC and its predecessors have overcome various technical challenges ...

  12. A multicenter retrospective survey of poisoning after ingestion of herbicides containing glyphosate potassium salt or other glyphosate salts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Yoshito; Takai, Michiko; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter retrospective survey of patients poisoned by herbicides containing glyphosate salts in Japan was conducted to identify differences in symptoms and outcome of poisoning. Participants were patients who were transported to emergency facilities between October 2006 and March 2014 after consuming herbicides containing glyphosate potassium salt (GlyK(+)) (the K-group) or other glyphosate salts (the O-group). Questionnaires were mailed to 38 emergency facilities that agreed to participate in the study. Serum potassium levels upon arrival were significantly higher (p glyphosate isopropylamine or ammonium salts, and polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA) as a surfactant, can cause severe organ injury. Physicians should note that the ingestion of products containing glyphosate potassium salt and surfactants other than POEA can cause hyperkalemia, potentially leading to fatal arrhythmias or cardiac arrest.

  13. Salt reduction and hypertension in China: a concise state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Li, Huiyan; Hong, Siting

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) and its cardiovascular complications such as stroke and heart failure are a serious public health problem around the world. A growing number of studies confirm that salt plays an important role in the development of HTN. Increasing intake of salt leads to abnormal transport of sodium ions at the cellular level with activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Studies have shown that salt restriction can reduce blood pressure (BP) in patients with HTN, especially salt-sensitive HTN. Public health interventions to reduce salt intake, with the goal of decreasing adverse outcomes have been launched in numerous countries. In this review we will summarize the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors, the relationship between salt and HTN, the effect of salt restriction on HTN and the current situation of prevention and treatment of HTN by salt reduction in China. PMID:26090330

  14. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  15. Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

  16. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  17. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  19. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  20. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  1. Complex molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice revealed by comparative transcriptome and metabolomic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Sheng; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Li, Min; Huang, Li-Yu; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Yan-Ru; Fu, Bin-Ying; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2016-01-01

    To understand the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the phenotypic, metabolic, and transcriptome responses of two related rice genotypes, IR64 and PL177, with contrasting salt tolerance were characterized under salt stress and salt+abscisic acid (ABA) conditions. PL177 showed significantly less salt damage, lower Na+/K+ ratios in shoots, and Na+ translocation from roots to shoots, attributed largely to better salt exclusion from its roots and salt compartmentation of its shoots. Exogenous ABA was able to enhance the salt tolerance of IR64 by selectively decreasing accumulation of Na+ in its roots and increasing K+ in its shoots. Salt stress induced general and organ-specific increases of many primary metabolites in both rice genotypes, with strong accumulation of several sugars plus proline in shoots and allantoin in roots. This was due primarily to ABA-mediated repression of genes for degradation of these metabolites under salt. In PL177, salt specifically up-regulated genes involved in several pathways underlying salt tolerance, including ABA-mediated cellular lipid and fatty acid metabolic processes and cytoplasmic transport, sequestration by vacuoles, detoxification and cell-wall remodeling in shoots, and oxidation–reduction reactions in roots. Combined genetic and transcriptomic evidence shortlisted relatively few candidate genes for improved salt tolerance in PL177. PMID:26512058

  2. On-chip electromembrane extraction for monitoring drug metabolism in real time by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Pedersen, Jacob Sønderby; Poulsen, Nicklas Nørgård

    2012-01-01

    changes in the reaction chamber were continuously detected 9 seconds later in the MS. Most of this time delay was due to transport of the purified extract towards the ESI source. The EME step effectively removed the enzymatic material, buffer and salts from the reaction mixture, and prevented......A temperature controlled (37 °C) metabolic reaction chamber with a volume of 1 mL was coupled directly to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) by the use of a 50 µm deep counter flow micro-chip electromembrane extraction (EME) system. The EME/ESI-MS system was used to study...

  3. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  4. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  5. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  6. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  7. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  8. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  9. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  10. High salt-diet reduces SLC14A1 gene expression in the choroid plexus of Dahl salt sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lirong; Meng, Jie; Xuan, Chengluan; Ge, Jingyan; Sun, Wenzhu; O'Rourke, Stephen T; Sun, Chengwen

    2015-05-29

    Elevated Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contributes to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. CSF is formed by the choroid plexus (CP) in cerebral ventricles, and [Na(+)] in CSF is controlled by transporters in CP. Here, we examined the effect of high salt diet on the expression of urea transporters (UTs) in the CP of Dahl S vs Dahl R rats using real time PCR. High salt intake (8%, for 2 weeks) did not alter the mRNA levels of UT-A (encoded by SLC14A2 gene) in the CP of either Dahl S or Dahl R rats. In contrast, the mRNA levels of UT-B (encoded by SLC14A1 gene) were significantly reduced in the CP of Dahl S rats on high salt diet as compared with Dahl R rats or Dahl S rats on normal salt diet. Reduced UT-B expression was associated with increased [Na(+)] in the CSF and elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) in Dahl S rats treated with high salt diet, as measured by radiotelemetry. High salt diet-induced reduction in UT-B protein expression in the CP of Dahl S rats was confirmed by Western blot. Immunohistochemistry using UT-B specific antibodies demonstrated that UT-B protein was expressed on the epithelial cells in the CP. These data indicate that high salt diet induces elevations in CSF [Na(+)] and in MAP, both of which are associated with reduced UT-B expression in the CP of Dahl S rats, as compared with Dahl R rats. The results suggest that altered UT-B expression in the CP may contribute to an imbalance of water and electrolytes in the CSF of Dahl S rats on high salt diet, thereby leading to alterations in MAP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic cholestasis, causes and consequences for hepatobiliary transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, PLM; Sturm, E

    2003-01-01

    Bile salts take part in an efficient enterohepatic circulation in which most of the secreted bile salts are reclaimed by absorption in the terminal ileum. In the liver, the sodium-dependent taurocholate transporter at the basolateral ( sinusoidal) membrane and the bile salt export pump at the

  12. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  13. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  14. The presence of microplastics in commercial salts from different countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Golieskardi, Abolfazl; Keong Choo, Cheng; Larat, Vincent; Galloway, Tamara S.; Salamatinia, Babak

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in saltwater bodies is relatively well studied, but nothing is known about their presence in most of the commercial salts that are widely consumed by humans across the globe. Here, we extracted MP-like particles larger than 149 μm from 17 salt brands originating from 8 different countries followed by the identification of their polymer composition using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics were absent in one brand while others contained between 1 to 10 MPs/Kg of salt. Out of the 72 extracted particles, 41.6% were plastic polymers, 23.6% were pigments, 5.50% were amorphous carbon, and 29.1% remained unidentified. The particle size (mean ± SD) was 515 ± 171 μm. The most common plastic polymers were polypropylene (40.0%) and polyethylene (33.3%). Fragments were the primary form of MPs (63.8%) followed by filaments (25.6%) and films (10.6%). According to our results, the low level of anthropogenic particles intake from the salts (maximum 37 particles per individual per annum) warrants negligible health impacts. However, to better understand the health risks associated with salt consumption, further development in extraction protocols are needed to isolate anthropogenic particles smaller than 149 μm. PMID:28383020

  15. CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2008-01-15

    High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

  16. The presence of microplastics in commercial salts from different countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Golieskardi, Abolfazl; Keong Choo, Cheng; Larat, Vincent; Galloway, Tamara S.; Salamatinia, Babak

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in saltwater bodies is relatively well studied, but nothing is known about their presence in most of the commercial salts that are widely consumed by humans across the globe. Here, we extracted MP-like particles larger than 149 μm from 17 salt brands originating from 8 different countries followed by the identification of their polymer composition using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics were absent in one brand while others contained between 1 to 10 MPs/Kg of salt. Out of the 72 extracted particles, 41.6% were plastic polymers, 23.6% were pigments, 5.50% were amorphous carbon, and 29.1% remained unidentified. The particle size (mean ± SD) was 515 ± 171 μm. The most common plastic polymers were polypropylene (40.0%) and polyethylene (33.3%). Fragments were the primary form of MPs (63.8%) followed by filaments (25.6%) and films (10.6%). According to our results, the low level of anthropogenic particles intake from the salts (maximum 37 particles per individual per annum) warrants negligible health impacts. However, to better understand the health risks associated with salt consumption, further development in extraction protocols are needed to isolate anthropogenic particles smaller than 149 μm.

  17. Transfer characteristics of a lithium chloride–potassium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Mullen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing is an alternative method of reprocessing spent fuel, usually involving the dissolving spent fuel in a molten salt media. The National Nuclear Laboratory designed, built, and commissioned a molten salt dynamics rig to investigate the transfer characteristics of molten lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic salt. The efficacy and flow characteristics of a high-temperature centrifugal pump and argon gas lift were obtained for pumping the molten salt at temperatures up to 500°C. The rig design proved suitable on an industrial scale and transfer methods appropriate for use in future molten salt systems. Corrosion within the rig was managed, and melting techniques were optimized to reduce stresses on the rig. The results obtained improve the understanding of molten salt transport dynamics, materials, and engineering design issues and support the industrialization of molten salts pyroprocessing.

  18. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  19. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  20. Microemulsion of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  1. Salt attack in parking garage in block of flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Pavel; Frankeová, Dita; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    In recent years many new block of flats with parking garages placed inside the buildings were constructed. This tendency brings beyond question benefits for residents and also for city planning, but it requires new design and structural approaches and advanced material and construction solutions. The analysis of plaster damage on partition wall in parking garage in one of these buildings is presented in the paper. The damage of studied plaster is caused by the salts which are transported together with snow on cars undercarriage into garage area during winter. The snow melts and water with dissolved salts is transported by the capillary suction from concrete floor into the rendered partition wall. Based on the interior temperature, adsorbed water with dissolved chlorides evaporates and from the over saturated pore solution are formed salt crystals that damages the surface plaster layers. This damage would not occur if the partition wall was correctly isolated from the floor finish layer in the parking garage.

  2. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical preservatives can be used to reduce the overall microbial populations in fish and fish products. This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and Moringa oleifera plant extracts treatments on enteric bacteria in Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus fish ...

  3. Quantification of salt concentrations in cured pork by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    profiles were extracted and fitted to a diffusion model which included a term to account for a non-negligible mass transfer coefficient. It was found that CT provides accurate estimates of salt gradients in meat and it was suggested that this analytical method could be valuable in scientific research...

  4. Phospholipid signaling responses in salt-stressed rice leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, E.; Testerink, C.; Khalil, M.; El-Shihy, O.; Munnik, T.

    2009-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting growth and productivity of rice plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on phospholipid signaling responses in rice leaves was investigated. Leaf cuts were radiolabeled with 32 P-orthophosphate and the lipids extracted and analyzed

  5. Haematological profile in salt loaded experimental rabbits treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological profile in salt loaded experimental rabbits treated with ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how ...

  6. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  7. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  8. Review of behaviour change interventions to reduce population salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Kathy; McMahon, Emma; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Bauman, Adrian; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Bolam, Bruce; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-02-08

    Excess salt intake is a major cause of raised blood pressure-the leading risk factor for death and disability worldwide. Although behaviour change interventions such as awareness campaigns and health education programs are implemented to reduce salt intake, their effectiveness is unclear. This global systematic review investigates the impact of population-level behaviour change interventions that aim to reduce salt intake. A search for published and grey literature was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Sage, Scopus, OpenGrey, Google Scholar and other relevant organizations' websites. Studies were included if 1) published between 2005 and 2015; 2) the education or awareness-raising interventions were aimed at the population or sub-population and 3) salt intake and/or salt-related behaviours were outcome measures. Study and intervention characteristics were extracted for the descriptive synthesis and study quality was assessed. Twenty two studies involving 41,448 participants were included. Most were conducted in high income countries (n = 16), targeting adults (n = 21) in the general population (n = 16). Behaviour change interventions were categorised as health education interventions (n = 14), public awareness campaigns (n = 4) and multi-component interventions (including both health education and awareness campaigns, n = 4). 19 of the 22 studies demonstrated significant reductions in estimated salt intake and/or improvement in salt-related behaviours. All studies showed high risk of bias in one or more domains. Of the 10 higher quality studies, 5 found a significant effect on salt intake or salt behaviours based on the more objective outcome assessment method. Based on moderate quality of evidence, population-level behaviour change interventions can improve salt-related behaviours and/or reduce salt intake. However, closer analysis of higher quality studies show inconsistent evidence of the effectiveness and

  9. Attenuation of salt-induced changes in photosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In parallel, NO application in salt-stressed plants attenuated the decrease in the photosynthetic parameters such as leaf chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), electron transport rate (ETR), the efficiency of excitation ...

  10. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  11. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  12. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  13. Salt tolerance at single cell level in giant-celled Characeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane eBeilby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characean plants provide an excellent experimental system for electrophysiology and physiology due to: (i very large cell size, (ii position on phylogenetic tree near the origin of land plants and (iii continuous spectrum from very salt sensitive to very salt tolerant species. A range of experimental techniques is described, some unique to characean plants. Application of these methods provided electrical characteristics of membrane transporters, which dominate the membrane conductance under different outside conditions. With this considerable background knowledge the electrophysiology of salt sensitive and salt tolerant genera can be compared under salt and/or osmotic stress. Both salt tolerant and salt sensitive Characeae show a rise in membrane conductance and simultaneous increase in Na+ influx upon exposure to saline medium. Salt tolerant Chara longifolia and Lamprothamnium sp. exhibit proton pump stimulation upon both turgor decrease and salinity increase, allowing the membrane PD to remain negative. The turgor is regulated through the inward K+ rectifier and 2H+/Cl- symporter. Lamprothamnium plants can survive in hypersaline media up to twice seawater strength and withstand large sudden changes in salinity. Salt-sensitive Chara australis succumbs to 50 - 100 mM NaCl in few days. Cells exhibit no pump stimulation upon turgor decrease and at best transient pump stimulation upon salinity increase. Turgor is not regulated. The membrane PD exhibits characteristic noise upon exposure to salinity. Depolarization of membrane PD to excitation threshold sets off trains of action potentials, leading to further loses of K+ and Cl-. In final stages of salt damage the H+/OH- channels are thought to become the dominant transporter, dissipating the proton gradient and bringing the cell PD close to 0. The differences in transporter electrophysiology and their synergy under osmotic and/or saline stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant characean cells

  14. Alteration of the Helicobacter pylori membrane proteome in response to changes in environmental salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bradley J; Loh, John T; Hill, Salisha; Rose, Kristie L; McDonald, W Hayes; Cover, Timothy L

    2015-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection and a high dietary salt intake are each risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. We hypothesize that changes in environmental salt concentrations lead to alterations in the H. pylori membrane proteome. Label-free and iTRAQ methods were used to identify H. pylori proteins that change in abundance in response to alterations in environmental salt concentrations. In addition, we biotinylated intact bacteria that were grown under high- or low-salt conditions, and thereby analyzed salt-induced changes in the abundance of surface-exposed proteins. Proteins with increased abundance in response to high salt conditions included CagA, the outer membrane protein HopQ, and fibronectin domain-containing protein HP0746. Proteins with increased abundance in response to low salt conditions included VacA, two VacA-like proteins (ImaA and FaaA), outer-membrane iron transporter FecA3, and several proteins involved in flagellar activity. Consistent with the proteomic data, bacteria grown in high salt conditions exhibited decreased motility compared to bacteria grown in lower salt conditions. Alterations in the H. pylori membrane proteome in response to high salt conditions may contribute to the increased risk of gastric cancer associated with a high salt diet. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Molecular interactions between bile salts, phospholipids and cholesterol : relevance to bile formation, cholesterol crystallization and bile salt toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Cholesterol is a nonpolar lipid dietary constituent, absorbed from the small intestine, transported in blood and taken up by the liver. In bile, the sterol is solubilized in mixed micelles by bile salts and phospholipids. In case of supersaturation, cholesterol is kept in vesicles with phospholipid

  16. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  17. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary E. Barr; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Louis D. Schulte; Peter C. Stark; Rebecca M. Chamberlin; Kent D. Abney; Thomas E. Ricketts; Yvette E. Valdez; Richard A. Bartsch

    2000-03-01

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material.

  18. Crystal structure of indoline alkaloids kopsinilam, kopsinine, and the salts of the latter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adizov, Sh. M.; Tashkhodzhaev, B.; Kunafiev, R. Zh.

    2016-01-01

    Indoline alkaloids kopsinilam and kopsinine extracted from the plant Vinca erecta have been studied by X-ray crystallography; mono and double salts of the latter alkaloid also have been examined. Experimentally determined positions of Н atoms suggest sp3 hybridization of the indoline nitrogen atom...... N1 in the bases and the salts. Tetrahedral hybridization of the atom N1 in indoline alkaloids favors the formation of their double salts, what is unlikely for indole and indolinine alkaloids. In the halogen double salts there is an intramolecular Н bond between one of the protons of the NH2 group...

  19. Evaluation of Salt Removal from Azulejo Tiles and Mortars using Electrodesalination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2011-01-01

    loss of historic value. In this work preliminary studies with single tiles presenting an underlying layer of mortar have been conducted to assess the amount of salts that can be removed from the building material using a new technique called “electrodesalination”, in which the salt’s ions...... and underlying mortar are no longer at risk of salt induced decay. The main conclusions are that the technique is successful in extracting salts from mortars (removals efficiencies between 88% and 92%) but not as good for the tile (removals between 10% and 80%). The risk of salt damage to the mortar and tile...

  20. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  1. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  2. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  3. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  4. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  5. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  6. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part I. Cation series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different cationic salts were used to investigate the effects of the Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation. The effects of cationic salts on wheat flour dough mixing properties, the rheological and the chemical properties of the gluten extracted from the dough with different respective salts, were investigated. The specific influence of different cationic salts on the gluten structure formation during dough mixing, compared to the sodium ion, were determined. The effects of different cations on dough and gluten of different flours mostly followed the Hofmeister series (NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)). The impacts of cations on gluten structure and dough rheology at levels tested were relatively small. Therefore, the replacement of sodium from a technological standpoint is possible, particularly by monovalent cations such as NH4(+), or K(+). However the levels of replacement need to take into account sensory attributes of the cationic salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. COMPARISON OF GEO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WHITE ROCK SALT AND PINK ROCK SALT IN KŁODAWA SALT DIAPIR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  8. A new method for extracting near-surface mass-density anomalies from land-based gravity data, based on a special case of Poisson's PDE at the Earth's surface: A case study of salt diapirs in the south of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    AllahTavakoli, Y.; Safari, A.; Ardalan, A.; Bahroudi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The current research provides a method for tracking near-surface mass-density anomalies via using only land-based gravity data, which is based on a special version of Poisson's Partial Differential Equation (PDE) of the gravitational field at Earth's surface. The research demonstrates how the Poisson's PDE can provide us with a capability to extract the near-surface mass-density anomalies from land-based gravity data. Herein, this version of the Poisson's PDE is mathematically introduced to the Earth's surface and then it is used to develop the new method for approximating the mass-density via derivatives of the Earth's gravitational field (i.e. via the gradient tensor). Herein, the author believes that the PDE can give us new knowledge about the behavior of the Earth's gravitational field at the Earth's surface which can be so useful for developing new methods of Earth's mass-density determination. In a case study, the proposed method is applied to a set of gravity stations located in the south of Iran. The results were numerically validated via certain knowledge about the geological structures in the area of the case study. Also, the method was compared with two standard methods of mass-density determination. All the numerical experiments show that the proposed approach is well-suited for tracking near-surface mass-density anomalies via using only the gravity data. Finally, the approach is also applied to some petroleum exploration studies of salt diapirs in the south of Iran.

  9. Feed value of Gliricidia fodder salt for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with Gliricidia fodder salt on intake, nutrient digestibility, and feeding behavior of lambs. Twenty-five Santa Inês crossbred male sheep at approximately 180 days of age, with an average live weight of 25 kg, were confined in individual 1-m2 stalls and distributed in a randomized complete design with five treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of 0 (1,000 g/kg?1 NaCl, 930, 950, 970, and 990 g/kg?1 inclusion of Gliricidia hay (70, 50, 30, and 10 g/kg?1 NaCl in the formulation of the fodder salt, respectively. The animals were fed ground Tifton-85 (Cynodon spp. hay, ground fodder salt and or mineral salt, and water ad libitum, at 07h00 and 17h00. Intakes of dry matter, mineral matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and neutral detergent fiber were influenced (P<0.05 by supplementation with Gliricidia fodder salt. Crude protein intake increased linearly (P<0.01, while mineral-salt intake decreased linearly (P<0.01 as the levels of Gliricidia hay in the fodder salt were increased. There was no difference (P>0.05 in nutrient digestibility due to supplementation. Rumination time and number of cuds ruminated per day decreased (P<0.05, whereas rumination chews per cud increased (P<0.05. Feed and rumination efficiencies (g DM and NDF h?1 increased (P<0.01 with supplementation, and so did the rumination efficiency (P<0.01 expressed in g DM and NDF cud?1. Supplementation with Gliricidia fodder salt increases nutrient intake and positively changes the feeding behavior of lambs. 

  10. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-02-04

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000μL of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  12. Bile salts secretion in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J P; Areias, E; Meneses, L; Tiago, E

    1977-02-01

    The bile salts secretion was studied in ten normal subjects and sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, in a basal period and during 60 minutes after Secretin injection. Total bile salts were measured by a modification of the enzymatic method of Iwata and Yamasaki and the individual bile salts were separated by silica gel thin-layer chromatography. During the 60 minutes after Secretin the mean concentration was 2.88 +/- 2.58 muM/ml in normals and 1.96 +/- 1.25 muM/ml in cirrhotics. The difference is not significant. During the first 20 minutes however the concentration was higher than 3 muM/ml in 8 out of 10 normals and lower than 2 muM/ml in 10 out 16 cirrhotics. The ratios of tri-to dihydroxy bile salts was similar in both groups. The ratios between bile salts conjugated with glycine and with taurine was higher in normals, and the ratio between free to conjugated bile salts was higher in cirrhotics. The lower concentration of total bile salts immediatly after Secretin, the higher proportion of taurin conjugates and of free bile salts could be important factors in the difficulties of fact digestion and absorption frequently found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

  13. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  14. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  15. History Leaves Salts Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  16. Salt resistant crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring High Velocity Salt Tracer via 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography - Possibility for Salt Tracer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, K. O.; Cirpka, O. A.; Patzelt, A.; Leven, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogeological testing in a tomographic sequence as shown by the use of hydraulic tomography, allows an improvement of the spatial resolution of subsurface parameters. In this regard, recent studies show increasing interest in tracer tomography which involves sequential and spatially separated tracer injections and the measurement of their corresponding tracer breakthrough at different locations and depths. Such concentration measurements however require large experimental efforts and can be simplified by geophysical tracer monitoring techniques such as electrical resistivity. In this study, we present the use of 4-D, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for monitoring salt tracer experiments in high velocity flow fields. For our study, we utilized a set up that enables the conduction of salt tracer experiments with complete recovery within 84 hours over a transport distance of 16 m. This allows the repetition of the experiments with different injection depths for a tomographic salt tracer testing. For ERT monitoring, we designed modular borehole electrodes for repeated usage in a flexible manner. We also assess the use of a high speed resistivity data acquisition mode for field scale tracer monitoring ensuring high spatial and temporal resolution without sacrificing data accuracy. We applied our approach at the Lauswiesen test site, Tübingen, Germany. In our 10 m × 10 m tracer monitoring domain with 16 borehole electrodes, we acquired 4650 data points in less than 18 minutes for each monitoring cycle. Inversion results show that the tracer could be successfully imaged using this approach. The results show that repeated salt tracer tests can be efficiently monitored at a high resolution with ERT which gives the possibility for salt tracer tomography at field scale. Our results also provide a data base for extending current hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to field scale data.

  18. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771.

  19. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  20. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  1. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  2. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and iodised salt in Assam: a few observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, A C; Kumar, S; Patowary, S; Dhar, P

    1995-01-01

    During 1992-1993 in India, a UNICEF-supported survey was conducted in Dibrugarh District of Assam State to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), especially goiter. The prevalence of goiter remained high (42.2%) in Dibrugarh District (65.8% in 1989). 46.95% of all iodated salts had less than the optimum level of iodine (15-29.99 ppm). Storage practices affected the iodine content of the salt. For example, within a month and a half, the iodine content of salt stored in earthenware pots is reduced to about 25%. 82.4% of all women 14-45 years old did not perceive goiter as a disease. 98.13% did not know that iodized salt was available in their neighborhood. Yet, the sale of non-iodized salt has been banned in Assam since 1989. An in-depth study was conducted in Sonitpur and Tinsukia districts to determine whether raw salt was imported from the west coast (e.g., Gujarat) to Assam. Transport of iodized salt in remote areas (e.g., Sadia and Lido) took a long time in Tinsukia and storage in earthenware pots, resulting in deterioration of the quality of salt. Salt is transported to Assam in open wagons, which exposes the salt to the sun and the rains. Wholesalers store salt in thick polythene bags which are in turn kept in covered godowns. Retailers sell the salt from open verandas, which exposes the salt to rain and sun. Household storage practices include plastic or glass jars with or without a cover (80.89% and 12.15%, respectively), gourd shells (1.5%), bamboo containers (2.05%), and earthenware pots (3.41%). The quality of iodized salt sold by fraudulent traders was much lower than that sold by reputed firms. The government of India's IDD program monitors the quality of iodized salt. It provides feedback to the state government. Monitoring should be a systematic and continuous process. Assam's government has set up its own monitoring program, focusing on the household level (salt samples: 64.8%). During 1993-1994, 79.7% of salt samples had a

  3. Year-round records of bulk and size-segregated aerosol composition in central Antarctica (Concordia site – Part 1: Fractionation of sea-salt particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Legrand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple year-round records of bulk and size-segregated composition of aerosol were obtained at the inland site of Concordia located at Dome C in East Antarctica. In parallel, sampling of acidic gases on denuder tubes was carried out to quantify the concentrations of HCl and HNO3 present in the gas phase. These time series are used to examine aerosol present over central Antarctica in terms of chloride depletion relative to sodium with respect to freshly emitted sea-salt aerosol as well as depletion of sulfate relative to sodium with respect to the composition of seawater. A depletion of chloride relative to sodium is observed over most of the year, reaching a maximum of  ∼ 20 ng m−3 in spring when there are still large sea-salt amounts and acidic components start to recover. The role of acidic sulfur aerosol and nitric acid in replacing chloride from sea-salt particles is here discussed. HCl is found to be around twice more abundant than the amount of chloride lost by sea-salt aerosol, suggesting that either HCl is more efficiently transported to Concordia than sea-salt aerosol or re-emission from the snow pack over the Antarctic plateau represents an additional significant HCl source. The size-segregated composition of aerosol collected in winter (from 2006 to 2011 indicates a mean sulfate to sodium ratio of sea-salt aerosol present over central Antarctica of 0.16 ± 0.05, suggesting that, on average, the sea-ice and open-ocean emissions equally contribute to sea-salt aerosol load of the inland Antarctic atmosphere. The temporal variability of the sulfate depletion relative to sodium was examined at the light of air mass backward trajectories, showing an overall decreasing trend of the ratio (i.e., a stronger sulfate depletion relative to sodium when air masses arriving at Dome C had traveled a longer time over sea ice than over open ocean. The findings are shown to be useful to discuss sea-salt ice records extracted at deep

  4. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  5. The use of filter paper as a transport device for serology of Pasteurella multocida infection : Analysis and comparison ofprotein composition of filter paper extract and serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for collecting blood specimens for measuring antibody to Pasteurella multocida were compared. Blood was collected on filter-paper strips, air-dried and stored at 4°C along with paired samples collected by venepumeture . Analysis using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed that the protein composition of filter paper extract and serum was similar. Both samples had common proteins of 67, 52-58 and 27 kDa. However, there are two proteins bands of 14 and 30 kDa that were only found in, filter-paper extract. Westernblot analysis also showed that samples from both sampling techniques reacted to P. multocida proteins of 43 kDa. Samples from experimental and field animals were also collected by the two techniques and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for P. multocida antibodies . The agreement between samples from experimental animals and the field using ELISA was analyzed . Samples from experimental animals, showed a very high correlation (r = 0.931 in ELISA results among samples collected by the two techniques. However, the correlation was lower (r = 0.799 in samples collected from the field. Cost analysis showed that filter-paper collection technique was 100 times more economical compared to venepuncture technique. It was concluded that eluates of whole blood dried on filter paper can be used as an alternative to sera in ELISA for measuring antibodies to P. multocida.

  6. Does stress induce salt intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  7. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Single-cell-type quantitative proteomic and ionomic analysis of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte model plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to identify salt-responsive proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Raymond, Carolyn

    2016-05-10

    Epidermal bladder cells (EBC) are large single-celled, specialized, and modified trichomes found on the aerial parts of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Recent development of a simple but high throughput technique to extract the contents from these cells has provided an opportunity to conduct detailed single-cell-type analyses of their molecular characteristics at high resolution to gain insight into the role of these cells in the salt tolerance of the plant. In this study, we carry out large-scale complementary quantitative proteomic studies using both a label (DIGE) and label-free (GeLC-MS) approach to identify salt-responsive proteins in the EBC extract. Additionally we perform an ionomics analysis (ICP-MS) to follow changes in the amounts of 27 different elements. Using these methods, we were able to identify 54 proteins and nine elements that showed statistically significant changes in the EBC from salt-treated plants. GO enrichment analysis identified a large number of transport proteins but also proteins involved in photosynthesis, primary metabolism and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Validation of results by western blot, confocal microscopy and enzyme analysis helped to strengthen findings and further our understanding into the role of these specialized cells. As expected EBC accumulated large quantities of sodium, however, the most abundant element was chloride suggesting the sequestration of this ion into the EBC vacuole is just as important for salt tolerance. This single-cell type omics approach shows that epidermal bladder cells of M. crystallinum are metabolically active modified trichomes, with primary metabolism supporting cell growth, ion accumulation, compatible solute synthesis and CAM. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004045.

  9. Polymeric membranes containing silver salts for propylene/propane separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Pollo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of olefin/paraffin mixtures is one of the most important processes of the chemical industry. This separation is typically carried out by distillation, which is an energy and capital intensive process. One promising alternative is the use of facilitated transport membranes, which contain specific carrier agents in the polymer matrix that interact reversibly with the double bond in the olefin molecule, promoting the simultaneous increase of its permeability and selectivity. In this study, polyurethane (PU membranes were prepared using two different silver salts (triflate and hexafluorantimonate. The membranes were structurally characterized and their performance for the separation of propylene/propane mixtures was evaluated. The results of the characterization analyses indicated that the triflate salt was the most efficient carrier agent. The membranes containing this salt showed the best performance, reaching an ideal selectivity of 10 and propylene permeability of 188 Barrer.

  10. Metabolism of bile salts in mice influences spore germination in Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Giel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile, a spore-forming bacterium, causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In order to produce toxins and cause disease, C. difficile spores must germinate and grow out as vegetative cells in the host. Although a few compounds capable of germinating C. difficile spores in vitro have been identified, the in vivo signal(s to which the spores respond were not previously known. Examination of intestinal and cecal extracts from untreated and antibiotic-treated mice revealed that extracts from the antibiotic-treated mice can stimulate colony formation from spores to greater levels. Treatment of these extracts with cholestyramine, a bile salt binding resin, severely decreased the ability of the extracts to stimulate colony formation from spores. This result, along with the facts that the germination factor is small, heat-stable, and water-soluble, support the idea that bile salts stimulate germination of C. difficile spores in vivo. All extracts able to stimulate high level of colony formation from spores had a higher proportion of primary to secondary bile salts than extracts that could not. In addition, cecal flora from antibiotic-treated mice was less able to modify the germinant taurocholate relative to flora from untreated mice, indicating that the population of bile salt modifying bacteria differed between the two groups. Taken together, these data suggest that an in vivo-produced compound, likely bile salts, stimulates colony formation from C. difficile spores and that levels of this compound are influenced by the commensal gastrointestinal flora.

  11. Salt stress affects the redox status of Arabidopsis root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keni eJiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the redox status (profiles for specific populations of cells that comprise the Arabidopsis root tip. For recently germinated, 3-5-day-old seedlings we show that the region of the root tip with the most reduced redox status includes the root cap initials, the quiescent center and the most distal portion of the proximal meristem, and coincides with (overlays the region of the auxin maximum. As one moves basally, further into the proximal meristem, and depending on the growth conditions, the redox status becomes more oxidized, with a 5-10 mV difference in redox potential between the two borders delimiting the proximal meristem. At the point on the root axis at which cells of the proximal meristem cease division and enter the transition zone, the redox potential levels off and remains more or less unchanged throughout the transition zone. As cells leave the transition zone and enter the zone of elongation the redox potentials become more oxidized. Treating roots with salt (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl results in marked changes in root meristem structure and development, and is preceded by changes in the redox profile, which flattens, and initially becomes more oxidized, with pronounced changes in the redox potentials of the root cap, the root cap initials and the quiescent center. Roots exposed to relatively mild levels of salt (< 100 mM are able to re-establish a normal, pre-salt treatment redox profile 3-6 days after exposure to salt. Coincident with the salt-associated changes in redox profiles are changes in the distribution of auxin transporters (AUX1, PIN1/2, which become more diffuse in their localization. We conclude that salt stress affects root meristem maintenance, in part, through changes in redox and auxin transport.

  12. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  13. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  14. A zero-liquid-discharge scheme for vanadium extraction process by electrodialysis-based technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng, E-mail: wangmeng@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Xing, Hong-bo; Jia, Yu-xiang [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Ren, Qing-chun [Beijing Unisplendour Empyreal Environmental Engineering Technology Co. Ltd., Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • A zero discharge scheme for vanadiumextraction process is proposed. • The water transport in the electrodialysis process is analyzed quantitatively. • The influence of concentration ratio in the electrodialysis process is explored. - Abstract: The sharp increase of demand for vanadium makes the treatment of the wastewater generated from its extraction process become an urgent problem. In this study, a hybrid process coupling the electrodialysis with the cooling crystallization is put forward for upgrading the conventional vanadium extraction process to zero discharge. Accordingly, the objective of this work lies in evaluating the feasibility of the proposed scheme on the basis of a systematic study on the influences of membrane types and operating parameters on the electrodilysis performance. The results indicate that the relative importance of osmosis and electro-osmosis to overall water transport is closely related to the applied current density. The increase in the applied current density and the decrease in the mole ratio of water and salt flux will contribute to the concentration degree. Moreover, it is worth noting that a relatively large concentration ratio can result in the remarkable decrease of current efficiency and increase of energy consumption. In general, the reclamation scheme can easily achieve the recovered water with relatively low salt content and the highly concentrated Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (e.g., 300 g/L) for producing high-purity sodium sulphate crystals.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, metallic silver nanoparticles were synthesized from leaf extracts of Parquetina nigrescens and Synedrella nodiflora. Silver ion was reduced to metallic silver on treatment of AgNO solution with aqueous extracts of the 3 two plants within 30minutes. The effects of time and the volume of extract to silver salt solution ...

  16. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-03

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  17. Technology for Salt Production in the Mixteca Alta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio León Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt production in the Mixteca Alta is a traditional means of production from prehispanic period, which, despite the economic transformation processes in the colonial period, remained significant features of the traditional process, based on the documented similar models from other productive regions in Mexico. The salt in the novohispanic period was considered a major consumption economic asset due to its use in production processes for the production of new economic products that supported the economy of preindustrial societies (Terán, 2011, p. 71; Williams, 2008. Technology refers to the knowledges for solving human needs arising lifestyle of the cultural groups that develop them. The resources of the natural environment underpin the means of labor that man requires to perform its activities, including economic. The means of production and production processes are technological developments, which involve elements of tangible and intangible order. The study of work processes for salt extraction, are significantly related to the processes of technological evolution that man has developed for the use of natural resources. The economic activities of the primary sector are examples of how humans culturally and economically were inserted in the natural environment (Malpica, 2008, p. 59. This analysis presents a historiographical approach to the study of the processes and the technology required for the extraction of salt in the Mixteca Alta.

  18. Pesticide removal from aqueous solutions by adding salting out agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Fátima; Deive, Francisco J; Esperança, José M S S; Rodríguez, Ana

    2013-10-18

    Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (C(n)C₁im C₁SO₄, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P₄₄₄₁ C₁SO₄) and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C₁Py C₁SO₄) and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K₂CO₃ and K₂HPO₄) were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP) extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies.

  19. Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Moscoso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (CnC1im C1SO4, n = 2 and 4, tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO4 and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C1Py C1SO4 and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K2CO3 and K2HPO4 were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies.

  20. Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Fátima; Deive, Francisco J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Rodríguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (CnC1im C1SO4, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO4) and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C1Py C1SO4) and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K2CO3 and K2HPO4) were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP) extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies. PMID:24145747

  1. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (μgL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of salt concentration and mediators in salt bridge microbial fuel cell for electricity generation from synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevda, Surajbhan; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using agar salt bridges for proton transport in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC). It also tries to elucidate and effect of mediators on electricity production from wastewaters through experimentation using a simulated wastewater. In order to offset the very high cost of proton exchange membrane, salt bridges have been used in dual chamber MFCs. When the concentration of salt was varied in agar salt bridges from 1% to 10%, the volumetric power density changed from 1.71 to 84.99 mW/m(3) with a concomitant variation in power density from 0.32 to 16.02 mW/m(2). The maximum power density was observed at 5% salt concentration with 10% agar, which was accompanied by 88.41% COD reduction. In the case of methylene blue (0.01 mM) as the electron mediator, the voltage and current generation were 0.551 V and 0.47 mA, respectively. A maximum open circuit voltage of 0.718 V was seen at 0.08 mM methylene blue concentration, whereas maximum power densities of 17.59 mW/m(2) and 89.22 mW/m(3) were obtained. Different concentrations of neutral red were also tried out as mediators. A maximum open circuit voltage of 0.730 V was seen at 0.01 mM neutral red, corresponding to a power density of 12.02 mW/m(2) (volumetric power density of 60.97 mW/m(3)). Biofilm formation on the electrode surface was not observed in the presence of mediators, but was present in the absence of mediators. The results clearly demonstrated the feasibility to use agar salt bridge for proton transport and role of mediators in MFCs to generate electricity.

  3. Clinical application of transcriptional activators of bile salt transporters☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdasaryan, Anna; Chiba, Peter; Trauner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hepatobiliary bile salt (BS) transporters are critical determinants of BS homeostasis controlling intracellular concentrations of BSs and their enterohepatic circulation. Genetic or acquired dysfunction of specific transport systems causes intrahepatic and systemic retention of potentially cytotoxic BSs, which, in high concentrations, may disturb integrity of cell membranes and subcellular organelles resulting in cell death, inflammation and fibrosis. Transcriptional regulation of canalicular BS efflux through bile salt export pump (BSEP), basolateral elimination through organic solute transporters alpha and beta (OSTα/OSTβ) as well as inhibition of hepatocellular BS uptake through basolateral Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) represent critical steps in protection from hepatocellular BS overload and can be targeted therapeutically. In this article, we review the potential clinical implications of the major BS transporters BSEP, OSTα/OSTβ and NTCP in the pathogenesis of hereditary and acquired cholestatic syndromes, provide an overview on transcriptional control of these transporters by the key regulatory nuclear receptors and discuss the potential therapeutic role of novel transcriptional activators of BS transporters in cholestasis. PMID:24333169

  4. Solvent extraction of europium(III) to a fluorine-free ionic liquid phase with a diglycolamic acid extractant

    OpenAIRE

    Rout, Alok; Souza, Ernesto Rezende; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Europium(III) was extracted by bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamic acid (DEHDGA) dissolved in the non-fluorinated ionic liquid tetraoctylammonium dodecyl sulphate, [N8888][DS]. The extraction behaviour of europium(III) was investigated as a function of various parameters: pH, extractant concentration, concentration of the europium(III) ion in the aqueous feed and concentration of the salting-out agent. A comparison was made with extraction of europium(III) by the acidic extractants bis(2-ethylhexyl...

  5. Selective Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lead Ions Using Newly Synthesized Extractant 2-(Dibutylcarbamoyl)benzoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Soltani; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani; Massomeh Ghorbanloo

    2015-01-01

    A new carboxylic acid extractant, named 2-(dibutylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid, is prepared and its potential for selective solvent extraction and recovery of lead ions from industrial samples was investigated. The slope analysis indicated that the lead ions are extracted by formation of 1:2 metal to ligand complexes. The effect of the parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including kind of the organic diluent, extractant concentration, type of the salt used for ionic strength adjustment...

  6. Micronized Organic Magnesium Salts Enhance Opioid Analgesia in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny

    Full Text Available As previously reported, magnesium sulphate administered parenterally significantly increased an opioid antinociception in different kinds of pain. Since the typical form of magnesium salts are poorly and slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract we examined whether their micronized form could increase opioids induced antinociception.In behavioural studies on rats morphine, tramadol and oxycodone together with magnesium (lactate dihydrate, hydroaspartate, chloride in micronized (particles of size D90 < 50 μm and conventional forms were used. Changes in pain thresholds were determined using mechanical stimuli. The intestinal absorption of two forms of magnesium lactate dihydrate (at the doses of 7.5 or 15 mg ions in the porcine gut sac model were also compared.Micronized form of magnesium lactate dihydrate or hydroaspartate but not chloride (15 mg of magnesium ions kg-1 enhanced the analgesic activity of orally administered opioids, significantly faster and more effective in comparison to the conventional form of magnesium salts (about 40% for oxycodone administered together with a micronized form of magnesium hydroaspartate. Moreover, in vitro studies of transport across porcine intestines of magnesium ions showed that magnesium salts administered in micronized form were absorbed from the intestines to a greater extent than the normal form of magnesium salts.The co-administration of micronized magnesium organic salts with opioids increased their synergetic analgesic effect. This may suggest an innovative approach to the treatment of pain in clinical practice.

  7. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  8. Homolytic reduction of onium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  9. Microplastics in Spanish Table Salt

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Maria E.; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Marine debris is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. One of its main components, microplastics, has been found in several sea salt samples from different countries, indicating that sea products are irremediably contaminated by microplastics. Previous studies show very confusing results, reporting amounts of microparticles (MPs) in salt ranging from zero to 680 MPs/kg, with no mention of the possible causes of such differences. Several errors in the experimental procedures use...

  10. Hepatic Farnesoid X-Receptor Isoforms α2 and α4 Differentially Modulate Bile Salt and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesjes, Marije; Bloks, Vincent W.; Hageman, Jurre; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; Wolters, Henk; Jonker, Johan W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor FXR acts as an intracellular bile salt sensor that regulates synthesis and transport of bile salts within their enterohepatic circulation. In addition, FXR is involved in control of a variety of crucial metabolic pathways. Four FXR splice variants are known, i.e. FXR alpha 1-4.

  11. Fusible pellet transport and storage of heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A new concept for both transport and storage of heat at high temperatures and heat fluxes is introduced and the first steps in analysis of its feasibility is taken. The concept utilizes the high energy storage capability of materials undergoing change of phase. The phase change material, for example a salt, is encapsulated in corrosion resistant sealed pellets and transported in a carrier fluid to heat source and storage. Calculations for heat transport from a typical solar collector indicate that the pellet mass flow rates are relatively small and that the required pumping power is only a small fraction of the energy transport capability of the system. Salts and eutectic salt mixtures as candidate phase change materials are examined and discussed. Finally, the time periods for melting or solidification of sodium chloride pellets is investigated and reported.

  12. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  14. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions for Solvent Extraction Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-06-27

    Personnel will need to routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste for solvent extraction testing. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  15. Solid phase extraction of hydroxyaromatic compounds from aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Sukhanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of extraction parameters of hydroxyaromatic compounds on sort of polyurethane foam, nature and composition of solution deposited on a polymer foam, content of inorganic salt in solution.

  16. Effects of sediment-associated extractable metals, degree of sediment grain sorting, and dissolved organic carbon upon Cryptosporidium parvum removal and transport within riverbank filtration sediments, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metge, D.W.; Harvey, R.W.; Aiken, G.R.; Anders, R.; Lincoln, G.; Jasperse, J.; Hill, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Oocysts of the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum are of particular concern for riverbank filtration (RBF) operations because of their persistence, ubiquity, and resistance to chlorine disinfection. At the Russian River RBF site (Sonoma County, CA), transport of C. parvumoocysts and oocyst-sized (3 μm) carboxylate-modified microspheres through poorly sorted (sorting indices, σ1, up to 3.0) and geochemically heterogeneous sediments collected between 2 and 25 m below land surface (bls) were assessed. Removal was highly sensitive to variations in both the quantity of extractable metals (mainly Fe and Al) and degree of grain sorting. In flow-through columns, there was a log–linear relationship (r2 = 0.82 at p < 0.002) between collision efficiency (α, the probability that colloidal collisions with grain surfaces would result in attachment) and extractable metals, and a linear relationship (r2 = 0.99 at p < 0.002) between α and σ1. Collectively, variability in extractable metals and grain sorting accounted for ∼83% of the variability in α (at p < 0.0002) along the depth profiles. Amendments of 2.2 mg L–1 of Russian River dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduced α for oocysts by 4–5 fold. The highly reactive hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) fraction was particularly effective in re-entraining sediment-attached microspheres. However, the transport-enhancing effects of the riverine DOC did not appear to penetrate very deeply into the underlying sediments, judging from high α values (∼1.0) observed for oocysts being advected through unamended sediments collected at ∼2 m bls. This study suggests that in evaluating the efficacy of RBF operations to remove oocysts, it may be necessary to consider not only the geochemical nature and size distribution of the sediment grains, but also the degrees of sediment sorting and the concentration, reactivity, and penetration of the source water DOC.

  17. Engineering copolymeric artificial cornea with salt porogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellander, Amelia; Wardlow, Melissa; Djalilian, Ali; Zhao, Chenlin; Abiade, Jeremiah; Cho, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Artificial corneas or keratoprostheses (KPros) are designed to replace diseased or damaged cornea. Although many synthetic KPros have been developed, current products are often inappropriate or inadequate for long term use due to ineffective host integration. This study presents an alternative approach of engineering a KPro that comprises a combination of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and sodium chloride (NaCl) as porogen. Based on the core-skirt model for KPro, the porous outer portion of artificial cornea (skirt) was engineered by combining NaCl with HEMA and MMA monomers to promote tissue ingrowth from the host. The central optic (core) was designed to provide >85% light transmission in the visible wavelength range and securely attached to the skirt. Mechanical tensile data indicated that our KPro (referred to as salt porogen KPro) is mechanically stable to maintain its structure in the ocular environment and during implantation. Using human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs), we demonstrate that the cells grew into the pores of the skirt and proliferated, suggesting biointegration is adequately achieved. This novel PHEMA-PMMA copolymeric salt porogen KPro may offer a cornea replacement option that leads to minimal risk of corneal melting by permitting sufficient tissue ingrowth and mass transport. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  18. Effects of octacosanol extracted from rice bran on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase in weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Long

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of octacosanol to the body of animals and the effects of octacosanol on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK in liver and muscle tissue of weaning piglets. A total of 105 crossbred piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc with an initial BW of 5.70 ± 1.41 kg (21 d of age were used in a 6-wk trial to evaluate the effects of octacosanol and tiamulin supplementation on contents of triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, growth hormone (GH, glucagon (GU and adrenaline (AD in blood and gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in liver and muscle. Piglets were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments on the basis of BW and sex. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 5 piglets per pen. Treatments were as followed: control group, tiamulin group and octacosanol group. The results showed that compared with control group and tiamulin group, octacosanol greatly promoted the secretion of T3, GH, GU and AD (P  0.05. Results of the present study has confirmed that octacosanol affects energy metabolism of body by regulating secretion of blood hormones and related gene expression in tissue of weaning piglets, which can reduce stress response and has an impact on performance.

  19. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  20. The Twentieth International Symposium on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Heterocyclic Carbene Involved?" by Hyung Kim "Carbon Dioxide Absorption Behavior and Cabronate Ion Transport of Lithium Orthosilicate/Molten Carbonate...Electrodeposition of Metals" by Remana Reddy "In Situ TEM Observations of Lithium Electrodeposition/Stripping Process in Ionic Liquid" by Tetsuya Tsuda "Green... America . iii Preface The 20th International Symposium on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids Symposium was held on October 2 - 7, 2016, in Honolulu, Hawaii as

  1. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard Meade

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Part of sec. 5, T. 23 S., R. 20 E. has been selected as a site for subsurface investigation as a potential repository for radioactive waste. This site has easy access to transportation, is on public land, is isolated from human habitation, is not visible from Arches National Park, and the salt body lies within about 800 feet (244 m) of the surface. Further exploration should include investigation of possible ground water in the caprock and physical exploration of the salt body to identify a thick bed of salt for use as a storage zone that can be isolated from the shaly interbeds that possibly contain quantities of hydrocarbons. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after

  2. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part II. Anion series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different anion salts from the Hofmeister series were used to investigate their effects on gluten network formation. The effects of these anion salts on the mixing properties of the dough and the rheological and chemical properties of gluten samples extracted from the dough with these respective salts were compared. The aim of this work was to determine how different anion salts influence the formation of the gluten structure during dough mixing. It was found that the Hofmeister anion salts affected the gluten network formation by interacting directly with specific amino acid residues that resulted in changes in gluten protein composition, specifically the percentage of the unextractable polymeric protein fractions (%UPP). These changes consequently led to remarkable differences in the mixing profiles and microstructural features of the dough, small deformation rheological properties of the gluten and a strain hardening behaviour of both dough and gluten samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Ramana G. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2013-10-23

    go/no-go goals stipulated by the DOE for this project. Energy densities of all salt mixtures were higher than that of the current solar salt. The salt mixtures costs have been estimated and TES system costs for a 2 tank, direct approach have been estimated for each of these materials. All estimated costs are significantly below the baseline system that used solar salt. These lower melt point salts offer significantly higher energy density per volume than solar salt – and therefore attractively smaller inventory and equipment costs. Moreover, a new TES system geometry has been recommended A variety of approaches were evaluated to use the low melting point molten salt. Two novel changes are recommended that 1) use the salt as a HTF through the solar trough field, and 2) use the salt to not only create steam but also to preheat the condensed feedwater for Rankine cycle. The two changes enable the powerblock to operate at 500°C, rather than the current 400°C obtainable using oil as the HTF. Secondly, the use of salt to preheat the feedwater eliminates the need to extract steam from the low pressure turbine for that purpose. Together, these changes result in a dramatic 63% reduction required for 6 hour salt inventory, a 72% reduction in storage volume, and a 24% reduction in steam flow rate in the power block. Round trip efficiency for the Case 5 - 2 tank “direct” system is estimated at >97%, with only small losses from time under storage and heat exchange, and meeting RFP goals. This attractive efficiency is available because the major heat loss experienced in a 2 tank “indirect” system - losses by transferring the thermal energy from oil HTF to the salt storage material and back to oil to run the steam generator at night - is not present for the 2 tank direct system. The higher heat capacity values for both LMP and HMP systems enable larger storage capacities for concentrating solar power.

  4. Homo- and hetero-dimeric architecture of the human liver Na+-dependent taurocholate co-transporting protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsmans, Ingrid T. G. W.; Bouwmeester, Rianne A. M.; Geyer, Joachim; Faber, Klaas Nico; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The NTCP (Na+-taurocholate co-transporting protein)/SLC10A [solute carrier family 10 (Na+/bile acid co-transporter family)] 1 is tightly controlled to ensure hepatic bile salt uptake while preventing toxic bile salt accumulation. Many transport proteins require oligomerization for their activity and

  5. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Shah, H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States). Sludge and Salt Planning; Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-25

    forms in the assembled salt batches in Tanks 21/49 pass through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) / Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) process to Tank 50 with no significant change in the mercury chemistry. (3) In Tank 50, Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) from ARP/MCU is the major contributor to the total mercury including MHg. (4) Speciation analyses of TCLP leached solutions of the grout samples prepared from Tank 21, as well as Tank 50 samples, show the majority of the mercury released in the solution is MHg.

  6. 8-channel prototype of SALT readout ASIC for Upstream Tracker in the upgraded LHCb experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan Beteta, C.; Bugiel, S.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kane, C.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Wang, J.

    2017-02-01

    SALT is a new 128-channel readout ASIC for silicon strip detectors in the upgraded Upstream Tracker of the LHCb experiment. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the sensor, perform digital processing and transmit serial output data. SALT is designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of an analogue front-end and an ultra-low power (fabricated and tested. A full 128-channel version was also submitted. The design and test results of the SALT8 prototype are presented showing its full functionality.

  7. LHCb - SALT, a dedicated readout chip for strip detectors in the LHCb Upgrade experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Swientek, Krzysztof Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors in the upgraded Tracker of LHCb experiment will require a new readout 128-channel ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the sensor, perform digital processing and transmit serial output data. SALT is designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analogue front-end and ultra-low power ($<$0.5 mW) fast (40 MSps) sampling 6-bit ADC in each channel. A prototype of first 8-channel version of SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities, was submitted. Its design and possibly first tests results will be presented.

  8. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  9. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  10. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  11. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  13. Effect of Dietary Salt Restriction on Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults: a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Moran, Andrew E.; Liu, Jing; Qi, Yue; Xie, Wuxiang; Tzong, Keane; Zhao, Dong

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the effects of dietary salt reduction on blood pressure (BP) in Chinese adults and the effects of China-specific cooking salt reduction strategies (salt substitute and salt-restriction spoon). METHODS PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies satisfying search criteria. Outcomes extracted from each included study were 24-hour urinary sodium (Na) excretion, salt (sodium chloride) intake, and BP level before and after dietary salt lowering. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and results were evaluated for evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity. Because most studies aggregated results for hypertensive and normotensive participants, estimates were made for hypertensives only and for hypertensives and normotensives combined. RESULTS Six salt-restriction experiment studies (3,153 participants), four cooking salt-restriction spoon studies (3,715 participants), and four cooking salt substitute studies (1,730 participants) were analyzed. In salt-restriction experiment studies, the pooled estimate of mean change in 24-hour urinary Na excretion in hypertensive participants was −163.0 mmol/day (95% confident interval (CI): −233.5 to −92.5 mmol/day), which was associated with a mean reduction of −8.9 mmHg (95%CI: −14.1 to −3.7 mmHg) in systolic BP. Each 1.00g dietary salt reduction in hypertensives was associated with a reduction of 0.94 mmHg in systolic BP (95%CI: 0.69 to 1.03 mmHg). These systolic BP reductions in hypertensives were 1.71 times greater compared with the mixed hypertensive and normotensive group. Salt-restriction spoon studies demonstrated a 1.46 g decrease on daily salt intake level. The effect of salt substitute use on systolic BP control was substantial among the hypertensives (−4.2, 95%CI: −7.0 to −1.3 mmHg), but the change did not reach statistical significance in hypertensives and normotensives combined (−2.31, 95%CI: −5.57 to 0.94 mmHg) CONCLUSIONS

  14. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  15. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides using membrane-assisted solvent extraction combined with large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellin, Manuela; Hauser, Barbara; Popp, Peter

    2004-06-25

    Eight organophosphorus pesticides (parathion-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, fenthion, bromophos, bromophos-ethyl, fenamiphos and ethion) in aqueous samples were analysed by means of membrane-assisted solvent extraction. First a 20 ml extraction vial was filled with 15 ml of aqueous sample. Then the membrane bag consisting of nonporous polypropylene was put into the vial and filled with 800 microl of organic solvent. The analytes were separated from the aqueous layer by transporting them through the membrane material into the small amount of solvent. The technique was fully automated and successfully combinable with large volume extraction and GC-MS. To achieve an optimum performance several extraction conditions were investigated. Cyclohexane was chosen as acceptor phase. Then the impact of salt, methanol, pH value, as well as working parameters like stirring rate of the agitator and extraction time, were studied. Moreover, the influence of matrix effects was examined by adding different concentrations of humic acid sodium salt. Detection limits in the ng/l level were achieved using large volume injection with the injecting volume of 100 microl. The recovery values ranged from 47 to 100% and the relative standard deviation for three standard measurements was between 4 and 12% (except for bromophos-ethyl: 22%). The linear dynamic range was between 0.001 and 70 microg/l. The applicability of the method to real samples was tested by spiking the eight organophosphorus pesticides to red wine, white wine and apple juice samples.

  16. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World - A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Trieu

    Full Text Available To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025.A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework.A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61, establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39, consumer education (71, front-of-pack labelling schemes (31, taxation on high-salt foods (3 and interventions in public institutions (54. Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt.The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake.

  17. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World - A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Kathy; Neal, Bruce; Hawkes, Corinna; Dunford, Elizabeth; Campbell, Norm; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Legetic, Branka; McLaren, Lindsay; Barberio, Amanda; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework. A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61), establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39), consumer education (71), front-of-pack labelling schemes (31), taxation on high-salt foods (3) and interventions in public institutions (54). Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt. The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake.

  18. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World – A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Kathy; Neal, Bruce; Hawkes, Corinna; Dunford, Elizabeth; Campbell, Norm; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Legetic, Branka; McLaren, Lindsay; Barberio, Amanda; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. Methods A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework. Results A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61), establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39), consumer education (71), front-of-pack labelling schemes (31), taxation on high-salt foods (3) and interventions in public institutions (54). Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt. Conclusion The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake. PMID:26201031

  19. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  20. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  1. Nitrate and Ammonium Contribute to the Distinct Nitrogen Metabolism of Populus simonii during Moderate Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Sen; Su, Li; Li, Yiming; Wang, Yinjuan; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stressor affecting plant growth. Salinity affects nitrification and ammonification in the soil, however, limited information is available on the influence of different N sources on N metabolism during salt stress. To understand the N metabolism changes in response to different N sources during moderate salt stress, we investigated N uptake, assimilation and the transcript abundance of associated genes in Populus simonii seedlings treated with moderate salt stress (75mM NaCl) under hydroponic culture conditions with nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+). Salt stress negatively affected plant growth in both NH4+-fed and NO3--fed plants. Both NH4+ uptake and the total N concentration were significantly increased in the roots of the NH4+-fed plants during salt stress. However, the NO3- uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity primarily depended on the NO3- supply and was not influenced by salt stress. Salt stress decreased glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity in the roots and leaves. Most genes associated with NO3-uptake, reduction and N metabolism were down-regulated or remained unchanged; while two NH4+ transporter genes closely associated with NH4+ uptake (AMT1;2 and AMT1;6) were up-regulated in response to salt stress in the NH4+-fed plants. The accumulation of different amino acid compounds was observed in the NH4+- and NO3-- fed plants during salt treatment. The results suggested that N metabolism in P. simonii plants exposed to salt enhanced salt resistance in the plants that were fed with NO3- instead of NH4+ as the sole N source.

  2. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  3. Salt stress induces changes in the proteomic profile of micropropagated sugarcane shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; Rangel, Patricia L.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Grativol, Clícia; Veiga, Carlos F. M.; Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A.

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the most common stresses in agricultural regions worldwide. In particular, sugarcane is affected by salt stress conditions, and no sugarcane cultivar presently show high productivity accompanied by a tolerance to salt stress. Proteomic analysis allows elucidation of the important pathways involved in responses to various abiotic stresses at the biochemical and molecular levels. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the proteomic effects of salt stress in micropropagated shoots of two sugarcane cultivars (CB38-22 and RB855536) using a label-free proteomic approach. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006075. The RB855536 cultivar is more tolerant to salt stress than CB38-22. A quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis identified 1172 non-redundant proteins, and 1160 of these were observed in both cultivars in the presence or absence of NaCl. Compared with CB38-22, the RB855536 cultivar showed a greater abundance of proteins involved in non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms, ion transport, and photosynthesis. Some proteins, such as calcium-dependent protein kinase, photosystem I, phospholipase D, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were more abundant in the RB855536 cultivar under salt stress. Our results provide new insights into the response of sugarcane to salt stress, and the changes in the abundance of these proteins might be important for the acquisition of ionic and osmotic homeostasis during exposure to salt stress. PMID:28419154

  4. Long Term Analysis of Deformations in Salt Mines: Kłodawa Salt Mine Case Study, Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cała, Marek; Tajduś, Antoni; Andrusikiewicz, Wacław; Kowalski, Michał; Kolano, Malwina; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka; Cyran, Katarzyna; Jakóbczyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    Located in central Poland, the Kłodawa salt dome is 26 km long and about 2 km wide. Exploitation of the dome started in 1956, currently rock salt extraction is carried out in 7 mining fields and the 12 mining levels at the depth from 322 to 625 meters below sea level (m.b.s.l.). It is planned to maintain the mining activity till 2052 and extend rock salt extraction to deeper levels. The dome is characterised by complex geological structure resulted from halokinetic and tectonic processes. Projection of the 3D numerical analysis took into account the following factors: mine working distribution within the Kłodawa mine (about 1000 rooms, 350 km of galleries), complex geological structure of the salt dome, complicated structure and geometry of mine workings and distinction in rocks mechanical properties e.g. rock salt and anhydrite. Analysis of past mine workings deformation and prediction of future rock mass behaviour was divided into four stages: building of the 3D model (state of mine workings in year 2014), model extension of the future mine workings planned for extraction in years 2015-2052, the 3D model calibration and stability analysis of all mine workings. The 3D numerical model of Kłodawa salt mine included extracted and planned mine workings in 7 mining fields and 14 mining levels (about 2000 mine workings). The dimensions of the model were 4200 m × 4700 m × 1200 m what was simulated by 33 million elements. The 3D model was calibrated on the grounds of convergence measurements and laboratory tests. Stability assessment of mine workings was based on analysis of the strength/stress ratio and vertical stress. The strength/stress ratio analysis enabled to indicate endangered area in mine workings and can be defined as the factor of safety. Mine workings in state close to collapse are indicated by the strength/stress ratio equals 1. Analysis of the vertical stress in mine workings produced the estimation of current state of stress in comparison to initial

  5. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  6. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  7. Nearshore transport processes affecting the dilution and fate of energy-related contaminants. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, J. O.

    1980-07-15

    Research was conducted on physical oceanograhic processes off the Georgia Coast. Spatral variations in momentum and salt flux were measured to determine their importance in generating flow and salt transport. Analyses of data are presently underway.

  8. An analysis of the benefits of using underground tanks for the storage of stormwater runoff generated at Virginia Department of Transportation maintenance facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) collects millions of gallons of runoff at its nearly 300 salt storage : facilities each year, with some portion of this water being reused for the generation of salt brine. Storing this collected storm...

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  10. Precipitation of sparingly soluble salts in packed sandbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems encountered by the oil extraction industry, is the reduction of the local permeability of the rock formation near the extraction wells because of salt deposition in the pores of the rocks during the injection of brine water to displace the trapped oil ganglia within the oil formations. This phenomenon makes the oil recovery less efficient and under extreme cases the well is abandoned with a large amount of oil entrapped. Several detailed studies have been conducted in the past concerning sand bed consolidation using sparingly soluble salts for varying conditions (e.g. temperature, grain size, sand type, salt concentrations etc) and various salts [1]. Nevertheless, salt precipitation in the rock formation pores under the presence of other miscible or immiscible substances with water has not been investigated in details yet. In the present study, salt (CaCO3) precipitation experiments were performed in small beds packed with sea sand mixed with a low amount of CaCO3 seed grains. The experiments were performed using pure solutions (NaHCO3, CaCl2.2H2O) and solutions mixed with Ethylene Glycol in sand beds. Additionally, precipitation experiments were performed using pure solutions in sand beds saturated with oil phase (n-dodecane) for a wide range of solution supersaturation. During the experiments the ionic strength was kept constant. pH and concentration values of calcium ion of the effluent were measured and the precipitated salt crystals were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. At the end of each experiment Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was conducted using a sample of the precipitated sand to identify the morphology of the precipitated crystals and their cohesion with sand grains. Acknowledgments This research was partially funded by the European Union (European Social Fund-ESF) and Greek National Funds through the Operational program "Education and Lifelong Learning" under the action Aristeia II (Code No 4420). References

  11. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (pmeat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  13. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  14. Volatile Selenium Flux in the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Volatilization of selenium has been proven to be the major source of selenium vapor from oceans and estuaries and it may be the major mechanism of permanent selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake (other than brine shrimp harvest). However, the volatilization flux of selenium from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hyper-saline environment. This work presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of volatile selenium (geographical and with depth) in the South Arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of volatile selenium in a cryo-focusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryo-trapped volatile selenium was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-MS. The results show concentrations of volatile selenium that are much greater than values reported for marine estuaries and oceans. Volatile selenium flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport equations corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the South Arm of the Great Salt Lake.

  15. The effect of ultrasonic salting on protein and water-protein interactions in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, C K; Allen, P; Morin, C; Lyng, J G

    2014-03-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of power ultrasound (US) treatment (4.2, 11 or 19 W cm(-2) for 10, 25 or 40 min) on water-protein interactions during the salting of pork. All US treatments increased the protein extraction above that of the control (pmeat matrix were evident by light microscopy. Findings indicate that US salting could be a surface phenomenon which can accelerate mass transfer and extract protein but denature myosin at high power inputs. Potential could exist for US to enhance conventional curing techniques. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is

  17. Innovative method and apparatus for the deep cleaning of soluble salts from mortars and lithic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Ferretti, Maurizio; Torrielli, Giulia; Caratto, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    Porous materials (e.g. plasters, mortars, concrete, and the like) used in the building industry or in artworks fail to develop, after their genesis, salts such as nitrates, carbonates (e.g. potassium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate), chlorides (e.g. sodium chloride) and/or others, which are a concurrent cause of material deterioration phenomena. In the case of ancient or cultural heritage buildings, severe damage to structures and works of art, such as fresco paintings are possible. In general, in situ alteration pattern in mortars and frescoes by crystallization of soluble salts from solutions is caused by capillar rise or circulation in damp walls. Older buildings can be more subject to capillary rise of ion-rich waters, which, as water evaporates, create salt crystals inside the walls. If this pattern reveals overwhelming upon other environmental decay factors, the extraction of salts is the first restoration to recover the artpiece after the preliminary assessment and mitigation of the causes of soaking. A new method and apparatus, patented by University of Genoa [1] improves the quality and durability of decontamination by soluble salts, compared with conventional application of sepiolite or cellulose wraps. The conventional application of cellulose or sepiolite requires casting a more or less thick layer of wrap on the mortar, soaking with distilled water, and waiting until dry. The soluble salts result trapped within the wrap. A set of artificial samples reproducing the stratigraphy of frescoes was contaminated with saline solution of known concentration. The higher quality of the extraction was demonstrated by trapping the salts within layers of Japanese paper juxtaposed to the mortar; the extraction with the dedicated apparatus was operated in a significantly shorter time than with wraps (some hours vs. several days). Two cycles of about 15 minutes are effective in the deep cleaning from contaminant salts. The decontamination was

  18. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-13

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na + were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the Genetic Architecture Underlying Salt Tolerance-Related Traits in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiong Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL. A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines was genotyped with a Brassica 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array. The results revealed that 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed across 14 chromosomes were associated with four salt tolerance-related traits. These SNPs integrated into 25 QTLs that explained 4.21–9.23% of the phenotypic variation in the cultivars. Additionally, 38 possible candidate genes were identified in genomic regions associated with salt tolerance indices. These genes fell into several functional groups that are associated with plant salt tolerance, including transcription factors, aquaporins, transporters, and enzymes. Thus, salt tolerance in rapeseed involves complex molecular mechanisms. Our results provide valuable information for studying the genetic control of salt tolerance in B. napus seedlings and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed salt tolerance.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the Genetic Architecture Underlying Salt Tolerance-Related Traits in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Heping; Chen, Lunlin; Guo, Jianbin; Li, Qun; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines was genotyped with a Brassica 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array. The results revealed that 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across 14 chromosomes were associated with four salt tolerance-related traits. These SNPs integrated into 25 QTLs that explained 4.21-9.23% of the phenotypic variation in the cultivars. Additionally, 38 possible candidate genes were identified in genomic regions associated with salt tolerance indices. These genes fell into several functional groups that are associated with plant salt tolerance, including transcription factors, aquaporins, transporters, and enzymes. Thus, salt tolerance in rapeseed involves complex molecular mechanisms. Our results provide valuable information for studying the genetic control of salt tolerance in B. napus seedlings and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed salt tolerance.

  1. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na+ were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato. PMID:28084460

  2. Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    ..., and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding...

  3. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  4. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  5. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates. However, experience in the field has shown that failures regularly occur on these special mortars, making the situation little transparent for end-users. A European project called COMPASS has addr...

  6. Can COSMOTherm Predict a Salting in Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivola, Martta; Prisle, Nønne L; Elm, Jonas; Waxman, Eleanor M; Volkamer, Rainer; Kurtén, Theo

    2017-08-24

    We have used COSMO-RS, a method combining quantum chemistry with statistical thermodynamics, to compute Setschenow constants (K S ) for a large array of organic solutes and salts. These comprise both atmospherically relevant solute-salt combinations, as well as systems for which experimental data are available. In agreement with previous studies on single salts, the Setschenow constants predicted by COSMO-RS (as implemented in the COSMOTherm program) are generally too large compared to experiments. COSMOTherm overpredicts salting out (positive K S ), and/or underpredicts salting in (negative K S ). For ammonium and sodium salts, K S values are larger for oxalates and sulfates, and smaller for chlorides and bromides. For chloride and bromide salts, K S values usually increase with decreasing size of the cation, along the series Pr 4 N + salting in is predicted only for oxalic acid in sodium and ammonium oxalate, and sodium sulfate, solutions. COSMOTherm was thus unable to replicate the experimentally observed salting in of glyoxal in sulfate solutions, likely due to the overestimation of salting out effects. By contrast, COSMOTherm does qualitatively predict the experimentally observed salting in of multiple organic solutes in solutions of alkylaminium salts.

  7. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects : Relationships with salt sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Koerts, J; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    We studied cortisol metabolism together with insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] and renal hemodynamics in 19 salt-resistant (sr) and nine salt-sensitive ( ss) normotensive subjects after a low-and high-salt diet. Results are described as high- vs. low-salt diet. Sum of urinary

  8. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; Psalt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Subsidence and basin-fill architecture of a lignite-bearing salt rim syncline: insights into rim syncline evolution and salt diapirism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, C.; Pollok, L.; Schmidt, C.; Wilde, V.; Winsemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Mod®, which focused on the burial history of the rim syncline. Modeling results also show the progressive migration of the rim syncline depocenter towards the salt wall. The extracted geohistory curve shows initial rapid subsidence between 57 and 50 Ma and more moderate subsidence from 50 to 34 Ma. This pattern is interpreted to reflect salt migration from the source layer into the salt wall. The initial salt-withdrawal rate was rapid but later decreased probably due to depletion of the source layer. From a regional perspective, the sediments associated with the salt wall vary in age along strike. The oldest sediments are present at the northwestern and southeastern ends of the structure. The youngest sediments are present towards the central part of the salt wall. This age pattern implies that the break-through of the salt wall was initiated at the edges. The evolution of the Helmstedt-Staßfurt salt wall can be subdivided into the three stages reactive, active and passive diapirism. Initial salt rise was probably triggered by extension. Diapirism was enhanced due to contraction during the Late Cretaceous. The salt movements in the Tertiary were mainly driven by sediment loading in the rim synclines.

  10. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  11. Adult sea lamprey tolerates biliary atresia by altering bile salt composition and renal excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Ying; Lionarons, Daniël A.; Hagey, Lee; Soroka, Carol J.; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a genetically programmed animal model for biliary atresia as it loses its bile ducts and gallbladder during metamorphosis. However, in contrast to patients with biliary atresia or other forms of cholestasis who develop progressive disease, the post-metamorphosis lampreys grow normally to adult size. To understand how the adult lamprey thrives without the ability to secrete bile, we examined bile salt homeostasis in larval and adult lampreys. Adult livers were severely cholestatic with levels of bile salts >1 mM, but no evidence of necrosis, fibrosis, or inflammation. Interestingly, both larvae and adults had normal plasma levels (~10 μM) of bile salts. In larvae, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS) was the predominant bile salt, whereas the major bile salts in adult liver were sulfated C27 bile alcohols. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that PZS was highly toxic. Pharmacokinetic studies in free-swimming adults revealed that ~35% of intravenously injected bromosulfophthalein (BSP) was eliminated over a 72 hr period. Collection of urine and feces demonstrated that both endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including biliverdin, bile salts and BSP, were predominantly excreted via the kidney with minor amounts also detected in feces. Gene expression analysis detected marked up-regulation of orthologs of known organic anion and bile salt transporters in the kidney with lesser effects in the intestine and gills in adults compared to larvae. These findings indicate that adult lampreys tolerate cholestasis by altering hepatic bile salt composition, while maintaining normal plasma bile salt levels predominantly through renal excretion of bile products. Therefore, we conclude that strategies to accelerate renal excretion of bile salt and other toxins should be beneficial for patients with cholestasis. PMID:23175353

  12. A zero-liquid-discharge scheme for vanadium extraction process by electrodialysis-based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Xing, Hong-bo; Jia, Yu-xiang; Ren, Qing-chun

    2015-12-30

    The sharp increase of demand for vanadium makes the treatment of the wastewater generated from its extraction process become an urgent problem. In this study, a hybrid process coupling the electrodialysis with the cooling crystallization is put forward for upgrading the conventional vanadium extraction process to zero discharge. Accordingly, the objective of this work lies in evaluating the feasibility of the proposed scheme on the basis of a systematic study on the influences of membrane types and operating parameters on the electrodialysis performance. The results indicate that the relative importance of osmosis and electro-osmosis to overall water transport is closely related to the applied current density. The increase in the applied current density and the decrease in the mole ratio of water and salt flux will contribute to the concentration degree. Moreover, it is worth noting that a relatively large concentration ratio can result in the remarkable decrease of current efficiency and increase of energy consumption. In general, the reclamation scheme can easily achieve the recovered water with relatively low salt content and the highly concentrated Na2SO4 solution (e.g., 300 g/L) for producing high-purity sodium sulphate crystals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Genes Mediating Salt Tolerance through Calcineurin/CchA-Independent Signaling in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to changes in the environment is crucial for the viability of all organisms. Although the importance of calcineurin in the stress response has been highlighted in filamentous fungi, little is known about the involvement of ion-responsive genes and pathways in conferring salt tolerance without calcium signaling. In this study, high-throughput RNA-seq was used to investigate salt stress-induced genes in the parent, ΔcnaB, and ΔcnaBΔcchA strains of Aspergillus nidulans, which differ greatly in salt adaption. In total, 2,884 differentially expressed genes including 1,382 up- and 1,502 downregulated genes were identified. Secondary transporters, which were upregulated to a greater extent in ΔcnaBΔcchA than in the parent or ΔcnaB strains, are likely to play important roles in response to salt stress. Furthermore, 36 genes were exclusively upregulated in the ΔcnaBΔcchA under salt stress. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that genes involved in transport, heat shock protein binding, and cell division processes were exclusively activated in ΔcnaBΔcchA. Overall, our findings reveal that secondary transporters and stress-responsive genes may play crucial roles in salt tolerance to bypass the requirement for the CchA-calcineurin pathway, contributing to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that influence fungal salt stress adaption in Aspergillus.

  14. Performance of a pulsed-cap microcolumn for protein extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabelo A.P.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results obtained using a microcolumn agitated by pulsed caps, using aqueous two-phase systems formed polyethylene glycol and salts (monobasic and dibasic potassium phosphate for protein extraction. Proteins used were extracted cytochrome b5 and the enzyme ascorbic oxidoreductase. It was observed that operation of this equipment was stable and high efficiency values were achieved.

  15. Effective extraction of cephalosporin C from whole fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of pH, neutral salts, temperature and centrifugal force on partitioning in ATPS to develop efficient extraction system for recovery of CPC from fermentation broth were also examined. The extraction efficiency was improved by enhancing the centrifugal force. Similarly centrifugation for 12.5 min also gave the ...

  16. SALT, a dedicated readout chip for high precision tracking silicon strip detectors at the LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kuczynska, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Upstream Tracker (UT) silicon strip detector, one of the central parts of the tracker system of the modernised LHCb experiment, will use a new 128-channel readout ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the UT sensors, perform digital signal processing and transmit a serial output data. The SALT is being designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analog front-end and fast (40 MSps) ultra-low power (fabricated and tested. A prototype of an 8-channel version of the SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities was also designed and fabricated. The architecture and design of the SALT, together with the selected preliminary tests results, are presented.

  17. Mathematical modeling of salt-gradient ion-exchange simulated moving bed chromatography for protein separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Gang

    2004-12-01

    The salt-gradient operation mode used in ion-exchange simulated moving bed chromatography (SMBC) can improve the efficiency of protein separations. A detailed model that takes into account any kind of adsorption/ion-exchange equilibrium, salt gradient, size exclusion, mass transfer resistance, and port periodic switching mechanism, was developed to simulate the complex dynamics. The model predictions were verified by the experimental data on upward and downward gradients for protein separations reported in the literature. All design and operating parameters (number, configuration, length and diameter of columns, particle size, switching period, flow rates of feed, raffinate, desorbent and extract, protein concentrations in feed, different salt concentrations in desorbent and feed) can be chosen correctly by numerical simulation. This model can facilitate the design, operation, optimization, control and scale-up of salt-gradient ion-exchange SMBC for protein separations.

  18. Collection and evaluation of salt mixing data with the real time data acquisition system. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazer, S.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-09-01

    A minicomputer based real time data acquisition system was designed and built to facilitate data collection during salt mixing tests in mock ups of LMFBR rod bundles. The system represents an expansion of data collection capabilities over previous equipment. It performs steady state and transient monitoring and recording of up to 512 individual electrical resistance probes. Extensive real time software was written to govern all phases of the data collection procedure, including probe definition, probe calibration, salt mixing test data acquisition and storage, and data editing. Offline software was also written to permit data examination and reduction to dimensionless salt concentration maps. Finally, the computer program SUPERENERGY was modified to permit rapid extraction of parameters from dimensionless salt concentration maps. The document describes the computer system, and includes circuit diagrams of all custom built components. It also includes descriptions and listings of all software written, as well as extensive user instructions.

  19. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  20. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  1. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion. PMID:29033907

  2. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P < 0.05, but decreased the abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05. LC-MS-MS revealed a dynamic change of proteins from the diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  3. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  4. Elevated BSC-1 and ROMK expression in Dahl salt-sensitive rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Kimberly M; Flasch, Averia K; Dahly-Vernon, Annette J; dos Santos, Elisabete Alcantara; Knepper, Mark A; Roman, Richard J

    2004-04-01

    This study compared the expression of enzymes and transport and channel proteins involved in the regulation of sodium reabsorption in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant Brown-Norway (BN) and consomic rats (SS.BN13), in which chromosome 13 from the BN rat has been introgressed into the DS genetic background. The expression of the Na+/K+/2Cl- (BSC-1) cotransporter, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), and Na+-K+-ATPase proteins were similar in the renal cortex of DS, BN, and SS.BN13 rats fed either a low-salt (0.1% NaCl) or a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet. The expression of the BSC-1 and the renal outer medullary K+ channel (ROMK) were higher, whereas the expression of the cytochrome P4504A proteins responsible for the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (20-HETE) was lower in the outer medulla of the kidney of DS than in BN or SS.BN13 rats fed either a low-salt or a high-salt diet. In addition, the renal formation and excretion of 20-HETE was lower in DS than in BN and SS.BN13 rats. These results suggest that overexpression of ROMK and BSC-1 in the thick ascending limb combined with a deficiency in renal formation of 20-HETE may predispose Dahl S rats fed a high-salt diet to Na+ retention and hypertension.

  5. Interfacial phenomena during salt layer formation under high rate dissolution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Joshua A; Davenport, Alison J; Ghahari, S Majid; Monir, Mehdi; Tinnes, Jean-Phillipe; Amri, Mahrez; Terrill, Nick; Marone, Federica; Mokso, Rajmund; Stampanoni, Marco; Rayment, Trevor

    2013-06-06

    Interfacial phenomena occurring during high metal dissolution rates, in an environment with diffusion-limited transport of dissolution products, have been investigated using time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and fast radiography. Time resolved SAXS data reveal that highly anisotropic interfacial X-ray scattering always precedes salt nucleation. The correlation between the interfacial scattering the presence of salt crystals indicates that the interface is between the metal electrode and the concentrated NiCl2 electrolyte and can therefore be interpreted as reflectivity or Porod scattering. Using fast radiography, we show that continued crystal nucleation and growth results in formation of a crystal-containing salt layer, which initially extends far from the interface (>20 μm), until the NiCl2 concentration decreases below saturation. Dissolution of this thick salt layer occurs mainly at the furthest boundary from the interface until, the salt layer thickness decreases to a steady state value, resulting in a steady state limiting current. These results show that the presence of a crystalline salt layer at a dissolving interface causes microscopic roughening which has implications for understanding both the role of salt films in pitting corrosion and electrochemical processing.

  6. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  7. Alternative nitrate reduction pathways in experimentally fertilized New England salt marshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Anne; Banta, Gary Thomas; Boegh, Eva

    the ecosystem in the form of gaseous N2, while the last process transforms of NO3- to another biologically available form, NH4+, and thus merely recycles N. Salt marshes are important ecosystems for the cycling, retention and removal of biologically available N transported from land to the oceans. We used...... ongoing ecosystem level nutrient additions experiments in two New England salt marshes, Plum Island Sound (NO3- additions since 2003) and Great Sippewissett Marsh (fertilizer additions since the 1970's) to examine the relative importance of these NO3- reduction pathways in salt marshes. Sediments from...... in relation to N loading in Sippewissett. Clearly more work is needed to understand what determines the relative importance of removal versus recycling processes in salt marsh ecosystems....

  8. Efficacy of nanolime in restoration procedures of salt weathered limestone rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Aloise, Piergiorgio; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Macchia, Andrea; Pezzino, Antonino; Crisci, Gino M.

    2014-03-01

    Salt crystallisation process is one of the most powerful weathering agents in stone materials, especially in the coastal areas, where sea-spray transports large amount of salts on the stone surface. The consolidation of such degraded stone material represents a critical issue in the field of restoration of cultural heritage. In this paper, the nanolime consolidation behaviour in limestone degraded by salt crystallization has been assessed. For this purpose, a stone material taken from a Sicilian historical quarry and widely used in the eastern Sicilian Baroque architecture has been artificially degraded by the salt crystallization test. Then degraded samples have been treated with NanoRestore®, a suspension of nanolime in isopropyl alcohol. To evaluate the consolidating effectiveness, the peeling test and point load test were performed. Moreover, mercury intrusion porosimetry has been executed to evaluate the variations induced by treatment, while colorimetric measurements have been aimed to assess aesthetical issues.

  9. Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyščák, Ondřej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    as the outer surface was scaling due to salts.The focus of the work was on the effect of electrokinetic desalination for removal of unevenly distributed mixtures of salts. Previous reported studies were conducted with laboratory contaminated stones with single salts, which were relatively evenly distributed...... the treatment the water content was very low in the stones, between 1.3% and 2.1%. Electroosmotic water transport was observed in the clay poultices, however, there was no decrease of the water contents in the stones at the end of the experiments, so there was no indication of an electroosmotic effect......Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action...

  10. SAR Studies of Diphenyl Cationic Trypanocides: Superior Activity of Phosphonium over Ammonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardonville, Christophe; Alkhaldi, Abdulsalam A M; De Koning, Harry P

    2015-02-12

    In previous studies, we have shown that phosphonium salt diphenyl derivatives are attractive antitrypanosomal hit compounds with EC50 values against Trypanosoma brucei in the nanomolar range. To evaluate the role of the cationic center on the trypanocidal activity and extend the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this series, trialkylammonium, pyridinium, and quinolinium salt analogues were synthesized and evaluated in vitro against T. b. brucei. Similar SARs were observed with ammonium and phosphonium salts showing that charge dispersion and lipophilic groups around the cationic center are crucial to obtain submicromolar activities. The new compounds were equally effective against wild type (T. b. brucei s427) and resistant strains (TbAT1-KO and TbB48) of trypanosomes indicating that the P2 and high affinity pentamidine transporters (HAPT) are not essential to their trypanocidal action. Similarly to phosphonium salt derivatives, diffusion seems to be the main route of entry into trypanosomes.

  11. Grape seed extract targets mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress leading to cytoprotective autophagy and apoptotic death in human head and neck cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Deep, Gagan; Lopert, Pamela; Patel, Manisha; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2015-12-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major killer worldwide and innovative measures are urgently warranted to lower the morbidity and mortality caused by this malignancy. Aberrant redox and metabolic status in HNSCC cells offer a unique opportunity to specifically target cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) to target the redox and bioenergetic alterations in HNSCC cells. GSE treatment decreased the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity, increased the mitochondrial superoxide levels and depleted the levels of cellular antioxidant (glutathione), thus resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in human HNSCC Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Polyethylene glycol-SOD addition reversed the GSE-mediated apoptosis without restoring complex III activity. Along with redox changes, GSE inhibited the extracellular acidification rate (representing glycolysis) and oxygen consumption rate (indicating oxidative phosphorylation) leading to metabolic stress in HNSCC cells. Molecular studies revealed that GSE activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and suppressed Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1/S6K signaling in both Detroit 562 and FaDu cells. Interestingly, GSE increased the autophagic load specifically in FaDu cells, and autophagy inhibition significantly augmented the apoptosis in these cells. Consistent with in vitro results, in vivo analyses also showed that GSE feeding in nude mice activated AMPK and induced-autophagy in FaDu xenograft tumor tissues. Overall, these findings are innovative as we for the first time showed that GSE targets ETC complex III and induces oxidative and metabolic stress, thereby, causing autophagy and apoptotic death in HNSCC cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Subgrid Modeling Geomorphological and Ecological Processes in Salt Marsh Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Wu, G.; Abdolali, A.; Deb, M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical modeling a long-term evolution of salt marshes is challenging because it requires an extensive use of computational resources. Due to the presence of narrow tidal creeks, variations of salt marsh topography can be significant over spatial length scales on the order of a meter. With growing availability of high-resolution bathymetry measurements, like LiDAR-derived DEM data, it is increasingly desirable to run a high-resolution model in a large domain and for a long period of time to get trends of sedimentation patterns, morphological change and marsh evolution. However, high spatial-resolution poses a big challenge in both computational time and memory storage, when simulating a salt marsh with dimensions of up to O(100 km^2) with a small time step. In this study, we have developed a so-called Pre-storage, Sub-grid Model (PSM, Wu et al., 2015) for simulating flooding and draining processes in salt marshes. The simulation of Brokenbridge salt marsh, Delaware, shows that, with the combination of the sub-grid model and the pre-storage method, over 2 orders of magnitude computational speed-up can be achieved with minimal loss of model accuracy. We recently extended PSM to include a sediment transport component and models for biomass growth and sedimentation in the sub-grid model framework. The sediment transport model is formulated based on a newly derived sub-grid sediment concentration equation following Defina's (2000) area-averaging procedure. Suspended sediment transport is modeled by the advection-diffusion equation in the coarse grid level, but the local erosion and sedimentation rates are integrated over the sub-grid level. The morphological model is based on the existing morphological model in NearCoM (Shi et al., 2013), extended to include organic production from the biomass model. The vegetation biomass is predicted by a simple logistic equation model proposed by Marani et al. (2010). The biomass component is loosely coupled with hydrodynamic and

  13. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  14. Local salt substitutes “Obu-otoyo” activate acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and induce lipid peroxidation in rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has shown that ingestion of heavy metals can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxic potential of salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo); salt A (made by burning palm kernel shaft then soaked in water overnight and the extract from the resulting residue is used as the salt substitute) and salt B (an unrefined salt mined from a local site at Ilobu town, Osun-State, Nigeria) by assessing their effect on some key enzymes linked with neurodegenerative disease [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities] as well as on malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the rat brain. Salt substitutes were fed to normal rats as dietary inclusion at doses of 0.5 and 1.0% for 30 days. Thereafter, the effect of the salt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities as well as on MDA level in the rat brain was determined. The results revealed that the salt substitutes caused a significant (psalt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities could be attributed to the presence of some toxic heavy metals. Therefore, the ability of the salt substitutes to induce lipid peroxidation and activate AChE and BChE activities could provide some possible mechanism for their neurotoxic effect. PMID:27486373

  15. Effects of several salt marsh plants on mouse spleen and thymus cell proliferation using mtt assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwan; Lee, Hee-Jung; Kim, You Ah; Youn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Burm-Jong

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, we have tested the effects of 21 salt marsh plants on cell proliferation of mouse immune cells (spleen and thymus) using MTT assay in culture. The methanolic extracts of six salt marsh plants ( Rosa rugosa, Ixeris tamagawaensis, Artemisia capillaris, Tetragonia tetragonoides, Erigeron annus, and Glehnia littoralis) showed very powerful suppressive effects of mouse immune cell death and significant activities of cell proliferation in vitro. Especially, the methanolic extract of Rosa rugosa was found to have fifteen times compared to the control treatment, demonstrating that Rosa rugosa may have a potent stimulation effect on immune cell proliferation. These results suggest that several salt marsh plants including Rosa rugosa could be useful for further study as an immunomodulating agent.

  16. Salt stress reduces kernel number of corn by inhibiting plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stephan; Hütsch, Birgit W; Schubert, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Salt stress affects yield formation of corn (Zea mays L.) at various physiological levels resulting in an overall grain yield decrease. In this study we investigated how salt stress affects kernel development of two corn cultivars (cvs. Pioneer 3906 and Fabregas) at and shortly after pollination. In an earlier study, we found an accumulation of hexoses in the kernel tissue. Therefore, it was hypothesized that hexose uptake into developing endosperm and embryo might be inhibited. Hexoses are transported into the developing endosperm by carriers localized in the plasma membrane (PM). The transport is driven by the pH gradient which is built up by the PM H(+)-ATPase. It was investigated whether the PM H(+)-ATPase activity in developing corn kernels was inhibited by salt stress, which would cause a lower pH gradient resulting in impaired hexose import and finally in kernel abortion. Corn grown under control and salt stress conditions was harvested 0 and 2 days after pollination (DAP). Under salt stress sucrose and hexose concentrations in kernel tissue were higher 0 and 2 DAP. Kernel PM H(+)-ATPase activity was not affected at 0 DAP, but it was reduced at 2 DAP. This is in agreement with the finding, that kernel g