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Sample records for salt taste receptor

  1. Genetics of Taste Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  2. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract III. Salty and sour taste: sensing of sodium and protons by the tongue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2006-01-01

    .... The sodium-specific salt taste receptor is the epithelial sodium channel whereas a nonspecific salt taste receptor is a taste variant of the vanilloid receptor-1 nonselective cation channel, TRPV1...

  3. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  4. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  5. Taste Receptor Signaling-- From Tongues to Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50–100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second messenger signaling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signaling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli, and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signaling effectors that include Gβγ activation of PLCβ2, IP3-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and Ca2+-dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials, and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The Gα subunit, α-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signaling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signaling effectors as taste cells. PMID:21481196

  6. The endocrinology of taste receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Egan, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Levels of obesity have reached epidemic proportions on a global scale, which has led to considerable increases in health problems and increased risk of several diseases, including cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, cancer and diabetes mellitus. People with obesity consume more food than is needed to maintain an ideal body weight, despite the discrimination that accompanies being overweight and the wealth of available information that overconsumption is detrimental to health. The relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake throughout an individual’s lifetime is far more complicated than previously thought. An improved comprehension of the relationships between taste, palatability, taste receptors and hedonic responses to food might lead to increased understanding of the biological underpinnings of energy acquisition, as well as why humans sometimes eat more than is needed and more than we know is healthy. This Review discusses the role of taste receptors in the tongue, gut, pancreas and brain and their hormonal involvement in taste perception, as well as the relationship between taste perception, overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:25707779

  7. Taste Receptors: Regulators of Sinonasal Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Lee, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors in the oral cavity guide our preferences for foods, preventing toxic ingestions and encouraging proper nutrient consumption. More recently, expression of taste receptors has been demonstrated in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and brain. The extent and specific roles of extraoral taste receptors are largely unknown, but a growing body of evidence suggests that taste receptors in the airway serve a critical role in sensing bacteria and regulating innate immunity. This review will focus on the function of bitter and sweet taste receptors in the human airway, with particular emphasis on T2R38, a bitter taste receptor found in sinonasal ciliated cells, and the bitter and sweet receptors found on specialized sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells. The importance of these novel taste receptor‐immune circuits in the human airway and their clinical relevance in airway disease will also be reviewed. PMID:27819057

  8. Receptors and transduction of umami taste stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie

    2009-07-01

    L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides, such as GMP and IMP, elicit the "umami" taste, also known as the fifth taste. This review will highlight recent advancements in our understanding of umami taste receptors and their downstream signaling effectors in taste receptor cells. Several G protein-coupled receptors that bind umami stimuli have been identified in taste buds, including the heterodimer T1R1/T1R3, truncated and brain forms of mGluR4 and mGluR1, brain mGluR2, and brain mGluR3. Further, ionotropic glutamate receptors are expressed in taste cells and may play a role in glutamate transduction or signaling between taste cells and/or nerve fibers. Knockout of T1R1 or T1R3 reduces, but does not eliminate, responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that multiple receptors contribute to umami taste. The signaling effectors downstream of umami G protein-coupled receptors involve Gbetagamma activation of PLCbeta2 to elicit Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and activation of a cation channel, TRPM5. In fungiform and palatal taste buds, T1R1/T1R3 is co-expressed with Galpha gustducin and transducin, but the Galpha proteins involved in circumvallate taste buds have not been identified. In most taste fields, however, cAMP antagonizes responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that the Galpha subunit serves to modulate umami taste sensitivity.

  9. Molecular and cellular designs of insect taste receptor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Isono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect gustatory receptors (GRs are members of a large G-protein coupled receptor family distantly related to the insect olfactory receptors. They are phylogenetically different from taste receptors of most other animals. GRs are often coexpressed with other GRs in single receptor neurons. Taste receptors other than GRs are also expressed in some neurons. Recent molecular studies in the fruitfly Drosophila revealed that the insect taste receptor system not only covers a wide ligand spectrum of sugars, bitter substances or salts that are common to mammals but also includes reception of pheromone and somatosensory stimulants. However, the central mechanism to perceive and discriminate taste information is not yet elucidated. Analysis of the primary projection of taste neurons to the brain shows that the projection profiles depend basically on the peripheral locations of the neurons as well as the GRs that they express. These results suggest that both peripheral and central design principles of insect taste perception are different from those of olfactory perception.

  10. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen A.; Owyang, Chung

    2017-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:28672790

  11. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; Staszewski, Lena; Xu, Hong; Durick, Kyle; Zoller, Mark; Adler, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    The three members of the T1R class of taste-specific G protein-coupled receptors have been hypothesized to function in combination as heterodimeric sweet taste receptors. Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners. In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is enhanced by 5′-ribonucleotides, a hallmark of umami taste. The ligand specificities of rat T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 correspond to those of t...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Salt Taste Perception among Diabetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired salt taste perception has been described in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension occurs more frequently in diabetics than the general population. We compared salt taste perception among patients with type 2 diabetes (n=59), hypertension (n=57) and concurrent hypertension and diabetes (n=56) ...

  13. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors1234

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein–coupled receptors,...

  14. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  15. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  16. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  17. Expressions of multiple umami taste receptors in oral and gastrointestinal tissues, and umami taste synergism in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuta; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-10-23

    Umami taste is one of the five basic taste qualities, along with sweet, bitter, sour, and salty, and is elicited by some l-amino acids and their salts, including monopotassium l-glutamate (MPG). The unique characteristic of umami taste is that it is synergistically enhanced by 5'-ribonucleotides such as inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP). Unlike the other four basic taste qualities, the presence of umami taste sense in avian species is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of multiple umami taste receptor candidates in oral and gastrointestinal tract tissues in chickens using RT-PCR analysis. We first showed the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expressed in these tissues. Furthermore, we examined the preference for umami taste in chickens, focusing on the synergistic effect of umami taste as determined by the two-feed choice test. We concluded that chickens preferred feed containing both added MPG and added IMP over feeds containing either added MPG or added IMP alone and over the control feed. These results suggest that the umami taste sense and synergism are conserved in chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-09-01

    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine-5'-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein-coupled receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR1, and the taste bud-expressed heterodimer T1R1+T1R3. Each of these receptors is expressed in small numbers of cells in anterior and posterior taste buds. The mGluRs are activated by glutamate and certain analogs but are not reported to be sensitive to nucleotides. In contrast, T1R1+T1R3 is activated by a broad range of amino acids and displays a strongly potentiated response in the presence of nucleotides. Mice in which the Grm4 gene is knocked out show a greatly enhanced preference for umami tastants. Loss of the Tas1r1 or Tas1R3 genes is reported to depress but not eliminate neural and behavioral responses to umami. When intact mammalian taste buds are apically stimulated with umami tastants, their functional responses to umami tastants do not fully resemble the responses of a single proposed umami receptor. Furthermore, the responses to umami tastants persist in the taste cells of T1R3-knockout mice. Thus, umami taste detection may involve multiple receptors expressed in different subsets of taste cells. This receptor diversity may underlie the complex perception of umami, with different mixtures of amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides yielding subtly distinct taste qualities.

  19. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein–coupled receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR1, and the taste bud–expressed heterodimer T1R1+T1R3. Each of these receptors is expressed in small numbers of cells in anterior and posterior taste buds. The mGluRs are activated by glutamate and certain analogs but are not reported to be sensitive to nucleotides. In contrast, T1R1+T1R3 is activated by a broad range of amino acids and displays a strongly potentiated response in the presence of nucleotides. Mice in which the Grm4 gene is knocked out show a greatly enhanced preference for umami tastants. Loss of the Tas1r1 or Tas1R3 genes is reported to depress but not eliminate neural and behavioral responses to umami. When intact mammalian taste buds are apically stimulated with umami tastants, their functional responses to umami tastants do not fully resemble the responses of a single proposed umami receptor. Furthermore, the responses to umami tastants persist in the taste cells of T1R3-knockout mice. Thus, umami taste detection may involve multiple receptors expressed in different subsets of taste cells. This receptor diversity may underlie the complex perception of umami, with different mixtures of amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides yielding subtly distinct taste qualities. PMID:19571230

  20. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  1. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  2. Saltinessenhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a technological approach to reduce the sodium content of bread whilst retaining its sensory profile by creating taste contrast using encapsulatedsalt. We demonstrate that sensory contrast in bread induced by encapsulatedsalt can enhance saltiness and allows for a salt

  3. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-02-19

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food.

  4. Molecular basis of taste sense: involvement of GPCR receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Adam I; Maslowska, Alicja; Krajewska, Wanda M

    2014-01-01

    Taste perception is one of the senses crucial for many organisms. There are five basic tastes, i.e., sweet, bitter, salty, sour, and umami, and it is suggested that the taste of fat should be included in this list. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge about the involvement of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in taste sensing and intracellular signaling. GPCR receptors are focal point of interest for pharmaceutical industry. However, their ability to interact with a variety of taste substances makes these receptors interesting target for food and nutrient companies.

  5. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  6. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Menizibeya O.; Mastorakis, Nikos E.; Pereverzev, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

  7. Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Is Mediated by Two Populations of Type III Taste Cells with Distinct Transduction Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Brian C; Sukumaran, Sunil K; Margolskee, Robert F; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2016-02-10

    Responses in the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway, one of the two pathways mediating salty taste in mammals, are modulated by the size of the anion of a salt. This "anion effect" has been hypothesized to result from inhibitory transepithelial potentials (TPs) generated across the lingual epithelium as cations permeate through tight junctions and leave their larger and less permeable anions behind (Ye et al., 1991). We tested directly the necessity of TPs for the anion effect by measuring responses to NaCl and Na-gluconate (small and large anion sodium salts, respectively) in isolated taste cells from mouse circumvallate papillae. Using calcium imaging, we identified AI salt-responsive type III taste cells and demonstrated that they compose a subpopulation of acid-responsive taste cells. Even in the absence of TPs, many (66%) AI salt-responsive type III taste cells still exhibited the anion effect, demonstrating that some component of the transduction machinery for salty taste in type III cells is sensitive to anion size. We hypothesized that osmotic responses could explain why a minority of type III cells (34%) had AI salt responses but lacked anion sensitivity. All AI type III cells had osmotic responses to cellobiose, which were significantly modulated by extracellular sodium concentration, suggesting the presence of a sodium-conducting osmotically sensitive ion channel. However, these responses were significantly larger in AI type III cells that did not exhibit the anion effect. These findings indicate that multiple mechanisms could underlie AI salt responses in type III taste cells, one of which may contribute to the anion effect. Understanding the mechanisms underlying salty taste will help inform strategies to combat the health problems associated with NaCl overconsumption by humans. Of the two pathways underlying salty taste in mammals, the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway is the least understood. Using calcium imaging of isolated mouse taste cells, we

  8. Duplex Bioelectronic Tongue for Sensing Umami and Sweet Tastes Based on Human Taste Receptor Nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sae Ryun; An, Ji Hyun; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2016-08-23

    For several decades, significant efforts have been made in developing artificial taste sensors to recognize the five basic tastes. So far, the well-established taste sensor is an E-tongue, which is constructed with polymer and lipid membranes. However, the previous artificial taste sensors have limitations in various food, beverage, and cosmetic industries because of their failure to mimic human taste reception. There are many interactions between tastants. Therefore, detecting the interactions in a multiplexing system is required. Herein, we developed a duplex bioelectronic tongue (DBT) based on graphene field-effect transistors that were functionalized with heterodimeric human umami taste and sweet taste receptor nanovesicles. Two types of nanovesicles, which have human T1R1/T1R3 for the umami taste and human T1R2/T1R3 for the sweet taste on their membranes, immobilized on micropatterned graphene surfaces were used for the simultaneous detection of the umami and sweet tastants. The DBT platform led to highly sensitive and selective recognition of target tastants at low concentrations (ca. 100 nM). Moreover, our DBT was able to detect the enhancing effect of taste enhancers as in a human taste sensory system. This technique can be a useful tool for the detection of tastes instead of sensory evaluation and development of new artificial tastants in the food and beverage industry.

  9. Extraoral Taste Receptor Discovery: New Light on Ayurvedic Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    More and more research studies are revealing unexpectedly important roles of taste for health and pathogenesis of various diseases. Only recently it has been shown that taste receptors have many extraoral locations (e.g., stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, respiratory system, heart, brain, kidney, urinary bladder, pancreas, adipose tissue, testis, and ovary), being part of a large diffuse chemosensory system. The functional implications of these taste receptors widely dispersed in various organs or tissues shed a new light on several concepts used in ayurvedic pharmacology (dravyaguna vijnana), such as taste (rasa), postdigestive effect (vipaka), qualities (guna), and energetic nature (virya). This review summarizes the significance of extraoral taste receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels for ayurvedic pharmacology, as well as the biological activities of various types of phytochemical tastants from an ayurvedic perspective. The relative importance of taste (rasa), postdigestive effect (vipaka), and energetic nature (virya) as ethnopharmacological descriptors within Ayurveda boundaries will also be discussed. PMID:28642799

  10. Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Maruyama

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca(2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami.

  11. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in chicken, here, we sequenced Tas2rs of 30 Sichuan domestic chickens and 30 Tibetan chickens.

  12. Health labelling can influence taste perception and use of table salt for reduced-sodium products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Keast, Russell S J

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of front-of-pack labels on taste perception and use of table salt for currently available and sodium-reduced soups. Within-subject design. Sensory laboratory. Participants (n 50, mean age 34.8 (sd 13.6) years) were randomly served nine soups (250 ml each) across 3 d. Servings differed in: (i) health label (i.e. no health label, reduced-salt label or Heart Foundation Tick); and (ii) sodium reduction (no reduction - benchmark, 15 % less sodium or 30 % less sodium). Before tasting, participants rated their expected salt intensity and liking. After tasting, participants rated their perceived salt intensity and liking, after which they could add salt to the soup to make it more palatable. Reduced-salt labels generated a negative taste expectation and actual taste experience in terms of liking (P salt (P salt label. The tick logo and soups without health labels had no such influence on taste perception. Emphasizing salt reduction by means of a front-of-pack label can have a negative effect on taste perception and salt use, especially when consumers are able to taste differences between their regular soup and the sodium-reduced soup. Overall health logos which do not emphasize the reduction in salt are less likely to affect perceived salt intensity and therefore are viable solutions to indicate the healthiness of sodium-reduced products.

  13. Transsynaptic Tracing from Taste Receptor Cells Reveals Local Taste Receptor Gene Expression in Gustatory Ganglia and Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Anja; Bojahr, Juliane; Narukawa, Masataka; Hübner, Sandra; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Taste perception begins in the oral cavity by interactions of taste stimuli with specific receptors. Specific subsets of taste receptor cells (TRCs) are activated upon tastant stimulation and transmit taste signals to afferent nerve fibers and ultimately to the brain. How specific TRCs impinge on the innervating nerves and how the activation of a subset of TRCs leads to the discrimination of tastants of different qualities and intensities is incompletely understood. To investigate the organization of taste circuits, we used gene targeting to express the transsynaptic tracer barley lectin (BL) in the gustatory system of mice. Because TRCs are not synaptically connected with the afferent nerve fibers, we first analyzed tracer production and transfer within the taste buds (TBs). Surprisingly, we found that BL is laterally transferred across all cell types in TBs of mice expressing the tracer under control of the endogenous Tas1r1 and Tas2r131 promotor, respectively. Furthermore, although we detected the BL tracer in both ganglia and brain, we also found local low-level Tas1r1 and Tas2r131 gene, and thus tracer expression in these tissues. Finally, we identified the Tas1r1 and Tas2r131-expressing cells in the peripheral and CNS using a binary genetic approach. Together, our data demonstrate that genetic transsynaptic tracing from bitter and umami receptor cells does not selectively label taste-specific neuronal circuits and reveal local taste receptor gene expression in the gustatory ganglia and the brain. Previous papers described the organization of taste pathways in mice expressing a transsynaptic tracer from transgenes in bitter or sweet/umami-sensing taste receptor cells. However, reported results differ dramatically regarding the numbers of synapses crossed and the reduction of signal intensity after each transfer step. Nevertheless, all groups claimed this approach appropriate for quality-specific visualization of taste pathways. In the present study, we

  14. Sweet Taste Receptors in Normal and Pathological Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    YI, Chenju

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian sweet taste receptors (T1Rs) are G protein-coupled receptor complexes, which have recently been proposed to be associated with the brain glucose sensor. Here, we investigated the expression of sweet taste receptors T1R1 and T1R3 in normal and pathological rat brain, including tissue libraries of C6 rat glioma and rat brain of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), by immunohistological methods. The results demonstrated that neurons located in different brain regions, including...

  15. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter ...

  16. A Matter of Taste: Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Taste Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antinucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates can perceive at least five different taste qualities, each of which is thought to have a specific role in the evolution of different species. The avoidance of potentially poisonous foods, which are generally bitter or sour tasting, and the search for more nutritious ones, those with high-fat and high-sugar content, are two of the most well-known examples. The study of taste genes encoding receptors that recognize ligands triggering taste sensations has helped to reconstruct several evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes. In addition, an increasing number of studies have focused on pseudogenes, genomic DNA sequences that have traditionally been considered defunct relatives of functional genes mostly because of the presence of deleterious mutations interrupting their open reading frames. The study of taste receptor pseudogenes has helped to shed light on how the evolutionary history of taste in vertebrates has been the result of a succession of gene gain and loss processes. This dynamic role in evolution has been explained by the “less-is-more” hypothesis, suggesting gene loss as a mechanism of evolutionary change in response to a dietary shift. This mini-review aims at depicting the major lineage-specific loss of function of taste receptor genes in vertebrates, stressing their evolutionary importance and recapitulating signatures of natural selection and their correlations with food habits.

  17. A Matter of Taste: Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Taste Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Marco; Risso, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrates can perceive at least five different taste qualities, each of which is thought to have a specific role in the evolution of different species. The avoidance of potentially poisonous foods, which are generally bitter or sour tasting, and the search for more nutritious ones, those with high-fat and high-sugar content, are two of the most well-known examples. The study of taste genes encoding receptors that recognize ligands triggering taste sensations has helped to reconstruct several evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes. In addition, an increasing number of studies have focused on pseudogenes, genomic DNA sequences that have traditionally been considered defunct relatives of functional genes mostly because of the presence of deleterious mutations interrupting their open reading frames. The study of taste receptor pseudogenes has helped to shed light on how the evolutionary history of taste in vertebrates has been the result of a succession of gene gain and loss processes. This dynamic role in evolution has been explained by the “less-is-more” hypothesis, suggesting gene loss as a mechanism of evolutionary change in response to a dietary shift. This mini-review aims at depicting the major lineage-specific loss of function of taste receptor genes in vertebrates, stressing their evolutionary importance and recapitulating signatures of natural selection and their correlations with food habits. PMID:29234667

  18. Hedonic taste in Drosophila revealed by olfactory receptors expressed in taste neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hiroi

    Full Text Available Taste and olfaction are each tuned to a unique set of chemicals in the outside world, and their corresponding sensory spaces are mapped in different areas in the brain. This dichotomy matches categories of receptors detecting molecules either in the gaseous or in the liquid phase in terrestrial animals. However, in Drosophila olfactory and gustatory neurons express receptors which belong to the same family of 7-transmembrane domain proteins. Striking overlaps exist in their sequence structure and in their expression pattern, suggesting that there might be some functional commonalities between them. In this work, we tested the assumption that Drosophila olfactory receptor proteins are compatible with taste neurons by ectopically expressing an olfactory receptor (OR22a and OR83b for which ligands are known. Using electrophysiological recordings, we show that the transformed taste neurons are excited by odor ligands as by their cognate tastants. The wiring of these neurons to the brain seems unchanged and no additional connections to the antennal lobe were detected. The odor ligands detected by the olfactory receptor acquire a new hedonic value, inducing appetitive or aversive behaviors depending on the categories of taste neurons in which they are expressed i.e. sugar- or bitter-sensing cells expressing either Gr5a or Gr66a receptors. Taste neurons expressing ectopic olfactory receptors can sense odors at close range either in the aerial phase or by contact, in a lipophilic phase. The responses of the transformed taste neurons to the odorant are similar to those obtained with tastants. The hedonic value attributed to tastants is directly linked to the taste neurons in which their receptors are expressed.

  19. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Salty taste in dairy foods: can we reduce the salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2011-02-01

    Sodium can be found in many sources of the US diet. Dietary guidelines currently suggest a maximum intake of 2,300 mg of sodium (6g of sodium chloride) per day, whereas the average consumer intake is 3,600 mg of sodium (9 g of sodium chloride) per day. The main health concern with high consumption of sodium is hypertension. The objectives of this study were to identify the salty taste intensity of sodium chloride in water and various dairy food matrices, and to identify the just-noticeable difference in concentration at which consumers noticed a decrease in salty taste in these food products. Solutions and food products (water, cheese sauce, cottage cheese, and milk-based soup) were prepared with sodium chloride ranging in concentration from 0.008 to 0.06 M. Seventeen panelists evaluated the salty intensity of each product in triplicate using a magnitude estimation scale. In subsequent tests, panelists (n=50) evaluated salty intensity of these food products in separate sessions using an ascending force choice method to determine the just-noticeable difference. Consumer acceptance tests (n=75 consumers) were conducted with cottage cheeses with and without sodium reductions and under conditions with and without health benefits of sodium reduction. The magnitude estimation scale data were log-transformed, and all data were analyzed by ANOVA with Fisher's least significant difference for means separation. The linear proportion of the power function in the salty taste intensity curve for sodium chloride solutions and the 3 foods was between 0.03 and 0.20 M. Consumers were able to notice and correctly identify reductions in salt concentration of less than 20% in all products. When consumers were informed of sodium reduction and its health benefits before tasting cottage cheese with lower sodium (4-12%), overall liking scores for the lower sodium cottage cheeses were not different from higher sodium cottage cheeses. These results suggest that reducing sodium in cheese

  1. Oral lipase activities and fat-taste receptors for fat-taste sensing in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    It has been reported that a functional fat-taste receptor, GPR120, is present in chicken oral tissues, and that chickens can detect fat taste in a behavioral test. However, although triglycerides need to be digested to free fatty acids to be recognized by fat-taste receptors such as GPR120, it remains unknown whether lipase activities exist in chicken oral tissues. To examine this question, we first cloned another fat-taste receptor candidate gene, CD36, from the chicken palate. Then, using RT-PCR, we determined that GPR120 and CD36 were broadly expressed in chicken oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Also by RT-PCR, we confirmed that several lipase genes were expressed in both oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Finally, we analyzed the lipase activities of oral tissues by using a fluorogenic triglyceride analog as a lipase substrate. We found there are functional lipases in oral tissues as well as in the stomach and pancreas. These results suggested that chickens have a basic fat-taste reception system that incorporates a triglycerides/oral-lipases/free fatty acids/GPR120 axis and CD36 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  3. Perceptual variation in umami taste and polymorphisms in TAS1R taste receptor genes1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Ying; Alarcon, Suzanne; Tharp, Anilet; Ahmed, Osama M; Estrella, Nelsa L; Greene, Tiffani A; Rucker, Joseph; Breslin, Paul AS

    2009-01-01

    Background: The TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 G protein–coupled receptors are believed to function in combination as a heteromeric glutamate taste receptor in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that variations in the umami perception of glutamate would correlate with variations in the sequence of these 2 genes, if they contribute directly to umami taste. Design: In this study, we first characterized the general sensitivity to glutamate in a sample population of 242 subjects. We performed these experiments by sequencing the coding regions of the genomic TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 genes in a separate set of 87 individuals who were tested repeatedly with monopotassium glutamate (MPG) solutions. Last, we tested the role of the candidate umami taste receptor hTAS1R1-hTAS1R3 in a functional expression assay. Results: A subset of subjects displays extremes of sensitivity, and a battery of different psychophysical tests validated this observation. Statistical analysis showed that the rare T allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) R757C in TAS1R3 led to a doubling of umami ratings of 25 mmol MPG/L. Other suggestive SNPs of TAS1R3 include the A allele of A5T and the A allele of R247H, which both resulted in an approximate doubling of umami ratings of 200 mmol MPG/L. We confirmed the potential role of the human TAS1R1-TAS1R3 heteromer receptor in umami taste by recording responses, specifically to l-glutamate and inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) mixtures in a heterologous expression assay in HEK (human embryonic kidney) T cells. Conclusions: There is a reliable and valid variation in human umami taste of l-glutamate. Variations in perception of umami taste correlated with variations in the human TAS1R3 gene. The putative human taste receptor TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responds specifically to l-glutamate mixed with the ribonucleotide IMP. Thus, this receptor likely contributes to human umami taste perception. PMID:19587085

  4. Perceptual variation in umami taste and polymorphisms in TAS1R taste receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Ying; Alarcon, Suzanne; Tharp, Anilet; Ahmed, Osama M; Estrella, Nelsa L; Greene, Tiffani A; Rucker, Joseph; Breslin, Paul A S

    2009-09-01

    The TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 G protein-coupled receptors are believed to function in combination as a heteromeric glutamate taste receptor in humans. We hypothesized that variations in the umami perception of glutamate would correlate with variations in the sequence of these 2 genes, if they contribute directly to umami taste. In this study, we first characterized the general sensitivity to glutamate in a sample population of 242 subjects. We performed these experiments by sequencing the coding regions of the genomic TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 genes in a separate set of 87 individuals who were tested repeatedly with monopotassium glutamate (MPG) solutions. Last, we tested the role of the candidate umami taste receptor hTAS1R1-hTAS1R3 in a functional expression assay. A subset of subjects displays extremes of sensitivity, and a battery of different psychophysical tests validated this observation. Statistical analysis showed that the rare T allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) R757C in TAS1R3 led to a doubling of umami ratings of 25 mmol MPG/L. Other suggestive SNPs of TAS1R3 include the A allele of A5T and the A allele of R247H, which both resulted in an approximate doubling of umami ratings of 200 mmol MPG/L. We confirmed the potential role of the human TAS1R1-TAS1R3 heteromer receptor in umami taste by recording responses, specifically to l-glutamate and inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) mixtures in a heterologous expression assay in HEK (human embryonic kidney) T cells. There is a reliable and valid variation in human umami taste of l-glutamate. Variations in perception of umami taste correlated with variations in the human TAS1R3 gene. The putative human taste receptor TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responds specifically to l-glutamate mixed with the ribonucleotide IMP. Thus, this receptor likely contributes to human umami taste perception.

  5. Taste responses in mice lacking taste receptor subunit T1R1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuhara, Yoko; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Voigt, Anja; Hübner, Sandra; Maeda, Katsumasa; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    The T1R1 receptor subunit acts as an umami taste receptor in combination with its partner, T1R3. In addition, metabotropic glutamate receptors (brain and taste variants of mGluR1 and mGluR4) are thought to function as umami taste receptors. To elucidate the function of T1R1 and the contribution of mGluRs to umami taste detection in vivo, we used newly developed knock-out (T1R1−/−) mice, which lack the entire coding region of the Tas1r1 gene and express mCherry in T1R1-expressing cells. Gustatory nerve recordings demonstrated that T1R1−/− mice exhibited a serious deficit in inosine monophosphate-elicited synergy but substantial residual responses to glutamate alone in both chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. Interestingly, chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners were smaller in T1R1−/− mice. Taste cell recordings demonstrated that many mCherry-expressing taste cells in T1R1+/− mice responded to sweet and umami compounds, whereas those in T1R1−/− mice responded to sweet stimuli. The proportion of sweet-responsive cells was smaller in T1R1−/− than in T1R1+/− mice. Single-cell RT-PCR demonstrated that some single mCherry-expressing cells expressed all three T1R subunits. Chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve responses to glutamate were significantly inhibited by addition of mGluR antagonists in both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice. Conditioned taste aversion tests demonstrated that both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice were equally capable of discriminating glutamate from other basic taste stimuli. Avoidance conditioned to glutamate was significantly reduced by addition of mGluR antagonists. These results suggest that T1R1-expressing cells mainly contribute to umami taste synergism and partly to sweet sensitivity and that mGluRs are involved in the detection of umami compounds. PMID:23339178

  6. Saltiness enhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a technological approach to reduce the sodium content of bread whilst retaining its sensory profile by creating taste contrast using encapsulated salt. We demonstrate that sensory contrast in bread induced by encapsulated salt can enhance saltiness and allows for a salt

  7. Involvement of multiple taste receptors in umami taste: analysis of gustatory nerve responses in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Keiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-02-15

    The taste receptor T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) may function as umami taste receptors. Here, we used mGluR4 knockout (mGluR4-KO) mice and examined the function of mGluR4 in peripheral taste responses of mice. The mGluR4-KO mice showed reduced responses to glutamate and L-AP4 (mGluR4 agonist) in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were suppressed by gurmarin (T1R3 blocker) and AIDA (group I mGluR antagonist). The present study not only provided functional evidence for the involvement of mGluR4 in umami taste responses, but also suggested contributions of T1R1 + T1R3 and mGluR1 receptors in glutamate responses. Umami taste is elicited by L-glutamate and some other amino acids and is thought to be initiated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Proposed umami receptors include heterodimers of taste receptor type 1, members 1 and 3 (T1R1 + T1R3), and metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Accumulated evidences support the involvement of T1R1 + T1R3 in umami responses in mice. However, little is known about the in vivo function of mGluR in umami taste. Here, we examined taste responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves in wild-type mice and mice genetically lacking mGluR4 (mGluR4-KO). Our results indicated that compared to wild-type mice, mGluR4-KO mice showed significantly smaller gustatory nerve responses to glutamate and L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (an agonist for group III mGluR) in both the CT and GL nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were not affected by (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (an antagonist for group III mGluR), but were suppressed by gurmarin (a T1R3 blocker) in the CT and (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (an antagonist for group I mGluR) in the CT and GL nerve

  8. Selective activation of hTRPV1 by N-geranyl cyclopropylcarboxamide, an amiloride-insensitive salt taste enhancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    Full Text Available TRPV1t, a variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1 has been proposed as a constitutively active, non-selective cation channel as a putative amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor and shares many properties with TRPV1. Based on our previous chorda tympani taste nerve recordings in rodents and human sensory evaluations, we proposed that N-geranylcyclopropylcarboxamide (NGCC, a novel synthetic compound, acts as a salt taste enhancer by modulating the amiloride/benzamil-insensitive Na(+ entry pathways. As an extension of this work, we investigated NGCC-induced human TRPV1 (hTRPV1 activation using a Ca(2+-flux signaling assay in cultured cells. NGCC enhanced Ca(2+ influx in hTRPV1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 115 µM. NGCC-induced Ca(2+ influx was significantly attenuated by ruthenium red (RR; 30 µM, a non-specific blocker of TRP channels and capsazepine (CZP; 5 µM, a specific antagonist of TRPV1, implying that NGCC directly activates hTRPV1. TRPA1 is often co-expressed with TRPV1 in sensory neurons. Therefore, we also investigated the effects of NGCC on hTRPA1-expressing cells. Similar to hTRPV1, NGCC enhanced Ca(2+ influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells (EC50 = 83.65 µM. The NGCC-induced Ca(2+ influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells was blocked by RR (30 µM and HC-030031 (100 µM, a specific antagonist of TRPA1. These results suggested that NGCC selectively activates TRPV1 and TRPA1 in cultured cells. These data may provide additional support for our previous hypothesis that NGCC interacts with TRPV1 variant cation channel, a putative amiloride/benzamil-insensitive salt taste pathway in the anterior taste receptive field.

  9. Applying the Triangle Taste Test to Assess Differences between Low Sodium Salts and Common Salt: Evidence from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Garcia, Lorena; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Sacksteder, Katherine A.; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background In resourced-constrained settings, daily cooking practices are still the norm. Replacing sodium in regular salt to produce potassium-enriched salts are potential alternative routes to reduce sodium intake, paired with the benefit associated with potassium intake. This change would likely have effects on palatability and taste of prepared foods, yet a threshold to discriminate sensorial changes can be determined. The main goal of this study was to assess if the use of potassium-enriched salt substitutes lead to perceived differences in taste utilizing a sensory discrimination test. Methods and Results A triangle taste test was conducted and participants were offered samples of cooked rice prepared with different salts. The only ingredient that differed in the preparation was the salt used: 100%NaCl (regular salt) and salts where sodium was replaced by 50%, 33% or 25% KCl (potassium-enriched salt). Comparisons were carried out according to the minimum number of correct judgments. A total of 156 subjects, 49% males, mean age 41.0 years (SD±15.5) years, participated in the study. Samples using 25% potassium-enrichment were indistinguishable in terms of taste from regular salt, whereas samples with 33% and 50% potassium-enrichment were distinguishable. Results were consistent when stratified by sex and age. Less than 10% of participants attributed the differences to bitterness or metallic flavor. Conclusions The 25% potassium-enriched salt is indistinguishable from regular salt. These findings suggest a potential to achieve sodium intake reduction strategies in cooking practices by substituting regular salt with potassium-enriched salt without affecting palatability. PMID:26225848

  10. A novel functional screening assay to monitor sweet taste receptor activation in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Berg-Somhorst, van den Dianne B.P.M.; Ariëns, Renata M.C.; Paques, Marcel; Mes, Jurriaan J.

    2017-01-01

    The human sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer comprised of the class C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subunits TAS1R2 and TAS1R3. A wide collection of sweet tasting compounds and modulators of sweet taste interact with this receptor. Although TAS1R2/TAS1R3-mediated signaling is well-studied,

  11. Molecular Features Underlying Selectivity in Chicken Bitter Taste Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Di Pizio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors (Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs, representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste. Using homology modeling and induced-fit docking simulations, we investigated the binding modes of ggTas2r agonists. Interestingly, promiscuous compounds are predicted to establish polar interactions with position 6.51 and hydrophobic interactions with positions 3.32 and 5.42 in all ggTas2rs; whereas certain residues are responsible for receptor selectivity. Lys3.29 and Asn3.36 are suggested as ggTas2r1-specificity-conferring residues; Gln6.55 as ggTas2r2-specificity-conferring residue; Ser5.38 and Gln7.42 as ggTas2r7-specificity conferring residues. The selectivity profile of quinine analogs, quinidine, epiquinidine and ethylhydrocupreine, was then characterized by combining calcium-imaging experiments and in silico approaches. ggTas2r models were used to virtually screen BitterDB compounds. ~50% of compounds known to be bitter to human are likely to be bitter to chicken, with 25, 20, 37% predicted to be ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7 agonists, respectively. Predicted ggTas2rs agonists can be tested with in vitro and in vivo experiments, contributing to our understanding of bitter taste in chicken and, consequently, to the improvement of chicken feed.

  12. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E.; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 μM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 μM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 μM) and SE-3 (200 μM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 μM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 μM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste. PMID:20173092

  13. Caffeine May Reduce Perceived Sweet Taste in Humans, Supporting Evidence That Adenosine Receptors Modulate Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ezen; Picket, Benjamin; Dando, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Multiple recent reports have detailed the presence of adenosine receptors in sweet sensitive taste cells of mice. These receptors are activated by endogenous adenosine in the plasma to enhance sweet signals within the taste bud, before reporting to the primary afferent. As we commonly consume caffeine, a powerful antagonist for such receptors, in our daily lives, an intriguing question we sought to answer was whether the caffeine we habitually consume in coffee can inhibit the perception of sweet taste in humans. 107 panelists were randomly assigned to 2 groups, sampling decaffeinated coffee supplemented with either 200 mg of caffeine, about the level found in a strong cup of coffee, or an equally bitter concentration of quinine. Participants subsequently performed sensory testing, with the session repeated in the alternative condition in a second session on a separate day. Panelists rated both the sweetened coffee itself and subsequent sucrose solutions as less sweet in the caffeine condition, despite the treatment having no effect on bitter, sour, salty, or umami perception. Panelists were also unable to discern whether they had consumed the caffeinated or noncaffeinated coffee, with ratings of alertness increased equally, but no significant improvement in reaction times, highlighting coffee's powerful placebo effect. This work validates earlier observations in rodents in a human population. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Involvement of multiple taste receptors in umami taste: analysis of gustatory nerve responses in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Keiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    Umami taste is elicited by l-glutamate and some other amino acids and is thought to be initiated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Proposed umami receptors include heterodimers of taste receptor type 1, members 1 and 3 (T1R1 + T1R3), and metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Accumulated evidences support the involvement of T1R1 + T1R3 in umami responses in mice. However, little is known about the in vivo function of mGluR in umami taste. Here, we examined taste responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves in wild-type mice and mice genetically lacking mGluR4 (mGluR4-KO). Our results indicated that compared to wild-type mice, mGluR4-KO mice showed significantly smaller gustatory nerve responses to glutamate and l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (an agonist for group III mGluR) in both the CT and GL nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were not affected by (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (an antagonist for group III mGluR), but were suppressed by gurmarin (a T1R3 blocker) in the CT and (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (an antagonist for group I mGluR) in the CT and GL nerve. In wild-type mice, both quisqualic acid (an agonist for group I mGluR) and l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate elicited gustatory nerve responses and these responses were suppressed by addition of (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid and (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine, respectively. Collectively, the present study provided functional evidences for the involvement of mGluR4 in umami taste responses in mice. The results also suggest that T1R1 + T1R3 and mGluR1 are involved in umami taste responses in mice. Thus, umami taste would be mediated by multiple receptors. PMID:25529865

  15. A kinetic study of bitter taste receptor sensing using immobilized porcine taste bud tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihui; Qiao, Lixin; Pang, Guangchang; Xie, Junbo

    2017-06-15

    At present, developing an efficient assay method for truly reflecting the real feelings of gustatory tissues is of great importance. In this study, a novel biosensor was fabricated to investigate the kinetic characteristics of the receptors in taste bud tissues sensing bitter substances for the first time. Porcine taste bud tissues were used as the sensing elements, and the sandwich-type sensing membrane was fixed onto a glassy carbon electrode for assembling the biosensor. With the developed sensor, the response currents induced by sucrose octaacetate, denatonium benzoate, and quercetin stimulating corresponding receptors were determined. The results demonstrated that the interaction between the analyst with their receptors were fitting to hyperbola (R 2 =0.9776, 0.9980 and 0.9601), and the activation constants were 8.748×10 -15 mol/L, 1.429×10 -12 mol/L, 6.613×10 -14 mol/L, respectively. The average number of receptors per cell was calculated as 1.75, 28.58, and 13.23, while the signal amplification factors were 1.08×10 4 , 2.89×10 3 and 9.76×10 4 . These suggest that the sensor can be used to quantitatively describe the interaction characteristics of cells or tissue receptors with their ligands, the role of cellular signaling cascade, the number of receptors, and the signal transmission pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Cai

    Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  17. Altered Lipid and Salt Taste Responsivity in Ghrelin and GOAT Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Caitlin M.; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin−/−), and GOAT knockout (GOAT−/−) mice. Ghrelin−/− mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT−/− mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin−/− and GOAT−/− mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin−/− mice, yet potentiated in GOAT−/− mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT−/− mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin−/− and GOAT−/− mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities. PMID:24124572

  18. Frequent consumption of certain fast foods may be associated with an enhanced preference for salt taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G H; Lee, H M

    2009-10-01

    Excessive exposure to high-salt foods may change the taste perception, which results in the overconsumption of sodium. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of liking or frequent eating of high-salt food on salt taste perception among schoolchildren. The detection threshold of sodium chloride (NaCl) and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup were determined and were used to represent the salt taste acuity and preference, respectively, of 70 Koreans aged 12-13 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding food preferences or frequency of eating certain high-salt Korean dishes, Westernised fast foods and commercially-prepared foods, as well as various food groups. The significance of differences in taste perceptions was assessed in relation to the reported liking, and frequency of eating, high-salt foods. In addition, the correlation between taste perception and the liking or frequency of eating fast foods was also assessed. The participants who reported a liking for soup/stew had significantly higher thresholds for NaCl (P = 0.029), and frequent users of fast-food restaurants showed a preference for significantly saltier soup (P = 0.010). The preferred salinity was associated significantly with a high preference for pizza (r = 0.282, P = 0.018) or hamburgers (r = 0.305, P = 0.010) and the frequent consumption of pork cutlets (r = 0.239, P = 0.046) or hamburgers (r = 0.461, P = 0.010). The results obtained in the present study suggest that the frequent consumption of certain fast foods by young teenagers may be associated with an increased preference for salt taste. This study provides basic information for use in devising education programmes in evidence-based nutrition to reduce salt intake.

  19. Umami Responses in Mouse Taste Cells Indicate More than One Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Pereira, Elizabeth; Margolskee, Robert F.; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    A number of gustatory receptors have been proposed to underlie umami, the taste of L-glutamate, and certain other amino acids and nucleotides. However, the response profiles of these cloned receptors have not been validated against responses recorded from taste receptor cells that are the native detectors of umami taste. We investigated umami taste responses in mouse circumvallate taste buds in an intact slice preparation, using confocal calcium imaging. Approximately 5% of taste cells selectively responded to L-glutamate when it was focally applied to the apical chemosensitive tips of receptor cells. The concentration–response range for L-glutamate fell approximately within the physiologically relevant range for taste behavior in mice, namely 10 mM and above. Inosine monophosphate enhanced taste cell responses to L-glutamate, a characteristic feature of umami taste. Using pharmacological agents, ion substitution, and immunostaining, we showed that intracellular pathways downstream of receptor activation involve phospholipase C β2. Each of the above features matches those predicted by studies of cloned and expressed receptors. However, the ligand specificity of each of the proposed umami receptors [taste metabotropic glutamate receptor 4, truncated metabotropic glutamate receptor 1, or taste receptor 1 (T1R1) and T1R3 dimers], taken alone, did not appear to explain the taste responses observed in mouse taste cells. Furthermore, umami responses were still observed in mutant mice lacking T1R3. A full explanation of umami taste transduction may involve novel combinations of the proposed receptors and/or as-yet-undiscovered taste receptors. PMID:16495449

  20. Umami taste in mice uses multiple receptors and transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Keiko; Ogiwara, Yoko; Takai, Shingo; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Iwatsuki, Ken; Torii, Kunio; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-03-01

    The distinctive umami taste elicited by l-glutamate and some other amino acids is thought to be initiated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Proposed umami receptors include heteromers of taste receptor type 1, members 1 and 3 (T1R1+T1R3), and metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Multiple lines of evidence support the involvement of T1R1+T1R3 in umami responses of mice. Although several studies suggest the involvement of receptors other than T1R1+T1R3 in umami, the identity of those receptors remains unclear. Here, we examined taste responsiveness of umami-sensitive chorda tympani nerve fibres from wild-type mice and mice genetically lacking T1R3 or its downstream transduction molecule, the ion channel TRPM5. Our results indicate that single umami-sensitive fibres in wild-type mice fall into two major groups: sucrose-best (S-type) and monopotassium glutamate (MPG)-best (M-type). Each fibre type has two subtypes; one shows synergism between MPG and inosine monophosphate (S1, M1) and the other shows no synergism (S2, M2). In both T1R3 and TRPM5 null mice, S1-type fibres were absent, whereas S2-, M1- and M2-types remained. Lingual application of mGluR antagonists selectively suppressed MPG responses of M1- and M2-type fibres. These data suggest the existence of multiple receptors and transduction pathways for umami responses in mice. Information initiated from T1R3-containing receptors may be mediated by a transduction pathway including TRPM5 and conveyed by sweet-best fibres, whereas umami information from mGluRs may be mediated by TRPM5-independent pathway(s) and conveyed by glutamate-best fibres.

  1. Rewiring the gustatory system: specificity between nerve and taste bud field is critical for normal salt discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Alan C; Blonde, Ginger; Garcea, Mircea; Jiang, Enshe

    2010-01-15

    Forty years have passed since it was demonstrated that a cross-regenerated gustatory nerve in the rat tongue adopts the stimulus-response properties of the taste receptor field it cross-reinnervates. Nevertheless, the functional consequences of channeling peripheral taste signals through inappropriate central circuits remain relatively unexplored. Here we tested whether histologically confirmed cross-regeneration of the chorda tympani nerve (CT) into the posterior tongue in the absence of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL) (CT-PostTongue) or cross-regeneration of the GL into the anterior tongue in the absence of the CT (GL-AntTongue) would maintain presurgically trained performance in an operant NaCl vs. KCl taste discrimination task in rats. Before surgery all groups were averaging over 90% accuracy. Oral amiloride treatment dropped performance to virtually chance levels. During the first week after surgery, sham-operated rats, GL-transected rats, and rats with regenerated CTs displayed highly competent discrimination performance. In contrast, CT-transected rats were severely impaired (59% accuracy). Both the CT-PostTongue and the GL-AntTongue groups were impaired to a similar degree as CT-transected rats. These initially impaired groups improved their performance over the weeks of postsurgical testing, suggesting that the rats were capable of relearning the task with discriminable signals in the remaining taste nerves. This relearned performance was dependent on input from amiloride-sensitive receptors likely in the palate. Overall, these results suggest that normal competence in a salt discrimination task is dependent on the taste receptor field origin of the input as well as the specific nerve transmitting the signals to its associated circuits in the brain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ryota; Sasaki, Yuko; Morita, Hiromi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Goto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Akira; Isono, Kunio

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic Drosophila expressing human T2R4 and T2R38 bitter-taste receptors or PKD2L1 sour-taste receptor in the fly gustatory receptor neurons and other tissues were prepared using conventional Gal4/UAS binary system. Molecular analysis showed that the transgene mRNAs are expressed according to the tissue specificity of the Gal4 drivers. Transformants expressing the transgene taste receptors in the fly taste neurons were then studied by a behavioral assay to analyze whether transgene chemoreceptors are functional and coupled to the cell response. Since wild-type flies show strong aversion against the T2R ligands as in mammals, the authors analyzed the transformants where the transgenes are expressed in the fly sugar receptor neurons so that they promote feeding ligand-dependently if they are functional and activate the neurons. Although the feeding preference varied considerably among different strains and individuals, statistical analysis using large numbers of transformants indicated that transformants expressing T2R4 showed a small but significant increase in the preference for denatonium and quinine, the T2R4 ligands, as compared to the control flies, whereas transformants expressing T2R38 did not. Similarly, transformants expressing T2R38 and PKD2L1 also showed a similar preference increase for T2R38-specific ligand phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and a sour-taste ligand, citric acid, respectively. Taken together, the transformants expressing mammalian taste receptors showed a small but significant increase in the feeding preference that is taste receptor and also ligand dependent. Although future improvements are required to attain performance comparable to the endogenous robust response, Drosophila taste neurons may serve as a potential in vivo heterologous expression system for analyzing chemoreceptor function.

  3. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewon; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Kim, Ki Hwa; Kim, Jung Tae; Moon, Hana; Kim, Min Jung; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG), 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu) and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD) of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD). Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors.

  4. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Shim

    Full Text Available Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG, 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp, in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD. Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors.

  5. Modulation of Sweet Taste by Umami Compounds via Sweet Taste Receptor Subunit hT1R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yiseul; Kim, Ki Hwa; Kim, Jung Tae; Moon, Hana; Kim, Min Jung; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities—sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami—can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG), 5’-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu) and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD) of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD). Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors. PMID:25853419

  6. Postnatal development of bitter taste avoidance behavior in mice is associated with ACTIN-dependent localization of bitter taste receptors to the microvilli of taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuko; Kondo, Kaori; Kunishima, Yoshimi; Iseki, Sachiko; Kondo, Takashi; Ota, Masato S

    2018-01-22

    Bitter taste avoidance behavior (BAB) plays a fundamental role in the avoidance of toxic substances with a bitter taste. However, the molecular basis underlying the development of BAB is unknown. To study critical developmental events by which taste buds turn into functional organs with BAB, we investigated the early phase development of BAB in postnatal mice in response to bitter-tasting compounds, such as quinine and thiamine. Postnatal mice started to exhibit BAB for thiamine and quinine at postnatal day 5 (PD5) and PD7, respectively. Histological analyses of taste buds revealed the formation of microvilli in the taste pores starting at PD5 and the localization of type 2 taste receptor 119 (TAS2R119) at the microvilli at PD6. Treatment of the tongue epithelium with cytochalasin D (CytD), which disturbs ACTIN polymerization in the microvilli, resulted in the loss of TAS2R119 localization at the microvilli and the loss of BAB for quinine and thiamine. The release of ATP from the circumvallate papillae tissue due to taste stimuli was also declined following CytD treatment. These results suggest that the localization of TAS2R119 at the microvilli of taste pores is critical for the initiation of BAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mouse taste cells with G protein-coupled taste receptors lack voltage-gated calcium channels and SNAP-25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medler Kathryn F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli from the environment and relaying information to the nervous system. Bitter, sweet and umami stimuli utilize G-protein coupled receptors which activate the phospholipase C (PLC signaling pathway in Type II taste cells. However, it is not known how these cells communicate with the nervous system. Previous studies have shown that the subset of taste cells that expresses the T2R bitter receptors lack voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which are normally required for synaptic transmission at conventional synapses. Here we use two lines of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP from two taste-specific promoters to examine Ca2+ signaling in subsets of Type II cells: T1R3-GFP mice were used to identify sweet- and umami-sensitive taste cells, while TRPM5-GFP mice were used to identify all cells that utilize the PLC signaling pathway for transduction. Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents were assessed with Ca2+ imaging and whole cell recording, while immunocytochemistry was used to detect expression of SNAP-25, a presynaptic SNARE protein that is associated with conventional synapses in taste cells. Results Depolarization with high K+ resulted in an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in a small subset of non-GFP labeled cells of both transgenic mouse lines. In contrast, no depolarization-evoked Ca2+ responses were observed in GFP-expressing taste cells of either genotype, but GFP-labeled cells responded to the PLC activator m-3M3FBS, suggesting that these cells were viable. Whole cell recording indicated that the GFP-labeled cells of both genotypes had small voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ currents, but no evidence of Ca2+ currents. A subset of non-GFP labeled taste cells exhibited large voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ currents and a high threshold voltage-gated Ca2+ current. Immunocytochemistry indicated that SNAP-25 was expressed in a separate population of taste cells

  8. NaCl and sugar release, salivation and taste during mastication of salted chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyraud, Eric; Prinz, Jon; Dransfield, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Salt perception impacts on food acceptability and nutrition and depends upon salt release from foods that was determined in situ during mastication of chewing gum with up to 10% (1800 mmol/kg) added NaCl. The mechanical action of chewing increased salivation, which was further increased by the presence of salt, particularly above 180 mmol NaCl/kg gum or above 100 mM NaCl in saliva. The average resting salivary flow rate was 1 ml/min, increasing to 4 and 6 ml/min with gums containing low and high salt, respectively. Thus, stimulation of salivation by salt occurred at a concentration well above the taste threshold of 20 mM NaCl. NaCl concentration in nonstimulated saliva was about 10 mM and increased to 500 mM after 30 s chewing of the 10% NaCl gum and returned to near nonstimulated levels after 4 min chewing. Changes in pH of saliva were more gradual, increasing to a maximum at about 2 min and remaining elevated after 4 min. Salty taste was related to the free chloride ion concentration in saliva irrespective of the initial salt concentration in the gum with an indication of adaptation after 3 min chewing. During chewing, salty taste increased ahead of the increase in salivary conductivity and the salt concentration in the sublingual saliva varied in a cyclic fashion about every 20 s. This is consistent with a cyclic swallowing of saliva and replacement with newly secreted saliva of low salt content and mastication releasing further salt from the gum.

  9. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Rangel-Hernández, José A.; Burgueño-Zúñiga, Belén; Miranda, María I.

    2012-01-01

    Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA) if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed.The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive vs. aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl) into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory. PMID:22529783

  10. The Role of Bitter and Sweet Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Alan D.; Palmer, James N.; Adappa, Nithin D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, taste receptors have emerged as key players in the regulation of innate immune defenses in the mammalian respiratory tract. Several cell types in the airway, including ciliated epithelial cells, solitary chemosensory cells, and bronchial smooth muscle cells, all display chemoresponsive properties that utilize taste receptors. A variety of bitter products secreted by microbes are detected with resultant downstream inflammation, increased mucous clearance, antimicrobial peptide secretion, and direct bacterial killing. Genetic variation of bitter taste receptors also appears to play a role in the susceptibility to infection in respiratory disease states, including that of chronic rhinosinusitis. Ongoing taste receptor research may yield new therapeutics that harness innate immune defenses in the respiratory tract and may offer alternatives to antibiotic treatment. The present review discusses taste receptor-protective responses and analyzes the role these receptors play in mediating airway immune function. PMID:26492878

  11. L-Theanine elicits umami taste via the T1R1 + T1R3 umami taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; Hayashi, Yukako; Misaka, Takumi

    2014-06-01

    L-Theanine is a unique amino acid present in green tea. It elicits umami taste and has a considerable effect on tea taste and quality. We investigated L-theanine activity on the T1R1 + T1R3 umami taste receptor. L-Theanine activated T1R1 + T1R3-expressing cells and showed a synergistic response with inosine 5'-monophosphate. The site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that L-theanine binds to L-amino acid binding site in the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1. This study shows that L-theanine elicits an umami taste via T1R1 + T1R3.

  12. Intrinsic nitric oxide regulates the taste response of the sugar receptor cell in the blowfly, Phormia regina.

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    Murata, Yoshihiro; Mashiko, Masashi; Ozaki, Mamiko; Amakawa, Taisaku; Nakamura, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    The taste organ in insects is a hair-shaped taste sensory unit having four functionally differentiated contact chemoreceptor cells. In the blowfly, Phormia regina, cGMP has been suggested to be a second messenger for the sugar receptor cell. Generally, cGMP is produced by membranous or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which can be activated by nitric oxide (NO). In the present paper, we electrophysiologically showed that an NO scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO), an NO donor, 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazene (NOC 7) or an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) specifically affected the response in the sugar receptor cell, but not in other receptor cells. PTIO, when introduced into the receptor cells in a sensillum aided by sodium deoxycholate (DOC, pH 7.2), depressed the response of sugar receptor cells to sucrose but did not affect those of the salt or water receptor cells. NOC 7, given extracellularly, latently induced the response of sugar receptor cells; and L-NAME, when introduced into the receptor cells, depressed the response of sugar receptor cells. The results clearly suggest that NO, which may be produced by intrinsic NOS in sugar receptor cells, participates in the transduction cascade of these cells in blowfly.

  13. Dynamic evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in vertebrates

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    Jones Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R, which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better understand the evolutionary pattern of these genes, we identified 16 T2R gene repertoires based on the high coverage genome sequences of vertebrates and studied the evolutionary changes in the number of T2R genes during birth-and-death evolution using the reconciled-tree method. We found that the number of T2R genes and the fraction of pseudogenes vary extensively among species. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, we showed that T2R gene families in teleost fishes are more diverse than those in tetrapods. In addition to the independent gene expansions in teleost fishes, frogs and mammals, lineage-specific gene duplications were also detected in lizards. Furthermore, extensive gains and losses of T2R genes were detected in each lineage during their evolution, resulting in widely differing T2R gene repertoires. Conclusion These results further support the hypotheses that T2R gene repertoires are closely related to the dietary habits of different species and that birth-and-death evolution is associated with adaptations to dietary changes.

  14. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

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    Claire J Fenech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of Mouse Bitter Taste Receptors Reveals Different Molecular Receptive Ranges for Orthologous Receptors in Mice and Humans*

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    Lossow, Kristina; Hübner, Sandra; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Slack, Jay P.; Pollastro, Federica; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    One key to animal survival is the detection and avoidance of potentially harmful compounds by their bitter taste. Variable numbers of taste 2 receptor genes expressed in the gustatory end organs enable bony vertebrates (Euteleostomi) to recognize numerous bitter chemicals. It is believed that the receptive ranges of bitter taste receptor repertoires match the profiles of bitter chemicals that the species encounter in their diets. Human and mouse genomes contain pairs of orthologous bitter receptor genes that have been conserved throughout evolution. Moreover, expansions in both lineages generated species-specific sets of bitter taste receptor genes. It is assumed that the orthologous bitter taste receptor genes mediate the recognition of bitter toxins relevant for both species, whereas the lineage-specific receptors enable the detection of substances differently encountered by mice and humans. By challenging 34 mouse bitter taste receptors with 128 prototypical bitter substances in a heterologous expression system, we identified cognate compounds for 21 receptors, 19 of which were previously orphan receptors. We have demonstrated that mouse taste 2 receptors, like their human counterparts, vary greatly in their breadth of tuning, ranging from very broadly to extremely narrowly tuned receptors. However, when compared with humans, mice possess fewer broadly tuned receptors and an elevated number of narrowly tuned receptors, supporting the idea that a large receptor repertoire is the basis for the evolution of specialized receptors. Moreover, we have demonstrated that sequence-orthologous bitter taste receptors have distinct agonist profiles. Species-specific gene expansions have enabled further diversification of bitter substance recognition spectra. PMID:27226572

  16. A multidrug ABC transporter with a taste for salt.

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    Saroj Velamakanni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available LmrA is a multidrug ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter from Lactococcus lactis with no known physiological substrate, which can transport a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents and toxins from the cell. The protein can functionally replace the human homologue ABCB1 (also termed multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein MDR1 in lung fibroblast cells. Even though LmrA mediates ATP-dependent transport, it can use the proton-motive force to transport substrates, such as ethidium bromide, across the membrane by a reversible, H(+-dependent, secondary-active transport reaction. The mechanism and physiological context of this reaction are not known.We examined ion transport by LmrA in electrophysiological experiments and in transport studies using radioactive ions and fluorescent ion-selective probes. Here we show that LmrA itself can transport NaCl by a similar secondary-active mechanism as observed for ethidium bromide, by mediating apparent H(+-Na(+-Cl(- symport. Remarkably, LmrA activity significantly enhances survival of high-salt adapted lactococcal cells during ionic downshift.The observations on H(+-Na(+-Cl(- co-transport substantiate earlier suggestions of H(+-coupled transport by LmrA, and indicate a novel link between the activity of LmrA and salt stress. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of investigations into the bioenergetics of substrate translocation by ABC transporters for our understanding of fundamental mechanisms in this superfamily. This study represents the first use of electrophysiological techniques to analyze substrate transport by a purified multidrug transporter.

  17. Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

  18. Umami-bitter interactions: the suppression of bitterness by umami peptides via human bitter taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-09

    Taste-taste interactions often showed in human psychophysical studies. Considering that each tastant in foodstuffs individually stimulates its responsible gustatory systems to elicit relevant taste modalities, taste-taste interaction should be performed in taste receptor cell-based assay. While umami substances have been proposed to suppress the bitterness of various chemicals in human sensory evaluation, the bitter-umami interaction has not been explored in bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs. We investigated umami-bitter taste interactions by presenting umami peptides with bitter substance (salicin) on Ca(2+)-flux signaling assay using hTAS2R16-expressing cells. Five representative umami peptides (Glu-Asp, Glu-Glu, Glu-Ser, Asp-Glu-Ser, and Glu-Gly-Ser) derived from soybean markedly attenuated the salicin-induced intracellular calcium influx in a time-dependent manner, respectively, while Gly-Gly, a tasteless peptide did not. The efficacies of Glu-Glu suppressing salicin-induced activation of hTAS2R16 were higher than that of probenecid, a specific antagonist of hTAS2R16. According to Ca(2+)-flux signaling assay using the mixtures of salicin and umami peptides, all five umami peptides suppressed salicin-induced intracellular calcium influx in a noncompetitive manner. These results may provide evidence that umami peptides suppress bitter taste via bitter taste receptor(s). This is the first report which defines the interaction between bitter and umami taste in taste receptor level. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Massive losses of taste receptor genes in toothed and baleen whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-05-06

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Multiple loss-of-function variants of taste receptors in modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the knowledge of interindividual taste differences, the underlying genetic backgrounds have remained to be fully elucidated. Much of the taste variation among different mammalian species can be explained by pseudogenization of taste receptors. Here I investigated whether the most recent disruptions of taste receptor genes segregate with their intact forms in modern humans by analyzing 14 ethnically diverse populations. The results revealed an unprecedented prevalence of 25 segregating loss-of-function (LoF) taste receptor variants, identifying one of the most pronounced cases of functional population diversity in the human genome. LoF variant frequency in taste receptors (2.10%) was considerably higher than the overall LoF frequency in human genome (0.16%). In particular, molecular evolutionary rates of candidate sour (14.7%) and bitter (1.8%) receptors were far higher in humans than those of sweet (0.02%), salty (0.05%), and umami (0.17%) receptors compared with other carnivorous mammals, although not all of the taste receptors were identified. Many LoF variants are population-specific, some of which arose even after population differentiation, not before divergence of the modern and archaic human. I conclude that modern humans might have been losing some sour and bitter receptor genes because of high-frequency LoF variants. PMID:26307445

  1. Characteristics of salt taste and free chlorine or chloramine in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenthal, K E; McGuire, M J; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    Salty taste with or without chlorine or chloramine flavour is one of the major consumer complaints to water utilities. The flavour profile analysis (FPA) taste panel method determined the average taste threshold concentration for salt (NaCl) in Milli-Q water to be 640 +/- 3 mg/L at pH 8. Chlorine and chloramine disinfectants have no antagonistic or synergistic effects on the taste of NaCl, salt, in Milli-Q water. The flavour threshold concentrations for chlorine or chloramine in Milli-Q water alone or in the presence of NaCl could not be estimated by the Weber-Fechner curves due to the chlorine or chloramine flavour outliers in the 0.2-0.8 mg/L concentration range. Apparently, NaCl is not equilibrated with the concentration of ions in the saliva in the mouth and the concentration of free chlorine or chloramines cannot be tasted correctly. Therefore, dechlorinated tap water may be the best background water to use for a particular drinking water evaluation of chlorine and chloramine thresholds. Laboratory FPA studies of free chlorine found that a 67% dilution of Central Arizona Project (CAP) (Tucson, AZ) water with Milli-O water was required to reduce the free chlorine flavour to a threshold value instead of a theoretical value of 80% (Krasner and Barrett, 1980). No synergistic effect was found for chlorine flavour on the dilution of CAP water with Milli-Q water. When Central Avra Valley (AVRA) groundwater was used for the dilution of CAP water, a synergistic effect of the TDS present was observed for the chlorine flavour. Apparently, the actual mineral content of drinking water, and not just NaCl in Milli-Q water, is needed for comparative flavour tests for chlorine and chloramines.

  2. A role for airway taste receptor modulation in the treatment of upper respiratory infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jennifer E.; Saunders, Cecil J.; Reed, Danielle R.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Taste receptors, initially identified in the oral epithelium, have since been shown to be widely distributed, being found in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, gastrointestinal epithelium, thyroid, and brain. The presence of taste receptors in the nasal epithelium has led to the discovery of their role in innate immunity, defending the paranasal sinuses against pathogens. This article addresses the current paradigm for understanding the role of extraoral taste receptors, specifically the T2R38 bitter taste receptor and the T1R2+3 sweet taste receptor, in respiratory innate defenses and presents evidence for the use of these and other taste receptors as therapeutic targets in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Future studies should focus on understanding the polymorphisms of taste receptors beyond T2R38 to fully elucidate their potential therapeutic use and lay the groundwork for their modulation in a clinical setting to decrease the health impact and economic burden of upper respiratory disease. PMID:26731661

  3. Functional roles of the sweet taste receptor in oral and extraoral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffitte, Anni; Neiers, Fabrice; Briand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes and discusses the current knowledge about the physiological roles of the sweet taste receptor in oral and extraoral tissues. Recent findings The expression of a functional sweet taste receptor has been reported in numerous extragustatory tissues, including the gut, pancreas, bladder, brain and, more recently, bone and adipose tissues. In the gut, this receptor has been suggested to be involved in luminal glucose sensing, the release of some satiety hormones, the expression of glucose transporters, and the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. More recently, the sweet taste receptor was proposed to regulate adipogenesis and bone biology. Summary The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the T1R2/T1R3 receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, wherein it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the chemically diverse compounds perceived as sweet by human beings, including natural sugars and sweeteners. Importantly, the expression of a functional sweet taste receptor has been reported in numerous extragustatory tissues, wherein it has been proposed to regulate metabolic processes. This newly recognized role of the sweet taste receptor makes this receptor a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic dysfunctions, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24763065

  4. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

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    Vegezzi, Gaia; Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rozengurt, Enrique; Raybould, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138), selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108) are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  5. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Vegezzi

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138, selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108 are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  6. Taste receptor plasticity in relation to feeding history in two congeneric species of Papilionidae (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, Giorgia; Biolchini, Maurizio; Crnjar, Roberto

    2018-02-15

    In the peripheral taste system of insects, the responsiveness of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) depends on several factors, such as larval instar, feeding history, physiological state and time of day. To study the role of the feeding history, the spike activity of the maxillary taste chemosensilla in the larvae of two related species of Lepidoptera (Papilio machaon L. and Papilio hospiton Géné) raised on different host plants, was recorded with electrophysiological techniques after stimulation with simple stimuli (sugars, bitters and inorganic salt) and host plant saps, with the aim of cross-comparing their response patterns and evaluating any effects of different feeding histories. For this purpose the larvae were raised each on their preferential host plant and, in addition, P. machaon larvae was also raised on Ferula communis, the host plant preferred by P. hospiton. The GRN spike activity of the lateral and medial sensilla of each test group was measured in response to simple and complex stimuli. The taste discrimination capabilities and modalities of the two species were measured and cross-compared with the aim of studying convergence and/or divergence linked to the insect feeding history. The results show that: a) the GRN responsiveness of both sensilla in P. machaon raised on Fe. communis differs significantly from that of P. machaon on Foeniculum vulgare, but is not different from P. hospiton on Fe. communis; b) P. machaon larvae raised on Fe. communis exhibit response spectra somewhat intermediate between those of P. machaon on fennel and of P. hospiton on Fe. communis, the latter two exhibiting a wider difference from each other; c) the pattern of GRNs activity generated by each plant sap in both sensilla of P. machaon raised on Fe. communis is different from that generated when raised on Fo. vulgare, while no difference is observed with P. hospiton. The data support the hypothesis that diet-related factors may influence peripheral chemosensitivity

  7. Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A.; Stone, Leslie M.; Pereira, Elizabeth; Yang, Ruibiao; Kinnamon, John C.; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Roper, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In response to gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells release a transmitter, ATP, that activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on gustatory afferent fibers. Taste behavior and gustatory neural responses are largely abolished in mice lacking P2X2 and P2X3 receptors (P2X2 and P2X3 double knockout, or “DKO” mice). The assumption has been that eliminating P2X2 and P2X3 receptors only removes postsynaptic targets but that transmitter secretion in mice is normal. Using functional imaging, ATP biosensor cells, and a cell-free assay for ATP, we tested this assumption. Surprisingly, although gustatory stimulation mobilizes Ca2+ in taste Receptor (Type II) cells from DKO mice, as from wild type (WT) mice, taste cells from DKO mice fail to release ATP when stimulated with tastants. ATP release could be elicited by depolarizing DKO Receptor cells with KCl, suggesting that ATP-release machinery remains functional in DKO taste buds. To explore the difference in ATP release across genotypes, we employed reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, and histochemistry for key proteins underlying ATP secretion and degradation: Pannexin1, TRPM5, and NTPDase2 (ecto-ATPase) are indistinguishable between WT and DKO mice. The ultrastructure of contacts between taste cells and nerve fibers is also normal in the DKO mice. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR show that P2X4 and P2X7, potential modulators of ATP secretion, are similarly expressed in taste buds in WT and DKO taste buds. Importantly, we find that P2X2 is expressed in WT taste buds and appears to function as an autocrine, positive feedback signal to amplify taste-evoked ATP secretion. PMID:21940456

  8. Interleukin-10 Is Produced by a Specific Subset of Taste Receptor Cells and Critical for Maintaining Structural Integrity of Mouse Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jinghua; Zhou, Minliang; Simon, Nirvine; Huang, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    Although inflammatory responses are a critical component in defense against pathogens, too much inflammation is harmful. Mechanisms have evolved to regulate inflammation, including modulation by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Previously we have shown that taste buds express various molecules involved in innate immune responses, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here, using a reporter mouse strain, we show that taste cells also express the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Remarkably, IL-10 is produced by only a specific subset of taste cells, which are different from the TNF-producing cells in mouse circumvallate and foliate taste buds: IL-10 expression was found exclusively in the G-protein gustducin-expressing bitter receptor cells, while TNF was found in sweet and umami receptor cells as reported previously. In contrast, IL-10R1, the ligand-binding subunit of the IL-10 receptor, is predominantly expressed by TNF-producing cells, suggesting a novel cellular hierarchy for regulating TNF production and effects in taste buds. In response to inflammatory challenges, taste cells can increase IL-10 expression both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that taste buds use separate populations of taste receptor cells that coincide with sweet/umami and bitter taste reception to modulate local inflammatory responses, a phenomenon that has not been previously reported. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency in mice leads to significant reductions in the number and size of taste buds, as well as in the number of taste receptor cells per taste bud, suggesting that IL-10 plays critical roles in maintaining structural integrity of the peripheral gustatory system. PMID:24523558

  9. [Oral medicine 3. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it serves as a solvent for taste substances and as a protecting agent for the taste receptors. Therefore, hyposalivation leads to a reduction in taste perception, in which the concentration of zinc ions and specific proteins in saliva play an important role. In addition, zinc and iron deficiencies may cause diminished taste and smell perception.

  10. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-07

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. A Research on Sour Sensation Mechanism of Fungiform Taste Receptor Cells Based on Microelectrode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Peihua; Xiao, Lidan; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Taste receptor cells as the fundamental units of taste sensation are not only passive receivers to outside stimulus, but some primary process for the signals and information. In this paper, an innovation on acquisition of taste receptor cells was introduced and larger amount of cells could be obtained. A multichannel microelectrode array (MEA) system was applied in signal recording, which is used in non-invasive, multiple and simultaneous extracellular recording of taste receptor cells. The cells were treated with sour solutions of different pHs, and the relations between concentration of hydrogen and firing rate were observed. Firing rates on pH 7, pH 4 and pH 2 were approximately 1.38±0.01 (MEAN±SE)/s, 1.61±0.07/s and 2.75+0.15/s.

  12. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl and sour (citric acid tastants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kyong Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid and salty (sodium chloride tastants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.

  13. Ghrelin is produced in taste cells and ghrelin receptor null mice show reduced taste responsivity to salty (NaCl) and sour (citric acid) tastants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Kyong; Martin, Bronwen; Kim, Wook; White, Caitlin M; Ji, Sunggoan; Sun, Yuxiang; Smith, Roy G; Sévigny, Jean; Tschöp, Matthias H; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M

    2010-09-14

    The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved. Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present within the taste buds of the tongue. Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3), ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR), and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin) are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds. In addition, ghrelin and GHSR co-localize in the same taste cells, suggesting that ghrelin works in an autocrine manner in taste cells. To determine a role for ghrelin in modifying taste perception, we performed taste behavioral tests using GHSR null mice. GHSR null mice exhibited significantly reduced taste responsivity to sour (citric acid) and salty (sodium chloride) tastants. These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a local modulatory role in determining taste bud signaling and function and could be a novel mechanism for the modulation of salty and sour taste responsivity.

  14. Denatonium induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 through activation of bitter taste receptor pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Suk; Egan, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis This study was designed to ascertain whether human enteroendocrine cells express bitter taste receptors, and whether activation of these receptors with bitter-tasting ligands induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). Methods We used human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells, isolated duodenal segments from mice, and whole mice as our experimental systems for investigating stimuli and mechanisms underlying GLP-1- and PYY-stimulated release. We measured hormone levels by ELISA and determined bitter taste receptor expression by real-time quantitative PCR. We adopted a pharmacological approach using inhibitors and enhancers of downstream signalling pathways known to be involved in bitter taste transduction in taste bud cells to investigate these pathways in NCI-H716 cells. Results Using a pharmacological approach, we identified signalling pathways triggered by the denatonium benzoate (DB)-activated bitter receptors. This involved activation of α-gustducin (Gαgust)—the specific G-protein subunit that is also present in taste bud cells—reduction of intracellular cAMP levels and enhancement of phospholipase C (PLC) activity, which ultimately led to increased intracellular calcium concentrations and hormone release. Gavage of DB, followed by gavage of glucose, to db/db mice stimulated GLP-1 and subsequent insulin secretion, leading to lower blood glucose levels. Conclusions/interpretation Our study demonstrates that activation of gut-expressed bitter taste receptors stimulates GLP-1 secretion in a PLC-dependent manner. In diabetic mice, DB (a ligand of bitter taste receptor cells), when given via gavage, lowers blood glucose levels in diabetic mice after oral glucose administration, through increased secretion of GLP-1. PMID:25016595

  15. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, John A; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Ren, Zuojun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Lyall, Vijay

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to bitter (quinine and denatonium), sweet (sucrose, glycine, and erythritol), and umami [monosodium glutamate (MSG) and MSG + inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP)] taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin (Ca(2+) ionophore) + Ca(2+), 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM; Ca(2+) chelator), U73122 (phospholipase C blocker), thapsigargin (Ca(2+)-ATPase blocker), and diC8-PIP(2) (synthetic phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate). The phasic CT response to quinine was indifferent to changes in [Ca(2+)](i). However, a decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) inhibited the tonic part of the CT response to quinine. The CT responses to sweet and umami stimuli were indifferent to changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i). However, a decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) attenuated the synergistic effects of ethanol on the CT response to sweet stimuli and of IMP on the glutamate CT response. U73122 and thapsigargin inhibited the phasic and tonic CT responses to bitter, sweet, and umami stimuli. Although diC8-PIP(2) increased the CT response to bitter and sweet stimuli, it did not alter the CT response to glutamate but did inhibit the synergistic effect of IMP on the glutamate response. The results suggest that bitter, sweet, and umami taste qualities are transduced by [Ca(2+)](i)-dependent and [Ca(2+)](i)-independent mechanisms. Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in the BAPTA-sensitive cytosolic compartment regulate quality-specific taste receptors and ion channels that are involved in the neural adaptation and mixture interactions. Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA and ionomycin + Ca(2+), are associated with neurotransmitter release.

  16. Drosophila sugar receptors in sweet taste perception, olfaction, and internal nutrient sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinsuke; Yavuz, Ahmet; Slone, Jesse; Jagge, Christopher; Song, Xiangyu; Amrein, Hubert

    2015-03-02

    Identification of nutritious compounds is dependent on expression of specific taste receptors in appropriate taste-cell types [1]. In contrast to mammals, which rely on a single, broadly tuned heterodimeric sugar receptor [2], the Drosophila genome harbors a small subfamily of eight, closely related gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, Gr5a, Gr61a, and Gr64a-Gr64f, of which three have been proposed to mediate sweet taste [3-6]. However, expression and function of several of these putative sugar Gr genes are not known. Here, we present a comprehensive expression and functional analysis using Gr(LEXA/GAL4) alleles that were generated through homologous recombination. We show that sugar Gr genes are expressed in a combinatorial manner to yield at least eight sets of sweet-sensing neurons. Behavioral investigations show that most sugar Gr mutations affect taste responses to only a small number of sugars and that effective detection of most sugars is dependent on more than one Gr gene. Surprisingly, Gr64a, one of three Gr genes previously proposed to play a major role in sweet taste [3, 4], is not expressed in labellar taste neurons, and Gr64a mutant flies exhibit normal sugar responses elicited from the labellum. Our analysis provides a molecular rationale for distinct tuning profiles of sweet taste neurons, and it favors a model whereby all sugar Grs contribute to sweet taste. Furthermore, expression in olfactory organs and the brain implies novel roles for sugar Gr genes in olfaction and internal nutrient sensing, respectively. Thus, sugar receptors may contribute to feeding behavior via multiple sensory systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gustatory Neural Pathways Revealed by Genetic Tracing from Taste Receptor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Taste receptor cells encounter chemicals in foods and transmit this information to the gustatory neurons, which convey it further to the gustatory relay nuclei in the lower brainstem. Characterizing neurons involved in the transmission of gustatory information in the peripheral and central nervous systems helps us better understand how we perceive and discriminate tastes. However, it is difficult to anatomically identify them. Using cell-type-specific promoters/enhancers and a transneuronal t...

  18. Spatially restricted expression of candidate taste receptors in the Drosophila gustatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunipace, L; Meister, S; McNealy, C; Amrein, H

    2001-06-05

    Taste is an important sensory modality in most animals. In Drosophila, taste is perceived by gustatory neurons located in sensilla distributed on several different appendages throughout the body of the animal. Here we show that the gustatory receptors are encoded by a family of at least 54 genes (Gr genes), most of which are expressed exclusively in a small subset of taste sensilla located in narrowly defined regions of the fly's body. BLAST searches with the predicted amino acid sequences of 6 7-transmembrane-receptor genes of unknown function and 20 previously identified, putative gustatory receptor genes led to the identification of a large gene family comprising at least 54 genes. We investigated the expression of eight genes by using a Gal4 reporter gene assay and found that five of them were expressed in the gustatory system of the fly. Four genes were expressed in 1%-4% of taste sensilla, located in well-defined regions of the proboscis, the legs, or both. The fifth gene was expressed in about 20% of taste sensilla in all major gustatory organs, including the taste bristles on the anterior wing margin. Axon-tracing experiments demonstrated that neurons expressing a given Gr gene project their axons to a spatially restricted domain of the subesophageal ganglion in the fly brain. Our findings suggest that each taste sensillum represents a discrete, functional unit expressing at least one Gr receptor and that most Gr genes are expressed in spatially restricted domains of the gustatory system. These observations imply the potential for high taste discrimination of the Drosophila brain.

  19. Expression of taste receptors in Solitary Chemosensory Cells of rodent airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbarbati Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical irritation of airway mucosa elicits a variety of reflex responses such as coughing, apnea, and laryngeal closure. Inhaled irritants can activate either chemosensitive free nerve endings, laryngeal taste buds or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs. The SCC population lies in the nasal respiratory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, and larynx, as well as deeper in the airway. The objective of this study is to map the distribution of SCCs within the airways and to determine the elements of the chemosensory transduction cascade expressed in these SCCs. Methods We utilized a combination of immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (rtPCR and in situ hybridization on rats and transgenic mice where the Tas1R3 or TRPM5 promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP. Results Epithelial SCCs specialized for chemoreception are distributed throughout much of the respiratory tree of rodents. These cells express elements of the taste transduction cascade, including Tas1R and Tas2R receptor molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2 and TrpM5. The Tas2R bitter taste receptors are present throughout the entire respiratory tract. In contrast, the Tas1R sweet/umami taste receptors are expressed by numerous SCCs in the nasal cavity, but decrease in prevalence in the trachea, and are absent in the lower airways. Conclusions Elements of the taste transduction cascade including taste receptors are expressed by SCCs distributed throughout the airways. In the nasal cavity, SCCs, expressing Tas1R and Tas2R taste receptors, mediate detection of irritants and foreign substances which trigger trigeminally-mediated protective airway reflexes. Lower in the respiratory tract, similar chemosensory cells are not related to the trigeminal nerve but may still trigger local epithelial responses to irritants. In total, SCCs should be considered chemoreceptor cells that help in preventing damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled irritants and

  20. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to salty and sour taste stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, John A.; Ren, ZuoJun; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Heck, Gerard L.; Mummalaneni, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to salty [NaCl and NaCl+benzamil (Bz)] and sour (HCl, CO2, and acetic acid) taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin+Ca2+, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), U73122 (phospholipase C blocker), and thapsigargin (Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor) under open-circuit or lingual voltage-clamp conditions. An increase in TRC [Ca2+]i attenuated the tonic Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response and the apical membrane Na+ conductance. A decrease in TRC [Ca2+]i enhanced the tonic Bz-sensitive and Bz-insensitive NaCl CT responses and apical membrane Na+ conductance but did not affect CT responses to KCl or NH4Cl. An increase in TRC [Ca2+]i did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. A decrease in [Ca2+]i did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. In a subset of TRCs, a positive relationship between [H+]i and [Ca2+]i was obtained using in vitro imaging techniques. U73122 inhibited the tonic CT responses to NaCl, and thapsigargin inhibited the tonic CT responses to salty and sour stimuli. The results suggest that salty and sour taste qualities are transduced by [Ca2+]i-dependent and [Ca2+]i-independent mechanisms. Changes in TRC [Ca2+]i in a BAPTA-sensitive cytosolic compartment regulate ion channels and cotransporters involved in the salty and sour taste transduction mechanisms and in neural adaptation. Changes in TRC [Ca2+]i in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA, are associated with neurotransmitter release. PMID:22956787

  1. A Role of the Bile Salt Receptor FXR in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Jurre; Herrema, Hilde; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    This study reviews current insights into the role of bile salts and bile salt receptors on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Bile salts have emerged as important modifiers of lipid and energy metabolism. At the molecular level, bile salts regulate lipid and energy homeostasis mainly

  2. A Role of the Bile Salt Receptor FXR in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.; Herrema, H.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews current insights into the role of bile salts and bile salt receptors on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Bile salts have emerged as important modifiers of lipid and energy metabolism. At the molecular level, bile salts regulate lipid and energy homeostasis mainly

  3. Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnamon Sue C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli into electrical signals that lead to the sense of taste. An important second messenger in taste transduction is IP3, which is involved in both bitter and sweet transduction pathways. Several components of the bitter transduction pathway have been identified, including the T2R/TRB taste receptors, phospholipase C β2, and the G protein subunits α-gustducin, β3, and γ13. However, the identity of the IP3 receptor subtype in this pathway is not known. In the present study we used immunocytochemistry on rodent taste tissue to identify the IP3 receptors expressed in taste cells and to examine taste bud expression patterns for IP3R3. Results Antibodies against Type I, II, and III IP3 receptors were tested on sections of rat and mouse circumvallate papillae. Robust cytoplasmic labeling for the Type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3 was found in a large subset of taste cells in both species. In contrast, little or no immunoreactivity was seen with antibodies against the Type I or Type II IP3 receptors. To investigate the potential role of IP3R3 in bitter taste transduction, we used double-label immunocytochemistry to determine whether IP3R3 is expressed in the same subset of cells expressing other bitter signaling components. IP3R3 immunoreactive taste cells were also immunoreactive for PLCβ2 and γ13. Alpha-gustducin immunoreactivity was present in a subset of IP3R3, PLCβ2, and γ13 positive cells. Conclusions IP3R3 is the dominant form of the IP3 receptor expressed in taste cells and our data suggest it plays an important role in bitter taste transduction.

  4. Angiotensin II and taste sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura, DDS, PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste plays a major role in evaluating the quality of food components in the oral cavity. Sweet, salty, umami, sour and bitter taste are generally accepted as five basic taste qualities. Among them, salty taste is attractive to animals and influences sodium intake. Angiotensin II (ANG II and aldosterone (ALDO, which is stimulated by ANG II are key hormones that regulate sodium homeostasis and water balance. At the peripheral gustatory organs, it has been reported that ALDO increases the amiloride-sensitivity of the rat gustatory neural responses to NaCl in a time course of several hours. A recent study demonstrated that ANG II suppresses amiloride-sensitivity of the mouse gustatory and behavioral responses to NaCl via its receptor AT1 within an hour. Moreover, ANG II enhances sweet taste sensitivity without affecting umami, sour and bitter tastes. These results suggest that the reciprocal and sequential regulatory mechanisms by ANG II (as an acute suppressor together with ALDO (as a slow enhancer on the salt taste sensitivity may exist in peripheral taste organs, contribute to salt intake, and play an important role in sodium homeostasis. Furthermore, the linkage between salty and sweet taste modulations via the ANG II signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intakes.

  5. Mouse neutrophils express functional umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, NaHye; Jung, Young Su; Lee, Ha Young; Kang, NaNa; Park, Yoo Jung; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bahk, Young Yil; Koo, JaeHyung; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2014-11-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the initiation of innate immunity against infection and injury. Although many different types of G-protein coupled receptors are functionally expressed in neutrophils, no reports have demonstrated functional expression of umami taste receptor in these cells. We observed that mouse neutrophils express the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3 through RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Stimulation of mouse neutrophils with L-alanine or L-serine, which are ligands for the umami taste receptor, elicited not only ERK or p38 MAPK phosphorylation but also chemotactic migration. Moreover, addition of L-alanine or L-serine markedly reduced the production of several cytokines including TNF-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through inhibition of NF-κB activity or STAT3 phosphorylation in neutrophils. Our findings demonstrate that neutrophils express the umami taste receptor, through which tastants stimulate neutrophils, resulting in chemotactic migration, and attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  6. Interaction between umami peptide and taste receptor T1R1/T1R3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yali; Gao, Xinchang; Xie, Aiying; Wu, Xueqian; Ma, Fumin

    2014-12-01

    The umami taste receptor is a heterodimer composed of two members of the T1R taste receptor family: T1R1 and T1R3. The homology models of the ligand binding domains of the human umami receptor have been constructed based on crystallographic structures of the taste receptor of the central nervous system. Furthermore, the molecular simulations of the ligand binding domain show that the likely conformation was that T1R1 protein exists in the closed conformation, and T1R3 in the open conformation in the heterodimer. The molecular docking study of T1R1 and T1R3 in complex with four peptides, including Lys-Gly-Asp-Glu-Ser-Leu-Leu-Ala, Ser-Glu-Glu, G1u-Ser, and Asp-Glu-Ser, displayed that the amino acid residue of SER146 and Glu277 in T1R3 may play great roles in the synergism of umami taste. This docking result further validated the robustness of the model. In the paper, binding of umami peptide and the T1R1/T1R3 receptor was first described and the interaction is the base of umami activity theory.

  7. Expression and Purification of Functional Ligand-binding Domains of T1R3 Taste Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie,Y.; Hobbs, J.; Vigues, S.; Olson, W.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2006-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors, including odor, taste, and vomeronasal receptors, comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the mammalian genome. However, little is known about the molecular determinants that are critical for the detection and discrimination of ligands by most of these receptors. This dearth of understanding is due in part to difficulties in preparing functional receptors suitable for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Here we describe in detail two strategies for the expression and purification of the ligand-binding domain of T1R taste receptors, which are constituents of the sweet and umami taste receptors. These class C GPCRs contain a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) that is the site of interaction with most ligands and that is amenable to expression as a separate polypeptide in heterologous cells. The NTD of mouse T1R3 was expressed as two distinct fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified NTD proteins shows them to be properly folded and capable of binding ligands. This methodology should not only facilitate the characterization of T1R ligand interactions but may also be useful for dissecting the function of other class C GPCRs such as the large family of orphan V2R vomeronasal receptors.

  8. Bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human taste receptor for the discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Ahn, Sae Ryun; Kim, Daesan; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Simons, Christopher T; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2014-10-28

    The sense of taste helps humans to obtain information and form a picture of the world by recognizing chemicals in their environments. Over the past decade, large advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of taste detection and mimicking its capability using artificial sensor devices. However, the detection capability of previous artificial taste sensors has been far inferior to that of animal tongues, in terms of its sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human sweet taste receptors for the detection and discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance, where single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors were functionalized with nanovesicles containing human sweet taste receptors and used to detect the binding of sweeteners to the taste receptors. The receptors are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of human taste receptor type 1 member 2 (hTAS1R2) and human taste receptor type 1 member 3 (hTAS1R3), which have multiple binding sites and allow a human tongue-like broad selectivity for the detection of sweeteners. This nanovesicle-based bioelectronic tongue can be a powerful tool for the detection of sweeteners as an alternative to labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-based assays and the sensory evaluation panels used in the food and beverage industry. Furthermore, this study also allows the artificial sensor to exam the functional activity of dimeric GPCRs.

  9. Spatially restricted expression of candidate taste receptors in the Drosophila gustatory system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunipace, Leslie; Meister, Stephan; McNealy, Corum; Amrein, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    ... of seven-transmembrane receptors that are dedicated to olfactory, gustatory, or pheromonal sensory perception [1–11] As in most vertebrates, chemoreception in Drosophila can be divided into two distinct modalities—smell (olfaction), the recognition of volatile molecules, and taste (gustation), the recognition of soluble molecules [12] . In Dros...

  10. Determination of taste receptor type 1 member 1 (TAS1R1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    -brain axis by dietary glutamate and physiologic significance in energy homeostasis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 90: 832S–837S. Li X (2009). T1R receptors mediate mammalian sweet and umami taste. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 90: 733S-737S.

  11. Selective Deletion of Sodium Salt Taste during Development Leads to Expanded Terminal Fields of Gustatory Nerves in the Adult Mouse Nucleus of the Solitary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengsan; Hummler, Edith

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development. We used this model to test the hypothesis that the lack of activity elicited by sodium salt taste impacts the terminal field organization of nerves that carry taste information from taste buds to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the medulla. The glossopharyngeal, chorda tympani, and greater superficial petrosal nerves were labeled to examine their terminal fields in adult control mice and in adult mice in which the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel was conditionally deleted in taste buds (αENaC knockout). The terminal fields of all three nerves in the NST were up to 2.7 times greater in αENaC knock-out mice compared with the respective field volumes in control mice. The shapes of the fields were similar between the two groups; however, the density and spread of labels were greater in αENaC knock-out mice. Overall, our results show that disruption of the afferent taste signal to sodium salts disrupts the normal age-dependent “pruning” of all terminal fields, which could lead to alterations in sensory coding and taste-related behaviors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. To date, there has been no direct test of whether taste-elicited neural activity has a role in shaping central gustatory circuits. However, recently developed genetic tools now allow an assessment of how specific taste stimuli, in this case

  12. Selective Deletion of Sodium Salt Taste during Development Leads to Expanded Terminal Fields of Gustatory Nerves in the Adult Mouse Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengsan; Hummler, Edith; Hill, David L

    2017-01-18

    Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development. We used this model to test the hypothesis that the lack of activity elicited by sodium salt taste impacts the terminal field organization of nerves that carry taste information from taste buds to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the medulla. The glossopharyngeal, chorda tympani, and greater superficial petrosal nerves were labeled to examine their terminal fields in adult control mice and in adult mice in which the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel was conditionally deleted in taste buds (αENaC knockout). The terminal fields of all three nerves in the NST were up to 2.7 times greater in αENaC knock-out mice compared with the respective field volumes in control mice. The shapes of the fields were similar between the two groups; however, the density and spread of labels were greater in αENaC knock-out mice. Overall, our results show that disruption of the afferent taste signal to sodium salts disrupts the normal age-dependent "pruning" of all terminal fields, which could lead to alterations in sensory coding and taste-related behaviors. Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. To date, there has been no direct test of whether taste-elicited neural activity has a role in shaping central gustatory circuits. However, recently developed genetic tools now allow an assessment of how specific taste stimuli, in this case sodium salt taste, play a role

  13. Characterization of umami receptor and coupling G protein in mouse taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka; Kitagawa-Iseki, Keiko; Oike, Hideaki; Abe, Keiko; Mori, Tomohiko; Hayashi, Yukako

    2008-08-06

    Taste receptor cells (TRCs) express multiple umami receptors. We performed physiological investigations to determine whether umami-responding cells in taste buds possess G protein-coupled receptors and to determine what type of G proteins exist if any. To clarify the components that participate in intracellular umami signal transduction in mouse, we recorded the activation of TRCs. TRCs treated with the G protein inhibitor GDP-beta-S lost umami-induced inward currents. Treatment with the Galphai inhibitor, pertussis toxin, did not increase the intracellular Ca2+ level in many TRCs. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that a subset of TRCs responding to umami stimuli expressed alpha-gustducin. Thus, we demonstrated that umami stimuli were received by G protein-coupled receptors that function together with some of the Galphai family members.

  14. Identification of functional bitter taste receptors and their antagonist in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Bapon; Kawabata, Fuminori; Kawabata, Yuko; Yoshida, Yuta; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2017-01-22

    Elucidation of the taste sense of chickens is important not only for the development of chicken feedstuffs for the chicken industry but also to help clarify the evolution of the taste sense among animals. There are three putative chicken bitter taste receptors, chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), cT2R2 and cT2R7, which were identified using genome information and cell-based assays. Previously, we have shown that cT2R1 is a functional bitter taste receptor through both cell-based assays and behavioral tests. In this study, therefore, we focused on the sensitivities of the other two bitter receptors, cT2R2 and cT2R7, by using their agonists in behavioral tests. We tested three agonists of cT2R2 and three agonists of cT2R7. In a 10-min drinking study, the intakes of cT2R2 agonist solutions were not different from that of water. On the other hand, the intakes of cT2R7 agonist solutions were significantly lower compared to water. In addition, we constructed cT2R1-and cT2R7-expressing cells in order to search for an antagonist for these functional bitter taste receptors. By using Ca(2+) imaging methods, we found that 6-methoxyflavanone (6-meth) can inhibit the activities of both cT2R1 and cT2R7. Moreover, 6-meth also inhibited the reduction of the intake of bitter solutions containing cT2R1 or cT2R7 agonists in behavioral tests. Taken together, these results suggested that cT2R7 is a functional bitter taste receptor like cT2R1, but that cT2R2 is not, and that 6-meth is an antagonist for these two functional chicken bitter taste receptors. This is the first identification of an antagonist of chicken bitter receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sweet taste receptor deficient mice have decreased adiposity and increased bone mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky R Simon

    Full Text Available Functional expression of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3 has been reported in numerous metabolic tissues, including the gut, pancreas, and, more recently, in adipose tissue. It has been suggested that sweet taste receptors in these non-gustatory tissues may play a role in systemic energy balance and metabolism. Smaller adipose depots have been reported in T1R3 knockout mice on a high carbohydrate diet, and sweet taste receptors have been reported to regulate adipogenesis in vitro. To assess the potential contribution of sweet taste receptors to adipose tissue biology, we investigated the adipose tissue phenotypes of T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice. Here we provide data to demonstrate that when fed an obesogenic diet, both T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice have reduced adiposity and smaller adipocytes. Although a mild glucose intolerance was observed with T1R3 deficiency, other metabolic variables analyzed were similar between genotypes. In addition, food intake, respiratory quotient, oxygen consumption, and physical activity were unchanged in T1R2 knockout mice. Although T1R2 deficiency did not affect adipocyte number in peripheral adipose depots, the number of bone marrow adipocytes is significantly reduced in these knockout animals. Finally, we present data demonstrating that T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice have increased cortical bone mass and trabecular remodeling. This report identifies novel functions for sweet taste receptors in the regulation of adipose and bone biology, and suggests that in these contexts, T1R2 and T1R3 are either dependent on each other for activity or have common independent effects in vivo.

  16. Sweet taste receptors in rat small intestine stimulate glucose absorption through apical GLUT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Oliver J; Affleck, Julie; Patel, Nick; Kellett, George L

    2007-01-01

    Natural sugars and artificial sweeteners are sensed by receptors in taste buds. T2R bitter and T1R sweet taste receptors are coupled through G-proteins, α-gustducin and transducin, to activate phospholipase C β2 and increase intracellular calcium concentration. Intestinal brush cells or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) have a structure similar to lingual taste cells and strongly express α-gustducin. It has therefore been suggested over the last decade that brush cells may participate in sugar sensing by a mechanism analogous to that in taste buds. We provide here functional evidence for an intestinal sensing system based on lingual taste receptors. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry revealed that all T1R members are expressed in rat jejunum at strategic locations including Paneth cells, SCCs or the apical membrane of enterocytes; T1Rs are colocalized with each other and with α-gustducin, transducin or phospholipase C β2 to different extents. Intestinal glucose absorption consists of two components: one is classical active Na+–glucose cotransport, the other is the diffusive apical GLUT2 pathway. Artificial sweeteners increase glucose absorption in the order acesulfame potassium ∼ sucralose > saccharin, in parallel with their ability to increase intracellular calcium concentration. Stimulation occurs within minutes by an increase in apical GLUT2, which correlates with reciprocal regulation of T1R2, T1R3 and α-gustducin versus T1R1, transducin and phospholipase C β2. Our observation that artificial sweeteners are nutritionally active, because they can signal to a functional taste reception system to increase sugar absorption during a meal, has wide implications for nutrient sensing and nutrition in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:17495045

  17. Bitter, sweet and umami taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: Expression in embryonic and growing chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Druyan, Shelly; Uni, Zehava

    2015-08-01

    Taste perception is a crucial biological mechanism affecting food and water choices and consumption in the animal kingdom. Bitter taste perception is mediated by a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family-the taste 2 receptors (T2R)-and their downstream proteins, whereas sweet and umami tastes are mediated by the GPCR family -taste 1 receptors (T1R) and their downstream proteins. Taste receptors and their downstream proteins have been identified in extra-gustatory tissues in mammals, such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and their GIT activation has been linked with different metabolic and endocrinic pathways in the GIT. The chicken genome contains three bitter taste receptors termed ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, and ggTas2r7, and the sweet/umami receptors ggTas1r1 and ggTas1r3, but it lacks the sweet receptor ggTas1r2. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the expression of genes related to taste perception in the chicken GIT, both at the embryonic stage and in growing chickens. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time, using real-time PCR, expression of the chicken taste receptor genes ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7, ggTas1r1, and ggTas1r3 and of their downstream protein-encoding genes TRPM5, α-gustducin, and PLCβ2 in both gustatory tissues-the palate and tongue, and extra-gustatory tissues-the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of embryonic day 19 (E19) and growing (21 d old) chickens. Expression of these genes suggests the involvement of taste pathways for sensing carbohydrates, amino acids and bitter compounds in the chicken GIT. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

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    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a -/- mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice by crossing Skn-1a -/- mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X 2 -expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Utility of the Artificial Taste Sensor in Evaluating the Bitterness of Drugs: Correlation with Responses of Human TASTE2 Receptors (hTAS2Rs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Tamami; Uchida, Takahiro; Yoshida, Miyako; Kojima, Honami; Habara, Masaaki; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the artificial taste sensor to evaluate the bitterness of drugs by comparing the responses of the taste sensor with documented responses of human TASTE2 receptors (hTAS2Rs). For this purpose 22 bitter compounds, used as ingredients of pharmaceutical medicines in Japan and known ligands of hTAS2Rs, were selected for testing. Their solutions (0.01, 0.03, 0.1 mM) were evaluated by five different taste sensors (AC0, AN0, BT0, C00, AE1). Correlations between physicochemical parameters of the compounds and the responses of the taste sensors and hTAS2Rs were evaluated. From taste sensor measurements, diphenidol, haloperidol, diphenhydramine, dextromethorphan and papaverine, all ligands of hTAS2R 10 and/or hTAS2R14, were predicted to express strong bitterness, surpassing that of quinine. Responses of taste sensors BT0 were found to be significantly correlated with responses of hTAS2R14. High log P values (≧2.73) and responses of hTAS2R14 were also significantly correlated (** ptaste sensor BT0 is highly sensitive to bitterness and correlates significantly with hTAS2R14, making it useful for evaluating the bitterness of hydrophobic compounds which respond to hTAS2R14 and their inhibitors.

  20. A regulatory gene network related to the porcine umami taste receptor (TAS1R1/TAS1R3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Ren, D; Reverter, A; Roura, E

    2016-02-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in the mediation of food choices in mammals. The first porcine taste receptor genes identified, sequenced and characterized, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, were related to the dimeric receptor for umami taste. However, little is known about their regulatory network. The objective of this study was to unfold the genetic network involved in porcine umami taste perception. We performed a meta-analysis of 20 gene expression studies spanning 480 porcine microarray chips and screened 328 taste-related genes by selective mining steps among the available 12,320 genes. A porcine umami taste-specific regulatory network was constructed based on the normalized coexpression data of the 328 genes across 27 tissues. From the network, we revealed the 'taste module' and identified a coexpression cluster for the umami taste according to the first connector with the TAS1R1/TAS1R3 genes. Our findings identify several taste-related regulatory genes and extend previous genetic background of porcine umami taste. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Artificial sweeteners stimulate adipogenesis and suppress lipolysis independently of sweet taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Becky R; Parlee, Sebastian D; Learman, Brian S; Mori, Hiroyuki; Scheller, Erica L; Cawthorn, William P; Ning, Xiaomin; Gallagher, Katherine; Tyrberg, Björn; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M; Evans, Charles R; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2013-11-08

    G protein-coupled receptors mediate responses to a myriad of ligands, some of which regulate adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. The sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are G protein-coupled receptors that function as carbohydrate sensors in taste buds, gut, and pancreas. Here we report that sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed throughout adipogenesis and in adipose tissues. Treatment of mouse and human precursor cells with artificial sweeteners, saccharin and acesulfame potassium, enhanced adipogenesis. Saccharin treatment of 3T3-L1 cells and primary mesenchymal stem cells rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and downstream targets with functions in adipogenesis such as cAMP-response element-binding protein and FOXO1; however, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α was not observed until relatively late in differentiation. Saccharin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Thr-308 occurred within 5 min, was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent, and occurred in the presence of high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone; phosphorylation of Ser-473 occurred more gradually. Surprisingly, neither saccharin-stimulated adipogenesis nor Thr-308 phosphorylation was dependent on expression of T1R2 and/or T1R3, although Ser-473 phosphorylation was impaired in T1R2/T1R3 double knock-out precursors. In mature adipocytes, artificial sweetener treatment suppressed lipolysis even in the presence of forskolin, and lipolytic responses were correlated with phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Suppression of lipolysis by saccharin in adipocytes was also independent of T1R2 and T1R3. These results suggest that some artificial sweeteners have previously uncharacterized metabolic effects on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism and that effects of artificial sweeteners on adipose tissue biology may be largely independent of the classical sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3.

  2. Artificial Sweeteners Stimulate Adipogenesis and Suppress Lipolysis Independently of Sweet Taste Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Becky R.; Parlee, Sebastian D.; Learman, Brian S.; Mori, Hiroyuki; Scheller, Erica L.; Cawthorn, William P.; Ning, Xiaomin; Gallagher, Katherine; Tyrberg, Björn; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.; Evans, Charles R.; MacDougald, Ormond A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors mediate responses to a myriad of ligands, some of which regulate adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. The sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are G protein-coupled receptors that function as carbohydrate sensors in taste buds, gut, and pancreas. Here we report that sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed throughout adipogenesis and in adipose tissues. Treatment of mouse and human precursor cells with artificial sweeteners, saccharin and acesulfame potassium, enhanced adipogenesis. Saccharin treatment of 3T3-L1 cells and primary mesenchymal stem cells rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and downstream targets with functions in adipogenesis such as cAMP-response element-binding protein and FOXO1; however, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α was not observed until relatively late in differentiation. Saccharin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Thr-308 occurred within 5 min, was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent, and occurred in the presence of high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone; phosphorylation of Ser-473 occurred more gradually. Surprisingly, neither saccharin-stimulated adipogenesis nor Thr-308 phosphorylation was dependent on expression of T1R2 and/or T1R3, although Ser-473 phosphorylation was impaired in T1R2/T1R3 double knock-out precursors. In mature adipocytes, artificial sweetener treatment suppressed lipolysis even in the presence of forskolin, and lipolytic responses were correlated with phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Suppression of lipolysis by saccharin in adipocytes was also independent of T1R2 and T1R3. These results suggest that some artificial sweeteners have previously uncharacterized metabolic effects on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism and that effects of artificial sweeteners on adipose tissue biology may be largely independent of the classical sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. PMID

  3. Identification of protein-damaging mutations in 10 swine taste receptors and 191 appetite-reward genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clop, Alex; Sharaf, Abdoallah; Castelló, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Taste receptors (TASRs) are essential for the body's recognition of chemical compounds. In the tongue, TASRs sense the sweet and umami and the toxin-related bitter taste thus promoting a particular eating behaviour. Moreover, their relevance in other organs is now becoming evident...

  4. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

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    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Probing the Evolutionary History of Human Bitter Taste Receptor Pseudogenes by Restoring Their Function.

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    Risso, Davide; Behrens, Maik; Sainz, Eduardo; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Drayna, Dennis

    2017-07-01

    Lineage-specific gene losses can be driven by selection or environmental adaptations. However, a lack of studies on the original function of species-specific pseudogenes leaves a gap in our understanding of their role in evolutionary histories. Pseudogenes are of particular relevance for taste perception genes, which encode for receptors that confer the ability to both identify nutritionally valuable substances and avoid potentially harmful substances. To explore the role of bitter taste pseudogenization events in human origins, we restored the open reading frames of the three human-specific pseudogenes and synthesized the reconstructed functional hTAS2R2, hTAS2R62 and hTAS2R64 receptors. We have identified ligands that differentially activate the human and chimpanzee forms of these receptors and several other human functional TAS2Rs. We show that these receptors are narrowly tuned, suggesting that bitter-taste sensitivities evolved independently in different species, and that these pseudogenization events occurred because of functional redundancy. The restoration of function of lineage-specific pseudogenes can aid in the reconstruction of their evolutionary history, and in understanding the forces that led to their pseudogenization. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. The binding site for neohesperidin dihydrochalcone at the human sweet taste receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochwil Nicole A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sweet taste perception among species depend on structural variations of the sweet taste receptor. The commercially used isovanillyl sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone activates the human but not the rat sweet receptor TAS1R2+TAS1R3. Analysis of interspecies combinations and chimeras of rat and human TAS1R2+TAS1R3 suggested that the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 is crucial for the activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Results By mutational analysis combined with functional studies and molecular modeling we identified a set of different amino acid residues within the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 that forms the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding pocket. Sixteen amino acid residues in the transmembrane domains 2 to 7 and one in the extracellular loop 2 of hTAS1R3 influenced the receptor's response to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Some of these seventeen residues are also part of the binding sites for the sweetener cyclamate or the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. In line with this observation, lactisole inhibited activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and cyclamate competitively, whereas receptor activation by aspartame, a sweetener known to bind to the N-terminal domain of TAS1R2, was allosterically inhibited. Seven of the amino acid positions crucial for activation of hTAS1R2+hTAS1R3 by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are thought to play a role in the binding of allosteric modulators of other class C GPCRs, further supporting our model of the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone pharmacophore. Conclusion From our data we conclude that we identified the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding site at the human sweet taste receptor, which overlaps with those for the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. This readily delivers a molecular explanation of our finding that lactisole is a competitive inhibitor of the receptor

  7. Expression and functional activity of bitter taste receptors in primary renal tubular epithelial cells and M-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Chen, Fuxue; Gu, Fu; Liu, Xin; Li, Feng; Du, Dongshu

    2017-04-01

    The kidney is essential in the maintenance of in vivo homeostasis by body fluid and electrolyte conservation and metabolic waste removal. Previously, we reported the expression of a novel G protein family (Tas2rs), which includes bitter taste receptors, in the kidney tubule system, including the nephrons and the collecting duct system. Bitter taste receptors could affect kidney function via Ca(2+) intake. Alkaloids such as phenylthiocarbamide stimulate these receptors and cause an increase in Ca(2+) intake. In this study, we determined the expression of bitter taste receptors in the immature kidney and small intestine and in primary renal epithelial cells and M-1 (collecting tubule cell line) cells, by using QPCR and immunostaining. We found no expression of bitter taste receptors in the immature kidney and small intestine several days after birth; the relative abundance of Tas2rs transcripts varied depending on the developmental stage. Tas2rs were expressed in primary renal epithelial cells and M-1 cells. The traditional Chinese medicinal plant extracts phellodendrine and coptisine caused a rapid rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which was inhibited by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122. Thus, phellodendrine and coptisine could change the physiological status of renal cells in vitro by mediation of bitter taste receptors in a PLC-dependent manner. Our results provide new insights on the expression and role of bitter taste receptors in renal development and function.

  8. Sonic hedgehog-expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Scott, Jennifer K.; Harada, Shuitsu; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste buds contain ~60 elongate cells and several basal cells. Elongate cells comprise three functional taste cell types: I - glial cells, II - bitter/sweet/umami receptor cells, and III - sour detectors. Although taste cells are continuously renewed, lineage relationships among cell types are ill-defined. Basal cells have been proposed as taste bud stem cells, a subset of which express Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh+ basal cells turnover rapidly suggesting that Shh+ cells are precursors of some or all taste cell types. Results To fate map Shh-expressing cells, mice carrying ShhCreERT2 and a high (CAG-CAT-EGFP) or low (R26RLacZ) efficiency reporter allele were given tamoxifen to activate Cre in Shh+ cells. Using R26RLacZ, lineage-labeled cells occur singly within buds, supporting a post-mitotic state for Shh+ cells. Using either reporter, we show that Shh+ cells differentiate into all three taste cell types, in proportions reflecting cell type ratios in taste buds (I > II > III). Conclusions Shh+ cells are not stem cells, but are post-mitotic, immediate precursors of taste cells. Shh+ cells differentiate into each of the three taste cell types, and the choice of a specific taste cell fate is regulated to maintain the proper ratio within buds. PMID:24590958

  9. Sequence Analysis of Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoires in Different Ruminant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Ferreira, Ana; Tomás Marques, Andreia; Bhide, Mangesh; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Hollung, Kristin; Knight, Christopher Harold; Raundrup, Katrine; Lippolis, John; Palmer, Mitchell; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana Sousa; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. Our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of T2R gene sequences within different ruminant species. To accomplish this goal, we gathered a collection of ruminant species with different feeding behaviors and for which no genome data is available: American bison, chamois, elk, European bison, fallow deer, goat, moose, mouflon, muskox, red deer, reindeer and white tailed deer. The herbivores chosen for this study belong to different taxonomic families and habitats, and hence, exhibit distinct foraging behaviors and diet preferences. We describe the first partial repertoires of T2R gene sequences for these species obtained by direct sequencing. We then consider the homology and evolutionary history of these receptors within this ruminant group, and whether it relates to feeding type classification, using MEGA software. Our results suggest that phylogenetic proximity of T2R genes corresponds more to the traditional taxonomic groups of the species rather than reflecting a categorization by feeding strategy. PMID:26061084

  10. Birds Generally Carry a Small Repertoire of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-04

    As they belong to the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, birds have long been believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste is fundamental in birds to recognize dietary toxins (which are typically bitter) in potential food sources. To characterize the evolution of avian bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) and to test whether dietary toxins have shaped the repertoire size of avian Tas2rs, we examined 48 genomes representing all but 3 avian orders. The total number of Tas2r genes was found to range from 1 in the domestic pigeon to 12 in the bar-tailed trogon, with an average of 4, which suggested that a much smaller Tas2r gene repertoire exists in birds than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, we uncovered a positive correlation between the number of putatively functional Tas2rs and the abundance of potential toxins in avian diets. Because plant products contain more toxins than animal tissues and insects release poisonous defensive secretions, we hypothesized that herbivorous and insectivorous birds may demand more functional Tas2rs than carnivorous birds feeding on noninsect animals. Our analyses appear to support this hypothesis and highlight the critical role of taste perception in birds. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreoshi Pal Choudhuri

    Full Text Available Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5' ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5' monophosphate (IMP. The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex.

  12. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Choudhuri, Shreoshi; Delay, Rona J.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5’ ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity. While much is understood about glutamate transduction, the mechanisms for detecting the tastes of other L-amino acids are less well understood. We used calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells and taste cell clusters from the circumvallate and foliate papillae of C57BL/6J and T1r3 knockout mice to determine if other receptors might also be involved in detection of L-amino acids. Ratiometric imaging with Fura-2 was used to study calcium responses to monopotassium L-glutamate, L-serine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine, with and without inosine 5’ monophosphate (IMP). The results of these experiments showed that the response patterns elicited by L-amino acids varied significantly across taste sensory cells. L-amino acids other than glutamate also elicited synergistic responses in a subset of taste sensory cells. Along with its role in synergism, IMP alone elicited a response in a large number of taste sensory cells. Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex. PMID:26110622

  13. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Weiwei; Ravoninjohary, Aurore; Li, Xia; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor) genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus) should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in understanding the forces

  14. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  15. Depressed taste and smell in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S; Garg, A K; Mekayarajjananonth, T; Bakaeen, L G; Khan, E

    1999-12-01

    Geriatric patients have a number of dental care problems that younger patients do not encounter. The oral changes associated with aging can have a significant effect on the efficacy of dental treatment. The authors reviewed studies dealing with the causes of depressed sense of taste and smell; the causes included aging, disease, medications and dental problems. Based on their findings, the authors described the location and anatomy of taste buds and receptor cells for smell and explored appetite, saliva, food seasonings, nutrition and dietary recommendations. They also discussed the relationship of smoking and tongue cleaning to taste sensations. The authors found that considerable differences exist between elderly people and young people in regards to sensory perception and pleasantness of food flavors. Salt and bitter taste acuity declines with age, but sweet and sour perceptivity does not. Olfactory acuity also declines with age. The authors found that most of the studies reviewed suggested that the sense of smell is more impaired by aging compared with the sense of taste. Smoking diminishes the taste of food and makes flavorful foods taste flat, while tongue brushing can increase taste sensation for geriatric patients. Food can become tasteless and unappetizing for geriatric patients as the result of declining taste and smell perception. Geriatric patients should be encouraged to add seasonings to their food instead of relying on excessive consumption of salt and sugar to give their food flavor. Adequate nutrition, tongue cleaning and smoking cessation are recommended for geriatric dental patients.

  16. Gustatory neural pathways revealed by genetic tracing from taste receptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Taste receptor cells encounter chemicals in foods and transmit this information to the gustatory neurons, which convey it further to the gustatory relay nuclei in the lower brainstem. Characterizing neurons involved in the transmission of gustatory information in the peripheral and central nervous systems helps us better understand how we perceive and discriminate tastes. However, it is difficult to anatomically identify them. Using cell-type-specific promoters/enhancers and a transneuronal tracer, we generated transgenic mice to visualize neurons in the gustatory neural pathways. We observed the tracer in the neurons of cranial sensory ganglia and the nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla where gustatory neurons project. The tracer was also distributed in the reticular formation and several motor nuclei in the medulla that have not been recognized as gustatory ascending pathways. These transgenic mice revealed gustatory relay neurons in the known gustatory ascending pathway and an unexpected, thus presumably novel, neural circuit of gustatory system.

  17. Multi-scale simulations of membrane proteins: The case of bitter taste receptors

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    Eda Suku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs are the second largest group of chemosensory G-protein coupled receptors (25 members. hTAS2Rs are expressed in many tissues (e.g. tongue, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, brain, etc., performing a variety of functions, from bitter taste perception to hormone secretion and bronchodilation. Due to the lack of experimental structural information, computations are currently the methods of choice to get insights into ligand–receptor interactions. Here we review our efforts at predicting the binding pose of agonists to hTAS2Rs, using state-of-the-art bioinformatics approaches followed by hybrid Molecular Mechanics/Coarse-Grained (MM/CG simulations. The latter method, developed by us, describes atomistically only the agonist binding region, including hydration, and it may be particularly suited to be used when bioinformatics predictions generate very low-resolution models, such as the case of hTAS2Rs. Our structural predictions of the hTAS2R38 and hTAS2R46 receptors in complex with their agonists turn out to be fully consistent with experimental mutagenesis data. In addition, they suggest a two-binding site architecture in hTAS2R46, consisting of the usual orthosteric site together with a “vestibular” site toward the extracellular space, as observed in other GPCRs. The presence of the vestibular site may help to discriminate among the wide spectrum of bitter ligands.

  18. [Role of the sweet taste receptor in glucose metabolism: no sweets for diabetes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Kawahara, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is closely associated with our daily diets and has become a global health problem with increasing number of patients. Maintaining energy homeostasis is essentially required for the treatment of diabetes. Energy metabolism starts with taking in a meal. Nutrients including amino acids, fatty acids and glucose in the digest have been shown to act on the neuroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and thereby play important roles in energy homeostasis. Therefore, the GI tract is now recognized as a sensor system for nutrient signals. Taste receptor type 1 member 2 (T1R2) is known to function as a co-receptor with T1R3 to detect sweet chemicals in the taste buds. It has been proposed that the T1R2/T1R3 receptor complex acts as sweet sensor in the intestine, and plays a pivotal role in sensing sugars and maintaining glucose homeostasis through incretin secretion. To clarify the physiological roles of T1R2 in glucose homeostasis, T1r2-lacZ knock-in/knock-out mice were generated. We found lacZ gene expression in the GI tract where T1r3 expression has been reported. Interestingly, the T1r2-lacZ knock-in mice showed impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose challenge but not on intraperitoneal injection. However, the fasting glucose level in T1r2-lacZ knock-in mice was comparable to that in wild type mice. These results suggest an important role of the sweet taste receptor system in the intestine when stimulated by glucose. Therefore, the roles of T1R2 will be presented and the mechanism for metabolic homeostasis will be discussed.

  19. Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon

    OpenAIRE

    Kendig, Derek M.; Hurst, Norman R.; Bradley, Zachary L.; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F.; Lyall, Vijay; Desimone, John; Murthy, Karnam S.; Grider, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells, although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, which mediates the response to umami ligands, such as mo...

  20. Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking the Tas1r3 Taste Receptor Gene.

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    Vladimir O Murovets

    Full Text Available The G-protein-coupled sweet taste receptor dimer T1R2/T1R3 is expressed in taste bud cells in the oral cavity. In recent years, its involvement in membrane glucose sensing was discovered in endocrine cells regulating glucose homeostasis. We investigated importance of extraorally expressed T1R3 taste receptor protein in age-dependent control of blood glucose homeostasis in vivo, using nonfasted mice with a targeted mutation of the Tas1r3 gene that encodes the T1R3 protein. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, as well as behavioral tests measuring taste responses to sucrose solutions, were performed with C57BL/6ByJ (Tas1r3+/+ inbred mice bearing the wild-type allele and C57BL/6J-Tas1r3tm1Rfm mice lacking the entire Tas1r3 coding region and devoid of the T1R3 protein (Tas1r3-/-. Compared with Tas1r3+/+ mice, Tas1r3-/- mice lacked attraction to sucrose in brief-access licking tests, had diminished taste preferences for sucrose solutions in the two-bottle tests, and had reduced insulin sensitivity and tolerance to glucose administered intraperitoneally or intragastrically, which suggests that these effects are due to absence of T1R3. Impairment of glucose clearance in Tas1r3-/- mice was exacerbated with age after intraperitoneal but not intragastric administration of glucose, pointing to a compensatory role of extraoral T1R3-dependent mechanisms in offsetting age-dependent decline in regulation of glucose homeostasis. Incretin effects were similar in Tas1r3+/+ and Tas1r3-/- mice, which suggests that control of blood glucose clearance is associated with effects of extraoral T1R3 in tissues other than the gastrointestinal tract. Collectively, the obtained data demonstrate that the T1R3 receptor protein plays an important role in control of glucose homeostasis not only by regulating sugar intake but also via its extraoral function, probably in the pancreas and brain.

  1. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

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    Hofmann Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  3. Biochemical enrichment and biophysical characterization of a taste receptor for L-arginine from the catfish, Ictalurus puntatus

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    Spielman Andrew I

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is invested with a high density of cutaneous taste receptors, particularly on the barbel appendages. Many of these receptors are sensitive to selected amino acids, one of these being a receptor for L-arginine (L-Arg. Previous neurophysiological and biophysical studies suggested that this taste receptor is coupled directly to a cation channel and behaves as a ligand-gated ion channel receptor (LGICR. Earlier studies demonstrated that two lectins, Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I and Phaseolus vulgaris Erythroagglutinin (PHA-E, inhibited the binding of L-Arg to its presumed receptor sites, and that PHA-E inhibited the L-Arg-stimulated ion conductance of barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Results Both PHA-E and RCA-I almost exclusively labeled an 82–84 kDa protein band of an SDS-PAGE of solubilized barbel taste epithelial membranes. Further, both rhodamine-conjugated RCA-I and polyclonal antibodies raised to the 82–84 kDa electroeluted peptides labeled the apical region of catfish taste buds. Because of the specificity shown by RCA-I, lectin affinity was chosen as the first of a three-step procedure designed to enrich the presumed LGICR for L-Arg. Purified and CHAPS-solubilized taste epithelial membrane proteins were subjected successively to (1, lectin (RCA-I affinity; (2, gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300HR; and (3, ion exchange chromatography. All fractions from each chromatography step were evaluated for L-Arg-induced ion channel activity by reconstituting each fraction into a lipid bilayer. Active fractions demonstrated L-Arg-induced channel activity that was inhibited by D-arginine (D-Arg with kinetics nearly identical to those reported earlier for L-Arg-stimulated ion channels of native barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. After the final enrichment step, SDS-PAGE of the active ion channel protein fraction revealed a single band at 82–84 k

  4. Ancient protostome origin of chemosensory ionotropic glutamate receptors and the evolution of insect taste and olfaction.

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    Vincent Croset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs are a highly conserved family of ligand-gated ion channels present in animals, plants, and bacteria, which are best characterized for their roles in synaptic communication in vertebrate nervous systems. A variant subfamily of iGluRs, the Ionotropic Receptors (IRs, was recently identified as a new class of olfactory receptors in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, hinting at a broader function of this ion channel family in detection of environmental, as well as intercellular, chemical signals. Here, we investigate the origin and evolution of IRs by comprehensive evolutionary genomics and in situ expression analysis. In marked contrast to the insect-specific Odorant Receptor family, we show that IRs are expressed in olfactory organs across Protostomia--a major branch of the animal kingdom that encompasses arthropods, nematodes, and molluscs--indicating that they represent an ancestral protostome chemosensory receptor family. Two subfamilies of IRs are distinguished: conserved "antennal IRs," which likely define the first olfactory receptor family of insects, and species-specific "divergent IRs," which are expressed in peripheral and internal gustatory neurons, implicating this family in taste and food assessment. Comparative analysis of drosophilid IRs reveals the selective forces that have shaped the repertoires in flies with distinct chemosensory preferences. Examination of IR gene structure and genomic distribution suggests both non-allelic homologous recombination and retroposition contributed to the expansion of this multigene family. Together, these findings lay a foundation for functional analysis of these receptors in both neurobiological and evolutionary studies. Furthermore, this work identifies novel targets for manipulating chemosensory-driven behaviours of agricultural pests and disease vectors.

  5. Taste, Salt Consumption, and Local Explanations around Hypertension in a Rural Population in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to promote behaviors to reduce sodium intake require messages tailored to local understandings of the relationship between what we eat and our health. We studied local explanations about hypertension, the relationship between local diet, salt intake, and health status, and participants’ opinions about changing food habits. This study provided inputs for a social marketing campaign in Peru promoting the use of a salt substitute containing less sodium than regular salt. Qualitative methods (focus groups and in-depth interviews) were utilized with local populations, people with hypertension, and health personnel in six rural villages. Participants were 18–65 years old, 41% men. Participants established a direct relationship between emotions and hypertension, regardless of age, gender, and hypertension status. Those without hypertension established a connection between eating too much/eating fried food and health status but not between salt consumption and hypertension. Participants rejected dietary changes. Economic barriers and high appreciation of local culinary traditions were the main reasons for this. It is the conclusion of this paper that introducing and promoting salt substitutes require creative strategies that need to acknowledge local explanatory disease models such as the strong association between emotional wellbeing and hypertension, give a positive spin to changing food habits, and resist the “common sense” strategy of information provision around the causal connection between salt consumption and hypertension. PMID:28678190

  6. Taste, Salt Consumption, and Local Explanations around Hypertension in a Rural Population in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesantes, M Amalia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Ponce-Lucero, Vilarmina; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-07-05

    Interventions to promote behaviors to reduce sodium intake require messages tailored to local understandings of the relationship between what we eat and our health. We studied local explanations about hypertension, the relationship between local diet, salt intake, and health status, and participants' opinions about changing food habits. This study provided inputs for a social marketing campaign in Peru promoting the use of a salt substitute containing less sodium than regular salt. Qualitative methods (focus groups and in-depth interviews) were utilized with local populations, people with hypertension, and health personnel in six rural villages. Participants were 18-65 years old, 41% men. Participants established a direct relationship between emotions and hypertension, regardless of age, gender, and hypertension status. Those without hypertension established a connection between eating too much/eating fried food and health status but not between salt consumption and hypertension. Participants rejected dietary changes. Economic barriers and high appreciation of local culinary traditions were the main reasons for this. It is the conclusion of this paper that introducing and promoting salt substitutes require creative strategies that need to acknowledge local explanatory disease models such as the strong association between emotional wellbeing and hypertension, give a positive spin to changing food habits, and resist the "common sense" strategy of information provision around the causal connection between salt consumption and hypertension.

  7. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  8. Global diversity in the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: revisiting a classic evolutionary PROPosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Davide S.; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pagani, Luca; Robino, Antonietta; Morini, Gabriella; Tofanelli, Sergio; Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Barale, Roberto; Caradonna, Fabio; Gasparini, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata; Wooding, Stephen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38 database yet analyzed, consisting of 5,589 individuals from 105 populations, to examine natural selection, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium to estimate the effects of both selection and demography on contemporary patterns of variation at this locus. We found signs of an ancient balancing selection acting on this gene but no post Out-Of-Africa departures from neutrality, implying that the current observed patterns of variation can be predominantly explained by demographic, rather than selective events. In addition, we found signatures of ancient selective forces acting on different African TAS2R38 haplotypes. Collectively our results provide evidence for a relaxation of recent selective forces acting on this gene and a revised hypothesis for the origins of the present-day worldwide distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes.

  9. Impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in extra-oral tissues : emphasis on hypothalamus and brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera Moro Chao, D; Argmann, C; Van Eijk, M; Boot, R G; Ottenhoff, R; Van Roomen, C; Foppen, E; Siljee, J E; Unmehopa, U A; Kalsbeek, A; Aerts, J M F G

    2016-01-01

    Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling

  10. Impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in extra-oral tissues: emphasis on hypothalamus and brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera Moro Chao, D.; Argmann, C.; van Eijk, M.; Boot, R. G.; Ottenhoff, R.; van Roomen, C.; Foppen, E.; Siljee, J. E.; Unmehopa, U. A.; Kalsbeek, A.; Aerts, J. M. F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the alpha-subunits of the associated signalling

  11. Caffeine Bitterness is Related to Daily Caffeine Intake and Bitter Receptor mRNA Abundance in Human Taste Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchock, Sarah V; Spielman, Andrew I; Mennella, Julie A; Mansfield, Corrine J; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Douglas, Jennifer E; Reed, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the abundance of bitter receptor mRNA expression from human taste papillae is related to an individual's perceptual ratings of bitter intensity and habitual intake of bitter drinks. Ratings of the bitterness of caffeine and quinine and three other bitter stimuli (urea, propylthiouracil, and denatonium benzoate) were compared with relative taste papilla mRNA abundance of bitter receptors that respond to the corresponding bitter stimuli in cell-based assays ( TAS2R4, TAS2R10, TAS2R38, TAS2R43, and TAS2R46). We calculated caffeine and quinine intake from a food frequency questionnaire. The bitterness of caffeine was related to the abundance of the combined mRNA expression of these known receptors, r = 0.47, p = .05, and self-reported daily caffeine intake, t(18) = 2.78, p = .012. The results of linear modeling indicated that 47% of the variance among subjects in the rating of caffeine bitterness was accounted for by these two factors (habitual caffeine intake and taste receptor mRNA abundance). We observed no such relationships for quinine but consumption of its primary dietary form (tonic water) was uncommon. Overall, diet and TAS2R gene expression in taste papillae are related to individual differences in caffeine perception.

  12. Sweet Taste Receptor Activation in the Gut Is of Limited Importance for Glucose-Stimulated GLP-1 and GIP Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Monika Yosifova; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin...

  13. Expression levels of taste-related genes in palate and tongue tip, and involvement of transient receptor potential subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5) in taste sense in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuta; Kawabata, Fuminori; Kawabata, Yuko; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2018-02-01

    The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the taste sense of chickens will contribute to improvements in poultry feeding, because the molecular mechanism of chickens' taste sense defines the feeding behavior of chickens. Here we focused on the gene expressions in two different oral tissues of chickens - the palate, which contains many taste buds, and the tongue tip, which contains few taste buds. Using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, we found that the molecular markers for taste buds of chickens, that is α-gustducin and vimentin, were expressed significantly highly in the palate compared to the tongue tip. Our analyses also revealed that transient receptor potential subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5), a cation channel involved in taste transduction in mammals, was also highly expressed in the palate compared to the tongue tip. Our findings demonstrated that the expression patterns of these genes were significantly correlated. We showed that the aversion to bitter solution was alleviated by a TRPM5 inhibitor in behavior of chickens. Taken together, our findings enabled us to develop a simple method for screening taste-related genes in chickens. The use of this method demonstrated that TRPM5 was involved in chickens' taste transduction, and that a TRPM5 inhibitor can alleviate chickens' bitter taste perception of feed ingredients. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Valine 738 and lysine 735 in the fifth transmembrane domain of rTas1r3 mediate insensitivity towards lactisole of the rat sweet taste receptor

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    Meyerhof Wolfgang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sweet taste inhibitor lactisole acts on the human sweet taste receptor heteromer TAS1R2-TAS1R3 but not on its rodent counterpart. Recently, it was shown that the lactisole sensitivity of the human sweet taste receptor involves the part of TAS1R3 encompassing the seven transmembrane regions but not the huge N-terminal domain. Using mutational analysis we investigated which amino acid residues distinguish lactisole insensitive rat from sensitive human T1R3 receptors. Results The functional analysis of specific receptor mutants in HEK293T cells revealed that the exchange of valine 738 in the fifth transmembrane domain of rTas1r3 by an alanine is sufficient to confer lactisole sensitivity to the rat sweet taste receptor. The sensitivity of this receptor mutant is ~2 fold lower than the sensitivity of the human sweet taste receptor. Additional substitution of lysine 735 by phenylalanine in rTas1r3 results in a rat sweet taste receptor that is as sensitive to lactisole as its human counterpart. The exchange of valine 738 to alanine was accompanied by a ~50% reduction in receptor efficacy. This effect was seen with all six different sweet compounds examined. Conclusion The lactisole insensitivity of rat sweet taste receptor is caused by only two amino acids in transmembrane region five, which is critical for the interaction of lactisole with the sweet taste receptor. The observation that the mutant receptor simultaneously displays a generally reduced sensitivity towards all agonists suggests that the lactisole insensitivity of the rodent receptor might be more likely caused by the inaccessibility of the lactisole binding site rather then by its direct disruption.

  15. Umami the Fifth Basic Taste: History of Studies on Receptor Mechanisms and Role as a Food Flavor

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    Kenzo Kurihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three umami substances (glutamate, 5′-inosinate, and 5′-guanylate were found by Japanese scientists, but umami has not been recognized in Europe and America for a long time. In the late 1900s, umami was internationally recognized as the fifth basic taste based on psychophysical, electrophysiological, and biochemical studies. Three umami receptors (T1R1 + T1R3, mGluR4, and mGluR1 were identified. There is a synergism between glutamate and the 5′-nucleotides. Among the above receptors, only T1R1 + T1R3 receptor exhibits the synergism. In rats, the response to a mixture of glutamate and 5′-inosinate is about 1.7 times larger than that to glutamate alone. In human, the response to the mixture is about 8 times larger than that to glutamate alone. Since glutamate and 5′-inosinate are contained in various foods, we taste umami induced by the synergism in daily eating. Hence umami taste induced by the synergism is a main umami taste in human.

  16. Umami the Fifth Basic Taste: History of Studies on Receptor Mechanisms and Role as a Food Flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Kenzo

    2015-01-01

    Three umami substances (glutamate, 5'-inosinate, and 5'-guanylate) were found by Japanese scientists, but umami has not been recognized in Europe and America for a long time. In the late 1900s, umami was internationally recognized as the fifth basic taste based on psychophysical, electrophysiological, and biochemical studies. Three umami receptors (T1R1 + T1R3, mGluR4, and mGluR1) were identified. There is a synergism between glutamate and the 5'-nucleotides. Among the above receptors, only T1R1 + T1R3 receptor exhibits the synergism. In rats, the response to a mixture of glutamate and 5'-inosinate is about 1.7 times larger than that to glutamate alone. In human, the response to the mixture is about 8 times larger than that to glutamate alone. Since glutamate and 5'-inosinate are contained in various foods, we taste umami induced by the synergism in daily eating. Hence umami taste induced by the synergism is a main umami taste in human.

  17. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Sweet Taste-Sensing Receptors Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells: Sweet Molecules Act as Biased Agonists

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    Itaru Kojima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sweet taste receptors present in the taste buds are heterodimers comprised of T1R2 and T1R3. This receptor is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells. When the expression of receptor subunits is determined in β-cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 is extremely low compared to that of T1R3. In fact, the expression of T1R2 is undetectable at the protein level. Furthermore, knockdown of T1R2 does not affect the effect of sweet molecules, whereas knockdown of T1R3 markedly attenuates the effect of sweet molecules. Consequently, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a receptor sensing sweet molecules in β-cells, which we designate as sweet taste-sensing receptors (STSRs. Various sweet molecules activate STSR in β-cells and augment insulin secretion. With regard to intracellular signals, sweet molecules act on STSRs and increase cytoplasmic Ca2+ and/or cyclic AMP (cAMP. Specifically, when an STSR is stimulated by one of four different sweet molecules (sucralose, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, or glycyrrhizin, distinct signaling pathways are activated. Patterns of changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and/or cAMP induced by these sweet molecules are all different from each other. Hence, sweet molecules activate STSRs by acting as biased agonists.

  19. Sweet Taste-Sensing Receptors Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells: Sweet Molecules Act as Biased Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Itaru; Nakagawa, Yuko; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Medina, Anya; Nagasawa, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    The sweet taste receptors present in the taste buds are heterodimers comprised of T1R2 and T1R3. This receptor is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells. When the expression of receptor subunits is determined in β-cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 is extremely low compared to that of T1R3. In fact, the expression of T1R2 is undetectable at the protein level. Furthermore, knockdown of T1R2 does not affect the effect of sweet molecules, whereas knockdown of T1R3 markedly attenuates the effect of sweet molecules. Consequently, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a receptor sensing sweet molecules in β-cells, which we designate as sweet taste-sensing receptors (STSRs). Various sweet molecules activate STSR in β-cells and augment insulin secretion. With regard to intracellular signals, sweet molecules act on STSRs and increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cyclic AMP (cAMP). Specifically, when an STSR is stimulated by one of four different sweet molecules (sucralose, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, or glycyrrhizin), distinct signaling pathways are activated. Patterns of changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cAMP induced by these sweet molecules are all different from each other. Hence, sweet molecules activate STSRs by acting as biased agonists.

  20. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  1. Differential effects of bitter compounds on the taste transduction channels TRPM5 and IP3 receptor type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Luyten, Tomas; Parys, Jan B; Nilius, Bernd; Bultynck, Geert; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2014-05-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5) is a Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation channel involved in the transduction of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. We previously showed that TRPM5 is a locus for the modulation of taste perception by temperature changes, and by quinine and quinidine, 2 bitter compounds that suppress gustatory responses. Here, we determined whether other bitter compounds known to modulate taste perception also affect TRPM5. We found that nicotine inhibits TRPM5 currents with an effective inhibitory concentration of ~1.3mM at -50 mV. This effect may contribute to the inhibitory effect of nicotine on gustatory responses in therapeutic and experimental settings, where nicotine is often employed at millimolar concentrations. In addition, it implies the existence of a TRPM5-independent pathway for the detection of nicotine bitterness. Nicotine seems to act from the extracellular side of the channel, reducing the maximal whole-cell conductance and inducing an acceleration of channel closure that leads to a negative shift of the activation curve. TRPM5 currents were unaffected by nicotine's metabolite cotinine, the intensive sweetener saccharin or by the bitter xanthines caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. We also tested the effects of bitter compounds on another essential element of the sweet taste transduction pathway, the type 3 IP3 receptor (IP3R3). We found that IP3R3-mediated Ca(2+) flux is slightly enhanced by nicotine, not affected by saccharin, modestly inhibited by caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, and strongly inhibited by quinine. Our results demonstrate that bitter compounds have differential effects on key elements of the sweet taste transduction pathway, suggesting for heterogeneous mechanisms of bitter-sweet taste interactions.

  2. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN

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    Wooding Stephen P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods. Methods To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ, which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed. Results Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18. However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation. Conclusions Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and

  3. Differential bitterness in capsaicin, piperine, and ethanol associates with polymorphisms in multiple bitter taste receptor genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Alissa A.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    To date, the majority of research exploring associations with genetic variability in bitter taste receptors has understandably focused on compounds and foods that are predominantly or solely perceived as bitter. However, other chemosensory stimuli are also known to elicit bitterness as a secondary sensation. Here we investigated whether TAS2R variation explains individual differences in bitterness elicited by chemesthetic stimuli, including capsaicin, piperine and ethanol. We confirmed that capsaicin, piperine and ethanol elicit bitterness in addition to burning/stinging sensations. Variability in perceived bitterness of capsaicin and ethanol were significantly associated with TAS2R38 and TAS2R3/4/5 diplotypes. For TAS2R38, PAV homozygotes perceived greater bitterness from capsaicin and ethanol presented on circumvallate papillae, compared to heterozygotes and AVI homozygotes. For TAS2R3/4/5, CCCAGT homozygotes rated the greatest bitterness, compared to heterozygotes and TTGGAG homozygotes, for both ethanol and capsaicin when presented on circumvallate papillae. Additional work is needed to determine how these and other chemesthetic stimuli differ in bitterness perception across concentrations and presentation methods. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to determine which TAS2R receptors are activated in vitro by chemesthetic compounds. PMID:26785164

  4. Probenecid inhibits the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 and suppresses bitter perception of salicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tiffani A; Alarcon, Suzanne; Thomas, Anu; Berdougo, Eli; Doranz, Benjamin J; Breslin, Paul A S; Rucker, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    Bitter taste stimuli are detected by a diverse family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed in gustatory cells. Each bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) responds to an array of compounds, many of which are toxic and can be found in nature. For example, human TAS2R16 (hTAS2R16) responds to β-glucosides such as salicin, and hTAS2R38 responds to thiourea-containing molecules such as glucosinolates and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). While many substances are known to activate TAS2Rs, only one inhibitor that specifically blocks bitter receptor activation has been described. Here, we describe a new inhibitor of bitter taste receptors, p-(dipropylsulfamoyl)benzoic acid (probenecid), that acts on a subset of TAS2Rs and inhibits through a novel, allosteric mechanism of action. Probenecid is an FDA-approved inhibitor of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1) transporter and is clinically used to treat gout in humans. Probenecid is also commonly used to enhance cellular signals in GPCR calcium mobilization assays. We show that probenecid specifically inhibits the cellular response mediated by the bitter taste receptor hTAS2R16 and provide molecular and pharmacological evidence for direct interaction with this GPCR using a non-competitive (allosteric) mechanism. Through a comprehensive analysis of hTAS2R16 point mutants, we define amino acid residues involved in the probenecid interaction that result in decreased sensitivity to probenecid while maintaining normal responses to salicin. Probenecid inhibits hTAS2R16, hTAS2R38, and hTAS2R43, but does not inhibit the bitter receptor hTAS2R31 or non-TAS2R GPCRs. Additionally, structurally unrelated MRP1 inhibitors, such as indomethacin, fail to inhibit hTAS2R16 function. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of probenecid in cellular experiments translates to inhibition of bitter taste perception of salicin in humans. This work identifies probenecid as a pharmacological tool for understanding the cell biology of

  5. Probenecid inhibits the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 and suppresses bitter perception of salicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani A Greene

    Full Text Available Bitter taste stimuli are detected by a diverse family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs expressed in gustatory cells. Each bitter taste receptor (TAS2R responds to an array of compounds, many of which are toxic and can be found in nature. For example, human TAS2R16 (hTAS2R16 responds to β-glucosides such as salicin, and hTAS2R38 responds to thiourea-containing molecules such as glucosinolates and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC. While many substances are known to activate TAS2Rs, only one inhibitor that specifically blocks bitter receptor activation has been described. Here, we describe a new inhibitor of bitter taste receptors, p-(dipropylsulfamoylbenzoic acid (probenecid, that acts on a subset of TAS2Rs and inhibits through a novel, allosteric mechanism of action. Probenecid is an FDA-approved inhibitor of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1 transporter and is clinically used to treat gout in humans. Probenecid is also commonly used to enhance cellular signals in GPCR calcium mobilization assays. We show that probenecid specifically inhibits the cellular response mediated by the bitter taste receptor hTAS2R16 and provide molecular and pharmacological evidence for direct interaction with this GPCR using a non-competitive (allosteric mechanism. Through a comprehensive analysis of hTAS2R16 point mutants, we define amino acid residues involved in the probenecid interaction that result in decreased sensitivity to probenecid while maintaining normal responses to salicin. Probenecid inhibits hTAS2R16, hTAS2R38, and hTAS2R43, but does not inhibit the bitter receptor hTAS2R31 or non-TAS2R GPCRs. Additionally, structurally unrelated MRP1 inhibitors, such as indomethacin, fail to inhibit hTAS2R16 function. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of probenecid in cellular experiments translates to inhibition of bitter taste perception of salicin in humans. This work identifies probenecid as a pharmacological tool for understanding the cell

  6. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  7. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

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    Chenggu Cai

    Full Text Available Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2 and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3. Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  8. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  9. Functional neuroimaging of umami taste: what makes umami pleasant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2009-09-01

    The cortical processing of umami shows what makes it pleasant and appetitive. The pleasantness of umami reflects and is correlated with processing in the secondary taste cortex in the orbitofrontal cortex and tertiary taste cortex in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas processing in the primary (insular) taste cortex reflects physical properties such as intensity. However, glutamate presented alone as a taste stimulus is not highly pleasant and does not act synergistically with other tastes (sweet, salt, bitter, and sour). When glutamate is given in combination with a consonant, savory odor (vegetable), the resulting flavor, formed by a convergence of the taste and olfactory pathways in the orbitofrontal cortex, can be much more pleasant. This pleasantness is shown by much greater activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex and pregenual cingulate cortex than the sum of the activations by the taste and olfactory components presented separately. Furthermore, activations in these brain regions were correlated with the pleasantness and fullness of the flavor and with the consonance of the taste and olfactory components. The concept is proposed that umami can be thought of as a rich and delicious flavor that is produced by a combination of glutamate taste and a consonant savory odor. Glutamate is thus a flavor enhancer because of the way that it can combine supralinearly with consonant odors in cortical areas in which the taste and olfactory pathways converge far beyond the receptors. Cognitive and attentional modulation of the orbitofrontal cortex also contributes to the pleasantness and appetitive value of umami.

  10. Human biology of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Stephen A; Yep, Gregory L; Khan, Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    Taste or gustation is one of the 5 traditional senses including hearing, sight, touch, and smell. The sense of taste has classically been limited to the 5 basic taste qualities: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami or savory. Advances from the Human Genome Project and others have allowed the identification and determination of many of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in taste biology. The ubiquitous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the sweet, umami, and bitter receptors. Although less clear in humans, transient receptor potential ion channels are thought to mediate salty and sour taste; however, other targets have been identified. Furthermore, taste receptors have been located throughout the body and appear to be involved in many regulatory processes. An emerging interplay is revealed between chemical sensing in the periphery, cortical processing, performance, and physiology and likely the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes.

  11. Characterization of the modes of binding between human sweet taste receptor and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds.

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    Katsuyoshi Masuda

    Full Text Available One of the most distinctive features of human sweet taste perception is its broad tuning to chemically diverse compounds ranging from low-molecular-weight sweeteners to sweet-tasting proteins. Many reports suggest that the human sweet taste receptor (hT1R2-hT1R3, a heteromeric complex composed of T1R2 and T1R3 subunits belonging to the class C G protein-coupled receptor family, has multiple binding sites for these sweeteners. However, it remains unclear how the same receptor recognizes such diverse structures. Here we aim to characterize the modes of binding between hT1R2-hT1R3 and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds by functional analysis of a series of site-directed mutants and by molecular modeling-based docking simulation at the binding pocket formed on the large extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD of hT1R2. We successfully determined the amino acid residues responsible for binding to sweeteners in the cleft of hT1R2 ATD. Our results suggest that individual ligands have sets of specific residues for binding in correspondence with the chemical structures and other residues responsible for interacting with multiple ligands.

  12. Transformation of postingestive glucose responses after deletion of sweet taste receptor subunits or gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C. P.; Takahashi, Tatsuyuki; Vigues, Stephan; Markwardt, Michele L.; Nkobena, Andongfac; Cockerham, Renee E.; Hajnal, Andras; Dotson, Cedrick D.; Rizzo, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The glucose-dependent secretion of the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a critical step in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Two molecular mechanisms have separately been suggested as the primary mediator of intestinal glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion (GSGS): one is a metabotropic mechanism requiring the sweet taste receptor type 2 (T1R2) + type 3 (T1R3) while the second is a metabolic mechanism requiring ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. By quantifying sugar-stimulated hormone secretion in receptor knockout mice and in rats receiving Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), we found that both of these mechanisms contribute to GSGS; however, the mechanisms exhibit different selectivity, regulation, and localization. T1R3−/− mice showed impaired glucose and insulin homeostasis during an oral glucose challenge as well as slowed insulin granule exocytosis from isolated pancreatic islets. Glucose, fructose, and sucralose evoked GLP-1 secretion from T1R3+/+, but not T1R3−/−, ileum explants; this secretion was not mimicked by the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide. T1R2−/− mice showed normal glycemic control and partial small intestine GSGS, suggesting that T1R3 can mediate GSGS without T1R2. Robust GSGS that was KATP channel-dependent and glucose-specific emerged in the large intestine of T1R3−/− mice and RYGB rats in association with elevated fecal carbohydrate throughout the distal gut. Our results demonstrate that the small and large intestines utilize distinct mechanisms for GSGS and suggest novel large intestine targets that could mimic the improved glycemic control seen after RYGB. PMID:22669246

  13. Conditioned taste aversion: modulation by 5-HT receptor activity and corticosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Gorzalka; Hanson, Laura; Harrington, J

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to elucidate the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system in the acquisition of lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 1, rats were administered either vehicle or 50 mg/kg nefazodone daily...... for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with 22 mg/kg of lithium chloride in order to produce conditioned taste aversion to a sucrose solution. Three days later, nefazodone completely blocked the lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 2, the effects of chronic corticosterone administration...... on lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion were investigated. Twenty male rats received either corticosterone at a dose of (50 mg/kg) or vehicle injections over a period of 14 consecutive days. Lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion was potentiated in rats treated with corticosterone. Additionally...

  14. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates fat, sugar, and umami taste preference and food intake and body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium. The role of TLR4 in food intake and weight gain was investigated in TLR4 KO and WT mice fed a high-fat and high-sugar diet for 12 weeks. Compared to WT mice, TLR4 KO mice showed reduced preference for lipids, sugars, and umami in a two-bottle preference test. The altered taste perception was associated with decreased levels of key taste regulatory molecules in the tongue epithelium. TLR4 KO mice on a high-fat and high-sugar diet consumed less food and drink, resulting in diminished weight gain. TLR4 signaling promotes ingestion of sugar and fat by a mechanism involving increased preference for such obesogenic foods. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  15. A novel regulatory function of sweet taste-sensing receptor in adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

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    Yosuke Masubuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet taste receptor is expressed not only in taste buds but also in nongustatory organs such as enteroendocrine cells and pancreatic beta-cells, and may play more extensive physiological roles in energy metabolism. Here we examined the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in 3T3-L1 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In undifferentiated preadipocytes, both T1R2 and T1R3 were expressed very weakly, whereas the expression of T1R3 but not T1R2 was markedly up-regulated upon induction of differentiation (by 83.0 and 3.8-fold, respectively at Day 6. The α subunits of Gs (Gαs and G14 (Gα14 but not gustducin were expressed throughout the differentiation process. The addition of sucralose or saccharin during the first 48 hours of differentiation considerably reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα at Day 2, the expression of aP2 at Day 4 and triglyceride accumulation at Day 6. These anti-adipogenic effects were attenuated by short hairpin RNA-mediated gene-silencing of T1R3. In addition, overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs but not YM-254890, an inhibitor of Gα14, impeded the effects of sweeteners, suggesting a possible coupling of Gs with the putative sweet taste-sensing receptor. In agreement, sucralose and saccharin increased the cyclic AMP concentration in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and also in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing T1R3. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effects of sweeteners were mimicked by Gs activation with cholera toxin but not by adenylate cyclase activation with forskolin, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Gαs had the opposite effects. CONCLUSIONS: 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste-sensing receptor presumably as a T1R3 homomer, which mediates the anti-adipogenic signal by a Gs-dependent but cAMP-independent mechanism.

  16. Sweet taste receptor serves to activate glucose- and leptin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and participates in glucose responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kohno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC: glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanism underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of taste type 1 receptor 2 (T1R2 and taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3 and senses sweet tastes. T1R2 and T1R3 receptors are distributed in multiple organs including the tongue, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. However, the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC remains to be clarified. To examine the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in isolated single ARC neurons were measured using Fura-2 fluorescent imaging. An artificial sweetener, sucralose at 10-5 M-10-2 M dose dependently increased [Ca2+]i in 12-16% of ARC neurons. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was suppressed by a sweet taste receptor inhibitor, gurmarin. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited under an extracellular Ca2+-free condition and in the presence of an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nitrendipine. Sucralose-responding neurons were activated by high-concentration of glucose. This response to glucose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin. More than half of sucralose-responding neurons were activated by leptin but not ghrelin. Percentage of proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons among sucralose-responding neurons and sweet taste receptor expressing neurons were low, suggesting that majority of sucralose-responding neurons are non-POMC neurons. These data suggest that sweet taste receptor-mediated cellular

  17. Potential arms race in the coevolution of primates and angiosperms: brazzein sweet proteins and gorilla taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Elaine E; Veilleux, Carrie C; Saltonstall, Kristin; Caccone, Adalgisa; Mundy, Nicholas I; Bradley, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    We explored whether variation in the sweet taste receptor protein T1R3 in primates could contribute to differences in sweet taste repertoire among species, potentially reflecting coevolution with local plants. Specifically, we examined which primates are likely to be sweet "tasters" of brazzein, a protein found in the fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana that tastes intensely sweet to humans, but provides little energy. Sweet proteins like brazzein are thought to mimic the taste of sugars to entice seed dispersers. We examined the evolution of T1R3 and assessed whether primates are likely "deceived" by such biochemical mimicry. Using published and new sequence data for TAS1R3, we characterized 57 primates and other mammals at the two amino acid sites necessary to taste brazzein to determine which species are tasters. We further used dN/dS-based methods to look for statistical evidence of accelerated evolution in this protein across primate lineages. The taster genotype is shared across most catarrhines, suggesting that most African primates can be "tricked" into eating and dispersing P. brazzeana's seeds for little caloric gain. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), however, exhibit derived mutations at the two brazzein-critical positions, and although fruit is a substantial portion of the western gorilla diet, they have not been observed to eat P. brazzeana. Our analyses of protein evolution found no signature of positive selection on TAS1R3 along the gorilla lineage. We propose that the gorilla-specific mutations at the TAS1R3 locus encoding T1R3 could be a counter-adaptation to the false sweet signal of brazzein. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genotype-specific regulation of oral innate immunity by T2R38 taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sucheol; Coldwell, Susan; Drury, Jeanie L; Arroyo, Fabiola; Phi, Tran; Saadat, Sanaz; Kwong, Danny; Chung, Whasun Oh

    2015-12-01

    The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to regulate mucosal innate immune responses in the upper airway epithelium. Furthermore, SNPs in T2R38 influence the sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and are associated with caries risk/protection. However, no study has been reported on the role of T2R38 in the innate immune responses to oral bacteria. We hypothesize that T2R38 regulates oral innate immunity and that this regulation is genotype-specific. Primary gingival epithelial cells carrying three common genotypes, PAV/PAV (PROP super-taster), AVI/PAV (intermediate) and AVI/AVI (non-taster) were stimulated with cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis or non-pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. QRT-PCR analyzed T2R38 mRNA, and T2R38-specific siRNA and ELISA were utilized to evaluate induction of hBD-2 (antimicrobial peptide), IL-1α and IL-8 in various donor-lines. Experiments were set up in duplicate and repeated three times. T2R38 mRNA induction in response to S. mutans was highest in PAV/PAV (4.3-fold above the unstimulated controls; pinnate immunity by T2R38 is genotype-dependent and that the ability to induce a high level of hBD-2 by PAV/PAV carriers may be a reason for protection against caries in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sweet Taste Receptor Serves to Activate Glucose- and Leptin-Responsive Neurons in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus and Participates in Glucose Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Daisuke; Koike, Miho; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of taste type 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3) and senses sweet tastes. T1R2 and T1R3 are distributed in multiple organs including the tongue, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. However, the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC remains to be clarified. To examine the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in isolated single ARC neurons were measured using Fura-2 fluorescent imaging. An artificial sweetener, sucralose at 10−5–10−2 M dose dependently increased [Ca2+]i in 12–16% of ARC neurons. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was suppressed by a sweet taste receptor inhibitor, gurmarin. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited under an extracellular Ca2+-free condition and in the presence of an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nitrendipine. Sucralose-responding neurons were activated by high-concentration of glucose. This response to glucose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin. More than half of sucralose-responding neurons were activated by leptin but not ghrelin. Percentages of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons among sucralose-responding neurons and sweet taste receptor expressing neurons were low, suggesting that majority of sucralose-responding neurons are non-POMC neurons. These data suggest that sweet taste receptor-mediated cellular activation mainly

  20. Sweet Taste Receptor Serves to Activate Glucose- and Leptin-Responsive Neurons in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus and Participates in Glucose Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Daisuke; Koike, Miho; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of taste type 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3) and senses sweet tastes. T1R2 and T1R3 are distributed in multiple organs including the tongue, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. However, the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC remains to be clarified. To examine the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in isolated single ARC neurons were measured using Fura-2 fluorescent imaging. An artificial sweetener, sucralose at 10-5-10-2 M dose dependently increased [Ca2+]i in 12-16% of ARC neurons. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was suppressed by a sweet taste receptor inhibitor, gurmarin. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited under an extracellular Ca2+-free condition and in the presence of an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nitrendipine. Sucralose-responding neurons were activated by high-concentration of glucose. This response to glucose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin. More than half of sucralose-responding neurons were activated by leptin but not ghrelin. Percentages of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons among sucralose-responding neurons and sweet taste receptor expressing neurons were low, suggesting that majority of sucralose-responding neurons are non-POMC neurons. These data suggest that sweet taste receptor-mediated cellular activation mainly occurs on

  1. Maintenance of Mouse Gustatory Terminal Field Organization Is Disrupted following Selective Removal of Peripheral Sodium Salt Taste Activity at Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyberg, Rolf; Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L

    2017-08-09

    Neural activity plays a critical role in the development of central circuits in sensory systems. However, the maintenance of these circuits at adulthood is usually not dependent on sensory-elicited neural activity. Recent work in the mouse gustatory system showed that selectively deleting the primary transduction channel for sodium taste, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), throughout development dramatically impacted the organization of the central terminal fields of three nerves that carry taste information to the nucleus of the solitary tract. More specifically, deleting ENaCs during development prevented the normal maturation of the fields. The present study was designed to extend these findings by testing the hypothesis that the loss of sodium taste activity impacts the maintenance of the normal adult terminal field organization in male and female mice. To do this, we used an inducible Cre-dependent genetic recombination strategy to delete ENaC function after terminal field maturation occurred. We found that removal of sodium taste neural activity at adulthood resulted in significant reorganization of mature gustatory afferent terminal fields in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Specifically, the chorda tympani and greater superficial petrosal nerve terminal fields were 1.4× and 1.6× larger than age-matched controls, respectively. By contrast, the glossopharyngeal nerve, which is not highly sensitive to sodium taste stimulation, did not undergo terminal field reorganization. These surprising results suggest that gustatory nerve terminal fields remain plastic well into adulthood, which likely impacts central coding of taste information and taste-related behaviors with altered taste experience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity plays a major role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. However, the importance of sensory-driven activity in maintaining these circuits at adulthood, especially in subcortical structures, appears to be

  2. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  3. On the Emerging Role of the Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1R Family of Nutrient-Sensors in the Musculoskeletal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kokabu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose. Although these functions were originally described in gustatory tissue, T1R family members are expressed in numerous non-gustatory tissues and are now viewed as nutrient sensors that play important roles in monitoring global glucose and amino acid status. Here, we highlight emerging evidence detailing the function of T1R family members in the musculoskeletal system and review these findings in the context of the musculoskeletal diseases sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which are major public health problems among the elderly that affect locomotion, activities of daily living, and quality of life. These studies raise the possibility that T1R family member function may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

  4. Umami: a delicious flavor formed by convergence of taste and olfactory pathways in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ciara; Rolls, Edmund T

    2007-03-01

    Umami taste is produced by glutamate acting on a fifth taste system. However, glutamate presented alone as a taste stimulus is not highly pleasant, and does not act synergistically with other tastes (sweet, salt, bitter and sour). We show here that when glutamate is given in combination with a consonant, savory, odour (vegetable), the resulting flavor can be much more pleasant. Moreover, we showed using functional brain imaging with fMRI that the glutamate taste and savory odour combination produced much greater activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex and pregenual cingulate cortex than the sum of the activations by the taste and olfactory components presented separately. Supralinear effects were much less (and significantly less) evident for sodium chloride and vegetable odour. Further, activations in these brain regions were correlated with the pleasantness and fullness of the flavor, and with the consonance of the taste and olfactory components. Supralinear effects of glutamate taste and savory odour were not found in the insular primary taste cortex. We thus propose that glutamate acts by the nonlinear effects it can produce when combined with a consonant odour in multimodal cortical taste-olfactory convergence regions. We propose the concept that umami can be thought of as a rich and delicious flavor that is produced by a combination of glutamate taste and a consonant savory odour. Glutamate is thus a flavor enhancer because of the way that it can combine supralinearly with consonant odours in cortical areas where the taste and olfactory pathways converge far beyond the receptors.

  5. Drosophila bitter taste(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  6. Sugar receptor response of the food-canal taste sensilla in a nectar-feeding swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Seta, Kazuaki; Imaeda, Daisuke; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2009-03-01

    The feeding behavior in nectar-feeding insects is triggered by a sugar-receptor response in contact chemosensilla. The contact chemosensilla are distributed not only on tarsi and the outside of the proboscis but also on the inside of the food canal in Lepidoptera. Although the chemosensilla inside the food canal are assumed to detect sweet taste during the passage of nectar through the food canal, their electrophysiological function has received little attention. In the nectar-feeding Asian swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), we found 15- to 30-μm-long sensilla neatly lined up along the inside galea wall, which forms the food canal in the proboscis. The receptor neurons of these sensilla responded to sucrose. We hypothesized that starch and sucrose compete with each other for a taste receptor site on the sensilla. When we added starch and sucrose to the food-canal sensilla, the electrophysiological responses of food-canal sensilla were inhibited in parallel with the food-sucking behavior of the butterflies. These results suggest that the food-canal sensilla are involved in the behavioral control of nectar-sucking in this butterfly species.

  7. Human genetic polymorphisms in T1R1 and T1R3 taste receptor subunits affect their function.

    OpenAIRE

    Raliou, Mariam; Grauso, Marta; Hoffmann, Brice; Schlegel-Le-Poupon, Claire; Nespoulous, Claude; Débat, Hélène; Belloir, Christine; Wiencis, Anna; Sigoillot, Maud; Bano, Singh Preet; Trotier, Didier; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; MONTMAYEUR, Jean-Pierre; Faurion, Annick; Briand, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Umami is the typical taste induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is thought to be detected by the heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor, T1R1 and T1R3. Previously, we showed that MSG detection thresholds differ substantially between individuals and we further showed that nontaster and hypotaster subjects are associated with nonsynonymous single polymorphisms occurring in the T1R1 and T1R3 genes. Here, we show using functional expression that both amino acid s...

  8. Human Genetic Polymorphisms in T1R1 and T1R3 Taste Receptor Subunits Affect Their Function

    OpenAIRE

    Raliou, Mariam; Grauso, Marta; Hoffmann, Brice; Schlegel-Le-Poupon, Claire; Nespoulous, Claude; Debat, Helene; Belloir, Christine; Wiencis, Ana; Sigoillot, Maud; Bano, Singh Preet; Trotier, Didier; Pernollet, J Claude; MONTMAYEUR, Jean-Pierre; Faurion, Annick

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Umami is the typical taste induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is thought to be detected by the heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor, T1R1 and T1R3. Previously, we showed that MSG detection thresholds differ substantially between individuals and we further showed that nontaster and hypotaster subjects are associated with nonsynonymous single polymorphisms occurring in the T1R1 and T1R3 genes. Here, we show using functional expression that both amino acid s...

  9. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Signaling and Modifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste conveys crucial information about the quality and nutritional value of foods before it is ingested. Taste signaling begins with taste cells via taste receptors in oral cavity. Activation of these receptors drives the transduction systems in taste receptor cells. Then particular transmitters are released from the taste cells and activate corresponding afferent gustatory nerve fibers. Recent studies have revealed that taste sensitivities are defined by distinct taste receptors and modulated by endogenous humoral factors in a specific group of taste cells. Such peripheral taste generations and modifications would directly influence intake of nutritive substances. This review will highlight current understanding of molecular mechanisms for taste reception, signal transduction in taste bud cells, transmission between taste cells and nerves, regeneration from taste stem cells, and modification by humoral factors at peripheral taste organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered learning, memory, and social behavior in type 1 taste receptor subunit 3 knock-out mice are associated with neuronal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Wang, Rui; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wu, Wells W; Ni, Bin; Becker, Kevin G; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Etienne, Harmonie; van Gastel, Jaana; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Janssens, Jonathan; Maudsley, Stuart

    2017-07-07

    The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in sweet-taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions regulated by the sweet-taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet-taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction. To assess the importance of the sweet-taste receptors in the brain, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of cortical and hippocampal tissues isolated from T1R3 knock-out (T1R3KO) mice. The effect of an impaired sweet-taste perception system on cognition functions were examined by analyzing synaptic integrity and performing animal behavior on T1R3KO mice. Although T1R3KO mice did not present a metabolically disrupted phenotype, bioinformatic interpretation of the high-dimensionality data indicated a strong neurodegenerative signature associated with significant alterations in pathways involved in neuritogenesis, dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Furthermore, a significantly reduced dendritic spine density was observed in T1R3KO mice together with alterations in learning and memory functions as well as sociability deficits. Taken together our data suggest that the sweet-taste receptor system plays an important neurotrophic role in the extralingual central nervous tissue that underpins synaptic function, memory acquisition, and social behavior. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Sweet Taste Receptor Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells Activates the Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signaling Systems and Stimulates Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Satoko; Hara, Akemi; Mogami, Hideo; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru

    2009-01-01

    Background Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT–PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) and cAMP ([cAMP]c) were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca2+]c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5)-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca2+]c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca2+]c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a Gq inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP]c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions Sweet taste receptor is expressed in β-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms. PMID:19352508

  12. Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic beta-cells activates the calcium and cyclic AMP signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](c and cAMP ([cAMP](c were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca(2+](c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca(2+](c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca(2+](c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a G(q inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP](c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in beta-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca(2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

  13. Peripheral coding of taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  14. The Bad Taste of Medicines: Overview of Basic Research on Bitter Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A.; Spector, Alan C.; Reed, Danielle R.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many active pharmaceutical ingredients taste bitter and thus are aversive to children, as well as many adults. Encapsulation of the medicine in pill or tablet form, an effective method for adults to avoid the unpleasant taste, is problematic for children. Many children cannot or will not swallow solid dosage forms. Objective This review highlights basic principles of gustatory function, with a special focus on the science of bitter taste, derived from studies of animal models and human psychophysics. We focus on the set of genes that encode the proteins that function as bitter receptors, as well as the cascade of events that lead to multidimensional aspects of taste function, highlighting the role that animal models played in these discoveries. We also summarize psychophysical approaches to studying bitter taste in adult and pediatric populations, highlighting evidence of the similarities and differences in bitter taste perception and acceptance between adults and children and drawing on useful strategies from animal models. Results Medicine often tastes bitter, and because children are more bitter sensitive than are adults, this creates problems with compliance. Bitter arises from stimulating receptors in taste receptor cells, with signals processed in the taste bud and relayed to the brain. However, there are many gaps in our understanding of how best to measure bitterness and how to ameliorate it, including whether it is more efficiently addressed at the level of receptor and sensory signaling, at the level of central processing, or by masking techniques. All methods of measuring responsiveness to bitter ligands—in animal models, through human psychophysics, or with “electronic tongues”—have limitations. Conclusions Better-tasting medications may enhance pediatric adherence to drug therapy. Sugars, acids, salt, and other substances reduce perceived bitterness of several pharmaceuticals, and although pleasant flavorings may help children

  15. Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking the Tas1r3 Taste Receptor Gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murovets, Vladimir O; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Zolotarev, Vasiliy A

    2015-01-01

    ... of the Tas1r3 gene that encodes the T1R3 protein. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, as well as behavioral tests measuring taste responses to sucrose solutions, were performed with C57BL/6ByJ (Tas1r3...

  16. Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking the Tas1r3 Taste Receptor Gene: e0130997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vladimir O Murovets; Alexander A Bachmanov; Vasiliy A Zolotarev

    2015-01-01

    ... of the Tas1r3 gene that encodes the T1R3 protein. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, as well as behavioral tests measuring taste responses to sucrose solutions, were performed with C57BL/6ByJ (Tas1r3...

  17. Association between taste receptor (TAS) genes and the perception of wine characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carrai, M.; Campa, D.; Vodička, Pavel; Flamini, R.; Martelli, I.; Slyšková, Jana; Jirásková, Kateřina; Rejhová, Alexandra; Vodenková, Soňa; Canzian, F.; Bertelli, A.; Dalla Vedova, A.; Bavaresco, L.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Barale, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, aug (2017), s. 9239 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-27580A; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14050 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : single-nucleotide polymorphisms * bitter-taste * alcohol-consumption Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. Two Distinct Determinants of Ligand Specificity in T1R1/T1R3 (the Umami Taste Receptor)*

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; Hayakawa, Takashi; Okada, Shinji; Narukawa, Masataka; Imai, Hiroo; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    Umami taste perception in mammals is mediated by a heteromeric complex of two G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. T1R1/T1R3 exhibits species-dependent differences in ligand specificity; human T1R1/T1R3 specifically responds to l-Glu, whereas mouse T1R1/T1R3 responds more strongly to other l-amino acids than to l-Glu. The mechanism underlying this species difference remains unknown. In this study we analyzed chimeric human-mouse receptors and point mutants of T1R1/T1R3 and identified 1...

  19. Soy Isoflavones and Other Isoflavonoids Activate the Human Bitter Taste Receptors hTAS2R14 and hTAS2R39

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roland, W.S.U.; Vincken, J.P.; Gouka, R.J.; Buren, van L.; Gruppen, H.; Smit, G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the bitter receptor(s) that recognize the bitter taste of the soy isoflavone genistein. Screening of all 25 human bitter receptors revealed genistein as agonist of hTAS2R14 and hTAS2R39. Genistein displayed threshold values of 4 and 8 µM on hTAS2R14 and hTAS2R39

  20. Taste quality decoding parallels taste sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, Sébastien M; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

    2015-03-30

    In most species, the sense of taste is key in the distinction of potentially nutritious and harmful food constituents and thereby in the acceptance (or rejection) of food. Taste quality is encoded by specialized receptors on the tongue, which detect chemicals corresponding to each of the basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory [1]), before taste quality information is transmitted via segregated neuronal fibers [2], distributed coding across neuronal fibers [3], or dynamic firing patterns [4] to the gustatory cortex in the insula. In rodents, both hardwired coding by labeled lines [2] and flexible, learning-dependent representations [5] and broadly tuned neurons [6] seem to coexist. It is currently unknown how, when, and where taste quality representations are established in the cortex and whether these representations are used for perceptual decisions. Here, we show that neuronal response patterns allow to decode which of four tastants (salty, sweet, sour, and bitter) participants tasted in a given trial by using time-resolved multivariate pattern analyses of large-scale electrophysiological brain responses. The onset of this prediction coincided with the earliest taste-evoked responses originating from the insula and opercular cortices, indicating that quality is among the first attributes of a taste represented in the central gustatory system. These response patterns correlated with perceptual decisions of taste quality: tastes that participants discriminated less accurately also evoked less discriminated brain response patterns. The results therefore provide the first evidence for a link between taste-related decision-making and the predictive value of these brain response patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; R. van Weissenbruch; A. Vissink; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; F.K.L. Spijkervet; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it

  2. Umami taste transduction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C

    2009-09-01

    l-Glutamate elicits the umami taste sensation, now recognized as a fifth distinct taste quality. A characteristic feature of umami taste is its potentiation by 5'-ribonucleotides such as guanosine-5'-monophosphate and inosine 5'-monophosphate, which also elicit the umami taste on their own. Recent data suggest that multiple G protein-coupled receptors contribute to umami taste. This review will focus on events downstream of the umami taste receptors. Ligand binding leads to Gbetagamma activation of phospholipase C beta2, which produces the second messengers inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Inositol trisphosphate binds to the type III inositol trisphosphate receptor, which causes the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and Ca(2+)-dependent activation of a monovalent-selective cation channel, TRPM5. TRPM5 is believed to depolarize taste cells, which leads to the release of ATP, which activates ionotropic purinergic receptors on gustatory afferent nerve fibers. This model is supported by knockout of the relevant signaling effectors as well as physiologic studies of isolated taste cells. Concomitant with the molecular studies, physiologic studies show that l-glutamate elicits increases in intracellular Ca(2+) in isolated taste cells and that the source of the Ca(2+) is release from intracellular stores. Both Galpha gustducin and Galpha transducin are involved in umami signaling, because the knockout of either subunit compromises responses to umami stimuli. Both alpha-gustducin and alpha-transducin activate phosphodiesterases to decrease intracellular cAMP. The target of cAMP in umami transduction is not known, but membrane-permeant analogs of cAMP antagonize electrophysiologic responses to umami stimuli in isolated taste cells, which suggests that cAMP may have a modulatory role in umami signaling.

  3. Gut T1R3 sweet taste receptors do not mediate sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Glass, Damien S; Margolskee, Robert F; Glendinning, John I

    2010-12-01

    Most mammals prefer the sweet taste of sugars, which is mediated by the heterodimeric T1R2+T1R3 taste receptor. Sugar appetite is also enhanced by the post-oral reinforcing actions of the nutrient in the gut. Here, we examined the contribution of gut T1R3 (either alone or as part of the T1R3+T1R3 receptor) to post-oral sugar reinforcement using a flavor-conditioning paradigm. We trained mice to associate consumption of a flavored solution (CS+) with intragastric (IG) infusions of a sweetener, and a different flavored solution (CS-) with IG infusions of water (23 h/day); then, we measured preference in a CS+ vs. CS- choice test. In experiment 1, we predicted that if activation of gut T1R3 mediates sugar reinforcement, then IG infusions of a nutritive (sucrose) or nonnutritive (sucralose) ligand for this receptor should condition a preference for the CS+ in B6 wild-type (WT) mice. While the mice that received IG sucrose infusions developed a strong preference for the CS+, those that received IG sucralose infusions developed a weak avoidance of the CS+. In experiment 2, we used T1R3 knockout (KO) mice to examine the necessity of gut T1R2+T1R3 receptors for conditioned flavor preferences. If intact gut T1R3 (or T1R2+T1R3) receptors are necessary for flavor-sugar conditioning, then T1R3 KO mice should not develop a sugar-conditioned flavor preference. We found that T1R3 KO mice, like WT mice, acquired a strong preference for the CS+ paired with IG sucrose infusions. The KO mice were also like WT mice in avoiding a CS+ flavor paired with IG sucralose infusions These findings provide clear evidence that gut T1R3 receptors are not necessary for sugar-conditioned flavor preferences or sucralose-induced flavor avoidance in mice.

  4. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  5. Two distinct determinants of ligand specificity in T1R1/T1R3 (the umami taste receptor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; Hayakawa, Takashi; Okada, Shinji; Narukawa, Masataka; Imai, Hiroo; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi

    2013-12-27

    Umami taste perception in mammals is mediated by a heteromeric complex of two G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. T1R1/T1R3 exhibits species-dependent differences in ligand specificity; human T1R1/T1R3 specifically responds to L-Glu, whereas mouse T1R1/T1R3 responds more strongly to other L-amino acids than to L-Glu. The mechanism underlying this species difference remains unknown. In this study we analyzed chimeric human-mouse receptors and point mutants of T1R1/T1R3 and identified 12 key residues that modulate amino acid recognition in the human- and mouse-type responses in the extracellular Venus flytrap domain of T1R1. Molecular modeling revealed that the residues critical for human-type acidic amino acid recognition were located at the orthosteric ligand binding site. In contrast, all of the key residues for the mouse-type broad response were located at regions outside of both the orthosteric ligand binding site and the allosteric binding site for inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP), a known natural umami taste enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the newly identified key residues for the mouse-type responses modulated receptor activity in a manner distinct from that of the allosteric modulation via IMP. Analyses of multiple point mutants suggested that the combination of two distinct determinants, amino acid selectivity at the orthosteric site and receptor activity modulation at the non-orthosteric sites, may mediate the ligand specificity of T1R1/T1R3. This hypothesis was supported by the results of studies using nonhuman primate T1R1 receptors. A complex molecular mechanism involving changes in the properties of both the orthosteric and non-orthosteric sites of T1R1 underlies the determination of ligand specificity in mammalian T1R1/T1R3.

  6. Activation of the sweet taste receptor, T1R3, by the artificial sweetener sucralose regulates the pulmonary endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Elizabeth O; Vang, Alexander; Braza, Julie; Shil, Aparna; Chichger, Havovi

    2018-01-01

    A hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is pulmonary vascular permeability. In these settings, loss of barrier integrity is mediated by cell-contact disassembly and actin remodeling. Studies into molecular mechanisms responsible for improving microvascular barrier function are therefore vital in the development of therapeutic targets for reducing vascular permeability in ARDS. The sweet taste receptor T1R3 is a G protein-coupled receptor, activated following exposure to sweet molecules, to trigger a gustducin-dependent signal cascade. In recent years, extraoral locations for T1R3 have been identified; however, no studies have focused on T1R3 within the vasculature. We hypothesize that activation of T1R3, in the pulmonary vasculature, plays a role in regulating endothelial barrier function in settings of ARDS. Our study demonstrated expression of T1R3 within the pulmonary vasculature, with a drop in expression levels following exposure to barrier-disruptive agents. Exposure of lung microvascular endothelial cells to the intensely sweet molecule sucralose attenuated LPS- and thrombin-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Likewise, sucralose exposure attenuated bacteria-induced lung edema formation in vivo. Inhibition of sweet taste signaling, through zinc sulfate, T1R3, or G-protein siRNA, blunted the protective effects of sucralose on the endothelium. Sucralose significantly reduced LPS-induced increased expression or phosphorylation of the key signaling molecules Src, p21-activated kinase (PAK), myosin light chain-2 (MLC2), heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and p110α phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p110αPI3K). Activation of T1R3 by sucralose protects the pulmonary endothelium from edemagenic agent-induced barrier disruption, potentially through abrogation of Src/PAK/p110αPI3K-mediated cell-contact disassembly and Src/MLC2/HSP27-mediated actin remodeling. Identification of sweet taste sensing in the pulmonary vasculature may represent a novel

  7. The human taste receptor hTAS2R14 responds to a variety of different bitter compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Maik; Brockhoff, Anne; Kuhn, Christina; Bufe, Bernd; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2004-06-25

    The recent advances in the functional expression of TAS2Rs in heterologous systems resulted in the identification of bitter tastants that specifically activate receptors of this family. All bitter taste receptors reported to date exhibit a pronounced selectivity for single substances or structurally related bitter compounds. In the present study we demonstrate the expression of the hTAS2R14 gene by RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridisation in human circumvallate papillae. By functional expression in HEK-293T cells we show that hTAS2R14 displays a, so far, unique broad tuning towards a variety of structurally diverse bitter compounds, including the potent neurotoxins, (-)-alpha-thujone, the pharmacologically active component of absinthe, and picrotoxinin, a poisonous substance of fishberries. The observed activation of heterologously expressed hTAS2R14 by low concentrations of (-)-alpha-thujone and picrotoxinin suggests that the receptor is sufficiently sensitive to caution us against the ingestion of toxic amounts of these substances.

  8. Educated tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores taste in the context of phenomenology and outlines possibilities for situating a phenomenological approach to taste within the framework of educational theory. In such an approach, taste emerges as a complex interaction between all senses and as interplay between recollection...... and anticipation. In this respect, taste-experience is indicative of a privileged but hitherto relatively unexplored access to cognition. It is a sensory encounter that encompasses possibilities for learning, not only about taste but also about other subjects through taste. Key-words: sensory experience, taste...

  9. Differential regulation of renal prostaglandin receptor mRNAs by dietary salt intake in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Mann, Birgitte; Skøtt, O

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prostaglandin (PG) receptor expression in the rat kidney is subject to physiological regulation by dietary salt intake. METHODS: Rats were fed diets with 0.02 or 4% NaCl for two weeks. PG receptor expression was assayed in kidney regions...... with cells obtained from salt-loaded animals. In the outer medulla, EP3 transcripts correlated directly with salt intake, and mRNA abundance was increased twofold by a high-NaCl diet. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that subtype-specific, regional changes in PG receptor expression are involved in the renal...... and cells by ribonuclease protection assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Functional correlates were studied by measurement of PGE2-induced cAMP formation and renin secretion in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells isolated from animals on various salt intakes. RESULTS: EP1 and EP3...

  10. Activation of the umami taste receptor (T1R1/T1R3) initiates the peristaltic reflex and pellet propulsion in the distal colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Derek M.; Hurst, Norman R.; Bradley, Zachary L.; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F.; Lyall, Vijay; DeSimone, John; Murthy, Karnam S.

    2014-01-01

    Intraluminal nutrients in the gut affect the peristaltic reflex, although the mechanism is not well defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of taste receptors and their signaling components in enteroendocrine cells, although their function is unclear. This study aimed to determine if nutrients modify colonic motility through activation of taste receptors. Colonic sections were immunostained for the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, which mediates the response to umami ligands, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), in taste cells. Ascending contraction, descending relaxation, and calcitonin gene-related peptide release were measured in three-chamber flat-sheet preparations of rat colon in response to MSG alone or with inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP). Velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion was measured by video recording in guinea pig distal colon. T1R1/T1R3 receptors were present in enteroendocrine cells of colonic sections from human, rat, mouse, and guinea pig. MSG initiated ascending contraction and descending relaxation components of the peristaltic reflex and calcitonin gene-related peptide release in flat-sheet preparations. IMP augmented the MSG-induced effects, suggesting activation of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. In T1R1−/− mice, mucosal stroking, but not MSG, elicited a peristaltic reflex. Intraluminal perfusion of MSG enhanced the velocity of artificial fecal pellet propulsion, which was also augmented by IMP. Propulsion was also increased by l-cysteine, but not l-tryptophan, supporting a role of T1R1/T1R3 receptors. We conclude that T1R1/T1R3 activation by luminal MSG or l-cysteine elicits a peristaltic reflex and CGRP release and increases the velocity of pellet propulsion in distal colon. This mechanism may explain how nutrients regulate colonic propulsion. PMID:25324508

  11. Lineage-specific evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in the giant and red pandas implies dietary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Wang, Le; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Fuwen

    2017-11-23

    Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) mediate bitterness perception in mammals. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution have occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift. Here, we characterized 195 TAS2Rs in nine Carnivora species and examined selective pressures on these genes. We found that both pandas harbour more putative functional TAS2Rs than other carnivores, and pseudogenized TAS2Rs in the giant panda are different from the red panda. The purifying selection on TAS2R1, TAS2R9 and TAS2R38 in the giant panda, and TAS2R62 in the red panda, has been strengthened throughout the course of adaptation to bamboo diet, while selective constraint on TAS2R4 and TAS2R38 in the red panda is relaxed. Remarkably, a few positively selected sites has been lineage-specifically detected on TAS2R42 in the giant panda. These results suggest an adaptive response in both pandas to a dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory, and TAS2Rs evolved independently in the two pandas. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of mammalian sensory evolution and the process of adaptation to new ecological niches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequent expansions of the bitter taste receptor gene repertoire during evolution of mammals in the Euarchontoglires clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Takashi; Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Matsui, Atsushi; Go, Yasuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Genome studies of mammals in the superorder Euarchontoglires (a clade that comprises the orders Primates, Dermoptera, Scandentia, Rodentia, and Lagomorpha) are important for understanding the biological features of humans, particularly studies of medical model animals such as macaques and mice. Furthermore, the dynamic ecoevolutionary signatures of Euarchontoglires genomes may be discovered because many species in this clade are characterized by their successful adaptive radiation to various ecological niches. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary trajectory of bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) in 28 Euarchontoglires species based on homology searches of 39 whole-genome assemblies. The Euarchontoglires species possessed variable numbers of intact TAS2Rs, which ranged from 16 to 40, and their last common ancestor had at least 26 intact TAS2Rs. The gene tree showed that there have been at least seven lineage-specific events involving massive gene duplications. Gene duplications were particularly evident in the ancestral branches of anthropoids (the anthropoid cluster), which may have promoted the adaptive evolution of anthropoid characteristics, such as a trade-off between olfaction and other senses and the development of herbivorous characteristics. Subsequent whole-gene deletions of anthropoid cluster TAS2Rs in hominoid species suggest ongoing ectopic homologous recombination in the anthropoid cluster. These findings provide insights into the roles of adaptive sensory evolution in various ecological niches and important clues related to the molecular mechanisms that underlie taste diversity in Euarchontoglires mammalian species, including humans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Ghrelin Is Produced in Taste Cells and Ghrelin Receptor Null Mice Show Reduced Taste Responsivity to Salty (NaCl) and Sour (Citric Acid) Tastants

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kyong Shin; Bronwen Martin; Wook Kim; Caitlin M White; Sunggoan Ji; Yuxiang Sun; Smith, Roy G.; Jean Sévigny; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Stuart Maudsley; Egan, Josephine M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gustatory system plays a critical role in determining food preferences, food intake and energy balance. The exact mechanisms that fine tune taste sensitivity are currently poorly defined, but it is clear that numerous factors such as efferent input and specific signal transduction cascades are involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using immunohistochemical analyses, we show that ghrelin, a hormone classically considered to be an appetite-regulating hormone, is present with...

  14. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The interest of this paper is to position taste within the framework of time. This might seem peculiar given that taste, in its physical sense, is referred to as an ephemeral experience taking place in the mouth. Taste, however, is more than that. It is the transient experience that infiltrates...... the body in the act of eating and, at the same time, it has associative powers that allow taste to transcend the instantaneous sensory encounter. Taste is a synthesis of multiple sensory impressions involving all five senses, each sense contributing with a particular facet of sensory experience....... But this does not mean that taste is entirely individual. It goes beyond the sphere of the individual in the sense that taste can be handed over and thus lay out a basis for shared remembrance. The focal point will be the interplay between the individual taste-experiences of various registers of tastes...

  15. Structural equation modeling of associations among taste-related risk factors, taste functioning, and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Hoffman, Howard J; Swede, Helen; Duffy, Valerie B

    2017-04-01

    Variation in taste perception and exposure to risk factors of taste alterations have been independently linked with elevated adiposity. Using a laboratory database, taste-adiposity associations were modeled and examined for whether taste functioning mediates the association between taste-related risk factors and adiposity. Healthy women (n = 407, 35.5 ± 16.9 y) self-reported histories of risk factors of altered taste functioning (tonsillectomy, multiple ear infections, head trauma) and were assessed for taste functioning (tongue-tip and whole-mouth intensities of quinine and salt) and density of taste papillae. Twenty-four percent had elevated waist circumferences; thirty-nine percent had overweight or obesity. Using structural equation modeling, direct and indirect associations between taste-related risk factors, taste functioning, and adiposity were tested. In models with good fit, elevated central adiposity was explained directly by history of risk factors (tonsillectomy, multiple ear infections) and directly by lower taste functioning (lower tongue-tip taste function, lower papillae density). Risk factors of taste alterations were significantly associated with lower taste functioning, with taste mediating the association between head trauma and reduced adiposity. This large laboratory-based study supports associations between taste-related risk factors, taste functioning, and adiposity. These findings need to be confirmed with other population-based studies, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014 taste data. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. Anti-cancer stemness and anti-invasive activity of bitter taste receptors, TAS2R8 and TAS2R10, in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoona Seo

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB originates from immature neuronal cells and currently has a poor clinical outcome. NB cells possess cancer stem cells (CSCs characteristics that facilitate the initiation of a tumor, as well as its metastasis. Human bitter taste receptors, referred to as TAS2Rs, are one of five types of basic taste receptors and they belong to a family of G-protein coupled receptors. The recent finding that taste receptors are expressed in non-gustatory tissues suggest that they mediate additional functions distinct from taste perception. While it is generally admitted that the recognition of bitter tastes may be associated with a self-defense system to prevent the ingestion of poisonous food compounds, this recognition may also serve as a disease-related function in the human body. In particular, the anti-cancer stemness and invasion effects of TAS2Rs on NB cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, endogenous expression of TAS2R8 and TAS2R10 in SK-N-BE(2C and SH-SY5Y cells was examined. In addition, higher levels of TAS2R8 and TAS2R10 expression were investigated in more differentiated SY5Y cells. Both TAS2Rs were up-regulated following the induction of neuronal cell differentiation by retinoic acid. In addition, ectopic transfection of the two TAS2Rs induced neurite elongation in the BE(2C cells, and down-regulated CSCs markers (including DLK1, CD133, Notch1, and Sox2, and suppressed self-renewal characteristics. In particular, TAS2RS inhibited tumorigenicity. Furthermore, when TAS2Rs was over-expressed, cell migration, cell invasion, and matrix metalloproteinases activity were inhibited. Expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, a well-known regulator of tumor metastasis, as well as its downstream targets, vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose transporter-1, were also suppressed by TAS2Rs. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that TAS2Rs targets CSCs by suppressing cancer stemness characteristics and NB

  17. Genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 taste receptor and brassica vegetable intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorovic, Nela; Afzal, Shoaib; Tjonneland, Anne

    2011-01-01

    investigated the relationship between genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 receptor and the actual consumption of brassica vegetables with the hypothesis that taster status was associated with intake of these vegetables. Furthermore, secondary intake information on alcohol, chocolate, coffee, smoking, BMI...

  18. Effects of dietary salt on adrenomedullin and its receptor mRNAs in rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Gambaryan, S; Schmaus, E

    1998-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that adrenomedullin (ADM) is involved in the control of salt and water homeostasis. ADM is considered to act primarily in a paracrine fashion, and since the kidneys are target organs for ADM, we investigated the localization and regulation of ADM and ADM receptor (A...... and a preferential action of ADM in the papilla. Ten days of feeding a low-salt (0.02%) or a high-salt diet (4%) did not change ADM mRNA or ADM-R mRNA in any kidney zone.......There is accumulating evidence that adrenomedullin (ADM) is involved in the control of salt and water homeostasis. ADM is considered to act primarily in a paracrine fashion, and since the kidneys are target organs for ADM, we investigated the localization and regulation of ADM and ADM receptor (ADM...

  19. Sweet Taste Receptor TAS1R2 Polymorphism (Val191Val) Is Associated with a Higher Carbohydrate Intake and Hypertriglyceridemia among the Population of West Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Ramos-Lopez; Arturo Panduro; Erika Martinez-Lopez; Sonia Roman

    2016-01-01

    Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val) has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West M...

  20. Eco-geographical diversification of bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) among subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Takashi; Sugawara, Tohru; Go, Yasuhiro; Udono, Toshifumi; Hirai, Hirohisa; Imai, Hiroo

    2012-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have region-specific difference in dietary repertoires from East to West across tropical Africa. Such differences may result from different genetic backgrounds in addition to cultural variations. We analyzed the sequences of all bitter taste receptor genes (cTAS2Rs) in a total of 59 chimpanzees, including 4 putative subspecies. We identified genetic variations including single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), insertions and deletions (indels), gene-conversion variations, and copy-number variations (CNVs) in cTAS2Rs. Approximately two-thirds of all cTAS2R haplotypes in the amino acid sequence were unique to each subspecies. We analyzed the evolutionary backgrounds of natural selection behind such diversification. Our previous study concluded that diversification of cTAS2Rs in western chimpanzees (P. t. verus) may have resulted from balancing selection. In contrast, the present study found that purifying selection dominates as the evolutionary form of diversification of the so-called human cluster of cTAS2Rs in eastern chimpanzees (P. t. schweinfurthii) and that the other cTAS2Rs were under no obvious selection as a whole. Such marked diversification of cTAS2Rs with different evolutionary backgrounds among subspecies of chimpanzees probably reflects their subspecies-specific dietary repertoires.

  1. The Gustatory Signaling Pathway and Bitter Taste Receptors Affect the Development of Obesity and Adipocyte Metabolism in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Avau

    Full Text Available Intestinal chemosensory signaling pathways involving the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, and bitter taste receptors (TAS2R have been implicated in gut hormone release. Alterations in gut hormone profiles may contribute to the success of bariatric surgery. This study investigated the involvement of the gustatory signaling pathway in the development of diet-induced obesity and the therapeutic potential of targeting TAS2Rs to induce body weight loss. α-gustducin-deficient (α-gust-/- mice became less obese than wild type (WT mice when fed a high-fat diet (HFD. White adipose tissue (WAT mass was lower in α-gust-/- mice due to increased heat production as a result of increases in brown adipose tissue (BAT thermogenic activity, involving increased protein expression of uncoupling protein 1. Intra-gastric treatment of obese WT and α-gust-/- mice with the bitter agonists denatonium benzoate (DB or quinine (Q during 4 weeks resulted in an α-gustducin-dependent decrease in body weight gain associated with a decrease in food intake (DB, but not involving major changes in gut peptide release. Both WAT and 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes express TAS2Rs. Treatment of pre-adipocytes with DB or Q decreased differentiation into mature adipocytes. In conclusion, interfering with the gustatory signaling pathway protects against the development of HFD-induced obesity presumably through promoting BAT activity. Intra-gastric bitter treatment inhibits weight gain, possibly by directly affecting adipocyte metabolism.

  2. Amiloride-sensitive channels in type I fungiform taste cells in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clapp Tod R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste buds are the sensory organs of taste perception. Three types of taste cells have been described. Type I cells have voltage-gated outward currents, but lack voltage-gated inward currents. These cells have been presumed to play only a support role in the taste bud. Type II cells have voltage-gated Na+ and K+ current, and the receptors and transduction machinery for bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Type III cells have voltage-gated Na+, K+, and Ca2+ currents, and make prominent synapses with afferent nerve fibers. Na+ salt transduction in part involves amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs. In rodents, these channels are located in taste cells of fungiform papillae on the anterior part of the tongue innervated by the chorda tympani nerve. However, the taste cell type that expresses ENaCs is not known. This study used whole cell recordings of single fungiform taste cells of transgenic mice expressing GFP in Type II taste cells to identify the taste cells responding to amiloride. We also used immunocytochemistry to further define and compare cell types in fungiform and circumvallate taste buds of these mice. Results Taste cell types were identified by their response to depolarizing voltage steps and their presence or absence of GFP fluorescence. TRPM5-GFP taste cells expressed large voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents, but lacked voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, as expected from previous studies. Approximately half of the unlabeled cells had similar membrane properties, suggesting they comprise a separate population of Type II cells. The other half expressed voltage-gated outward currents only, typical of Type I cells. A single taste cell had voltage-gated Ca2+ current characteristic of Type III cells. Responses to amiloride occurred only in cells that lacked voltage-gated inward currents. Immunocytochemistry showed that fungiform taste buds have significantly fewer Type II cells expressing PLC signalling

  3. Rewiring the taste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojoon; Macpherson, Lindsey J; Parada, Camilo A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2017-08-17

    In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission. Here we show that bitter and sweet TRCs provide instructive signals to bitter and sweet target neurons via different guidance molecules (SEMA3A and SEMA7A). We demonstrate that targeted expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A in different classes of TRCs produces peripheral taste systems with miswired sweet or bitter cells. Indeed, we engineered mice with bitter neurons that now responded to sweet tastants, sweet neurons that responded to bitter or sweet neurons responding to sour stimuli. Together, these results uncover the basic logic of the wiring of the taste system at the periphery, and illustrate how a labelled-line sensory circuit preserves signalling integrity despite rapid and stochastic turnover of receptor cells.

  4. Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller

  5. Variation in the Sweet Taste Receptor Gene and Dietary Intake in a Swedish Middle-Aged Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Habberstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe preference for sweet taste is partially genetically determined. The major allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs12033832 in the sweet taste receptor (TAS1R2 has previously been associated with lower sugar sensitivity and higher sugar intake among overweight individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dietary intake and the TAS1R2 genotype in lean and overweight individuals in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC cohort using dietary intake data with a high validity.MethodsIn total, 3,602 participants (46–68 years old from the MDC cohort who underwent baseline examinations between 1991 and 1994, who were non-smokers without diabetes, and for whom information regarding TAS1R2 rs7534618 (a proxy for rs12033832 was available were included in this study. After excluding individuals with potentially misreported and unstable food habits, 2,204 individuals were retained. A modified dietary history method, including a 7-day food diary of prepared meals, which was specifically designed for the MDC study was used.ResultsOnly modest associations were observed between dietary intake and the TAS1R2 genotype. We observed slightly stronger associations after excluding individuals with potentially misreported and unstable food habits. Among the participants with a BMI ≥25, the major (T allele carriers consumed more carbohydrates [TT = 45.2 percentage of energy intake (E%; TG = 45.2E%; GG = 43.7E%; p = 0.01] and less fat (p = 0.03, but these participants did not consume more sucrose than the G-allele carriers. No association was observed between the genotype and dietary intake among the participants with a BMI <25.ConclusionAlthough the higher carbohydrate intake among the major allele carriers was consistent with that reported in a previous study, the magnitudes of the associations were substantially smaller. Because we observed no association with sucrose, this

  6. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Expression and Functional Activity of the Human Bitter Taste Receptor TAS2R38 in Human Placental Tissues and JEG-3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wölfle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs are expressed in mucous epithelial cells of the tongue but also outside the gustatory system in epithelial cells of the colon, stomach and bladder, in the upper respiratory tract, in the cornified squamous epithelium of the skin as well as in airway smooth muscle cells, in the testis and in the brain. In the present work we addressed the question if bitter taste receptors might also be expressed in other epithelial tissues as well. By staining a tissue microarray with 45 tissue spots from healthy human donors with an antibody directed against the best characterized bitter taste receptor TAS2R38, we observed an unexpected strong TAS2R38 expression in the amniotic epithelium, syncytiotrophoblast and decidua cells of the human placenta. To analyze the functionality we first determined the TAS2R38 expression in the placental cell line JEG-3. Stimulation of these cells with diphenidol, a clinically used antiemetic agent that binds TAS2Rs including TAS2R38, demonstrated the functionality of the TAS2Rs by inducing calcium influx. Restriction enzyme based detection of the TAS2R38 gene allele identified JEG-3 cells as PTC (phenylthiocarbamide-taster cell line. Calcium influx induced by PTC in JEG-3 cells could be inhibited with the recently described TAS2R38 inhibitor probenecid and proved the specificity of the TAS2R38 activation. The expression of TAS2R38 in human placental tissues points to further new functions and hitherto unknown endogenous ligands of TAS2Rs far beyond bitter tasting.

  8. A Molecular and Cellular Context-Dependent Role for Ir76b in Detection of Amino Acid Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Ganguly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid taste is expected to be a universal property among animals. Although sweet, bitter, salt, and water tastes have been well characterized in insects, the mechanisms underlying amino acid taste remain elusive. From a Drosophila RNAi screen, we identify an ionotropic receptor, Ir76b, as necessary for yeast preference. Using calcium imaging, we identify Ir76b+ amino acid taste neurons in legs, overlapping partially with sweet neurons but not those that sense other tastants. Ir76b mutants have reduced responses to amino acids, which are rescued by transgenic expression of Ir76b and a mosquito ortholog AgIr76b. Co-expression of Ir20a with Ir76b is sufficient for conferring amino acid responses in sweet-taste neurons. Notably, Ir20a also serves to block salt response of Ir76b. Our study establishes the role of a highly conserved receptor in amino acid taste and suggests a mechanism for mutually exclusive roles of Ir76b in salt- and amino-acid-sensing neurons.

  9. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Biomimetic Taste Receptors with Chiral Recognition by Photoluminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks Chelated with Polyaniline Helices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tu; Lin, Tsung Yan; Lee, Hung Lin; Chang, Yun Hsuan; Tsai, Yee Chen

    2016-01-22

    The adsorption of phenylaniline (Phe) enantiomers on (+)-polyaniline (PAN)-chelated [In(OH)(bdc)]n microcrystals was carefully designed and studied by using the Job titration, circular dichroism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence to mimic heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors in selective, but not specific, ligand binding with chiral recognition and signal transduction. Six essential working principles across different length scales are unraveled: 1) a chiral (+)-PAN (host), 2) specific sites for Phe-(+)/PAN (guest-host) binding, 3) a conformational change of (+)-PAN after binding with Phe enantiomers, 4) different degrees of packing for (+)-PAN, 5) interactions between (+)-PAN and the underlying signal-generating framework (i.e., [In(OH)(bdc)]n microcrystals), and 6) a systematic photoluminescent signal combination by using principal-component analysis from the other three polymer-chelated metal-organic frameworkds (MOFs), such as poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), sodium alginate (SA), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to enhance the selectivity and discrimination capabilities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. An Artemisia-derived natural product-based fluorescent probe for the bitter taste receptor hTAS2R38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Federica; Talmon, Maria; Gaeta, Simone; Rossi, Silvia; Lopatriello, Annalisa; Fresu, Luigia Grazia

    2018-02-27

    The discovery of taste receptors hTAS2Rs expression in extra oral tissue, especially in the gastrointestinal tract and in the respiratory system, has endowed bitter receptors of functionalities that exceed the simple perception of taste and flavour. In particular, stimulation of hTAS2Rs by bitter agents in the airway smooth muscle triggers bronchodilation of possible pharmacological relevance. To study the receptor localization in pulmonary smooth muscle cells and to investigate their biological response to hTAS2R38 activation, we have developed a fluorescent probe for hTAS2R38 starting from the sesquiterpene lactone costunolide, available in multigram amounts from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. The N-methylanthranilate-containing probe demonstrated a very low cytotoxicity compared to the natural product toward human airway smooth muscle cells and epithelial bronchial cells, but fully retained its binding to hTAS2R38, making it possible the fluorescent detection of cells expressing this bitter receptor. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Renal mechanisms of salt-sensitive hypertension: contribution of two steroid receptor-associated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Mitsuhiro; Fujita, Toshiro

    2015-03-01

    Although salt is a major environmental factor in the development of hypertension, the degree of salt sensitivity varies widely among individuals. The mechanisms responsible for this variation remain to be elucidated. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of two important signaling pathways in renal tubules that play key roles in electrolyte balance and the maintenance of normal blood pressure: the β2-adrenergic stimulant-glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)4-Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter pathway, which is active in distal convoluted tubule (DCT)1, and the Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac)1-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway, which is active in DCT2, connecting tubules, and collecting ducts. β2-Adrenergic stimulation due to increased renal sympathetic activity in obesity- and salt-induced hypertension suppresses histone deacetylase 8 activity via cAMP/PKA signaling, increasing the accessibility of GRs to the negative GR response element in the WNK4 promoter. This results in the suppression of WNK4 transcription followed by the activation of Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters in the DCT and elevated Na(+) retention and blood pressure upon salt loading. Rac1 activates MRs, even in the absence of ligand binding, with this activity increased in the presence of ligand. In salt-sensitive animals, Rac1 activation due to salt loading activates MRs in DCT2, connecting tubules, and collecting ducts. Thus, GRs and MRs are independently involved in two pathways responsible for renal Na(+) handling and salt-sensitive hypertension. These findings suggest novel therapeutic targets and may lead to the development of diagnostic tools to determine salt sensitivity in hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. [The sense of taste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinerson, David; Horovitz, Eran; Beloosesky, Yeshayahoo

    2006-08-01

    The taste sense is one of the five human senses. It is essential to our survival because it enables the individual the choice of correct food, which, in turn, is crucial for one's existence, maintenance and function. This is a complicated chemical sense, which operates in conjunction with other senses such as vision, smell and touch, and is also associated with the operation of temperature and consistency receptors. There are five basic tastes: bitter, sweet, sour, salty and "fleshy" (umami), each of which has a role in food selection, being responsible for the recognition of certain chemicals, which may be either necessary or dangerous to our body. The taste cell is located in the taste buds, which, in turn, are situated in the tongue, oral cavity and the proximal third of the esophagus. This translates the chemical signal of tastants in food to electrical stimulation that transfers the signal to higher processing centers in the brain, in a process called transduction, which is explained in this review. Disturbances in the taste sense, as well as effects of industrial exposure on this sense are also described. The accumulated knowledge about the taste sense might enable future breakthroughs in the processed food industry.

  14. TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa. PMID:24961971

  15. Liver Receptor Homolog-1 Is Critical for Adequate Up-regulation of Cyp7a1 Gene Transcription and Bile Salt Synthesis During Bile Salt Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Out, Carolien; Hageman, Jurre; Bloks, Vincent W.; Gerrits, Han; Gelpke, Maarten D. Sollewijn; Bos, Trijnie; Havinga, Rick; Smit, Martin J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is a nuclear receptor that controls a variety of metabolic pathways. In cultured cells, LRH-1 induces the expression of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, key enzymes in bile salt synthesis. However, hepatic Cyp7a1 mRNA levels were not reduced upon hepatocyte-specific Lrh-1 deletion

  16. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Linda A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the mol...

  17. Umami taste transduction mechanisms1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    l-Glutamate elicits the umami taste sensation, now recognized as a fifth distinct taste quality. A characteristic feature of umami taste is its potentiation by 5′-ribonucleotides such as guanosine-5'-monophosphate and inosine 5′-monophosphate, which also elicit the umami taste on their own. Recent data suggest that multiple G protein–coupled receptors contribute to umami taste. This review will focus on events downstream of the umami taste receptors. Ligand binding leads to Gβγ activation of phospholipase C β2, which produces the second messengers inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Inositol trisphosphate binds to the type III inositol trisphosphate receptor, which causes the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and Ca2+-dependent activation of a monovalent-selective cation channel, TRPM5. TRPM5 is believed to depolarize taste cells, which leads to the release of ATP, which activates ionotropic purinergic receptors on gustatory afferent nerve fibers. This model is supported by knockout of the relevant signaling effectors as well as physiologic studies of isolated taste cells. Concomitant with the molecular studies, physiologic studies show that l-glutamate elicits increases in intracellular Ca2+ in isolated taste cells and that the source of the Ca2+ is release from intracellular stores. Both Gα gustducin and Gα transducin are involved in umami signaling, because the knockout of either subunit compromises responses to umami stimuli. Both α-gustducin and α-transducin activate phosphodiesterases to decrease intracellular cAMP. The target of cAMP in umami transduction is not known, but membrane-permeant analogs of cAMP antagonize electrophysiologic responses to umami stimuli in isolated taste cells, which suggests that cAMP may have a modulatory role in umami signaling. PMID:19571214

  18. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  19. N-geranyl cyclopropyl-carboximide modulates salty and umami taste in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewis, Mark L; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Ren, ZuoJun; Meng, Xuanyu; Cui, Meng; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2013-02-01

    Effects of N-geranyl cyclopropyl-carboxamide (NGCC) and four structurally related compounds (N-cyclopropyl E2,Z6-nonadienamide, N-geranyl isobutanamide, N-geranyl 2-methylbutanamide, and allyl N-geranyl carbamate) were evaluated on the chorda tympani (CT) nerve response to NaCl and monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rats and wild-type (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice and on human salty and umami taste intensity. NGCC enhanced the rat CT response to 100 mM NaCl + 5 μM benzamil (Bz; an epithelial Na(+) channel blocker) between 1 and 2.5 μM and inhibited it above 5 μM. N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamid (SB-366791, a TRPV1t blocker) inhibited the NaCl+Bz CT response in the absence and presence of NGCC. Unlike the WT mice, no NaCl+Bz CT response was observed in TRPV1 KO mice in the absence or presence of NGCC. NGCC enhanced human salt taste intensity of fish soup stock containing 60 mM NaCl at 5 and 10 μM and decreased it at 25 μM. Rat CT responses to NaCl+Bz and human salt sensory perception were not affected by the above four structurally related compounds. Above 10 μM, NGCC increased the CT response to MSG+Bz+SB-366791 and maximally enhanced the response between 40 and 60 μM. Increasing taste cell Ca(2+) inhibited the NGCC-induced increase but not the inosine monophosphate-induced increase in glutamate response. Addition of 45 μM NGCC to chicken broth containing 60 mM sodium enhanced the human umami taste intensity. Thus, depending upon its concentration, NGCC modulates salt taste by interacting with the putative TRPV1t-dependent salt taste receptor and umami taste by interacting with a Ca(2+)-dependent transduction pathway.

  20. Mice perceive synergistic umami mixtures as tasting sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saites, Louis N; Goldsmith, Zachary; Densky, Jaron; Guedes, Vivian A; Boughter, John D

    2015-06-01

    Previous electrophysiological investigation shows that combinations of compounds classified by humans as umami-tasting, such as glutamate salts and 5'-ribonucleotides, elicit synergistic responses in neurons throughout the rodent taste system and produce a pattern that resembles responses to sweet compounds. The current study tested the hypothesis that a synergistic mixture of monopotassium glutamate (MPG) and inositol monophosphate (IMP) possesses perceptual similarity to sucrose in mice. We estimated behavioral similarity among these tastants and the individual umami compounds using a series of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tests, a procedure that measures whether a CTA formed to one stimulus generalizes to another. Our primary finding was that a CTA to a synergistic mixture of MPG + IMP generalizes to sucrose, and vice-versa. This indicates umami synergistic mixtures are perceived as having a sweet, or at least sucrose-like, taste to mice. Considering other recent studies, our data argue strongly in favor of multiple receptor mechanisms for umami detection, and complexity in taste perception models for rodents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. T1R3 homomeric sweet taste receptor regulates adipogenesis through Gαs-mediated microtubules disassembly and Rho activation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Masubuchi

    Full Text Available We previously reported that 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste receptor possibly as a T1R3 homomer that is coupled to Gs and negatively regulates adipogenesis by a Gαs-mediated but cAMP-independent mechanism. Here, we show that stimulation of this receptor with sucralose or saccharin induced disassembly of the microtubules in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was attenuated by overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs (Gαs-G226A. In contrast, overexpression of the constitutively active mutant of Gαs (Gαs-Q227L as well as treatment with cholera toxin or isoproterenol but not with forskolin caused disassembly of the microtubules. Sweetener-induced microtubule disassembly was accompanied by activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK. This was attenuated with by knockdown of GEF-H1, a microtubule-localized guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPase. Furthermore, overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of RhoA (RhoA-T19N blocked sweetener-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and repression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in the early phase of adipogenic differentiation. These results suggest that the T1R3 homomeric sweet taste receptor negatively regulates adipogenesis through Gαs-mediated microtubule disassembly and consequent activation of the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  2. Genomic regression of claw keratin, taste receptor and light-associated genes provides insights into biology and evolutionary origins of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A

    2017-10-01

    Regressive evolution of anatomical traits often corresponds with the regression of genomic loci underlying such characters. As such, studying patterns of gene loss can be instrumental in addressing questions of gene function, resolving conflicting results from anatomical studies, and understanding the evolutionary history of clades. The evolutionary origins of snakes involved the regression of a number of anatomical traits, including limbs, taste buds and the visual system, and by analyzing serpent genomes, I was able to test three hypotheses associated with the regression of these features. The first concerns two keratins that are putatively specific to claws. Both genes that encode these keratins are pseudogenized/deleted in snake genomes, providing additional evidence of claw-specificity. The second hypothesis is that snakes lack taste buds, an issue complicated by conflicting results in the literature. I found evidence that different snakes have lost one or more taste receptors, but all snakes examined retained at least one gustatory channel. The final hypothesis addressed is that the earliest snakes were adapted to a dim light niche. I found evidence of deleted and pseudogenized genes with light-associated functions in snakes, demonstrating a pattern of gene loss similar to other dim light-adapted clades. Molecular dating estimates suggest that dim light adaptation preceded the loss of limbs, providing some bearing on interpretations of the ecological origins of snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensing of amino acids by the gut-expressed taste receptor T1R1-T1R3 stimulates CCK secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Kristian; Al-Rammahi, Miran; Moran, Andrew; Marcello, Marco; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P.

    2012-01-01

    CCK is secreted by endocrine cells of the proximal intestine in response to dietary components, including amino acids. CCK plays a variety of roles in digestive processes, including inhibition of food intake, consistent with a role in satiety. In the lingual epithelium, the sensing of a broad spectrum of l-amino acids is accomplished by the heteromeric amino acid (umami) taste receptor (T1R1-T1R3). T1R1 and T1R3 subunits are also expressed in the intestine. A defining characteristic of umami ...

  4. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  5. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature...

  6. Coarse-grained/molecular mechanics of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: experimentally-validated detailed structural prediction of agonist binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Marchiori

    Full Text Available Bitter molecules in humans are detected by ∼25 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. The lack of atomic resolution structure for any of them is complicating an in depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying bitter taste perception. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants of the interaction of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor with its agonists phenylthiocarbamide (PTC and propylthiouracil (PROP. We use the recently developed hybrid Molecular Mechanics/Coarse Grained (MM/CG method tailored specifically for GPCRs. The method, through an extensive exploration of the conformational space in the binding pocket, allows the identification of several residues important for agonist binding that would have been very difficult to capture from the standard bioinformatics/docking approach. Our calculations suggest that both agonists bind to Asn103, Phe197, Phe264 and Trp201, whilst they do not interact with the so-called extra cellular loop 2, involved in cis-retinal binding in the GPCR rhodopsin. These predictions are consistent with data sets based on more than 20 site-directed mutagenesis and functional calcium imaging experiments of TAS2R38. The method could be readily used for other GPCRs for which experimental information is currently lacking.

  7. Hepatic Farnesoid X-Receptor Isoforms α2 and α4 Differentially Modulate Bile Salt and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesjes, Marije; Bloks, Vincent W.; Hageman, Jurre; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; Wolters, Henk; Jonker, Johan W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor FXR acts as an intracellular bile salt sensor that regulates synthesis and transport of bile salts within their enterohepatic circulation. In addition, FXR is involved in control of a variety of crucial metabolic pathways. Four FXR splice variants are known, i.e. FXR alpha 1-4.

  8. The Impact of Pregnancy on Taste Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ezen; Dando, Robin

    2017-05-01

    It is common for women to report a change in taste (for instance an increased bitter or decreased sweet response) during pregnancy, however specifics of any variation in taste with pregnancy remain elusive. Here we review studies of taste in pregnancy, and discuss how physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may influence taste signaling. We aim to consolidate studies of human pregnancy and "taste function" (studies of taste thresholds, discrimination, and intensity perception, rather than hedonic response or self-report), discussing differences in methodology and findings. Generally, the majority of studies report either no change, or an increase in threshold/decrease in perceived taste intensity, particularly in the early stages of pregnancy, suggesting a possible decrease in taste acuity when pregnant. We further discuss several non-human studies of taste and pregnancy that may extend our understanding. Findings demonstrate that taste buds express receptors for many of the same hormones and circulating factors that vary with pregnancy. Circulating gonadal hormones or other contributions from the endocrine system, as well as physiological changes in weight and immune response could all bear some responsibility for such a modulation of taste during pregnancy. Given our growing understanding of taste, we propose that a change in taste function during pregnancy may not be solely driven by hormonal fluctuations of progesterone and estrogen, as many have suggested. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Members of bitter taste receptor cluster Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 are expressed in the epithelium of murine airways and other non-gustatory tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuya; Lu, Shun; Xu, Rui; Atzberger, Ann; Günther, Stefan; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The mouse bitter taste receptors Tas2r143, Tas2r135, and Tas2r126 are encoded by genes that cluster on chromosome 6 and have been suggested to be expressed under common regulatory elements. Previous studies indicated that the Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 cluster is expressed in the heart, but other organs had not been systematically analyzed. In order to investigate the expression of this bitter taste receptor gene cluster in non-gustatory tissues, we generated a BAC (bacterial artificial chrom...

  10. Biophysical and functional characterization of the N-terminal domain of the cat T1R1 umami taste receptor expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Christine; Savistchenko, Jimmy; Neiers, Fabrice; Taylor, Andrew J; McGrane, Scott; Briand, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Umami taste perception is mediated by the heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), formed by the assembly of T1R1 and T1R3 subunits. T1R1 and T1R3 subunits are class C GPCRs whose members share common structural homologies including a long N-terminal domain (NTD) linked to a seven transmembrane domain by a short cysteine-rich region. The NTD of the T1R1 subunit contains the primary binding site for umami stimuli, such as L-glutamate (L-Glu) for humans. Inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) binds at a location close to the opening of the T1R1-NTD "flytrap", thus creating the observed synergistic response between L-Glu and IMP. T1R1/T1R3 binding studies have revealed species-dependent differences. While human T1R1/T1R3 is activated specifically by L-Glu, the T1R1/T1R3 in other species is a broadly tuned receptor, sensitive to a range of L-amino acids. Because domestic cats are obligate carnivores, they display strong preferences for some specific amino acids. To better understand the structural basis of umami stimuli recognition by non-human taste receptors, we measured the binding of selected amino acids to cat T1R1/T1R3 (cT1R1/cT1R3) umami taste receptor. For this purpose, we expressed cT1R1-NTD in bacteria as inclusion bodies. After purification, refolding of the protein was achieved. Circular dichroism spectroscopic studies revealed that cT1R1-NTD was well renatured with evidence of secondary structures. Using size-exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering, we found that the cT1R1-NTD behaves as a monomer. Ligand binding quantified by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence showed that cT1R1-NTD is capable of binding L-amino acids with Kd values in the micromolar range. We demonstrated that IMP potentiates L-amino acid binding onto renatured cT1R1-NTD. Interestingly, our results revealed that IMP binds the extracellular domain in the absence of L-amino acids. Thus, this study demonstrates that the feasibility to produce milligram quantities of cT1R1-NTD

  11. Biophysical and functional characterization of the N-terminal domain of the cat T1R1 umami taste receptor expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Belloir

    Full Text Available Umami taste perception is mediated by the heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, formed by the assembly of T1R1 and T1R3 subunits. T1R1 and T1R3 subunits are class C GPCRs whose members share common structural homologies including a long N-terminal domain (NTD linked to a seven transmembrane domain by a short cysteine-rich region. The NTD of the T1R1 subunit contains the primary binding site for umami stimuli, such as L-glutamate (L-Glu for humans. Inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP binds at a location close to the opening of the T1R1-NTD "flytrap", thus creating the observed synergistic response between L-Glu and IMP. T1R1/T1R3 binding studies have revealed species-dependent differences. While human T1R1/T1R3 is activated specifically by L-Glu, the T1R1/T1R3 in other species is a broadly tuned receptor, sensitive to a range of L-amino acids. Because domestic cats are obligate carnivores, they display strong preferences for some specific amino acids. To better understand the structural basis of umami stimuli recognition by non-human taste receptors, we measured the binding of selected amino acids to cat T1R1/T1R3 (cT1R1/cT1R3 umami taste receptor. For this purpose, we expressed cT1R1-NTD in bacteria as inclusion bodies. After purification, refolding of the protein was achieved. Circular dichroism spectroscopic studies revealed that cT1R1-NTD was well renatured with evidence of secondary structures. Using size-exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering, we found that the cT1R1-NTD behaves as a monomer. Ligand binding quantified by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence showed that cT1R1-NTD is capable of binding L-amino acids with Kd values in the micromolar range. We demonstrated that IMP potentiates L-amino acid binding onto renatured cT1R1-NTD. Interestingly, our results revealed that IMP binds the extracellular domain in the absence of L-amino acids. Thus, this study demonstrates that the feasibility to produce milligram quantities

  12. Calcium Homeostasis Modulator 1-Like Currents in Rat Fungiform Taste Cells Expressing Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiani, Albertino

    2017-05-01

    Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels. In heterologous expression systems, these channels mediate outwardly rectifying membrane currents with distinct biophysical and pharmacological properties. I therefore tested whether also salt-detecting taste cells were endowed with these currents. To this aim, I applied the patch-clamp techniques to single cells in isolated taste buds from rat fungiform papillae. Salt-detecting cells were functionally identified by exploiting the effect of amiloride, which induces a current response by shutting down ENaCs. I looked for the presence of outwardly rectifying currents by using appropriate voltage-clamp protocols and specific pharmacological tools. I found that indeed salt-detecting cells possessed these currents with properties consistent with the presence, at least in part, of CALHM1 channels. Unexpectedly, CALHM1-like currents in taste cells were potentiated by known blockers of pannexin, suggesting a possible inhibitory action of this protein on CALMH1. These findings indicate that communication between salt-detecting cells and nerve endings might involve ATP release by CALMH1 channels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of taste transduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    Among the five senses, taste and olfaction play crucial roles in the detection of chemical substances in the environment and are referred to as chemical senses. In the past decade, much progress has been made in studies on molecular mechanisms of the gustatory system by methods such as those based on molecular and cellular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics. This review covers recent studies on taste receptors, intracellular signaling transduction in taste receptor cells, and taste coding at the periphery in vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  14. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2016-07-05

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  15. Taste perception: from the tongue to the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng

    2013-06-01

    In mammals, the sense of taste helps in the evaluation and consumption of nutrients, and in avoiding toxic substances and indigestible materials. Distinct cell types expressing unique receptors detect each of the five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami. The latter three tastes are detected by two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptors: T2Rs and T1Rs. Interestingly, these taste receptors have been found in tissues other than the tongue, such as the digestive system, respiratory system, brain, testis and spermatozoa. The functional implications of taste receptors distributed throughout the body are unknown. We therefore reviewed the remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of taste perception in 'taste' and 'non-taste' tissues. We also present our speculations on the direction of further research in the field of male reproduction.

  16. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depends on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. PMID:25662267

  17. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depend on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered taste perception in oral submucous fibrosis: A research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Deeplaxmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is among the regulatory mechanism for acceptance or rejection of foods. In oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients, impairment of taste sensation has not received much attention, owing to limited research work in the field. This study was conducted to analyze the taste impairment in OSMF patients by using four basic tastes: Sweet, sour, salty and bitter, among a group of 30 subjects by using physiological taste stimuli tastants. In OSMF, significant taste alteration was found with sweet followed by salt, bitter and sour.

  19. Changing Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line; Christensen, Bodil Just; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a specific medical technology that alters the body in ways that force the patient to fundamentally change his or her eating habits. When patients enrol for surgery, they enter a learning process, encountering new and at times contested ways of sensing their bodies, tasting...

  20. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  1. Amiloride-sensitive sodium currents in fungiform taste cells of rats chronically exposed to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiani, A

    2015-01-22

    Many studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to nicotine, one of the main components of tobacco smoke, has profound effects on the functionality of the mammalian taste system. However, the mechanisms underlying nicotine action are poorly understood. In particular no information is available on the chronic effect of nicotine on the functioning of taste cells, the peripheral detectors which transduce food chemicals into electrical signals to the brain. To address this issue, I studied the membrane properties of rat fungiform taste cells and evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to nicotine on the amiloride-sensitive sodium currents (ASSCs). These currents are mediated by the epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) thought to be important, at least in part, in the transduction of salty stimuli. Patch-clamp recording data indicated that ASSCs in taste cells from rats chronically treated with nicotine had a reduced amplitude compared to controls. The pharmacological and biophysical analysis of ASSCs revealed that amplitude reduction was not dependent on changes in amiloride sensitivity or channel ionic permeability, but likely derived from a decrease in the activity of ENaCs. Since these channels are considered to be sodium receptors in taste cells, my results suggest that chronic exposure to nicotine hampers the capability of these cells to respond to sodium ions. This might represent a possible cellular mechanism underlying the reduced taste sensitivity to salt typically found in smokers. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salty Taste Acuity Is Affected by the Joint Action of αENaC A663T Gene Polymorphism and Available Zinc Intake in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hwayoung; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Jayong

    2013-01-01

    Salty taste perception affects salt intake, of which excess amounts is a major public health concern. Gene polymorphisms in salty taste receptors, zinc status and their interaction may affect salty taste perception. In this study, we examined the relationships among the α-epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) A663T genotype, zinc intake, and salty taste perception including salty taste acuity and preference in healthy young adults. The αENaC A663T genotype was determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 207 adults. Zinc intake was examined by one 24-h recall and a two-day dietary record. Salty taste acuity and preference were determined by measuring the salty taste recognition threshold and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup, respectively. Men had significantly higher thresholds and preferences for salty taste than women did (p salty taste threshold was significantly lower in the highest tertile of available zinc intake than in the lowest tertile (12.2 mM and 17.6 mM, respectively, p = 0.02). Interestingly, a significant inverse association between available zinc intake and salty taste threshold was found only in women with αENaC AA homozygotes (β = −0.833, p = 0.02), and no such association was found in T663 allele carriers. The salty taste preference was not associated with the αENaC A663T genotype or available zinc intake in either sex. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene-nutrient interactions between the αENaC A663T genotype and available zinc intake play a role in determining the salty taste acuity in young women. PMID:24317554

  3. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  4. Conditioned taste avoidance, conditioned place preference and hyperthermia induced by the second generation 'bath salt' α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katharine H; Hempel, Briana J; Clasen, Matthew M; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2017-05-01

    α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a novel saccharin solution, injected with one of four doses of α-PVP (0, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0mg/kg) (IP) and placed on one side of a place conditioning apparatus. The next day, they were injected with vehicle, given access to water and placed on the other side. Following four conditioning cycles, saccharin avoidance and place preferences were then assessed. The effects of α-PVP on body temperature were also examined. α-PVP induced dose-dependent taste avoidance as well as significant increases in time spent on the drug-paired side (although this effect was not dependent on dose). α-PVP also induced dose- and time-dependent hyperthermia. α-PVP induced significant taste avoidance whose strength relative to the psychostimulants methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and cocaine paralleled their relative binding to the dopamine transporter. Similar to other drugs of abuse, α-PVP has both aversive and rewarding effects. It will be important to assess how various experiential and subject variables impact these effects and their balance to predict abuse liability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  6. Members of Bitter Taste Receptor Cluster Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 Are Expressed in the Epithelium of Murine Airways and Other Non-gustatory Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuya; Lu, Shun; Xu, Rui; Atzberger, Ann; Günther, Stefan; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The mouse bitter taste receptors Tas2r143, Tas2r135, and Tas2r126 are encoded by genes that cluster on chromosome 6 and have been suggested to be expressed under common regulatory elements. Previous studies indicated that the Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 cluster is expressed in the heart, but other organs had not been systematically analyzed. In order to investigate the expression of this bitter taste receptor gene cluster in non-gustatory tissues, we generated a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) based transgenic mouse line, expressing CreERT2 under the control of the Tas2r143 promoter. After crossing this line with a mouse line expressing EGFP after Cre-mediated recombination, we were able to validate the Tas2r143-CreERT2 transgenic mouse line and monitor the expression of Tas2r143. EGFP-positive cells, indicating expression of members of the cluster, were found in about 47% of taste buds, and could also be found in several other organs. A population of EGFP-positive cells was identified in thymic epithelial cells, in the lamina propria of the intestine and in vascular smooth muscle cells of cardiac blood vessels. EGFP-positive cells were also identified in the epithelium of organs readily exposed to pathogens including lower airways, the gastrointestinal tract, urethra, vagina, and cervix. With respect to the function of cells expressing this bitter taste receptor cluster, RNA-seq analysis in EGFP-positive cells isolated from the epithelium of trachea and stomach showed expression of genes related to innate immunity. These data further support the concept that bitter taste receptors serve functions outside the gustatory system. PMID:29163195

  7. Preferences for Salty and Sweet Tastes Are Elevated and Related to Each Other during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A.; Finkbeiner, Susana; Lipchock, Sarah V.; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Reed, Danielle R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to determine if salty and sweet taste preferences in children are related to each other, to markers of growth, and to genetic differences. Methods We conducted a 2-day, single-blind experimental study using the Monell two-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method to determine taste preferences. The volunteer sample consisted of a racially/ethnically diverse group of children, 5–10 years of age (n = 108), and their mothers (n = 83). After excluding those mothers who did not meet eligibility and children who did not understand or comply with study procedures, the final sample was 101 children and 76 adults. The main outcome measures were most preferred concentration of salt in broth and crackers; most preferred concentration of sucrose in water and jelly; reported dietary intake of salty and sweet foods; levels of a bone growth marker; anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, and percent body fat; and TAS1R3 (sweet taste receptor) genotype. Results Children preferred higher concentrations of salt in broth and sucrose in water than did adults, and for both groups, salty and sweet taste preferences were significantly and positively correlated. In children, preference measures were related to reported intake of sodium but not of added sugars. Children who were tall for their age preferred sweeter solutions than did those that were shorter and percent body fat was correlated with salt preference. In mothers but not in children, sweet preference correlated with TAS1R3 genotype. Conclusions and Relevance For children, sweet and salty taste preferences were positively correlated and related to some aspects of real-world food intake. Complying with recommendations to reduce added sugars and salt may be more difficult for some children, which emphasizes the need for new strategies to improve children's diets. PMID:24637844

  8. Preferences for salty and sweet tastes are elevated and related to each other during childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine if salty and sweet taste preferences in children are related to each other, to markers of growth, and to genetic differences. METHODS: We conducted a 2-day, single-blind experimental study using the Monell two-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method to determine taste preferences. The volunteer sample consisted of a racially/ethnically diverse group of children, 5-10 years of age (n = 108, and their mothers (n = 83. After excluding those mothers who did not meet eligibility and children who did not understand or comply with study procedures, the final sample was 101 children and 76 adults. The main outcome measures were most preferred concentration of salt in broth and crackers; most preferred concentration of sucrose in water and jelly; reported dietary intake of salty and sweet foods; levels of a bone growth marker; anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, and percent body fat; and TAS1R3 (sweet taste receptor genotype. RESULTS: Children preferred higher concentrations of salt in broth and sucrose in water than did adults, and for both groups, salty and sweet taste preferences were significantly and positively correlated. In children, preference measures were related to reported intake of sodium but not of added sugars. Children who were tall for their age preferred sweeter solutions than did those that were shorter and percent body fat was correlated with salt preference. In mothers but not in children, sweet preference correlated with TAS1R3 genotype. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: For children, sweet and salty taste preferences were positively correlated and related to some aspects of real-world food intake. Complying with recommendations to reduce added sugars and salt may be more difficult for some children, which emphasizes the need for new strategies to improve children's diets.

  9. Preferences for salty and sweet tastes are elevated and related to each other during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Finkbeiner, Susana; Lipchock, Sarah V; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Reed, Danielle R

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine if salty and sweet taste preferences in children are related to each other, to markers of growth, and to genetic differences. We conducted a 2-day, single-blind experimental study using the Monell two-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method to determine taste preferences. The volunteer sample consisted of a racially/ethnically diverse group of children, 5-10 years of age (n = 108), and their mothers (n = 83). After excluding those mothers who did not meet eligibility and children who did not understand or comply with study procedures, the final sample was 101 children and 76 adults. The main outcome measures were most preferred concentration of salt in broth and crackers; most preferred concentration of sucrose in water and jelly; reported dietary intake of salty and sweet foods; levels of a bone growth marker; anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, and percent body fat; and TAS1R3 (sweet taste receptor) genotype. Children preferred higher concentrations of salt in broth and sucrose in water than did adults, and for both groups, salty and sweet taste preferences were significantly and positively correlated. In children, preference measures were related to reported intake of sodium but not of added sugars. Children who were tall for their age preferred sweeter solutions than did those that were shorter and percent body fat was correlated with salt preference. In mothers but not in children, sweet preference correlated with TAS1R3 genotype. For children, sweet and salty taste preferences were positively correlated and related to some aspects of real-world food intake. Complying with recommendations to reduce added sugars and salt may be more difficult for some children, which emphasizes the need for new strategies to improve children's diets.

  10. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR.

  11. Activation of mu-opioid receptors in the ventral pallidum decreases the negative hedonic evaluation of a conditioned aversive taste in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Tadashi; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes a shift in the hedonic evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) from positive to negative, and reduces the CS intake. Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral pallidum (VP) are known to be involved in the hedonic evaluation of positive rewarding stimuli; however, their involvement in evaluation of a negative aversive stimulus is still unclear. To explore the neural mechanisms of the negative hedonic evaluation of the CS in CTA, we examined the effects of the activation of VP MORs on the behavioral responses of rats to a CS. Rats implanted with guide cannulae into the bilateral VP received a pairing of 5mM saccharin solution as a CS with an intraperitoneal injection of 0.15M lithium chloride as an unconditioned stimulus. On the test day, after microinjections of MOR agonist [D-Ala 2 , N-MePhe 4 , Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) into the VP, we observed the behavioral responses to the intraorally infused CS solution. The DAMGO injections caused a larger number of ingestive taste reactivity responses to the CS solution. We also measured the consumption of the CS solution in a separate group of rats, using a single-bottle test. The DAMGO injected rats drank a higher volume of the CS solution than the saline injected rats. These results indicate that the activation of MORs in the VP results in the attenuation of aversion to the CS solution, thereby inducing the larger CS intake. Therefore, it is likely that VP MORs are involved in not only positive but also negative hedonic evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pseudogenization of the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in the giant panda coincided with its dietary switch to bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huabin; Yang, Jian-Rong; Xu, Huailiang; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-12-01

    Although it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda is a vegetarian with 99% of its diet being bamboo. The draft genome sequence of the giant panda shows that its umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 is a pseudogene, prompting the proposal that the loss of the umami perception explains why the giant panda is herbivorous. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced all six exons of Tas1r1 in another individual of the giant panda and five other carnivores. We found that the open reading frame (ORF) of Tas1r1 is intact in all these carnivores except the giant panda. The rate ratio (ω) of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in Tas1r1 is significantly higher for the giant panda lineage than for other carnivore lineages. Based on the ω change and the observed number of ORF-disrupting substitutions, we estimated that the functional constraint on the giant panda Tas1r1 was relaxed ∼ 4.2 Ma, with its 95% confidence interval between 1.3 and 10 Ma. Our estimate matches the approximate date of the giant panda's dietary switch inferred from fossil records. It is probable that the giant panda's decreased reliance on meat resulted in the dispensability of the umami taste, leading to Tas1r1 pseudogenization, which in turn reinforced its herbivorous life style because of the diminished attraction of returning to meat eating in the absence of Tas1r1. Nonetheless, additional factors are likely involved because herbivores such as cow and horse still retain an intact Tas1r1.

  13. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  14. Ion pair dissociation effects of aza-based anion receptors on lithium salts in polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; Xiang, C.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Choi, L.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Okamoto, Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The addition of aza-based anion receptors greatly increases the conductivity of polymer electrolytes based on LiCl and KI complexes with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In some cases the conductivity increase is more than two orders of magnitude. Also the addition of the anion acceptors imparts a rubber like consistency to the normally stiff PEO salt films. Ion-ion, ion-polymer and anion-complex interactions were studied using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the K and Cl K edges and at the I L{sub I} edge. The NEXAFS results show that Cl{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} anions are complexed with the nitrogen groups of the anion receptors. The degree of complexation is related the chain length of the complexing agent and the number of R{double_bond}CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} groups that are used to substitute for the amine hydrogen atoms in these aza-ether compounds. NEXAFS spectra at potassium K edge provide supplemental evidence for the ion pair dissociation effects of the anion receptors. The results show that dissociated K{sup +} cations are complexed with oxygen atoms of the PEO chains.

  15. Regression of glomerular and tubulointerstitial injuries by dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

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    Kazi Rafiq

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that renal tissue injuries are reversible. We investigated whether dietary salt reduction with the combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB plus calcium channel blocker (CCB reverses renal tissue injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS hypertensive rats. DSS rats were fed a high-salt diet (HS; 4% NaCl for 4 weeks. Then, DSS rats were given one of the following for 10 weeks: HS diet; normal-salt diet (NS; 0.5% NaCl, NS + an ARB (olmesartan, 10 mg/kg/day, NS + a CCB (azelnidipine, 3 mg/kg/day, NS + olmesartan + azelnidipine or NS + hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day. Four weeks of treatment with HS diet induced hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis and hypertrophy, glomerular podocyte injury, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DSS rats. A continued HS diet progressed hypertension, proteinuria and renal tissue injury, which was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the kidney. In contrast, switching to NS halted the progression of hypertension, renal glomerular and tubular injuries. Dietary salt reduction with ARB or with CCB treatment further reduced blood pressure and partially reversed renal tissues injury. Furthermore, dietary salt reduction with the combination of ARB plus CCB elicited a strong recovery from HS-induced renal tissue injury including the attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These data support the hypothesis that dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of an ARB plus CCB restores glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in DSS rats.

  16. Taste and Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know ...

  17. Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M.; Xu, Hong; Pronin, Alexey; Liu, Haitian; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Umami is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. The umami taste of L-glutamate can be drastically enhanced by 5′ ribonucleotides and the synergy is a hallmark of this taste quality. The umami taste receptor is a heteromeric complex of 2 class C G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the synergy using chimeric T1R receptors, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling. We propose a cooperative ligand-binding model involving the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1, where L-glutamate binds close to the hinge region, and 5′ ribonucleotides bind to an adjacent site close to the opening of the flytrap to further stabilize the closed conformation. This unique mechanism may apply to other class C G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:19104071

  18. Sense of taste in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the investigation of the molecular mechanism by which chemicals such as odors and tastants are perceived by specific chemosensory organs. For example, G protein-coupled receptors expressed within the nasal epithelium and taste receptors in the oral cavity have been identified as odorant and taste receptors, respectively. However, there is much evidence to indicate that these chemosensory receptors are not restricted to primary chemosensory cells; they are also expressed and have function in other cells such as those in the airways and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This short review describes the possible mechanisms by which taste signal transduction occurs in the oral cavity and tastants/nutrients are sensed in the GI tract by taste-like cells, mainly enteroendocrine and brush cells. Furthermore, it discusses the future perspectives of chemosensory studies.

  19. Common sense about taste: from mammals to insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, David A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2009-10-16

    The sense of taste is a specialized chemosensory system dedicated to the evaluation of food and drink. Despite the fact that vertebrates and insects have independently evolved distinct anatomic and molecular pathways for taste sensation, there are clear parallels in the organization and coding logic between the two systems. There is now persuasive evidence that tastant quality is mediated by labeled lines, whereby distinct and strictly segregated populations of taste receptor cells encode each of the taste qualities.

  20. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception.

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    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  1. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  2. Brain mineralocorticoid receptor function in control of salt balance and stress-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Edo Ronald; Joëls, Marian

    2017-09-01

    We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and circumventricular organs express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward. MR expressed in abundance in this limbic-forebrain circuitry, is target of cortisol and corticosterone in modulation of appraisal processes, memory performance and selection of coping strategy. Complementary to this role of limbic MR is the action mediated by the lower affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GR), which promote subsequently memory storage of the experience and facilitate behavioral adaptation. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that an imbalance between MR- and GR-mediated actions compromises resilience and adaptation to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human taste and umami receptor responses to chemosensorica generated by Maillard-type N²-alkyl- and N²-arylthiomethylation of guanosine 5'-monophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Barbara; Brockhoff, Anne; Degenhardt, Andreas; Billmayer, Sylvia; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    Structural modification of the exocyclic amino function of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) by Maillard-type reactions with reducing carbohydrates was recently found to increase the umami-enhancing activity of the nucleotide upon S-N(2)-1-carboxyalkylation and S-N(2)-(1-alkylamino)carbonylalkylation, respectively. Since the presence of sulfur atoms in synthetic N(2)-alkylated nucleotides was reported to be beneficial for sensory activity, a versatile Maillard-type modification of 5'-GMP upon reaction with glycine's Strecker aldehyde formaldehyde and organic thiols was performed in the present study. A series of N(2)-(alkylthiomethyl)guanosine and N(2)-(arylthiomethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphates was generated and the compounds were evaluated to what extent they enhance the umami response to monosodium L-glutamate in vivo by a paired-choice comparison test using trained human volunteers and in vitro by means of cell-based umami taste receptor assay. Associated with a high umami-enhancing activity (β-value 5.1), N(2)-(propylthiomethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphate could be generated when 5'-GMP reacted with glucose, glycine, and the onion-derived odorant 1-propanethiol, thus opening a valuable avenue to produce high-potency umami-enhancing chemosensorica from food-derived natural products by kitchen-type chemistry.

  4. A gene-wide investigation on polymorphisms in the taste receptor 2R14 (TAS2R14 and susceptibility to colorectal cancer

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    Novotny Jan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular sensing in the gastro-intestinal (GI tract is responsible for the detection of ingested harmful drugs and toxins, thereby genetic polymorphisms affecting the capability of initiating these responses may be critical for the subsequent efficiency of the gut in eliminating possible threats to the organism. Although these fundamental control systems have been known for long time, the initial molecular recognition events that sense the chemical composition of the luminal contents of the GI tract have remained elusive. TAS2R14 is one of the better characterized members of the taste receptor family and has several polymorphic variants. Several substances that have been shown to activate TAS2R14 are powerful toxic and carcinogenic agents. Methods Using a tagging approach we investigated all the common genetic variation of the gene region in relation to colon cancer risk with a case-control study design. This is, at the best of our knowledge also the first report on the allele frequencies of the gene in the Caucasian population. Results We found no evidence of statistically significant associations between polymorphisms in the TAS2R14 gene and colon cancer risk. Conclusion In conclusion we can confidently exclude a major role for common polymorphisms of the TAS2R14 gene in colorectal cancer risk in this population, although in this report we had insufficient statistical power to completely exclude the possibility that rare variants of the TAS2R14 might be involved in colorectal cancer risk.

  5. Acquisition and expression of conditioned taste aversion differentially affects extracellular signal regulated kinase and glutamate receptor phosphorylation in rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Roberto; Fenu, Sandro; Scheggi, Simona; Vinci, Stefania; Rosas, Michela; Falqui, Andrea; Gambarana, Carla; De Montis, M Graziella; Acquas, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be applied to study associative learning and its relevant underpinning molecular mechanisms in discrete brain regions. The present study examined, by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, the effects of acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA on activated Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (p-ERK) in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study also examined, by immunoblotting, whether acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA resulted in modified levels of phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunits (NR1 and GluR1) and Thr(34)- and Thr(75-Dopamine-and-cAMP-Regulated) PhosphoProtein (DARPP-32). CTA acquisition was associated with an increase of p-ERK-positive neurons and phosphorylated NR1 receptor subunit (p-NR1) in the PFCx, whereas p-GluR1, p-Thr(34)- and p-Thr(75)-DARPP-32 levels were not changed in this brain region. CTA expression increased the number of p-ERK-positive neurons in the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) but left unmodified p-NR1, p-GluR1, p-Thr(34)- and p-Thr(75-DARPP-32) levels. Furthermore, post-embedding immunogold quantitative analysis in AcbSh revealed that CTA expression significantly increased nuclear p-ERK immunostaining as well as p-ERK-labeled axo-spinous contacts. Overall, these results indicate that ERK and NR1, but not GluR1 and DARPP-32, are differentially phosphorylated as a consequence of acquisition and expression of aversive associative learning. Moreover, these results confirm that CTA represents an useful approach to study the molecular basis of associative learning in rats and suggest the involvement of ERK cascade in learning-associated synaptic plasticity.

  6. Acquisition and expression of Conditioned Taste Aversion differentially affects Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase and Glutamate receptor phosphorylation in rat Prefrontal Cortex and Nucleus Accumbens

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    Roberto eMarotta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned taste aversion (CTA can be applied to study associative learning and its relevant underpinning molecular mechanisms in discrete brain regions. The present study examined, by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, the effects of acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA on activated Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (p-ERK in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx and nucleus accumbens (Acb of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study also examined, by immunoblotting, whether acquisition and expression of lithium-induced CTA resulted in modified levels of phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunits (NR1 and GluR1 and Thr34- and Thr75-Dopamine-and-cAMP-Regulated PhosphoProtein (DARPP-32. CTA acquisition was associated with an increase of p-ERK-positive neurons and phosphorylated NR1 receptor subunit (p-NR1 in the PFCx, whereas p-GluR1, p-Thr34- and p-Thr75-DARPP-32 levels were not changed in this brain region. CTA expression increased the number of p-ERK-positive neurons in the shell (AcbSh and core (AcbC but left unmodified p-NR1, p-GluR1, p-Thr34- and p-Thr75-DARPP-32 levels. Furthermore, post-embedding immunogold quantitative analysis in AcbSh revealed that CTA expression significantly increased nuclear p-ERK immunostaining as well as p-ERK-labeled axo-spinous contacts. Overall, these results indicate that ERK and NR1, but not GluR1 and DARPP-32, are differentially phosphorylated as a consequence of acquisition and expression of aversive associative learning. Moreover, these results confirm that CTA represents an useful approach to study the molecular basis of associative learning in rats and suggest the involvement of ERK cascade in learning-associated synaptic plasticity.

  7. Expression levels of genes encoding melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and MCH receptor change in taste aversion, but MCH injections do not alleviate aversive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anaya; Klockars, Anica; Gosnell, Blake A; Le Grevès, Madeleine; Olszewski, Pawel K; Levine, Allen S; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2012-01-01

    Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) stimulates feeding driven by energy needs and reward and modifies anxiety behavior. Orexigenic peptides of similar characteristics, including nociceptin/orphanin FQ, Agouti-related protein and opioids, increase consumption also by reducing avoidance of potentially tainted food in animals displaying a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Herein, using real-time PCR, we assessed whether expression levels of genes encoding MCH and its receptor, MCHR1, were affected in CTA in the rat. We also investigated whether injecting MCH intracerebroventricularly (ICV) during the acquisition and retrieval of LiCl-induced CTA, would alleviate aversive responses. MCHR1 gene was upregulated in the hypothalamus and brain stem of aversive animals, MCH mRNA was significantly higher in the hypothalamus, whereas a strong trend suggesting upregulation of MCH and MCHR1 genes was detected in the amygdala. Despite these expression changes associated with aversion, MCH injected prior to the induction of CTA with LiCl as well as later, during the CTA retrieval upon subsequent presentations of the aversive tastant, did not reduce the magnitude of CTA. We conclude that MCH and its receptor form an orexigenic system whose expression is affected in CTA. This altered MCH expression may contribute to tastant-targeted hypophagia in CTA. However, changing the MCH tone in the brain by exogenous peptide was insufficient to prevent the onset or facilitate extinction of LiCl-induced CTA. This designates MCH as one of many accessory molecules associated with shaping an aversive response, but not a critical one for LiCl-dependent CTA to occur. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Taste transduction mechanism: similar effects of various modifications of gustatory receptors on neural responses to chemical and electrical stimulation in the frog

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    Kashiwayanagi, M.; Yoshii, K.; Kobatake, Y.; Kurihara, K.

    1981-09-01

    Responses in the frog glossopharyngeal nerve induced by electrical stimulation of the tongue were compared with those induced by chemical stimuli under various conditions. (a) Anodal stimulation induced much larger responses than cathodal stimulation, and anodal stimulation of the tongue adapted to 5 mM MgCl2 produced much larger responses than stimulation with the tongue adapted to 10 mM NaCl at equal current intensities, as chemical stimulation with MgCl2 produced much larger responses than stimulation with NaCl at equal concentration. (b) The enhansive and suppressive effects of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate, NiCl2, and uranyl acetate on the responses to anodal current were similar to those on the responses to chemical stimulation. (c) Anodal stimulation of the tongue adapted to 50 mM CaCl2 resulted in a large response, whereas application of 1 M CaCl2 to the tongue adapted to 50 mM CaCl2 produced only a small response. This, together with theoretical considerations, suggested that the accumulation of salts on the tongue surface is not the cause of the generation of the response to anodal current. (d) Cathodal current suppressed the responses induced by 1 mM CaCl2, 0.3 M ethanol, and distilled water. (e) The addition of EGTA or Ca-channel blockers (CdCl2 and verapamil) to the perfusing solution of the lingual artery reversibly suppressed both the responses to chemical stimulus (NaCl) and to anodal current with 10 mM NaCl. (f) We assume from the results obtained that electrical current from the microvillus membrane of a taste cell to the synaptic area supplied by anodal stimulation or induced by chemical stimulation activates the voltage-dependent Ca channel at the synaptic area.

  9. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What Are Taste Buds? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Are Taste Buds? Print A A A en español ¿Qué ... Did you ever wonder why your favorite foods taste so good? Well, you can thank your taste ...

  10. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

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    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  11. Genetic and molecular basis of individual differences in human umami taste perception.

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    Noriatsu Shigemura

    Full Text Available Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG, and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP. A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose-response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.

  12. Genetic and molecular basis of individual differences in human umami taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Shirosaki, Shinya; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2009-08-21

    Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English) is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG), and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP). A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose-response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.

  13. A comparative analysis of neural taste processing in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Gabriela; Giurfa, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Understanding taste processing in the nervous system is a fundamental challenge of modern neuroscience. Recent research on the neural bases of taste coding in invertebrates and vertebrates allows discussion of whether labelled-line or across-fibre pattern encoding applies to taste perception. While the former posits that each gustatory receptor responds to one stimulus or a very limited range of stimuli and sends a direct ‘line’ to the central nervous system to communicate taste information, the latter postulates that each gustatory receptor responds to a wider range of stimuli so that the entire population of taste-responsive neurons participates in the taste code. Tastes are represented in the brain of the fruitfly and of the rat by spatial patterns of neural activity containing both distinct and overlapping regions, which are in accord with both labelled-line and across-fibre pattern processing of taste, respectively. In both animal models, taste representations seem to relate to the hedonic value of the tastant (e.g. palatable versus non-palatable). Thus, although the labelled-line hypothesis can account for peripheral taste processing, central processing remains either unknown or differs from a pure labelled-line coding. The essential task for a neuroscience of taste is, therefore, to determine the connectivity of taste-processing circuits in central nervous systems. Such connectivity may determine coding strategies that differ significantly from both the labelled-line and the across-fibre pattern models. PMID:21690133

  14. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor–deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. PMID:26116698

  15. Expression of Tas1 taste receptors in mammalian spermatozoa: functional role of Tas1r1 in regulating basal Ca²⁺ and cAMP concentrations in spermatozoa.

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    Dorke Meyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During their transit through the female genital tract, sperm have to recognize and discriminate numerous chemical compounds. However, our current knowledge of the molecular identity of appropriate chemosensory receptor proteins in sperm is still rudimentary. Considering that members of the Tas1r family of taste receptors are able to discriminate between a broad diversity of hydrophilic chemosensory substances, the expression of taste receptors in mammalian spermatozoa was examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present manuscript documents that Tas1r1 and Tas1r3, which form the functional receptor for monosodium glutamate (umami in taste buds on the tongue, are expressed in murine and human spermatozoa, where their localization is restricted to distinct segments of the flagellum and the acrosomal cap of the sperm head. Employing a Tas1r1-deficient mCherry reporter mouse strain, we found that Tas1r1 gene deletion resulted in spermatogenic abnormalities. In addition, a significant increase in spontaneous acrosomal reaction was observed in Tas1r1 null mutant sperm whereas acrosomal secretion triggered by isolated zona pellucida or the Ca²⁺ ionophore A23187 was not different from wild-type spermatozoa. Remarkably, cytosolic Ca²⁺ levels in freshly isolated Tas1r1-deficient sperm were significantly higher compared to wild-type cells. Moreover, a significantly higher basal cAMP concentration was detected in freshly isolated Tas1r1-deficient epididymal spermatozoa, whereas upon inhibition of phosphodiesterase or sperm capacitation, the amount of cAMP was not different between both genotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since Ca²⁺ and cAMP control fundamental processes during the sequential process of fertilization, we propose that the identified taste receptors and coupled signaling cascades keep sperm in a chronically quiescent state until they arrive in the vicinity of the egg - either by constitutive receptor activity and

  16. Suplementação com zinco pode recuperar apetite para refeições de sal Zinc supplementation may recover taste for salt meals

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    Dioclécio Campos Jr

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do zinco em crianças de 8 meses a 5 anos de idade com falta de apetite para refeições de sal. POPULAÇÃO E MÉTODOS: Estudo duplo-cego com placebo. Dois grupos de crianças apresentando recusa a alimentos de sal foram acompanhados durante 6 meses. As crianças do primeiro grupo receberam 1 mg/kg/dia de zinco sob forma de quelato, durante três meses, enquanto as do segundo grupo receberam uma solução placebo durante o mesmo período. Os dois grupos eram semelhantes quanto a idade, sexo, peso, duração do aleitamento materno, idade de desmame e exames hetamatológicos e bioquímicos. A resposta das crianças ao tratamento foi informada em questionário preenchido regularmente pelas mães. RESULTADOS: 17/20 (85% das crianças que receberam zinco e 10/20 (50% das que receberam placebo recuperaram o apetite para refeições de sal. A diferença foi estatisticamente significativa para p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of zinc on the appetite for salt foods in children aged 8 months to 5 years. METHOD: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two groups of 20 children refusing to eat salt foods were followed during six months. The children in the first group received zinc chelate 1 mg/kg daily for three months. The second group received a placebo solution. The two groups were similar in terms of age, sex, weight, duration of breastfeeding, age at weaning, biochemical and hematological data. The response of children to treatment was informed by their mothers. RESULTS: 17/20 (85% of the children receiving zinc chelate and 10/20 (50% of the children receiving placebo improved their appetite for salt foods. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05, chi-square test. CONCLUSION: Zinc supplementation may improve the acceptance of salt foods by children.

  17. The Effect of Temperature on Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Alvarado, Cynthia; Andrew, Kendra; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    The effect of temperature on umami taste has not been previously studied in humans. Reported here are 3 experiments in which umami taste was measured for monopotassium glutamate (MPG) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) at solution temperatures between 10 and 37 °C. Experiment 1 showed that for subjects sensitive to MPG on the tongue tip, 1) cooling reduced umami intensity whether sampled with the tongue tip or in the whole mouth, but 2) had no effect on the rate of umami adaptation on the tongue tip. Experiment 2 showed that temperature had similar effects on the umami taste of MSG and MPG on the tongue tip but not in the whole mouth, and that contrary to umami taste, cooling to 10 °C increased rather than decreased the salty taste of both stimuli. Experiment 3 was designed to investigate the contribution of the hT1R1-hT1R3 glutamate receptor to the cooling effect on umami taste by using the T1R3 inhibitor lactisole. However, lactisole failed to block the umami taste of MPG at any temperature, which supports prior evidence that lactisole does not block umami taste for all ligands of the hT1R1-hT1R3 receptor. We conclude that temperature can affect sensitivity to the umami and salty tastes of glutamates, but in opposite directions, and that the magnitude of these effects can vary across stimuli and modes of tasting (i.e., whole mouth vs. tongue tip exposures). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sweet Taste Receptor Activation in the Gut Is of Limited Importance for Glucose-Stimulated GLP-1 and GIP Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Monika Yosifova; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer

    2017-01-01

    secretion from an isolated perfused rat small intestine and whether selective STR activation by artificial sweeteners stimulates secretion. Intra-luminal administration of the STR agonists, acesulfame K (3.85% w/v), but not sucralose (1.25% w/v) and stevioside (2.5% w/v), stimulated GLP-1 secretion...... (acesulfame K: 31 ± 3 pmol/L vs. 21 ± 2 pmol/L, p sucralose (10 mM) and stevioside (10 mM), but not acesulfame K, stimulated GLP-1 secretion (sucralose: 51 ± 6 pmol/L vs. 34 ± 4 pmol/L, p ....05, n = 6), while 0.1 mM and 1 mM sucralose did not affect the secretion. Luminal glucose (20% w/v) doubled GLP-1 and GIP secretion, but basolateral STR inhibition by gurmarin (2.5 µg/mL) or the inhibition of the transient receptor potential cation channel 5 (TRPM5) by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO...

  19. Video: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed

    2017-01-01

    The aim of a so-called research day was to give schoolchildren from 6th to 7th grade a day of learning about taste, sustainability and future foods. The children were invited to University College Absalon in Soroe, Denmark to a day with workshops involving taste experiments. Based on sensory...... experiments related to taste and through involvement and dialogue, the aim was to create knowledge, competences and awareness about taste and to challenge food courage among the children. Focus was to explore taste and taste preferences through sensory experiments and to bring awareness to the taste...... of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total...

  20. Abstract: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Hoffmeyer, Agnete

    The aim of a so-called research day was to give schoolchildren from 6th to 7th grade a day of learning about taste, sustainability and future foods. The children were invited to University College Absalon in Soroe, Denmark to a day with workshops involving taste experiments. Based on sensory...... experiments related to taste and through involvement and dialogue, the aim was to create knowledge, competences and awareness about taste and to challenge food courage among the children. Focus was to explore taste and taste preferences through sensory experiments and to bring awareness to the taste...... of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total...

  1. Sensing of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    A taste sensor with global selectivity, i. e., electronic tongue, is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information of taste substances into electric signal. The sensor output shows different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness and sourness. Taste interactions such as suppression effect, which occurs between bitterness and sweetness, can be detected and quantified using the taste sensor. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes from sensor outputs. The taste of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water and milk can be discussed quantitatively. The taste sensor provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. We are now standing at the beginning of a new age of communication using digitized taste.

  2. Sweet Taste Receptor TAS1R2 Polymorphism (Val191Val) Is Associated with a Higher Carbohydrate Intake and Hypertriglyceridemia among the Population of West Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Roman, Sonia

    2016-02-19

    Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val) has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, 441 unrelated subjects were analyzed for TAS1R2 genotypes (Ile/Ile, Ile/Val and Val/Val) by an allelic discrimination assay. Biochemical tests and a three-day food record were assessed. The Val/Val genotype carriers had a higher intake of total carbohydrates, fiber and servings of cereals and vegetables than the other genotype carriers. The Val/Val genotype conferred a higher risk for HTG than the Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.35-7.86, p = 0.006 and OR = 2.61, 95%CI 1.12-6.07, p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, the Val/Val genotype was associated with approximately 30% higher triglycerides compared with Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (β = 44.09, 95%CI 9.94-78.25, p = 0.01 and β = 45.7, 95%CI 10.85-80.54, p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, the Val/Val genotype of TAS1R2 was associated with a higher carbohydrate intake and HTG.

  3. Sweet Taste Receptor TAS1R2 Polymorphism (Val191Val Is Associated with a Higher Carbohydrate Intake and Hypertriglyceridemia among the Population of West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ramos-Lopez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG. This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, 441 unrelated subjects were analyzed for TAS1R2 genotypes (Ile/Ile, Ile/Val and Val/Val by an allelic discrimination assay. Biochemical tests and a three-day food record were assessed. The Val/Val genotype carriers had a higher intake of total carbohydrates, fiber and servings of cereals and vegetables than the other genotype carriers. The Val/Val genotype conferred a higher risk for HTG than the Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.35–7.86, p = 0.006 and OR = 2.61, 95%CI 1.12–6.07, p = 0.02, respectively. Furthermore, the Val/Val genotype was associated with approximately 30% higher triglycerides compared with Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (β = 44.09, 95%CI 9.94–78.25, p = 0.01 and β = 45.7, 95%CI 10.85–80.54, p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, the Val/Val genotype of TAS1R2 was associated with a higher carbohydrate intake and HTG.

  4. Soy sauce and its umami taste: a link from the past to current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Selamat, Jinap; Yasuda, Masaaki

    2010-04-01

    Soy sauce taste has become a focus of umami taste research. Umami taste is a 5th basic taste, which is associated to a palatable and pleasurable taste of food. Soy sauce has been used as an umami seasoning since the ancient time in Asia. The complex fermentation process occurred to soy beans, as the raw material in the soy sauce production, gives a distinct delicious taste. The recent investigation on Japanese and Indonesian soy sauces revealed that this taste is primarily due to umami components which have molecular weights lower than 500 Da. Free amino acids are the low molecular compounds that have an important role to the taste, in the presence of sodium salt. The intense umami taste found in the soy sauces may also be a result from the interaction between umami components and other tastants. Small peptides are also present, but have very low, almost undetected umami taste intensities investigated in their fractions.

  5. Enhanced function of inhibitory presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors on sympathetic nerves of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczek, Marek; Schlicker, Eberhard; Grzęda, Emilia; Malinowska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to examine whether hypertension affects the sympathetic transmission to resistance vessels of pithed rats via inhibitory presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors and whether endocannabinoids are involved in this response. We compared uninephrectomised rats rendered hypertensive by high salt diet and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) injections with normotensive animals (uninephrectomy only). Experiments were performed on vagotomised and pithed animals. Increases in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were induced four times (S1-S4) by electrical stimulation or phenylephrine injection. Electrical stimulation (0.75Hz, 1ms, 50V, 5 impulses) of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres innervating the blood vessels more strongly increased DBP in normotensive than in DOCA-salt rats. Phenylephrine (0.01μmol/kg) induced similar increases in DBP in both groups. The cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 (0.01-1μmol/kg) did not modify the rises in DBP induced by phenylephrine. However, it inhibited the electrically stimulated increases in DBP, more strongly in DOCA-salt than in normotensive animals (maximally by 50 and 30%, respectively). The effect of CP55940 was attenuated by the CB1 antagonist AM251 (3μmol/kg). AM251 enhanced the neurogenic vasopressor response during S4 by itself in hypertensive rats only. URB597 (3μmol/kg), which inhibits degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide, did not modify the electrically stimulated increases in DBP. The function of inhibitory presynaptic CB1 receptors on sympathetic nerves is enhanced in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Thus, the CB1 receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release from the sympathetic nerve fibres innervating the resistance vessels might play a protective role in hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of taste processing by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Christian H

    2017-10-01

    Taste stimuli have a temperature that can stimulate thermosensitive neural machinery in the mouth during gustatory experience. Although taste and oral temperature are sometimes discussed as different oral sensory modalities, there is a body of literature that demonstrates temperature is an important component and modulator of the intensity of gustatory neural and perceptual responses. Available data indicate that the influence of temperature on taste, herein referred to as "thermogustation," can vary across taste qualities, can also vary among stimuli presumed to share a common taste quality, and is conditioned on taste stimulus concentration, with neuronal and psychophysical data revealing larger modulatory effects of temperature on gustatory responding to weakened taste solutions compared with concentrated. What is more, thermogustation is evidenced to involve interplay between mouth and stimulus temperature. Given these and other dependencies, identifying principles by which thermal input affects gustatory information flow in the nervous system may be important for ultimately unravelling the organization of neural circuits for taste and defining their involvement with multisensory processing related to flavor. Yet thermal effects are relatively understudied in gustatory neuroscience. Major gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of thermogustation include delineating supporting receptors, the potential involvement of oral thermal and somatosensory trigeminal neurons in thermogustatory interactions, and the broader operational roles of temperature in gustatory processing. This review will discuss these and other issues in the context of the literature relevant to understanding thermogustation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. A low-salt diet increases the expression of renal sirtuin 1 through activation of the ghrelin receptor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-Yu; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-09-07

    Previous studies have shown that sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is renoprotective; however, details regarding its distribution and functions in the kidney remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt1 was mainly expressed in the tubulointerstitial cells of normal rat kidneys and was co-localized with aquaporin 2, indicating it may be involved in water/salt regulation. Renal Sirt1 expression increased in the non-glomerular cytoplasmic portion of the kidney after a 24-h fast, but no significant changes in Sirt1 expression occurred after water loading (50 mL/kg) or 24-h water deprivation. After consuming a low-salt (0.075%) or 60% calorie restriction diet for 7 days, Sirt1 expression in the rat kidney was significantly increased, whereas a high-salt (8%) diet did not change the level of Sirt1 expression. The low-salt diet also increased Sirt1 expression in the heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. The increased Sirt1 that was observed in rats on a low-salt diet was associated with increased ghrelin expression in the distal nephron, with both molecules exhibiting similar distribution patterns. An in vitro experiment suggested that ghrelin increases Sirt1 expression in cortical collecting duct cells by activating ghrelin receptors. Our study indicates that this 'ghrelin-Sirt1 system' may participate in regulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron.

  8. GENETIC VARIATION IN TASTE PERCEPTION AND ITS ROLE IN FOOD LIKING AND HEALTH STATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Robino, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    2012/2013 Taste has been described as the body's “nutritional gatekeeper”, affecting the identification of nutrients and toxins and guiding food choices. Genetic variation in taste receptor genes can influence perception of sweet, umami and bitter tastes, whereas less is known about the genetics of sour and salty taste. Differences in taste perception, influencing food selection and dietary behavior, have also shown important long-term health implications, especially for food-related disea...

  9. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III taste bud cells (∼50% respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+. In contrast, Receptor (Type II taste cells rarely (4% responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  10. High salt diet exacerbates vascular contraction in the absence of adenosine A₂A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Isha; Zeldin, Darryl C; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, Jamal S; Falck, John R; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2014-05-01

    High salt (4% NaCl, HS) diet modulates adenosine-induced vascular response through adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)AR). Evidence suggests that A(2A)AR stimulates cyp450-epoxygenases, leading to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generation. The aim of this study was to understand the vascular reactivity to HS and underlying signaling mechanism in the presence or absence of A(2A)AR. Therefore, we hypothesized that HS enhances adenosine-induced relaxation through EETs in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, but exaggerates contraction in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻. Organ bath and Western blot experiments were conducted in HS and normal salt (NS, 0.18% NaCl)-fed A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ and A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice aorta. HS produced concentration-dependent relaxation to non-selective adenosine analog, NECA in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, whereas contraction was observed in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice and this was attenuated by A₁AR antagonist (DPCPX). CGS 21680 (selective A(2A)AR agonist) enhanced relaxation in HS-A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ versus NS-A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, which was blocked by EETs antagonist (14,15-EEZE). Compared with NS, HS significantly upregulated the expression of vasodilators A(2A)AR and cyp2c29, whereas vasoconstrictors A₁AR and cyp4a in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ were downregulated. In A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice, however, HS significantly downregulated the expression of cyp2c29, whereas A₁AR and cyp4a were upregulated compared with A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ mice. Hence, our data suggest that in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, HS enhances A(2A)AR-induced relaxation through increased cyp-expoxygenases-derived EETs and decreased A₁AR levels, whereas in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻, HS exaggerates contraction through decreased cyp-epoxygenases and increased A₁AR levels.

  11. Sour taste responses in mice lacking PKD channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Horio

    Full Text Available The polycystic kidney disease-like ion channel PKD2L1 and its associated partner PKD1L3 are potential candidates for sour taste receptors. PKD2L1 is expressed in type III taste cells that respond to sour stimuli and genetic elimination of cells expressing PKD2L1 substantially reduces chorda tympani nerve responses to sour taste stimuli. However, the contribution of PKD2L1 and PKD1L3 to sour taste responses remains unclear.We made mice lacking PKD2L1 and/or PKD1L3 gene and investigated whole nerve responses to taste stimuli in the chorda tympani or the glossopharyngeal nerve and taste responses in type III taste cells. In mice lacking PKD2L1 gene, chorda tympani nerve responses to sour, but not sweet, salty, bitter, and umami tastants were reduced by 25-45% compared with those in wild type mice. In contrast, chorda tympani nerve responses in PKD1L3 knock-out mice and glossopharyngeal nerve responses in single- and double-knock-out mice were similar to those in wild type mice. Sour taste responses of type III fungiform taste cells (GAD67-expressing taste cells were also reduced by 25-45% by elimination of PKD2L1.These findings suggest that PKD2L1 partly contributes to sour taste responses in mice and that receptors other than PKDs would be involved in sour detection.

  12. Brain endogenous angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2-R) protects against DOCA/salt-induced hypertension in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shu-Yan; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Li, Jian-Dong; Shen, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei

    2015-03-08

    Recent studies demonstrate that there are sex differences in the expression of angiotensin receptor type 2 (AT2-R) in the kidney and that AT2-R plays an enhanced role in regulating blood pressure (BP) in females. Also, brain AT2-R activation has been reported to negatively modulate BP and sympathetic outflow. The present study investigated whether the central blockade of endogenous AT2-R augments deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-induced hypertension in both male and female rats. All rats were subcutaneously infused with DOCA combined with 1% NaCl solution as the sole drinking fluid. BP and heart rate (HR) were recorded by telemetric transmitters. To determine the effect of central AT2-R on DOCA/salt-induced hypertension, male and female rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) infused with AT2-R antagonist, PD123,319, during DOCA/salt treatment. Subsequently, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, a key cardiovascular regulatory region of the brain, was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. DOCA/salt treatment elicited a greater increase in BP in male rats than that in females. Icv infusions of the AT2-R antagonist significantly augmented DOCA/salt pressor effects in females. However, this same treatment had no enhanced effect on DOCA/salt-induced increase in the BP in males. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis of the female brain revealed that DOCA/salt treatment enhanced the mRNA and protein expression for both antihypertensive components including AT2-R, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2, and interleukin (IL)-10 and hypertensive components including angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1-R), ACE-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, but decreased mRNA expression of renin in the PVN. The central blockade of AT2-R reversed the changes in mRNA and protein expressions of ACE-2, IL-10, and renin, further increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and kept higher the expressions of AT1-R, ACE-1, and AT2-R

  13. Perception and hedonic value of basic tastes in domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginane, Cécile; Baumont, René; Favreau-Peigné, Angélique

    2011-10-24

    Taste is one of the five senses that give ruminants and other animals an awareness of their environment, especially for food selection. The sense of taste, which recognizes sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami basic tastes, is often considered of paramount importance as it is the last sense in use before foods are swallowed. It thus plays a fundamental biological role in aiding animals to regulate intake of suitable food and reject unsuitable food. However, despite potentially relevant production and welfare issues, only a few studies have investigated how ruminants perceive and evaluate the basic tastes. Here we review current knowledge on tasting abilities and hedonic value of basic tastes in domestic ruminants via the analysis of both their anatomical and neurological structures and their behavioral preferences. Studies of the organization and functioning of the anatomical and neurological structures responsible for the perception of taste in ruminants have shown that sheep, cattle and goats all have lingual receptors for all five basic tastes. However, these studies have mainly focused on the sweet and bitter tastes. They have shown in particular that cows have fewer genes coding for the bitter receptors than other mammals, making them more tolerant to this taste. This pattern has been linked to the differences in the range of toxins and so potentially in the occurrence of bitterness encountered by different species in their environment, depending on the nature of their diet. Studies of ruminant feeding behavior have shown that the taste inducing the greatest consensus in preferences is the umami taste, with a high positive hedonic value. The bitter taste seems to have a rather negative hedonic value, the salty taste either a positive or a negative one depending on body needs, while the sweet taste seems to have a positive value in cattle and goats but not in sheep. Finally, the hedonic value of the sour taste is uncertain. Besides the hedonic value, the animal

  14. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  16. The Importance of the Presence of a 5′-Ribonucleotide and the Contribution of the T1R1 + T1R3 Heterodimer and an Additional Low-Affinity Receptor in the Taste Detection of l-Glutamate as Assessed Psychophysically

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kimberly R.; Spector, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular receptors underlying the purported “umami” taste quality commonly associated with l-glutamate have been controversial. Evidence supports the involvement of the T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer, a GPCR broadly tuned to l-amino acids, but variants of two mGluRs expressed in taste buds have also been implicated. Using a rigorous psychophysical taste-testing paradigm, we demonstrated impaired, if not eliminated, detection of MSG in WT and T1R1, T1R2, T1R3, and T1R2 + T1R3 KO mice when the co...

  17. Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue, Jesusa; Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2012-03-27

    Mammalian sweet taste is primarily mediated by the type 1 taste receptor Tas1r2/Tas1r3, whereas Tas1r1/Tas1r3 act as the principal umami taste receptor. Bitter taste is mediated by a different group of G protein-coupled receptors, the Tas2rs, numbering 3 to ∼66, depending on the species. We showed previously that the behavioral indifference of cats toward sweet-tasting compounds can be explained by the pseudogenization of the Tas1r2 gene, which encodes the Tas1r2 receptor. To examine the generality of this finding, we sequenced the entire coding region of Tas1r2 from 12 species in the order Carnivora. Seven of these nonfeline species, all of which are exclusive meat eaters, also have independently pseudogenized Tas1r2 caused by ORF-disrupting mutations. Fittingly, the purifying selection pressure is markedly relaxed in these species with a pseudogenized Tas1r2. In behavioral tests, the Asian otter (defective Tas1r2) showed no preference for sweet compounds, but the spectacled bear (intact Tas1r2) did. In addition to the inactivation of Tas1r2, we found that sea lion Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 are also pseudogenized, consistent with their unique feeding behavior, which entails swallowing food whole without chewing. The extensive loss of Tas1r receptor function is not restricted to the sea lion: the bottlenose dolphin, which evolved independently from the sea lion but displays similar feeding behavior, also has all three Tas1rs inactivated, and may also lack functional bitter receptors. These data provide strong support for the view that loss of taste receptor function in mammals is widespread and directly related to feeding specializations.

  18. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds. PMID:28846687

  19. Effect of chronic treatment with angiotensin receptor ligands on water-salt balance in Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Stoynev, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular function and maintenance of water-electrolyte balance. The two major receptor types of the system, AT1 and AT2, have different, often opposite effects on these functions. To elucidate the impact of long-term treatment with selective angiotensin receptor antagonists and an agonist on water-salt balance in normotensive Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). 12-week-old male Wistar rats and SHRs were individually housed in metabolic cages and 24-h food and water intake and urine and electrolyte excretion were measured. Urinary sodium (UNa), potassium (UK) and chlorine (UCl) were determined by a flame photometer. Losartan, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist, was administered in the Wistar rats and SHRs at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day subcutaneously (sc). Wistar rats were also given the AT2 receptor antagonist, PD123319, subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg/ day. CGP 42112A, an AT2 receptor agonist, was administered intracerebroventricularly in Wistar rats at a dose of 12 microg/rat/day. The drugs were infused continuously for 14 days through osmotic minipumps. Losartan selectively increased sodium excretion in both rat strains and decreased weight gain in SHRs. PD123319 increased potassium excretion and decreased weight gain in Wistar rats. CGP 42112A increased food and water intake, urine output and UNa+ and UK+ excretion and decreased weight gain in normotensive Wistar rats. Chronic treatment with selective angiotensin receptor ligands modifies water-salt balance in rats through changes both in renal excretory function and ingestive behaviors.

  20. Novel Umami Ingredients: Umami Peptides and Their Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Pan, Zhongli; Liu, Wenlong; Zhao, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Umami substances are very important for food seasoning and healthy eating. In addition to monosodium glutamate and some nucleotides, recent investigations have revealed that several peptides also exhibit umami taste. In recent years, 52 peptides have been reported to show umami taste, including 24 dipeptides, 16 tripeptides, 5 octapeptides, 2 pentapeptides, 2 hexapeptides, 1 tetrapeptide, 1 heptapeptide, and 1 undecapeptide. Twenty of these peptides have been examined for the present of umami taste. In this review, we have listed these umami peptides based on their category, source, taste, and threshold concentration. The evidence for peptides showing umami taste, the umami taste receptors on the human tongue, and the peptides whose umami taste is controversial are also discussed. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. On the evolution of bile salts and the farnesoid X receptor in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Kim; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2018-01-01

    in vertebrates and the concurrent evolution of the FXR has become increasingly important as their role as signal molecules has become clearer. In this review, we therefore focus on common structural features of bile salts as well as evolutionary aspects of bile salts and the FXR in vertebrates. Ultimately...

  2. Targeted taste cell-specific overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult taste buds elevates phosphorylated TrkB protein levels in taste cells, increases taste bud size, and promotes gustatory innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V; Margolskee, Robert F; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2012-05-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system.

  3. Taste disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.

  4. Common Sense about Taste: From Mammals to Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Yarmolinsky, David A.; Zuker, Charles S.; Ryba, Nicholas J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The sense of taste is a specialized chemosensory system dedicated to the evaluation of food and drink. Despite the fact that vertebrates and insects have independently evolved distinct anatomic and molecular pathways for taste sensation, there are clear parallels in the organization and coding logic between the two systems. There is now persuasive evidence that tastant quality is mediated by labeled lines, whereby distinct and strictly segregated populations of taste receptor cells encode eac...

  5. Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated by intracellular acidification acting on acid-sensitive membrane proteins. Once a taste signal is generated in a taste cell, the subsequent steps involve secretion of neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin. It is now recognized that the cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami taste stimuli do not possess synapses and instead secrete the neurotransmitter ATP via a novel mechanism not involving conventional vesicular exocytosis. ATP is believed to excite primary sensory afferent fibers that convey gustatory signals to the brain. In contrast, taste cells that do have synapses release serotonin in response to gustatory stimulation. The postsynaptic targets of serotonin have not yet been identified. Finally, ATP secreted from receptor cells also acts on neighboring taste cells to stimulate their release of serotonin. This suggests that there is important information processing and signal coding taking place in the mammalian taste bud after gustatory stimulation. PMID:17468883

  6. The Importance of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 (GRK4 in Pathogenesis of Salt Sensitivity, Salt Sensitive Hypertension and Response to Antihypertensive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rayner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt sensitivity is probably caused by either a hereditary or acquired defect of salt excretion by the kidney, and it is reasonable to consider that this is the basis for differences in hypertension between black and white people. Dopamine acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to promote natriuresis in the proximal tubule and thick ascending loop of Henle. G-protein receptor kinases (or GRKs are serine and threonine kinases that phosphorylate G protein-coupled receptors in response to agonist stimulation and uncouple the dopamine receptor from its G protein. This results in a desensitisation process that protects the cell from repeated agonist exposure. GRK4 activity is increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and infusion of GRK4 antisense oligonucleotides attenuates the increase in blood pressure (BP. This functional defect is replicated in the proximal tubule by expression of GRK4 variants namely p.Arg65Leu, p.Ala142Val and p.Val486Ala, in cell lines, with the p.Ala142Val showing the most activity. In humans, GRK4 polymorphisms were shown to be associated with essential hypertension in Australia, BP regulation in young adults, low renin hypertension in Japan and impaired stress-induced Na excretion in normotensive black men. In South Africa, GRK4 polymorphisms are more common in people of African descent, associated with impaired Na excretion in normotensive African people, and predict blood pressure response to Na restriction in African patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The therapeutic importance of the GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was emphasised in the African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK where African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis were randomised to receive amlodipine, ramipril or metoprolol. Men with the p.Ala142Val genotype were less likely to respond to metoprolol, especially if they also had the p.Arg65Leu variant. Furthermore, in the analysis of response to treatment in

  7. AP1 transcription factors are required to maintain the peripheral taste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Jayasha; Gao, Yankun; Nayak, Tapan K; Roberts, Stefan G E; Medler, Kathryn F

    2016-10-27

    The sense of taste is used by organisms to achieve the optimal nutritional requirement and avoid potentially toxic compounds. In the oral cavity, taste receptor cells are grouped together in taste buds that are present in specialized taste papillae in the tongue. Taste receptor cells are the cells that detect chemicals in potential food items and transmit that information to gustatory nerves that convey the taste information to the brain. As taste cells are in contact with the external environment, they can be damaged and are routinely replaced throughout an organism's lifetime to maintain functionality. However, this taste cell turnover loses efficiency over time resulting in a reduction in taste ability. Currently, very little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the renewal and maintenance of taste cells. We therefore performed RNA-sequencing analysis on isolated taste cells from 2 and 6-month-old mice to determine how alterations in the taste cell-transcriptome regulate taste cell maintenance and function in adults. We found that the activator protein-1 (AP1) transcription factors (c-Fos, Fosb and c-Jun) and genes associated with this pathway were significantly downregulated in taste cells by 6 months and further declined at 12 months. We generated conditional c-Fos-knockout mice to target K14-expressing cells, including differentiating taste cells. c-Fos deletion caused a severe perturbation in taste bud structure and resulted in a significant reduction in the taste bud size. c-Fos deletion also affected taste cell turnover as evident by a decrease in proliferative marker, and upregulation of the apoptotic marker cleaved-PARP. Thus, AP1 factors are important regulators of adult taste cell renewal and their downregulation negatively impacts taste maintenance.

  8. Salt controls feeding decisions in a blood-sucking insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Gina; Pereira, Marcos H; Barrozo, Romina B

    2017-04-01

    Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0.1-0.15M) and in presence of the phagostimulant ATP. Conversely, feeding solutions that do not contain salts or have a high-salt concentration (>0.3M) are not ingested by insects. Notably, we show that feeding decisions of insects cannot be explained as an osmotic effect, because they still feed over hyperosmotic solutions bearing the optimal salt concentration. Insects perceive optimal-salt, no-salt and high-salt solutions as different gustatory information, as revealed the electromyogram recordings of the cibarial pump. Moreover, because insects do a continuous gustatory monitoring of the incoming food during feeding, sudden changes beyond the optimal sodium concentration decrease and even inhibit feeding. The administration of amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, noticeably reduces the ingestion of the optimal sodium solution but not of the optimal potassium solution. Salt detection seems to occur at least through two salt receptors, one amiloride-sensitive and another amiloride-insensitive. Our results confirm the importance of the gustatory system in R. prolixus, showing the relevant role that salts play on their feeding decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Significance of Umami Taste and Umami-Related Gene Expression Analysis for the Objective Assessment of Umami Taste Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Noriaki; Satoh-Ku Riwada, Shizuko; Sasano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of umami taste sensation affects quality of life and causes weight loss and health problems, particularly in the elderly. We recently expanded the use of the filter paper disc method to include assessment of umami taste sensitivity, using monosodium glutamate as the test solution. This test showed high diagnostic performance for discriminating between normal taste function and disorders in sensation of the umami taste, according to established cut-off values. The test also revealed: (1) some elderly patients suffered from specific loss of umami taste sensation with preservation of the other four taste sensations (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter); (2) umami taste disorder caused a loss of appetite and decline in weight, resulting in poor health; (3) appetite, weight and overall health improved after appropriate treatment for umami taste disorder. Because of the subjective nature of the test, however, it may not be useful for patients who cannot express which taste sensation is induced by a tastant, such as those with dementia. Most recently, using tissue samples collected from the tongue by scraping the foliate papillae, we showed that evaluation of umami taste receptor gene expression may be clinically useful for the objective genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders.

  10. Tachykinins Stimulate a Subset of Mouse Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1). These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like) and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor) cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor) cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods. PMID:22363709

  11. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  12. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion ...

  13. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  14. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... in a restaurant; medical professionals and patients in a hospital; and people gathered for a wine tasting event, daily dinner or a meal in a convent. The ethnographic materials are used to engage with what so far social science literatures on tasting tend to take for granted: that tasting is a physiological...... particular practices, the chapters unpack each of these assumptions. What emerges is an alternative, composite understanding of tasting as variously done in varied mundane practices....

  15. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. The PGE(2)-EP4 receptor is necessary for stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to low dietary salt intake in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pöschke, Antje; Kern, Niklas; Maruyama, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and PGE(2) synthesis have been shown to be prerequisites for renal renin release after Na(+) deprivation. To answer the question of whether EP4 receptor type of PGE(2) mediates renin regulation under a low-salt diet, we examined renin regulation in EP4......(+/+), EP4(-/-), and in wild-type mice treated with EP4 receptor antagonist. After 2 wk of a low-salt diet (0.02% wt/wt NaCl), EP4(+/+) mice showed diminished Na(+) excretion, unchanged K(+) excretion, and reduced Ca(2+) excretion. Diuresis and plasma electrolytes remained unchanged. EP4(-/-) exhibited...... groups, the low-salt diet caused a significantly greater rise in PGE(2) excretion. Furthermore, mRNA expression for COX-2 and PGE(2) synthetic activity was significantly greater in EP4(-/-) than in EP4(+/+) mice. We conclude that low dietary salt intake induces expression of COX-2 followed by enhanced...

  17. What is taste and how do we teach taste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a proposal for a didactics of taste and a reflection theory of taste didactics. Inspired and informed by systems theory, this proposal includes two aspects of taste education. The first section deals with taste as the content of teaching. Here, the intention is to enable...... students to learn about taste. This section presents a systematic division of taste into its four main dimensions: The dimension of good taste, the dimension of healthy taste, the dimension of perceived taste, and the dimension of moral taste. The second section comprises taste as an instrument of teaching....... Here, the intention is to use ‘taste’ as a means to teach home economics and food education. This section answers the question of how to teach in a way that enables the students to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the four dimensions of taste. In this section four knowledge types...

  18. The taste of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesz, Bruno; Trevisan, Marcos A; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Zarlino, one of the most important music theorists of the XVI century, described the minor consonances as 'sweet' (dolci) and 'soft' (soavi) (Zarlino 1558/1983, in On the Modes New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983). Hector Berlioz, in his Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration (London: Novello, 1855), speaks about the 'small acid-sweet voice' of the oboe. In line with this tradition of describing musical concepts in terms of taste words, recent empirical studies have found reliable associations between taste perception and low-level sound and musical parameters, like pitch and phonetic features. Here we investigated whether taste words elicited consistent musical representations by asking trained musicians to improvise on the basis of the four canonical taste words: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Our results showed that, even in free improvisation, taste words elicited very reliable and consistent musical patterns:'bitter' improvisations are low-pitched and legato (without interruption between notes), 'salty' improvisations are staccato (notes sharply detached from each other), 'sour' improvisations are high-pitched and dissonant, and 'sweet' improvisations are consonant, slow, and soft. Interestingly, projections of the improvisations of taste words to musical space (a vector space defined by relevant musical parameters) revealed that, in musical space, improvisations based on different taste words were nearly orthogonal or opposite. Decoding methods could classify binary choices of improvisations (i.e., identify the improvisation word from the melody) at performance of around 80%--well above chance. In a second experiment we investigated the mapping from perception of music to taste words. Fifty-seven non-musical experts listened to a fraction of the improvisations. We found that listeners classified with high performance the taste word which had elicited the improvisation. Our results, furthermore, show that associations of taste and music

  19. Enhancement of Combined Umami and Salty Taste by Glutathione in the Human Tongue and Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tazuko K; Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ito, Yuki; Jung, Han-Sung; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-09-01

    Glutathione, a natural substance, acts on calcium receptors on the tongue and is known to enhance basic taste sensations. However, the effects of glutathione on brain activity associated with taste sensation on the tongue have not been determined under standardized taste delivery conditions. In this study, we investigated the sensory effect of glutathione on taste with no effect of the smell when glutathione added to a combined umami and salty taste stimulus. Twenty-six volunteers (12 women and 14 men; age 19-27 years) performed a sensory evaluation of taste of a solution of monosodium L-glutamate and sodium chloride, with and without glutathione. The addition of glutathione changed taste qualities and significantly increased taste intensity ratings under standardized taste delivery conditions (P umami and salty mixture. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Enhanced water and salt intake in transgenic mice with brain-restricted overexpression of angiotensin (AT1) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazartigues, Eric; Sinnayah, Puspha; Augoyard, Ginette; Gharib, Claude; Johnson, Alan Kim; Davisson, Robin L

    2008-11-01

    To address the relative contribution of central and peripheral angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1A receptors (AT(1A)) to blood pressure and volume homeostasis, we generated a transgenic mouse model [neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-AT(1A)] with brain-restricted overexpression of AT(1A) receptors. These mice are normotensive at baseline but have dramatically enhanced pressor and bradycardic responses to intracerebroventricular ANG II or activation of endogenous ANG II production. Here our goal was to examine the water and sodium intake in this model under basal conditions and in response to increased ANG II levels. Baseline water and NaCl (0.3 M) intakes were significantly elevated in NSE-AT(1A) compared with nontransgenic littermates, and bolus intracerebroventricular injections of ANG II (200 ng in 200 nl) caused further enhanced water intake in NSE-AT(1A). Activation of endogenous ANG II production by sodium depletion (10 days low-sodium diet followed by furosemide, 1 mg sc) enhanced NaCl intake in NSE-AT(1A) mice compared with wild types. Fos immunohistochemistry, used to assess neuronal activation, demonstrated sodium depletion-enhanced activity in the anteroventral third ventricle region of the brain in NSE-AT(1A) mice compared with control animals. The results show that brain-selective overexpression of AT(1A) receptors results in enhanced salt appetite and altered water intake. This model provides a new tool for studying the mechanisms of brain AT(1A)-dependent water and salt consumption.

  1. Place-based taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Joshua David; Flore, Roberto; Pedersen, Jonas Astrup

    2015-01-01

    taste, generating and adapting practical ideas and methods for those who make food and those who enjoy eating. This paper describes some of our methods, using geography as a starting point for the exploration of deliciousness, exemplified in our lunch menu served at the Science of Taste symposium...

  2. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of taste...

  3. Clindamycin and taste disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mark C H; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Topical use of clindamycin has been associated with taste disorders in the literature, but little is known about the nature of this adverse drug reaction. The aim of this article was to describe reports of clindamycin-induced taste disorders and to analyse the factors involved. METHODS: The

  4. Olfaction, taste, and cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouby, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    .... The book is conveniently divided into sections, including linguistic representations, emotion, memory, neural bases, and individual variation. Leading experts have written chapters on many facets of taste and smell, including odor memory, cortical representations, psychophysics and functional imaging studies, genetic variation in taste, and ...

  5. Gut Taste Stimulants Alter Brain Activity in Areas Related to Working Memory: a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach; Claudia Suenderhauf; Lukas Bereiter; Davide Zanchi; Christoph Beglinger; Stefan Borgwardt; Bettina K Wölnerhanssen

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Taste perception is one of the most important primary oral reinforcers, driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible. Methods: In the present pilot study, we determined the effects of five taste qualities “bitter” (quinine), “sweet” (glu...

  6. Diurnal Variation of Human Sweet Taste Recognition Thresholds Is Correlated With Plasma Leptin Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yuki; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Ohta, Rie; Shirosaki, Shinya; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?It has recently been proposed that the peripheral taste organ is one of the targets for leptin. In lean mice, leptin selectively suppresses gustatory neural and behavioral responses to sweet compounds without affecting responses to other taste stimuli, whereas obese diabetic db/db mice with defects in leptin receptor lack this leptin suppression on sweet taste. Here, we further examined potential links between leptin and sweet taste in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?A total of ...

  7. Pragmatically on the sense of taste – a short treatise based on culinary art

    OpenAIRE

    Waluga, Marek; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Buschhaus, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The sense of taste is essential for proper functioning of the organism. The authors describe, in an accessible way, the complex mechanisms of taste perception. The structure of particular taste receptors, variants of their activation, as well as physical and chemical factors modifying the sensation of taste, are presented. Exquisite culinary examples are given in order to facilitate the reader with the understanding of why, at the level of the cerebral cortex, a virtually infinite number of c...

  8. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  9. Will mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodiumbicarbonate or citric acid improve upper gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Karen Joy

    2017-03-01

    Uraemic symptoms including taste changes, nausea and dry retching are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Taste buds detect five basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, umami and bitter. Saliva in CKD usually has increased concentrations of urea, sodium, potassium, phosphate and higher pH levels. Genetic sensitivities to the bitter taste, with the changes in saliva can cause taste changes and impact uraemic symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess if mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodium bicarbonate or citric acid improves upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in CKD patients. An interventional crossover study with 42 CKD patients (21 men, 21 women) complaining of upper GI symptoms were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire to assess symptoms and tested for genetic taste sensitivities. Saliva samples were analysed. Mouth rinse solutions of salt, bicarbonate, citric acid and de-ionised water were trialled in randomized order for patient reaction and symptom improvement. All 42 patients experienced anorexia, 39 (93%) reported taste changes, 27 (48%) nausea and 27 (48%) dry retching. All solutions improved symptoms in some patients. Sodium bicarbonate (P = 0.005) gave the greatest improvement in mouth feel and symptom control compared with the least favoured citric acid solution. Sixty-six percent of patients found sodium bicarbonate beneficial with 40% preference over other solutions. Simple mouthwashes can be used to relieve or eliminate some uraemic symptoms. Rinsing the mouth with a sodium bicarbonate solution cleanses receptors on taste buds and may alter mouth pH thereby reducing some upper GI symptoms that CKD patients can experience. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Brain mineralocorticoid receptor function in control of salt balance and stress-adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, Edo Ronald; Joels, Marian

    2017-01-01

    We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  12. An Examination of the Role of L-Glutamate and Inosine 5'-Monophosphate in Hedonic Taste-Guided Behavior by Mice Lacking the T1R1 + T1R3 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2017-06-01

    The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control. Similar tests followed with monosodium glutamate (MSG) with and without the ribonucleotide inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), but always in the presence of the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride (A). Brief-access tests were repeated following short-term (30-min) and long-term (48-h) exposures to MSG + A + IMP and were also conducted with sodium gluconate replacing MSG. Finally, progressive ratio tests were conducted with Maltrin-580 or MSG + A + IMP, to assess appetitive behavior while minimizing satiation. Overall, MSG generated little concentration-dependent responding in either food-restricted WT or KO mice, even in combination with IMP. However, KO mice licked less to the amino acid stimuli, a measure of consummatory behavior in the brief-access tests. In contrast, both groups initiated a similar number of trials and had a similar breakpoint in the progressive ratio task, both measures of appetitive (approach) behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that while the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is necessary for consummatory responding to MSG (+IMP), other receptors are sufficient to maintain appetitive responding to this "umami" stimulus complex in food-restricted mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Calcium channel blockers, more than diuretics, enhance vascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers in salt-loaded hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The combination therapy of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB with a calcium channel blocker (CCB or with a diuretic is favorably recommended for the treatment of hypertension. However, the difference between these two combination therapies is unclear. The present work was undertaken to examine the possible difference between the two combination therapies in vascular protection. Salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP were divided into 6 groups, and they were orally administered (1 vehicle, (2 olmesartan, an ARB, (3 azelnidipine, a CCB, (4 hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic, (5 olmesartan combined with azelnidipine, or (6 olmesartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide. Olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling in SHRSP more than did monotherapy with either agent. However, despite a comparable blood pressure lowering effect between the two treatments, azelnidipine enhanced the amelioration of vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling by olmesartan to a greater extent than did hydrochlorothiazide in salt-loaded SHRSP. The increased enhancement by azelnidipine of olmesartan-induced vascular protection than by hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a greater amelioration of vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activation, superoxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and with a greater activation of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS pathway. These results provided the first evidence that a CCB potentiates the vascular protective effects of an ARB in salt-sensitive hypertension, compared with a diuretic, and provided a novel rationale explaining the benefit of the combination therapy with an ARB and a CCB.

  14. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    hard to name. Pleasure and embarrassment, food-­like vitality, erotic titillation, the satisfaction or discomfort that follow a meal-we suggest that these may all be included in "tasting." Thus teasing the language alters what speakers and eaters may sense and say. It complements the repertoires...... words to do so, we are compelled to stretch the verb "to taste." Tasting, or so our ethnographic experiment suggests, need not be understood as an activity confined to the tongue. Instead, if given a chance, it may viscously spread out to the fingers and come to include appreciative reactions otherwise...

  15. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, Michael S.; Hurtado, Maria D.; Brown, Alicia R.; Bohórquez, Diego V.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Herzog, Herbert; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Dotson, Cedrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the peripheral taste system may be modulated in the context of an animal's metabolic state. One purported mechanism for this phenomenon is that circulating gastrointestinal peptides modulate the functioning of the peripheral gustatory system. Recent evidence suggests endocrine signaling in the oral cavity can influence food intake (FI) and satiety. We hypothesized that these hormones may be affecting FI by influencing taste perception. We used immunohistochemistry along with genetic knockout models and the specific reconstitution of peptide YY (PYY) in saliva using gene therapy protocols to identify a role for PYY signaling in taste. We show that PYY is expressed in subsets of taste cells in murine taste buds. We also show, using brief-access testing with PYY knockouts, that PYY signaling modulates responsiveness to bitter-tasting stimuli, as well as to lipid emulsions. We show that salivary PYY augmentation, via viral vector therapy, rescues behavioral responsiveness to a lipid emulsion but not to bitter stimuli and that this response is likely mediated via activation of Y2 receptors localized apically in taste cells. Our findings suggest distinct functions for PYY produced locally in taste cells vs. that circulating systemically.—La Sala, M. S., Hurtado, M. D., Brown, A. R., Bohórquez, D. V., Liddle, R. A., Herzog, H., Zolotukhin, S., Dotson, C. D. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY. PMID:24043261

  16. The cell biology of taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Taste buds are aggregates of 50–100 polarized neuroepithelial cells that detect nutrients and other compounds. Combined analyses of gene expression and cellular function reveal an elegant cellular organization within the taste bud. This review discusses the functional classes of taste cells, their cell biology, and current thinking on how taste information is transmitted to the brain. PMID:20696704

  17. Evidence that humans can taste glucose polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Lim, Juyun

    2014-11-01

    The sense of taste is essential for identifying potential nutrients and poisons. Accordingly, specialized taste receptor cells are activated by food-derived chemicals. Because of its importance in the human diet, oral detection of starch, or its degradation products, would presumably be highly beneficial. Yet, it has long been assumed that simple sugars are the only class of carbohydrates that humans can taste. There is, however, considerable evidence that rodents can taste starch degradation products (i.e., glucose polymers composed of maltooligosaccharides with 3-10 glucose units and maltopolysaccharides with >10 glucose units) and that their detection is independent of the sweet taste receptor, T1R2/T1R3. The present study was designed 1) to measure individual differences in human taste perception of glucose polymers, 2) to understand individual differences in the activity of salivary α-amylase, and 3) to investigate the role that salivary α-amylase may play in the taste perception of glucose polymers. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste intensity of glucose, sucrose, NaCl, and glucose polymers of various chain lengths, while their noses were clamped. Saliva samples from the subjects were also collected and their salivary α-amylase activity was assayed. Results showed that the perceived intensities of glucose, sucrose, and NaCl were significantly correlated (r = 0.75-0.85, P glucose polymers, whereas intensity ratings of all glucose polymers were highly correlated with one another (r = 0.69-0.82, P glucose polymers did not significantly differ between individuals with high and low α-amylase activity. A follow up experiment was conducted to quantify the concentrations of glucose and maltose that were inherently present in the glucose polymer stimuli and to determine whether the amounts were within a perceptually detectable range. Results revealed that the amounts of simple sugars present in the test stimuli were trivial and were mostly at an

  18. Flavylium salts as in vitro precursors of potent ligands to brain GABA-A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kueny-Stotz, Marie; Chassaing, Stefan; Brouillard, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of derivatized flavylium cations was undertaken and the affinity to the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABA-A receptor evaluated. The observed high affinity for some derivatives (sub-muM range) was explained by an in vitro transformation of the flavylium cations...

  19. Relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or bitter taste acuity and food selection in Japanese women university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masaru; Toda, Chikako; Nagai-Moriyama, Ayako

    2018-01-01

    Although there are many studies on the umami receptor and its signaling pathway, literature on the effect of umami taste acuity on dietary choices in healthy subjects is limited. The current study aims to clarify the relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or bitter taste acuity, food preference and intake. Forty-two healthy Japanese female university students were enrolled. The acuity for umami, sweet, and bitter tastes was evaluated using the filter-paper disc method. The study population was divided into 32 umami normal tasters and 10 hypo-tasters based on the taste acuity at the posterior part of the tongue using monosodium glutamate. Umami hypo-tasters exhibited a significantly lower sensitivity to sweet tastes than normal tasters. However, the sensitivity to bitter taste was comparable between the two groups. Food preference was examined by the food preference checklist consisted of 81 food items. Among them, umami tasters preferred shellfish, tomato, carrot, milk, low fat milk, cheese, dried shiitake, and kombu significantly more than umami hypo-tasters did. A self-reported food frequency questionnaire revealed no significant differences in the intake of calories and three macronutrients between the two groups; however, umami tasters were found to eat more seaweeds and less sugar than umami hypo-tasters. These data together may indicate the possibility that umami taste acuity has an effect on a dietary life. Therefore, training umami taste acuity from early childhood is important for a healthy diet later in life.

  20. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    Taste for Life” (“Smag for Livet” in Danish) is a unique interdisciplinary research and communication center with focus on taste, food and the senses. The center involves researchers from the humanities (pedagogical and didactical scientists), natural sciences (sensory scientists...... and the humanities and social sciences. We do so by engaging scholars from different disciplines in a close, collaborative effort hereby generating new knowledge on taste. The center thus includes researchers from several universities and colleges, chefs from innovation kitchens, and teachers from elementary schools......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...

  1. Taste and the taste of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, James C.

    1980-01-01

    At least 12 distinct taste sensations can be elicited from different parts of the oral cavity by distinct chemical compounds. The chemicals eliciting each sensation are often common constituents of foods, thus the umami sensations arise with stimulation by monosodium glutamate and nucleotides. These sensations can often be related to different physical/chemical stimulus parameters (e.g., bitterness and hydrophobicity) and neural activity in distinct chemosensory channels.

  2. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  3. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KWON, JAE YOUNG; DAHANUKAR, ANUPAMA; WEISS, LINNEA A; CARLSON, JOHN R

    2014-01-01

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). We define 9 categories of projections in the thoracico-abdominal ganglia and 10 categories in the SOG. The projection patterns are modular, and can be interpreted as combinations of discrete pattern elements. The elements can be interpreted in terms of the taste organ from which the projections originate, the structures from which they originate, and the quality of taste information that they represent. The extensive diversity in projection patterns provides an anatomical basis for functional diversity in responses elicited by different taste stimuli. PMID:25116611

  4. Temporal, Affective, and Embodied Characteristics of Taste Experiences: A Framework for Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrist, M.; Comber, R.; Subramanian, S.; Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Velasco, C.; Spence, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present rich descriptions of taste experience through an analysis of the diachronic and synchronic experiences of each of the five basic taste qualities: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. Our findings, based on a combination of user experience evaluation techniques highlight three main

  5. Tasting Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.Human neutrophils express the bitter receptor T2R38 as sensor for the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eMaurer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria communicate with each other via specialized signalling molecules, known as quorum sensing molecules or autoinducers. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL-12, however, also activates mammalian cells. As shown previously, AHL-12 induced chemotaxis, up-regulated CD11b expression, and enhanced phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. Circumstantial evidence concurred with a receptor for AHL-12, which so far has been elusive. We investigated the bitter receptor T2R38 as a potential candidate. Although identified as a taste receptor, cells outside the gustatory system express T2R38, for example epithelial cells in the lung. We now detected T2R38 in peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes on the cell membrane, but also intracellular. In neutrophils, T2R38 was located in vesicles with characteristics of lipid droplets, and super-resolution microscopy showed a co-localisation with the lipid droplet membrane. Neutrophils take up AHL-12, and it co-localized with T2R38 as seen by laser scan microscopy. Binding of AHL-12 to T2R28 was confirmed by pull-down assays using biotin-coupled AHL-12 as bait. A commercially available antibody to T2R38 inhibited binding of AHL-12 to neutrophils, and this antibody by itself stimulated neutrophils, similarly to AHL-12. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for expression of functional T2R38 on neutrophils, and are compatible with the notion that T2R38 is the receptor for AHL-12 on neutrophils.

  6. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 (TRPM4) Contributes to High Salt Diet-Mediated Early-Stage Endothelial Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Qing; Ban, Tao; Liu, Zeng-Yan; Lou, Jie; Tang, Liang-Liang; Wang, Jia-Xin; Chu, Wen-Feng; Zhao, Dan; Song, Bin-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel plays a role in high salt diet (HSD)-induced endothelial injuries. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to examine TRPM4 expression in the mesenteric endothelium of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats fed a HSD. The MTT, TUNEL, and transwell assays were used to evaluate the cell viability, cell apoptosis, and cell migration, respectively, of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. Carboxy-H2DCFDA, a membrane-permeable reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive fluorescent probe, was used to detect intracellular ROS levels. TRPM4 was mainly expressed near the plasma membrane of mesenteric artery endothelial cells, and its expression level increased in SS hypertensive rats fed a HSD. Its protein expression was significantly upregulated upon treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and aldosterone in cultured HUVECs. Cell viability decreased upon treatment with both agents in a concentration-dependent manner, which could be partially reversed by 9-phenanthrol, a specific TRPM4 inhibitor. Exogenous H2O2 induced apoptosis, enhanced cell migration, and increased the release of adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, all of which were significantly attenuated upon treatment with 9-phenanthrol. Aldosterone and H2O2 induced the accumulation of intracellular ROS, which was significantly inhibited by 9-phenanthrol, suggesting that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms underlying aldosterone-induced endothelial injury. Given the fact that oxidative stress and high levels of circulating aldosterone are present in hypertensive patients, we suggest that the upregulation of TRPM4 in the vascular endothelium may be involved in endothelial injuries caused

  7. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 (TRPM4 Contributes to High Salt Diet-Mediated Early-Stage Endothelial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qing Ding

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study investigated whether the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4 channel plays a role in high salt diet (HSD-induced endothelial injuries. Methods: Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to examine TRPM4 expression in the mesenteric endothelium of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS rats fed a HSD. The MTT, TUNEL, and transwell assays were used to evaluate the cell viability, cell apoptosis, and cell migration, respectively, of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Carboxy-H2DCFDA, a membrane-permeable reactive oxygen species (ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, was used to detect intracellular ROS levels. Results: TRPM4 was mainly expressed near the plasma membrane of mesenteric artery endothelial cells, and its expression level increased in SS hypertensive rats fed a HSD. Its protein expression was significantly upregulated upon treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and aldosterone in cultured HUVECs. Cell viability decreased upon treatment with both agents in a concentration-dependent manner, which could be partially reversed by 9-phenanthrol, a specific TRPM4 inhibitor. Exogenous H2O2 induced apoptosis, enhanced cell migration, and increased the release of adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, all of which were significantly attenuated upon treatment with 9-phenanthrol. Aldosterone and H2O2 induced the accumulation of intracellular ROS, which was significantly inhibited by 9-phenanthrol, suggesting that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms underlying aldosterone-induced endothelial injury. Conclusions: Given the fact that oxidative stress and high levels of circulating aldosterone are present in hypertensive patients, we suggest that the upregulation of TRPM4 in the vascular

  8. Why do we like sweet taste: A bitter tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-10-01

    Sweet is widely considered to be one of a small number of basic or primary taste qualities. Liking for sweet tasting substances is innate, although postnatal experiences can shape responses. The power of sweet taste to induce consumption and to motivate behavior is profound, suggesting the importance of this sense for many species. Most investigators presume that the ability to identify sweet molecules through the sense of taste evolved to allow organisms to detect sources of readily available glucose from plants. Perhaps the best evidence supporting this presumption are recent discoveries in comparative biology demonstrating that species in the order Carnivora that do not consume plants also do not perceive sweet taste due to the pseudogenization of a component of the primary sweet taste receptor. However, arguing against this idea is the observation that the sweetness of a plant, or the amount of easily metabolizable sugars contained in the plant, provides little quantitative indication of the plant's energy or broadly conceived food value. Here it is suggested that the perceptual ratio of sweet taste to bitter taste (a signal for toxicity) may be a better gauge of a plant's broadly conceived food value than sweetness alone and that it is this ratio that helps guide selection or rejection of a potential plant food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  10. Evaluation of changes in the taste of cooked meat products during curing using an artificial taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodake, Kazumasa; Numata, Masahiro; Kosai, Kiichi; Kim, Yun-Jung; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess an evaluation method using an artificial taste sensor, in comparison with chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of the taste of meat during curing. Samples of Canadian pork were treated with salt, nitrite and phosphate. Curing time ranged from 0 to 168 h. In the sensory evaluation, there were no significant differences in the all characteristic items at 72-h cured sample compared to the 0-h sample. Some of the characteristic items for the 168-h sample (umami, overall taste, richness and overall palatability) showed significant difference (P curing time (R = 0.98 and 0.97, respectively), and total free amino acids (R = 0.91 and 0.96, respectively). The sensor output of bitterness was significantly correlated (R = 0.96) with the sum of amino acids corresponding to bitter taste. The increase in the chemical components contributing to bitterness and/or saltiness was indicated as the cause of the characteristic taste. Taste sensor analysis may be applicable as a qualitative method for evaluating taste characteristics generated during the curing of manufactured cooked meat products. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Mechanisms of taste bud cell loss after head and neck irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha M.; Reyland, Mary E.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste loss in human patients following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer is a common and significant problem, but the cellular mechanisms underlying this loss are not understood. Taste stimuli are transduced by receptor cells within taste buds, and like epidermal cells, taste cells are regularly replaced throughout adult life. This renewal relies on a progenitor cells adjacent to taste buds, which continually supply new cells to each bud. Here we treated adult mice with a single 8 Gy dose of X-ray irradiation to the head and neck, and analyzed taste epithelium at 1–21 days post-irradiation (dpi). We found irradiation targets the taste progenitor cells, which undergo cell cycle arrest (1–3 dpi) and apoptosis (within 1 dpi). Taste progenitors resume proliferation at 5–7 dpi, with the proportion of cells in S and M phase exceeding control levels at 5–6 and 6 dpi, respectively, suggesting that proliferation is accelerated and/or synchronized following radiation damage. Using BrdU birthdating to identify newborn cells, we found that the decreased proliferation following irradiation reduces the influx of cells at 1–2 dpi, while the robust proliferation detected at 6 dpi accelerates entry of new cells into taste buds. By contrast, the number of differentiated taste cells was not significantly reduced until 7 dpi. These data suggest a model where continued natural taste cell death, paired with temporary interruption of cell replacement underlies taste loss after irradiation. PMID:22399770

  12. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B.; INOUE, MASASHI; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O.; Reed, Danielle R.; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a sign...

  13. A Glycine soja ABA-responsive receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, GsRLCK, positively controls plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, XiaoLi; Sun, Mingzhe; Luo, Xiao; Ding, XiaoDong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Liu, XiaoFei; Zhu, YanMing

    2013-06-01

    Receptor such as protein kinases are proposed to work as sensors to initiate signaling cascades in higher plants. However, little is known about the precise functions of receptor such as protein kinases in abiotic stress response in plants, especially in wild soybean. Here, we focused on characterization of the biological functions of a receptor-like cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase gene, GsRLCK, which was previously identified as a putative salt-alkali stress-related gene from the transcriptome profiles of Glycine soja. Bioinformatic analysis showed that GsRLCK protein contained a conserved kinase catalytic domain and two transmembrane domains at the N-terminus, but no typical extracellular domain. Consistently, GsRLCK-eGFP fusion protein was observed on the plasma membrane, but eGFP alone was distributing throughout the cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of GsRLCK by ABA, salt, alkali, and drought stresses. However, the expression levels of GsRLCK seemed to be similar in different tissues, except soybean pod. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that GsRLCK overexpression decreased ABA sensitivity and altered expression levels of ABA-responsive genes. Furthermore, we also found that GsRLCK conferred increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses and increased expression levels of a handful of stress-responsive genes, when overexpressing in Arabidopsis. In a word, we gave exact evidence that GsRLCK was a novel receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase and played a crucial role in plant responses to ABA, salt, and drought stresses.

  14. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Young, T.; Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at

  15. Opiate-agonist induced taste aversion learning in the Fischer 344 and Lewis inbred rat strains: evidence for differential mu opioid receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine M; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2009-10-01

    The Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) inbred rat strains react differently to morphine in a number of behavioral and physiological preparations, including the acquisition of aversions induced by this compound. The present experiment tested the ability of various compounds with relative selectivity at kappa, delta and mu receptor subtypes to assess the relative roles of these subtypes in mediating the differential aversive effects of morphine in the two strains. In the assessment of the role of the kappa receptor in morphine-induced aversions, animals in both strains were given access to saccharin followed by varying doses of the kappa agonist (-)-U50,488H (0.0, 0.28, 0.90 and 1.60 mg/kg). Although (-)-U50,488H induced aversions in both strains, no strain differences emerged. A separate subset of subjects was trained with the selective delta opioid agonist, SNC80 (0.0, 5.6, 10.0 and 18.0 mg/kg), and again although SNC80 induced aversions, there were no strain differences. Finally, a third subset of subjects was trained with heroin (0.0, 3.2, 5.6 and 10.0 mg/kg), a compound with activity at all three opiate receptor subtypes. Although heroin induced aversions in both strains, the aversions were significantly greater in the F344 strain, suggesting that differential activation of the mu opioid receptor likely mediates the reported strain differences in morphine-induced aversion learning. These data were discussed in terms of strain differences in opioid system functioning and the implications of such differences for other morphine-induced behavioral effects reported in F344 and LEW rats.

  16. Sweet taste disorder and vascular complications in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Imai, Kenjiro; Kanda, Sayaka; Kakei, Masafumi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-10-15

    It remains unknown whether taste disorders can be a risk factor for micro- and macro-vascular diseases in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. A cross-sectional study in a nationally representative samples of 848 and 849 US adults (aged ≥40years) with diabetes or prediabetes who had sweet and salt taste disorders, respectively, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Among the study population, 5.7% had sweet taste disorder and 8.6% had salt taste disorder. These data correspond to approximately 1.5 million and 1.8 million individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance aged 40years or older in the US population, respectively. In the adjusted model, sweet taste disorder was significantly associated with complication of ischemic heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-5.81; P=0.04). Moreover, sweet taste disorder in patients with diabetes was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (adjusted OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.09-7.69; P=0.03) and diabetic nephropathy (adjusted OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.07-9.36; P=0.03). Meanwhile, salt taste disorder was not significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, ischemic heart disease, or stroke. Total sugar intake was significantly higher in patients with sweet taste disorder than in those without it, whereas total daily intake of carbohydrate did not differ significantly. No significant association was observed between salt taste disorder and daily intake of sodium after multivariate analysis. Sweet taste disorder in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance was associated with increased sugar intake and vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood pressure reactivity to emotional stress is reduced in AT1A-receptor knockout mice on normal, but not high salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daian; La Greca, Luisa; Head, Geoffrey A; Walther, Thomas; Mayorov, Dmitry N

    2009-07-01

    Pharmacological evidence suggests that angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors are involved in the regulation of cardiovascular response to emotional stress and reinforcing effect of dietary salt on this response. In this study, we examined the effect of genetic deletion of AT(1A) receptors on the cardiovascular effects of stress and salt in mice. AT(1A) receptor knockout (AT(1A)(-/-)) and wild-type (AT(1A)(+/+)) mice were implanted with telemetry devices and placed on a normal (0.4%) or high (3.1%) salt diet (HSD). Resting blood pressure (BP) in AT(1A)(-/-) mice (84+/-3 mm Hg) was lower than in AT(1A)(+/+) mice (107+/-2 mm Hg). Negative emotional (restraint) stress increased BP by 33+/-3 mm Hg in AT(1A)(+/+) mice. This response was attenuated by 40% in AT(1A)(-/-) mice (18+/-3 mm Hg). Conversely, the BP increase caused by food presentation and feeding was similar in AT(1A)(-/-) (25+/-3 mm Hg) and AT(1A)(+/+) mice (26+/-3 mm Hg). HSD increased resting BP by 14+/-4 mm Hg in AT(1A)(-/-) mice without affecting it significantly in AT(1A)(+/+) mice. Under these conditions, the pressor response to restraint stress in AT(1A)(-/-) mice (30+/-3 mm Hg) was no longer different from that in wild-type animals (28+/-3 mm Hg). The BP response to feeding was not altered by HSD in either AT(1A)(-/-) or AT(1A)(+/+) mice (25+/-2 and 27+/-3 mm Hg, respectively). These results indicate that AT(1A) receptor deficiency leads to a reduction in BP reactivity to negative emotional stress, but not feeding. HSD can selectively reinforce the cardiovascular response to negative stress in AT(1A)(-/-) mice. However, there is little interaction between AT(1A) receptors, excess dietary sodium and feeding-induced cardiovascular arousal.

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE: A taste sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    1998-12-01

    A multichannel taste sensor, namely an electronic tongue, with global selectivity is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information about substances producing taste into electrical signals, which are input to a computer. The sensor output exhibits different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness, sourness and bitterness, whereas it exhibits similar patterns for chemical substances with similar tastes. The sensor responds to the taste itself, as can be understood from the fact that taste interactions such as the suppression effect, which appears for mixtures of sweet and bitter substances, can be reproduced well. The suppression of the bitterness of quinine and a drug substance by sucrose can be quantified. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes on the basis of sensor outputs. The tastes of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water, milk, sake, rice, soybean paste and vegetables can be discussed quantitatively using the taste sensor, which provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. The flavour of a wine is also discriminated using the taste-odour sensory fusion conducted by combining the taste sensor and an odour-sensor array using conducting polymer elements. The taste sensor can also be applied to measurements of water pollution. Miniaturization of the taste sensor using FET produces the same characteristics as those of the above taste sensor by measuring the gate-source voltage. Use of the taste sensor will lead to a new era of food and environmental sciences.

  19. Molecular and Cellular Organization of Taste Neurons in Adult Drosophila Pharynx

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    Yu-Chieh David Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Drosophila pharyngeal taste organs are poorly characterized despite their location at important sites for monitoring food quality. Functional analysis of pharyngeal neurons has been hindered by the paucity of molecular tools to manipulate them, as well as their relative inaccessibility for neurophysiological investigations. Here, we generate receptor-to-neuron maps of all three pharyngeal taste organs by performing a comprehensive chemoreceptor-GAL4/LexA expression analysis. The organization of pharyngeal neurons reveals similarities and distinctions in receptor repertoires and neuronal groupings compared to external taste neurons. We validate the mapping results by pinpointing a single pharyngeal neuron required for feeding avoidance of L-canavanine. Inducible activation of pharyngeal taste neurons reveals functional differences between external and internal taste neurons and functional subdivision within pharyngeal sweet neurons. Our results provide roadmaps of pharyngeal taste organs in an insect model system for probing the role of these understudied neurons in controlling feeding behaviors. : Chen and Dahanukar carry out a large-scale, systematic analysis to understand the molecular organization of pharyngeal taste neurons. Taking advantage of the molecular genetic toolkit that arises from this map, they use genetic dissection strategies to probe the functional roles of selected pharyngeal neurons in food choice. Keywords: Drosophila, taste, pharynx, chemosensory receptors, gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, feeding

  20. Learning through the taste system

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    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  1. Effect of Salt Reduction on Consumer Acceptance and Sensory Quality of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppu, Ulla; Hopia, Anu; Pohjanheimo, Terhi; Rotola-Pukkila, Minna; Mäkinen, Sari; Pihlanto, Anne; Sandell, Mari

    2017-11-27

    Reducing salt (NaCl) intake is an important public health target. The food industry and catering services are searching for means to reduce the salt content in their products. This review focuses on options for salt reduction in foods and the sensory evaluation of salt-reduced foods. Simple salt reduction, mineral salts and flavor enhancers/modifiers (e.g., umami compounds) are common options for salt reduction. In addition, the modification of food texture and odor-taste interactions may contribute to enhanced salty taste perception. Maintaining consumer acceptance of the products is a challenge, and recent examples of the consumer perception of salt-reduced foods are presented.

  2. Genomic and genetic evidence for the loss of umami taste in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huabin; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Umami taste is responsible for sensing monosodium glutamate, nucleotide enhancers, and other amino acids that are appetitive to vertebrates and is one of the five basic tastes that also include sour, salty, sweet, and bitter. To study how ecological factors, especially diets, impact the evolution of the umami taste, we examined the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in a phylogenetically diverse group of bats including fruit eaters, insect eaters, and blood feeders. We found that Tas1r1 is absent, unamplifiable, or pseudogenized in each of the 31 species examined, including the genome sequences of two species, suggesting the loss of the umami taste in most, if not all, bats regardless of their food preferences. Most strikingly, vampire bats have also lost the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 and the gene required for both umami and sweet tastes (Tas1r3), being the first known mammalian group to lack two of the five tastes. The puzzling absence of the umami taste in bats calls for a better understanding of the roles that this taste plays in the daily life of vertebrates.

  3. Oral taste recognition in health volunteers Reconhecimento oral do gosto em voluntários sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Melciades Barbosa Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Taste food recognition has an important role in the nutritional conditions and also allows protection of the organism integrity against foods potentially dangerous. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of the selective taste regions on the tongue and also the palate participation in the oral taste definition. METHODS: A standard tongue divided in six regions was exposed with the four basic tastes (sweet, salted, sour and bitter, 10 times each. Thirteen volunteers were studied from both side and 34 only from one side, performing 240 tests with opened mouth and 240 with closing mouth, just after tongue sapid stimulation. A second group, with 12 volunteers, had its taste recognition studied, with and without palate isolation, using silicone prosthesis (n = 120. RESULTS: From results, chi-square (3×2 and (2×2, nonparametric independency test with P = 0.05 were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior, medium and posterior regions of the tongue, at both sides, had the same taste discriminative capacity. Nevertheless, closed mouth increased immediate and late recognition capacity by palate participation. It was possible to admit that palate participation increase the sapid perception in the mouth, by recruitment of the palate taste receptors and also by fluid compression and its scattering over tongue surface.CONTEXTO: O reconhecimento dos gostos tem importante papel para as condições nutricionais e também para a proteção da integridade do organismo contra a ingestão de alimentos potencialmente perigosos. OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença na língua de regiões com capacidade seletiva para percepção dos gostos básicos e também verificar se e como o palato participa da definição dos gostos na cavidade oral. MÉTODOS: Uma língua padrão hipotética dividida em 6 regiões teve cada umas destas, exposta 10 vezes a cada um dos quatro sabores básicos (doce, salgado, azedo e amargo. Treze voluntários tiveram sua lingual estudada dos dois

  4. Bile Salt Sequestration Induces Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis Through Farnesoid X Receptor- and Liver X Receptor alpha-Controlled Metabolic Pathways in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrema, Hillechien; Meissner, Maxi; van Dijk, Theo H.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Boverhof, Renze; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Muller, Michael; Stellaard, Frans; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    Diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose levels and dyslipidemia. Bile salt sequestration has been found to improve both plasma glycemic control and cholesterol profiles in diabetic patients. Yet bile salt sequestration is also known to affect triglyceride (TG) metabolism, possibly through

  5. Sodium taste threshold in children and its relationship to blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arguelles

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Popular science has emphasized the risks of high sodium intake and many studies have confirmed that salt intake is closely related to hypertension. The present mini-review summarizes experiments about salt taste sensitivity and its relationship with blood pressure (BP and other variables of clinical and familial relevance. Children and adolescents from control parents (N = 72 or with at least one essential hypertensive (EHT parent (N = 51 were investigated. Maternal questionnaires on eating habits and vomiting episodes were collected. Offspring, anthropometric, BP, and salt taste sensitivity values were recorded and blood samples analyzed. Most mothers declared that they added "little salt" when cooking. Salt taste sensitivity was inversely correlated with systolic BP (SBP in control youngsters (r = -0.33; P = 0.015. In the EHT group, SBP values were similar to control and a lower salt taste sensitivity threshold. Obese offspring of EHT parents showed higher SBP and C-reactive protein values but no differences in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity. Salt taste sensitivity was correlated with SBP only in the non-obese EHT group (N = 41; r = 0.37; P = 0.02. Salt taste sensitivity was correlated with SBP in healthy, normotensive children and adolescents whose mothers reported significant vomiting during the first trimester (N = 18; r = -0.66; P < 0.005, but not in "non-vomiter offspring" (N = 54; r = -0.18; nonsignificant. There is evidence for a linkage between high blood pressure, salt intake and sensitivity, perinatal environment and obesity, with potential physiopathological implications in humans. This relationship has not been studied comprehensively using homogeneous methods and therefore more research is needed in this field.

  6. Modulation of sweet taste sensitivities by endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor Ob-Rb. In contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in hypothalamus, limbic forebrain, and brainstem. In the peripheral taste system, leptin administration selectively inhibits behavioural, taste nerve and taste cell responses to sweet compounds. Opposing the action of leptin, endocannabinoids enhance sweet taste responses. However, potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste remain unclear. Here, we used pharmacological antagonists (Ob-Rb: L39A/D40A/F41A (LA), CB1: AM251) and examined the effects of their blocking activation of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoid signalling on taste responses in lean control, leptin receptor deficient db/db, and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Lean mice exhibited significant increases in chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet compounds after LA administration, while they showed no significant changes in CT responses after AM251. In contrast, db/db mice showed clear suppression of CT responses to sweet compounds after AM251, increased endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG)) levels in the taste organ, and enhanced expression of a biosynthesizing enzyme (diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα)) of 2-AG in taste cells. In DIO mice, the LA effect was gradually decreased and the AM251 effect was increased during the course of obesity. Taken together, our results suggest that circulating leptin, but not local endocannabinoids, may be a dominant modulator for sweet taste in lean mice; however, endocannabinoids may become more effective modulators of sweet taste under conditions of deficient leptin signalling, possibly due to increased production of endocannabinoids in taste tissue. Key points Potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste were examined by using pharmacological antagonists and mouse models including leptin receptor

  7. Modulation of sweet taste sensitivities by endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-06-01

    Potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste were examined by using pharmacological antagonists and mouse models including leptin receptor deficient (db/db) and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses of lean mice to sweet compounds were increased after administration of leptin antagonist (LA) but not affected by administration of cannabinoid receptor antagonist (AM251). db/db mice showed clear suppression of CT responses to sweet compounds after AM251, increased endocannabinoid levels in the taste organ, and enhanced expression of a biosynthesizing enzyme of endocannabinoids in taste cells. The effect of LA was gradually decreased and that of AM251 was increased during the course of obesity in DIO mice. These findings suggest that circulating leptin, but not local endocannabinoids, is a dominant modulator for sweet taste in lean mice and endocannabinoids become more effective modulators of sweet taste under conditions of deficient leptin signalling. Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor Ob-Rb. In contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in hypothalamus, limbic forebrain, and brainstem. In the peripheral taste system, leptin administration selectively inhibits behavioural, taste nerve and taste cell responses to sweet compounds. Opposing the action of leptin, endocannabinoids enhance sweet taste responses. However, potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste remain unclear. Here, we used pharmacological antagonists (Ob-Rb: L39A/D40A/F41A (LA), CB1 : AM251) and examined the effects of their blocking activation of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoid signalling on taste responses in lean control, leptin receptor deficient db/db, and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Lean mice exhibited significant increases in chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet compounds after LA

  8. Expression, regulation and putative nutrient-sensing function of taste GPCRs in the heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R Foster

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are critical for cardiovascular physiology. Cardiac cells express >100 nonchemosensory GPCRs, indicating that important physiological and potential therapeutic targets remain to be discovered. Moreover, there is a growing appreciation that members of the large, distinct taste and odorant GPCR families have specific functions in tissues beyond the oronasal cavity, including in the brain, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. To date, these chemosensory GPCRs have not been systematically studied in the heart. We performed RT-qPCR taste receptor screens in rodent and human heart tissues that revealed discrete subsets of type 2 taste receptors (TAS2/Tas2 as well as Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 (comprising the umami receptor are expressed. These taste GPCRs are present in cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, and by in situ hybridization can be visualized across the myocardium in isolated cardiac cells. Tas1r1 gene-targeted mice (Tas1r1(Cre/Rosa26(tdRFP strikingly recapitulated these data. In vivo taste receptor expression levels were developmentally regulated in the postnatal period. Intriguingly, several Tas2rs were upregulated in cultured rat myocytes and in mouse heart in vivo following starvation. The discovery of taste GPCRs in the heart opens an exciting new field of cardiac research. We predict that these taste receptors may function as nutrient sensors in the heart.

  9. Differential modulation of the lactisole 'Sweet Water Taste' by sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Cynthia; Nachtigal, Danielle; Slack, Jay P; Green, Barry G

    2017-01-01

    Pre-exposure to taste stimuli and certain chemicals can cause water to have a taste. Here we studied further the 'sweet water taste' (SWT) perceived after exposure to the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Experiment 1 investigated an incidental observation that presenting lactisole in mixture with sucrose reduced the intensity of the SWT. The results confirmed this observation and also showed that rinsing with sucrose after lactisole could completely eliminate the SWT. The generalizability of these findings was investigated in experiment 2 by presenting 5 additional sweeteners before, during, or after exposure to lactisole. The results found with sucrose were replicated with fructose and cyclamate, but the 3 other sweeteners were less effective suppressors of the SWT, and the 2 sweeteners having the highest potency initially enhanced it. A third experiment investigated these interactions on the tongue tip and found that the lactisole SWT was perceived only when water was actively flowed across the tongue. The same experiment yielded evidence against the possibility that suppression of the SWT following exposure to sweeteners is an aftereffect of receptor activation while providing additional support for a role of sweetener potency. Collectively these results provide new evidence that complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions occur between lactisole and agonists of the sweet taste receptor TAS1R2-TAS1R3. Receptor mechanisms that may be responsible for these interactions are discussed in the context of the current model of the SWT and the possible contribution of allosteric modulation.

  10. Differential modulation of the lactisole 'Sweet Water Taste' by sweeteners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Alvarado

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure to taste stimuli and certain chemicals can cause water to have a taste. Here we studied further the 'sweet water taste' (SWT perceived after exposure to the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Experiment 1 investigated an incidental observation that presenting lactisole in mixture with sucrose reduced the intensity of the SWT. The results confirmed this observation and also showed that rinsing with sucrose after lactisole could completely eliminate the SWT. The generalizability of these findings was investigated in experiment 2 by presenting 5 additional sweeteners before, during, or after exposure to lactisole. The results found with sucrose were replicated with fructose and cyclamate, but the 3 other sweeteners were less effective suppressors of the SWT, and the 2 sweeteners having the highest potency initially enhanced it. A third experiment investigated these interactions on the tongue tip and found that the lactisole SWT was perceived only when water was actively flowed across the tongue. The same experiment yielded evidence against the possibility that suppression of the SWT following exposure to sweeteners is an aftereffect of receptor activation while providing additional support for a role of sweetener potency. Collectively these results provide new evidence that complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions occur between lactisole and agonists of the sweet taste receptor TAS1R2-TAS1R3. Receptor mechanisms that may be responsible for these interactions are discussed in the context of the current model of the SWT and the possible contribution of allosteric modulation.

  11. Expression of Galpha14 in sweet-transducing taste cells of the posterior tongue

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    Kim Soochong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Type II"/Receptor cells express G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs for sweet, umami (T1Rs and mGluRs or bitter (T2Rs, as well as the proteins for downstream signalling cascades. Transduction downstream of T1Rs and T2Rs relies on G-protein and PLCβ2-mediated release of stored Ca2+. Whereas Gαgus (gustducin couples to the T2R (bitter receptors, which Gα-subunit couples to the sweet (T1R2 + T1R3 receptor is presently not known. We utilized RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and single-cell gene expression profiling to examine the expression of the Gαq family (q, 11, 14 in mouse taste buds. Results By RT-PCR, Gα14 is expressed strongly and in a taste selective manner in posterior (vallate and foliate, but not anterior (fungiform and palate taste fields. Gαq and Gα11, although detectable, are not expressed in a taste-selective fashion. Further, expression of Gα14 mRNA is limited to Type II/Receptor cells in taste buds. Immunocytochemistry on vallate papillae using a broad Gαq family antiserum reveals specific staining only in Type II taste cells (i.e. those expressing TrpM5 and PLCβ2. This staining persists in Gαq knockout mice and immunostaining with a Gα11-specific antiserum shows no immunoreactivity in taste buds. Taken together, these data show that Gα14 is the dominant Gαq family member detected. Immunoreactivity for Gα14 strongly correlates with expression of T1R3, the taste receptor subunit present in taste cells responsive to either umami or sweet. Single cell gene expression profiling confirms a tight correlation between the expression of Gα14 and both T1R2 and T1R3, the receptor combination that forms sweet taste receptors. Conclusion Gα14 is co-expressed with the sweet taste receptor in posterior tongue, although not in anterior tongue. Thus, sweet taste transduction may rely on different downstream transduction elements in posterior and anterior taste fields.

  12. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    that the pupils were encouraged to use their senses: listen to things frying, touch the meat to check if it was done and taste the food in the process of seasoning it. But while some children learned what the teachers expected: to produce well tasting food, others learned to cook very salty and hot food...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  13. Maternal high-salt diet altered PKC/MLC20 pathway and increased ANG II receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Lv, Juanxiu; Wu, Jue; Zhou, Xiuwen; Jiang, Lin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Tu, Qing; Tang, Jiaqi; Liu, Yanping; He, Axin; Zhong, Yuan; Xu, Zhice

    2016-07-01

    High-salt diet (HSD) is associated with cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at ascertaining the influence of maternal HSD on offspring's angiotensin II (ANG II)-mediated vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanisms. In comparison to a normal-salt diet, HSD used in pregnancy in rats changed the ultrastructures of the coronary artery (CA) in 5-month-old male offspring, and increased ANG II-mediated CA contractility. Measurement of [Ca(2+) ]i in CA using fluorescent fura-2, a Ca(2+) indicator, showed that ANG II-mediated increases in [Ca(2+) ]i were the same between HSD and normal-salt diet groups, but the ratio of diameter change/[Ca(2+) ]i induced by ANG II were significantly higher in HSD groups. Angiotensin II receptor type 1, not angiotensin II receptor type 2, caused ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X attenuated the ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction, PKC agonist phorbol12,13-dibutyrate produced a greater contraction. There was an increase in PKCβ mRNA and the corresponding protein abundance in the offspring, whereas other PKC subunits PKCα, PKCδ, and PKCε did not change. Moreover, 20 kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation levels were increased in HSD group. Maternal HSD affected the developmental programing for the offspring CA, with increased ANG II-mediated vasoconstrictions. The angiotensin II receptor type 1-PKC-20 kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation pathway was the possible mediated cellular mechanism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Leptin suppresses sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine STC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotaki, Masafumi; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-09-22

    Leptin is an important hormone that regulates food intake and energy homeostasis by acting on central and peripheral targets. In the gustatory system, leptin is known to selectively suppress sweet responses by inhibiting the activation of sweet sensitive taste cells. Sweet taste receptor (T1R2+T1R3) is also expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells and contributes to nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption. Because of the similarities in expression patterns between enteroendocrine and taste receptor cells, we hypothesized that they may also share similar mechanisms used to modify/regulate the sweet responsiveness of these cells by leptin. Here, we used mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 and examined potential effect of leptin on Ca(2+) responses of STC-1 cells to various taste compounds. Ca(2+) responses to sweet compounds in STC-1 cells were suppressed by a rodent T1R3 inhibitor gurmarin, suggesting the involvement of T1R3-dependent receptors in detection of sweet compounds. Responses to sweet substances were suppressed by ⩾1ng/ml leptin without affecting responses to bitter, umami and salty compounds. This effect was inhibited by a leptin antagonist (mutant L39A/D40A/F41A) and by ATP gated K(+) (KATP) channel closer glibenclamide, suggesting that leptin affects sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine cells via activation of leptin receptor and KATP channel expressed in these cells. Moreover, leptin selectively inhibited sweet-induced but not bitter-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from STC-1 cells. These results suggest that leptin modulates sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine cells to regulate nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption in the gut. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors related to taste sensitivity in elderly: cross-sectional findings from SONIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uota, M; Ogawa, T; Ikebe, K; Arai, Y; Kamide, K; Gondo, Y; Masui, Y; Ishizaki, T; Inomata, C; Takeshita, H; Mihara, Y; Maeda, Y

    2016-12-01

    The sense of taste is important, as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, as well as safety and quality of foods, with several factors suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity. However, comprehensive variables regarding taste and related factors have not been utilised in previous studies for assessments of sensitivity. In the present study, we performed cross-sectional analyses of taste sensitivity and related factors in geriatric individuals who participated in the SONIC Study. We analysed 2 groups divided by age, 69-71 years (young-old, n = 687) and 79-81 years (old-old, n = 621), and performed a general health assessment, an oral examination and determination of taste sensitivity. Contributing variables were selected by univariate analysis and then subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. In both groups, females showed significantly better sensitivity for bitter and sour tastes. Additionally, higher cognitive scores for subjects with a fine taste for salty were commonly seen in both groups, while smoking, drinking, hypertension, number of teeth, stimulated salivary flow salt intake and years of education were also shown to be associated with taste sensitivity. We found gender and cognitive status to be major factors affecting taste sensitivity in geriatric individuals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pragmatically on the sense of taste - a short treatise based on culinary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluga, Marek; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Buschhaus, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The sense of taste is essential for proper functioning of the organism. The authors describe, in an accessible way, the complex mechanisms of taste perception. The structure of particular taste receptors, variants of their activation, as well as physical and chemical factors modifying the sensation of taste, are presented. Exquisite culinary examples are given in order to facilitate the reader with the understanding of why, at the level of the cerebral cortex, a virtually infinite number of combinations of taste sensations can be perceived. The discourse is spiced up by reflections of the eminent philosopher of taste, J.A. Brillat-Savarin, who convinces us that food intake should be not only a physiological act, but also a refined pleasure.

  18. Pragmatically on the sense of taste – a short treatise based on culinary art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonderko, Krzysztof; Buschhaus, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The sense of taste is essential for proper functioning of the organism. The authors describe, in an accessible way, the complex mechanisms of taste perception. The structure of particular taste receptors, variants of their activation, as well as physical and chemical factors modifying the sensation of taste, are presented. Exquisite culinary examples are given in order to facilitate the reader with the understanding of why, at the level of the cerebral cortex, a virtually infinite number of combinations of taste sensations can be perceived. The discourse is spiced up by reflections of the eminent philosopher of taste, J.A. Brillat-Savarin, who convinces us that food intake should be not only a physiological act, but also a refined pleasure. PMID:24868281

  19. Molecular Mechanism of Species-dependent Sweet Taste toward Artificial Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2011-01-01

    The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species towards the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than that of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds. PMID:21795555

  20. Formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cindy J; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    Fermented foods are valued for their rich and complex odour and taste. The metabolic activity of food-fermenting microorganisms determines food quality and generates odour and taste compounds. This communication reviews the formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations. Pathways of the generation of taste compounds are presented for soy sauce, cheese, fermented meats, and bread. Proteolysis or autolysis during food fermentations generates taste-active amino acids and peptides; peptides derived from proteolysis particularly impart umami taste (e.g. α-glutamyl peptides) or bitter taste (e.g. hydrophobic peptides containing proline). Taste active peptide derivatives include pyroglutamyl peptides, γ-glutamyl peptides, and succinyl- or lactoyl amino acids. The influence of fermentation microbiota on proteolysis, and peptide hydrolysis, and the metabolism of glutamate and arginine is well understood, however, the understanding of microbial metabolic activities related to the formation of taste-active peptide derivatives is incomplete. Improved knowledge of the interactions between taste-active compounds will enable the development of novel fermentation strategies to develop tastier, less bitter, and low-salt food products, and may provide novel and "clean label" ingredients to improve the taste of other food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrimination of Umami Tastants Using Floating Electrode-Based Bioelectronic Tongue Mimicking Insect Taste Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minju; Jung, Je Won; Kim, Daesan; Ahn, Young-Joon; Hong, Seunghun; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-12-22

    We report a floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems for the detection and discrimination of umami substances. Here, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with floating electrodes were hybridized with nanovesicles containing honeybee umami taste receptor, gustatory receptor 10 of Apis mellifera (AmGr10). This strategy enables us to discriminate between l-monosodium glutamate (MSG), best-known umami tastant, and non-umami substances with a high sensitivity and selectivity. It could also be utilized for the detection of MSG in liquid food such as chicken stock. Moreover, we demonstrated the synergism between MSG and disodium 5'-inosinate (IMP) for the umami taste using this platform. This floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems can be a powerful platform for various applications such as food screening, and it also can provide valuable insights on insect taste systems.

  2. Sweet and umami taste: natural products, their chemosensory targets, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hellfritsch, Caroline; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Much of our appreciation of food is due to the excitement of the perception of "sweet" and "umami" taste. With a special focus on natural products, this Review gives a summary of compounds that elicit and modulate "sweet" or "umami" taste responses. It will be discussed how the interaction of these molecules with the oral sweet and umami taste receptors stimulates receptor cells to secrete neurotransmitters to induce neural activity that is conveyed to the cerebral cortex to represent sweet and umami taste, respectively. Recent data also show that a sweet taste is metabolically relevant for fuel homeostasis and linked to appetitive ingestive behavior. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  4. DEVELOPING A SENSE OF TASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds are found in a distributed array on the tongue surface, and are innervated by cranial nerves that convey taste information to the brain. For nearly a century, taste buds were thought to be induced by nerves late in embryonic development. However, this view has shifted dramatically. A host of studies now indicate that taste bud development is initiated and proceeds via processes that are nerve-independent, occur long before birth, and governed by cellular and molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the developing tongue. Here we review the state of our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation of taste bud development, incorporating important new data obtained through the use of two powerful genetic systems, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:23182899

  5. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  6. Sensory science research on taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Recent ethnographies from the anthropology of food and the senses have shown how moments in which people taste foods are shaped by scientific knowledge, methods and rationales. Building on approaches developed in science and technology studies, this paper offers an ethnography of the field to which...... this shaping power has been assigned: the scientific study of taste. Detailed tracing and analysis of two laboratory experiments on taste performed in laboratories in Western Europe brings out how both turn moments in which people taste into a bodily response. At the same time, since their technical set......-ups address different societal problems and varying interest groups, they stage diverging versions: a perception versus a reaction to an exposure. The paper, thus, sheds light on how cultural and social norms, ideals, and practices shape the knowledge production about taste and its resulting effects....

  7. Evidence for a role of glutamate as an efferent transmitter in taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Catherine B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamate has been proposed as a transmitter in the peripheral taste system in addition to its well-documented role as an umami taste stimulus. Evidence for a role as a transmitter includes the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors in nerve fibers and taste cells, as well as the expression of the glutamate transporter GLAST in Type I taste cells. However, the source and targets of glutamate in lingual tissue are unclear. In the present study, we used molecular, physiological and immunohistochemical methods to investigate the origin of glutamate as well as the targeted receptors in taste buds. Results Using molecular and immunohistochemical techniques, we show that the vesicular transporters for glutamate, VGLUT 1 and 2, but not VGLUT3, are expressed in the nerve fibers surrounding taste buds but likely not in taste cells themselves. Further, we show that P2X2, a specific marker for gustatory but not trigeminal fibers, co-localizes with VGLUT2, suggesting the VGLUT-expressing nerve fibers are of gustatory origin. Calcium imaging indicates that GAD67-GFP Type III taste cells, but not T1R3-GFP Type II cells, respond to glutamate at concentrations expected for a glutamate transmitter, and further, that these responses are partially blocked by NBQX, a specific AMPA/Kainate receptor antagonist. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry confirm the presence of the Kainate receptor GluR7 in Type III taste cells, suggesting it may be a target of glutamate released from gustatory nerve fibers. Conclusions Taken together, the results suggest that glutamate may be released from gustatory nerve fibers using a vesicular mechanism to modulate Type III taste cells via GluR7.

  8. Genetic loss or pharmacological blockade of testes-expressed taste genes causes male sterility

    OpenAIRE

    Mosinger, Bedrich; Redding, Kevin M.; Parker, M. Rockwell; Yevshayeva, Valeriya; Yee, Karen K; Dyomina, Katerina; Li, Yan; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    TAS1R taste receptors and their associated heterotrimeric G protein gustducin are involved in sugar and amino acid sensing in taste cells and in the gastrointestinal tract. They are also strongly expressed in testis and sperm, but their functions in these tissues were previously unknown. Using mouse models, we show that the genetic absence of both TAS1R3, a component of sweet and amino acid taste receptors, and the gustducin α-subunit GNAT3 leads to male-specific sterility. To gain further in...

  9. Salty taste thresholds and preference in patients with chronic kidney disease according to disease stage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hee; Kim, Young Hoon; Bae, Na Yeong; Kang, Shin Sook; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Soon Bae

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the differences in salty taste thresholds among normal controls and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients according to disease stage and to evaluate the relationship between salty taste thresholds or preferences and mean spot urine sodium concentrations. This cross-sectional study enrolled 436 patients with non-dialysis CKD and 74 normal controls. We evaluated detection and recognition thresholds, salty taste preferences and salt usage behaviours (through a questionnaire) in CKD patients and normal controls. We averaged the three most recent spot urine sodium concentrations and used this 'mean spot urine sodium' value to estimate sodium intake in CKD patients. Detection thresholds of stages 3 and 5 and recognition thresholds of stage 3 CKD patients were higher than those of normal controls. Salty taste preferences of stage 5 and salt usage behaviour scores of stages 4 and 5 CKD patients were lower than those of normal controls. Univariate analysis showed that estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), salt usage behaviour score, salty taste preference, smoking, gender and zinc level were significantly associated with mean spot urine sodium in CKD patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that the eGFR and salty taste preference were independently correlated with mean spot urine sodium. Education to change salty taste preferences and regular follow up are necessary to decrease salt intake in CKD patients. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  10. Clofibrate inhibits the umami-savory taste of glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A. S.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, umami taste can increase the palatability of foods rich in the amino acids glutamate and aspartate and the 5'-ribonucleotides IMP and GMP. Umami taste is transduced, in part, by T1R1-T1R3, a heteromeric G-protein coupled receptor. Umami perception is inhibited by sodium lactisole, which binds to the T1R3 subunit in vitro. Lactisole is structurally similar to the fibrate drugs. Clofibric acid, a lipid lowering drug, also binds the T1R3 subunit in vitro. The purpose of this study was...

  11. Clofibrate inhibits the umami-savory taste of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A S

    2017-01-01

    In humans, umami taste can increase the palatability of foods rich in the amino acids glutamate and aspartate and the 5'-ribonucleotides IMP and GMP. Umami taste is transduced, in part, by T1R1-T1R3, a heteromeric G-protein coupled receptor. Umami perception is inhibited by sodium lactisole, which binds to the T1R3 subunit in vitro. Lactisole is structurally similar to the fibrate drugs. Clofibric acid, a lipid lowering drug, also binds the T1R3 subunit in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits the umami taste of glutamate in human subjects. Ten participants rated the umami taste intensity elicited by 20 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG) mixed with varying concentrations of clofibric acid (0 to 16 mM). In addition, fourteen participants rated the effect of 1.4 mM clofibric acid on umami enhancement by 5' ribonucleotides. Participants were instructed to rate perceived intensity using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS). Each participant was tested in triplicate. Clofibric acid inhibited umami taste intensity from 20 mM MSG in a dose dependent manner. Whereas MSG neat elicited "moderate" umami taste intensity, the addition of 16 mM clofibric acid elicited only "weak" umami intensity on average, and in some subjects no umami taste was elicited. We further show that 1.4 mM clofibric acid suppressed umami enhancement from GMP, but not from IMP. This study provides in vivo evidence that clofibric acid inhibits glutamate taste perception, presumably via T1R1-T1R3 inhibition, and lends further evidence that the T1R1-T1R3 receptor is the principal umami receptor in humans. T1R receptors are expressed extra-orally throughout the alimentary tract and in regulatory organs and are known to influence glucose and lipid metabolism. Whether clofibric acid as a lipid-lowering drug affects human metabolism, in part, through T1R inhibition warrants further examination.

  12. Clofibrate inhibits the umami-savory taste of glutamate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kochem

    Full Text Available In humans, umami taste can increase the palatability of foods rich in the amino acids glutamate and aspartate and the 5'-ribonucleotides IMP and GMP. Umami taste is transduced, in part, by T1R1-T1R3, a heteromeric G-protein coupled receptor. Umami perception is inhibited by sodium lactisole, which binds to the T1R3 subunit in vitro. Lactisole is structurally similar to the fibrate drugs. Clofibric acid, a lipid lowering drug, also binds the T1R3 subunit in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits the umami taste of glutamate in human subjects. Ten participants rated the umami taste intensity elicited by 20 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG mixed with varying concentrations of clofibric acid (0 to 16 mM. In addition, fourteen participants rated the effect of 1.4 mM clofibric acid on umami enhancement by 5' ribonucleotides. Participants were instructed to rate perceived intensity using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS. Each participant was tested in triplicate. Clofibric acid inhibited umami taste intensity from 20 mM MSG in a dose dependent manner. Whereas MSG neat elicited "moderate" umami taste intensity, the addition of 16 mM clofibric acid elicited only "weak" umami intensity on average, and in some subjects no umami taste was elicited. We further show that 1.4 mM clofibric acid suppressed umami enhancement from GMP, but not from IMP. This study provides in vivo evidence that clofibric acid inhibits glutamate taste perception, presumably via T1R1-T1R3 inhibition, and lends further evidence that the T1R1-T1R3 receptor is the principal umami receptor in humans. T1R receptors are expressed extra-orally throughout the alimentary tract and in regulatory organs and are known to influence glucose and lipid metabolism. Whether clofibric acid as a lipid-lowering drug affects human metabolism, in part, through T1R inhibition warrants further examination.

  13. Reconciliation of coarse mode sea-salt aerosol particle size measurements and parameterizations at a subtropical ocean receptor site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, J.S.; Brooks, B.; Crahan, K.K.; Leeuw, G. de; Reid, E.A.; Anderson, F.D.; Hegg, D.A.; Eck, T.F.; O'Neill, N.

    2006-01-01

    In August/September of 2001, the R/P FLIP and CIRPAS Twin Otter research aircraft were deployed to the eastern coast of Oahu, Hawaii, as part of the Rough Evaporation Duct (RED) experiment. Goals included the study of the air/sea exchange, turbulence, and sea-salt aerosol particle characteristics at

  14. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L.

    2013-06-27

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  15. Defects in the peripheral taste structure and function in the MRL/lpr mouse model of autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kim

    Full Text Available While our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of taste reception and signaling continues to improve, the aberrations in these processes that lead to taste dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Abnormalities in taste can develop in a variety of diseases, including infections and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we used a mouse model of autoimmune disease to investigate the underlying mechanisms of taste disorders. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/J (MRL/lpr mice develop a systemic autoimmunity with phenotypic similarities to human systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Our results show that the taste tissues of MRL/lpr mice exhibit characteristics of inflammation, including infiltration of T lymphocytes and elevated levels of some inflammatory cytokines. Histological studies reveal that the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice are smaller than those of wild-type congenic control (MRL/+/+ mice. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU pulse-chase experiments show that fewer BrdU-labeled cells enter the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice, suggesting an inhibition of taste cell renewal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses show that mRNA levels of several type II taste cell markers are lower in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirm a significant reduction in the number of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells in the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, MRL/lpr mice exhibit reduced gustatory nerve responses to the bitter compound quinine and the sweet compound saccharin and reduced behavioral responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste substances compared with controls. In contrast, their responses to salty and sour compounds are comparable to those of control mice in both nerve recording and behavioral experiments. Together, our results suggest that type II taste receptor cells, which are essential for bitter, sweet, and umami taste reception and signaling, are selectively affected in MRL/lpr mice, a model for autoimmune disease with chronic

  16. Computationally-predicted CB1 cannabinoid receptor mutants show distinct patterns of salt-bridges that correlate with their level of constitutive activity reflected in G protein coupling levels, thermal stability, and ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwang H; Scott, Caitlin E; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William A; Kendall, Debra A

    2013-08-01

    The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), a member of the class A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, possesses an observable level of constitutive activity. Its activation mechanism, however, has yet to be elucidated. Previously we discovered dramatic changes in CB1 activity due to single mutations; T3.46A, which made the receptor inactive, and T3.46I and L3.43A, which made it essentially fully constitutively active. Our subsequent prediction of the structures of these mutant receptors indicated that these changes in activity are explained in terms of the pattern of salt-bridges in the receptor region involving transmembrane domains 2, 3, 5, and 6. Here we identified key salt-bridges, R2.37 + D6.30 and D2.63 + K3.28, critical for CB1 inactive and active states, respectively, and generated new mutant receptors that we predicted would change CB1 activity by either precluding or promoting these interactions. We find that breaking the R2.37 + D6.30 salt-bridge resulted in substantial increase in G-protein coupling activity and reduced thermal stability relative to the wild-type reflecting the changes in constitutive activity from inactive to active. In contrast, breaking the D2.63 + K3.28 salt-bridge produced the opposite profile suggesting this interaction is critical for the receptor activation. Thus, we demonstrate an excellent correlation with the predicted pattern of key salt-bridges and experimental levels of activity and conformational flexibility. These results are also consistent with the extended ternary complex model with respect to shifts in agonist and inverse agonist affinity and provide a powerful framework for understanding the molecular basis for the multiple stages of CB1 activation and that of other GPCRs in general. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  18. A Comparison of Collection Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis of Human Oral Taste Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Steven Archer

    Full Text Available Variability in human taste perception is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The influence of taste receptor expression on this variability is unknown, in part, due to the difficulty in obtaining human oral tissue that enables quantitative expression measures of taste genes. In a comparison of six current techniques (Oragene RNeasy Kit, Isohelix swab, Livibrush cytobrush, tongue saliva, cheek saliva collection, and fungiform papillae biopsy, we identify the fungiform papillae biopsy is the optimal sampling technique to analyse human taste gene expression. The fungiform papillae biopsy resulted in the highest RNA integrity, enabling amplification of all the assessed taste receptor genes (TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, SCNN1A and CD36 and taste tissue marker genes (NCAM1, GNAT3 and PLCβ2. Furthermore, quantitative expression was observed in a subset of taste genes assessed from the saliva collection techniques (cheek saliva, tongue saliva and Oragene RNA kit. These saliva collection techniques may be useful as a non-invasive alternative sampling technique to the fungiform papillae biopsy. Identification of the fungiform papillae biopsy as the optimal collection method will facilitate further research into understanding the effect of gene expression on variability in human taste perception.

  19. Diurnal variation of human sweet taste recognition thresholds is correlated with plasma leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Ohta, Rie; Shirosaki, Shinya; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2008-10-01

    It has recently been proposed that the peripheral taste organ is one of the targets for leptin. In lean mice, leptin selectively suppresses gustatory neural and behavioral responses to sweet compounds without affecting responses to other taste stimuli, whereas obese diabetic db/db mice with defects in leptin receptor lack this leptin suppression on sweet taste. Here, we further examined potential links between leptin and sweet taste in humans. A total of 91 nonobese subjects were used to determine recognition thresholds using a standard stair-case methodology for various taste stimuli. Plasma leptin levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at several timepoints during the day under normal and restricted-meal conditions. The recognition thresholds for sweet compounds exhibited a diurnal variation from 0800 to 2200 h that parallels variation for leptin levels, with the lowest thresholds in the morning and the highest thresholds at night. This diurnal variation is sweet-taste selective-it was not observed in thresholds for other taste stimuli (NaCl, citric acid, quinine, and mono-sodium glutamate). The diurnal variation for sweet thresholds in the normal feeding condition (three meals) was independent of meal timing and thereby blood glucose levels. Furthermore, when leptin levels were phase-shifted following imposition of one or two meals per day, the diurnal variation of thresholds for sweet taste shifted in parallel. This synchronization of diurnal variation in leptin levels and sweet taste recognition thresholds suggests a mechanistic connection between these two variables in humans.

  20. Mice Lacking Pannexin 1 Release ATP and Respond Normally to All Taste Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for the transmission of all taste qualities from taste cells to afferent nerve fibers. ATP is released from Type II taste cells by a nonvesicular mechanism and activates purinergic receptors containing P2X2 and P2X3 on nerve fibers. Several ATP release channels are expressed in taste cells including CALHM1, Pannexin 1, Connexin 30, and Connexin 43, but whether all are involved in ATP release is not clear. We have used a global Pannexin 1 knock out (Panx1 KO) mouse in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results confirm that Panx1 channels are absent in taste buds of the knockout mice and that other known ATP release channels are not upregulated. Using a luciferin/luciferase assay, we show that circumvallate taste buds from Panx1 KO mice normally release ATP upon taste stimulation compared with wild type (WT) mice. Gustatory nerve recordings in response to various tastants applied to the tongue and brief-access behavioral testing with SC45647 also show no difference between Panx1 KO and WT. These results confirm that Panx1 is not required for the taste evoked release of ATP or for neural and behavioral responses to taste stimuli. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of AT1 Receptor Blockade on Plasma Thromboxane A2 (TXA2 Level and Skin Microcirculation in Young Healthy Women on Low Salt Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cavka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of AT1 receptor antagonism on skin microcirculation and plasma level of thromboxane A2 (TXA2. Methods: Healthy women (n=20 maintained 7 days low salt (LS diet (intake 2 metabolite thromboxane B2 (TXB2 and plasma renin activity (PRA aldosterone concentration, electrolytes (Na+, K+, as well as blood pressure and heart rate were determined before and after study protocols. Results: PRA and aldosterone increased significantly after 7 days of both LS diet and LS diet+losartan. LS diet or LS diet+losartan administrations had no significant effect on post-occlusion hyperemia While there was no change in TXB2 after LS diet TXB2 significantly increased after one week of LS+losartan compared to control levels (cTXB2 pg/mL control 101±80 vs. LS diet+losartan 190±116, pConclusion: These data suggest that inhibition of AT1 receptors could lead to activation of AT2 receptors, which maintain hyperemia, despite the increased level of vasoconstrictor TXA2. These findings also suggest an important role of crosstalk between renin-angiotensin system (RAS and arachidonic acid metabolites in the regulation of microcirculation under physiological conditions.

  2. Cortical representation of different taste modalities on the gustatory cortex: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Prinster

    Full Text Available Right insular cortex is involved in taste discrimination, but its functional organization is still poorly known. In general, sensory cortices represent the spatial prevalence of relevant features for each sensory modality (visual, auditory, somatosensory in an ordered way across the cortical space. Following this analogy, we hypothesized that primary taste cortex is organized in similar ordered way in response to six tastes with known receptorial mechanisms (sweet, bitter, sour, salt, umami, CO2.Ten normal subjects were enrolled in a pilot study. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, a high resolution cortical registration method, and specialized procedures of feature prevalence localization, to map fMRI responses within the right insular cortex, to water solutions of quinine hydrochloride (bitter, Acesulfamate K (sweet, sodium chloride (salt, mono potassium glutamate + inosine 5' mono phosphate (Umami, citric acid (sour and carbonated water (CO2. During an fMRI scan delivery of the solutions was applied in pseudo-random order interleaved with cleaning water.Two subjects were discarded due to excessive head movements. In the remaining subjects, statistically significant activations were detected in the fMRI responses to all tastes in the right insular cortex (p<0.05, family-wise corrected for multiple comparisons. Cortical representation of taste prevalence highlighted two spatially segregated clusters, processing two and three tastes coupled together (sweet-bitter and salt-umami-sour, with CO2 in between.Cortical representation of taste prevalence within the right primary taste cortex appears to follow the ecological purpose of enhancing the discrimination between safe nutrients and harmful substances.

  3. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF and posterior circumvallate (CV taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  4. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells. PMID:26020789

  5. Taste is a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste...

  6. Taste as a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste...

  7. An Evolutionary Perspective on Food Review and Human Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The sense of taste is stimulated when nutrients or other chemical compounds activate specialized receptor cells within the oral cavity. Taste helps us decide what to eat and influences how efficiently we digest these foods. Human taste abilities have been shaped, in large part, by the ecological niches our evolutionary ancestors occupied and by the nutrients they sought. Early hominoids sought nutrition within a closed tropical forest environment, probably eating mostly fruit and leaves, and early hominids left this environment for the savannah and greatly expanded their dietary repertoire. They would have used their sense of taste to identify nutritious food items. The risks of making poor food selections when foraging not only entail wasted energy and metabolic harm from eating foods of low nutrient and energy content, but also the harmful and potentially lethal ingestion of toxins. The learned consequences of ingested foods may subsequently guide our future food choices. The evolved taste abilities of humans are still useful for the one billion humans living with very low food security by helping them identify nutrients. But for those who have easy access to tasty, energy-dense foods our sensitivities for sugary, salty and fatty foods have also helped cause over nutrition-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:23660364

  8. Preparation of an Aroma Fraction from Dried Bonito by Steam Distillation and Its Effect on Modification of Salty and Umami Taste Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Mochimaru, Shinsuke; Ueda, Reiko; Ban, Masayasu; Kabuto, Shizuya; Abe, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of dried bonito aroma on taste perception, dried bonito aroma fraction (DBAF) as a steam distillate in liquid was added to the salt solutions containing 5 different salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5% [w/v]) before sensory evaluations. Perception of the taste qualities of salt solutions with added DBAF varied depending on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrations (0.68% to 0.83%), after-taste intensity of saltiness and overall taste intensity were significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF. This suggests that DBAF can be applied to a low-salt seasoning at these salt concentrations. Umami taste intensity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF at all salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5%). The addition of heat-treated DBAF, which no longer had the dried bonito odor, exerted no significant influences on any taste descriptors. As the result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, sulfur-containing compounds, pyrazines, alcohols, and phenols were contained in DBAF and not detected in heat-treated DBAF. Because these compounds contributed to the dried bonito odor, the taste modifications were thought to be induced by these compounds. The effects of the DBAF on Japanese noodle soup (mentsuyu) were also examined. The saltiness intensity of 1.2% salt concentration of mentsuyu containing both DBAF and DBS (dried bonito stock) as a hot water extract of dried bonito was not significantly differ from that of 1.5% salt concentration of mentsuyu not containing any of them. It will thus be possible to develop a reduced salt seasoning by combining DBAF and DBS. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Taste of Clindamycin and Acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Kimberlee A; Wo, Shane R; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the taste palatability of liquid clindamycin and acetaminophen products on the market. Subjects rated the palatability of 3 clindamycin suspensions, 1 amoxicillin suspension (tasted twice), an acetaminophen elixir, and an acetaminophen suspension in a randomized blinded fashion on a 0 to 5 scale. Forty-six adults aged 20 to 82 years volunteered for this study. Means (and 95% confidence intervals) were as follows: amoxicillin-first taste 3.6 (3.3-3.9), amoxicillin-second taste 3.5 (3.2-3.7). Clindamycin Rising, Perrigo, Greenstone; 2.0 (1.6-2.5), 3.0 (2.7-3.3), and 2.2 (1.8-2.6), respectively. Acetaminophen elixir 0.6 (0.4-0.8) and acetaminophen suspension 3.4 (3.1-3.6). One clindamycin tasted significantly better than the others. Additionally, although 2 acetaminophen formulations are currently available over-the-counter, the suspension is more palatable and less costly. Medicaid drug programs that perpetuate the use of elixir should change their coverage to save money and provide patients access to better tasting acetaminophen.

  10. A new family of anion receptors and their effects on ion pair dissociation and conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Okamoto, Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1994-08-01

    A new family of anion receptors based on aza-ether compounds have been synthesized. Since the anion complexation of these compounds is not based on either positively charged sites or hydrogen bonding, they have a potential to be used in lithium batteries as electrolyte additives. When these compounds are added into nonaqueous electrolytes using lithium salts, such as LiCl/BF or LiBr/THF, the ionic conductivity can be dramatically increased. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NF-XAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions are completed with the nitrogen groups in these compounds. The increase in ionic conductivity and the degree of complexation, are both related to the number of R=CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} groups that are used to substitute the amine hydrogen atoms in these aza-ether compounds.

  11. [Edible and medical application of pasta ulmi, salt, black curd beans, vinegar and thick sauce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-ping

    2010-03-01

    Pasta ulmi, salt, black curd beans, vinegar and thick sauce recorded in the book of Jijiupian (emergency chapter), written by SHI You in the Western Han dynasty could be used as condiments. For example, pasta ulmi tastes spicy, salt tastes salty, black curd beans taste bitter while vinegar tastes acidic. All of them also have high medical values, which were described as materia medica in the early classic literature of materia medica. The dual-purpose for both medicine and food reflected the characteristics of combination of food nutrition and diet-therapy as well as the important connotation of isogeny of medicine and food at early stage of the development of medicine.

  12. Blood pressures, heart rate and locomotor activity during salt loading and angiotensin II infusion in protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halfyard Sarah J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we used radiotelemetry to measure hemodynamic variables and locomotor activity in conscious unrestrained male Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR-2 knockout mice in order to provide a detailed assessment of their blood pressure phenotype. In addition we tested for an influence of PAR-2 on salt-sensitivity (8% versus 0.5% NaCl diet, 2.5 weeks and angiotensin II-induced hypertension (1 μg Ile5-angiotensin II/kg/min versus 0.25 μl/h saline, 2 weeks. Results Systolic arterial pressures of PAR-2 -/- (129 ± 1 mmHg, n = 21, P P Conclusion The data indicated gene knockout of PAR-2 was associated with a modest change in blood pressure phenotype. PAR-2 -/- mice exhibited moderate elevation of systolic arterial and pulse pressures, yet no increased diastolic arterial pressure, no increased blood pressure responses to high salt diet and a subtle difference in the time course of the blood pressure responses to angiotensin II infusion.

  13. Sensory and receptor responses to umami: an overview of pioneering work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gary K

    2009-09-01

    This article provides a selective overview of the early studies of umami taste and outlines significant questions for further research. Umami compounds such as the amino acid glutamate [often in the form of the sodium salt monosodium glutamate (MSG)] and the nucleotide monophosphates 5'-inosinate and 5'-guanylate occur naturally in, and provide flavor for, many foods and cuisines around the world. Early researchers in the United States found that the flavor of pure MSG was difficult to describe. But they all agreed that, although humans found umami compounds, when tasted alone, to be unpalatable, subjects reported that these compounds improved the taste of foods. This taste "dichotomy" may be partly unlearned because it is also observed in very young infants. The uniqueness of umami perception is based on several lines of evidence. First, numerous perceptual studies have shown that the sensation aroused by MSG is distinct from that of the other 4 taste qualities. Second, biochemical studies that show the synergy of the binding of MSG and 5'-guanylate to tongue taste tissue mirror this hallmark perceptual effect. Third, several specific receptors that may mediate umami taste have recently been identified. There remain, however, a number of puzzles surrounding the umami concept, including the molecular basis for an apparent tactile component to umami perception, the reason for the unpalatability of pure umami, and the functional significance for human health and nutrition of umami detection. Future work aimed at understanding these and other open issues will profitably engage scientists in umami research well into the next century.

  14. Interventions for managing taste disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbargere Nagraj, Sumanth; George, Renjith P; Shetty, Naresh; Levenson, David; Ferraiolo, Debra M; Shrestha, Ashish

    2017-12-20

    The sense of taste is very much essential to the overall health of an individual. It is a necessary component to enjoy one's food, which in turn provides nutrition to an individual. Any disturbance in taste perception can hamper quality of life in such patients by influencing their appetite, body weight and psychological well-being. Taste disorders have been treated using different modalities of treatment and there is no consensus for the best intervention. Hence this Cochrane Review was undertaken. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in November 2014. To assess the effects of interventions for the management of patients with taste disturbances. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 4 July 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017 Issue 6) in the Cochrane Library (searched 4 July 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 4 July 2017); Embase Ovid (1980 to 4 July 2017); CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 4 July 2017); and AMED Ovid (1985 to 4 July 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for trials. Abstracts from scientific meetings and conferences were searched on 25 September 2017. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any pharmacological agent with a control intervention or any non-pharmacological agent with a control intervention. We also included cross-over trials in the review. Two pairs of review authors independently, and in duplicate, assessed the quality of trials and extracted data. Wherever possible, we contacted trial authors for additional information. We collected adverse events information from the trials. We included 10 trials (581 participants

  15. Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J.; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw

    2012-08-01

    Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by L-amino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5'-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste).

  16. Architecture of the primary taste center of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, Julien; Grillenzoni, Nicola; Ramaekers, Ariane; Stocker, Reinhard F

    2007-06-10

    A simple nervous system combined with stereotypic behavioral responses to tastants, together with powerful genetic and molecular tools, have turned Drosophila larvae into a very promising model for studying gustatory coding. Using the Gal4/UAS system and confocal microscopy for visualizing gustatory afferents, we provide a description of the primary taste center in the larval central nervous system. Essentially, gustatory receptor neurons target different areas of the subesophageal ganglion (SOG), depending on their segmental and sensory organ origin. We define two major and two smaller subregions in the SOG. One of the major areas is a target of pharyngeal sensilla, the other one receives inputs from both internal and external sensilla. In addition to such spatial organization of the taste center, circumstantial evidence suggests a subtle functional organization: aversive and attractive stimuli might be processed in the anterior and posterior part of the SOG, respectively. Our results also suggest less coexpression of gustatory receptors than proposed in prior studies. Finally, projections of putative second-order taste neurons seem to cover large areas of the SOG. These neurons may thus receive multiple gustatory inputs. This suggests broad sensitivity of secondary taste neurons, reminiscent of the situation in mammals.

  17. Effects of smell loss (hyposmia) on salt usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I

    2014-06-01

    Smell loss (hyposmia) inhibits flavor perception and influences food intake. To compensate for flavor loss, some patients with hyposmia appear to increase salt usage. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported salt usage in patients with hyposmia with that in normal volunteers. Salt usage was compared in 56 patients with hyposmia but with normal taste function with that in 27 normal volunteers. Salt usage was formulated with respect to 1) a standard quantitative salt intake scale, 2) salt addition related to food intake, 3) intake of foods and beverages with high salt content, and 4) salt intake related to presence or absence of hypertension. Eighteen (32%) of the 56 patients self-reported increased salt usage; they were labeled "increased users." The other 38 hyposmic patients (68%) did not report increased salt usage; they were labeled "non-changers." Increased users estimated their salt usage rose an average 2.8 times that experienced before their hyposmia onset. They also reported adding salt to their food before tasting it and ate more highly salted foods than did the non-changers. Salt usage was not increased further among increased users with hypertension but was increased further among non-changers with hypertension. Salt usage is increased among some patients with hyposmia presumably to enhance flavor perception to compensate for diminished flavor perception related to loss of smell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural Equation Modeling of Associations among Taste-Related Risk Factors, Taste Functioning and Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Rawal, Shristi; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Hoffman, Howard J.; Swede, Helen; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Variation in taste perception and exposure to risk factors of taste alterations have been independently linked with elevated adiposity. Using a laboratory database, we modeled taste-adiposity associations and examined whether taste functioning mediates the association between taste-related risk factors and adiposity. Methods Healthy women (n=407, 35.5?16.9 years) self-reported histories of risk factors of altered taste functioning (tonsillectomy, multiple ear infections, head trauma...

  19. Refining associations between TAS2R38 diplotypes and the 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP taste test: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoshuk Linda M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous investigations have highlighted the importance of genetic variation in the determination of bitter tasting ability, however have left unaddressed questions as to within group variation in tasting ability or the possibility of genetic prescription of intermediate tasting ability. Our aim was to examine the relationships between bitter tasting ability and variation at the TAS2R38 locus and to assess the role of psychosocial factors in explaining residual, within group, variation in tasting ability. Results In a large sample of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we confirmed an association between bitter compound tasting ability and TAS2R38 variation and found evidence of a genetic association with intermediate tasting ability. Antisocial behaviour, social class and depression showed no consistent relationship with the distribution of taste test scores. Conclusion Factors which could influence a child's chosen taste score, extra to taste receptor variation, appeared not to show relationships with test score. Observed spread in the distribution of the taste test scores within hypothesised taster groups, is likely to be, or at least in part, due to physiological differentiation regulated by other genetic contributors. Results confirm relationships between genetic variation and bitter compound tasting ability in a large sample, and suggest that TAS2R38 variation may also be associated with intermediate tasting ability.

  20. A High-Throughput Automated Microfluidic Platform for Calcium Imaging of Taste Sensing

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    Yi-Hsing Hsiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human enteroendocrine L cell line NCI-H716, expressing taste receptors and taste signaling elements, constitutes a unique model for the studies of cellular responses to glucose, appetite regulation, gastrointestinal motility, and insulin secretion. Targeting these gut taste receptors may provide novel treatments for diabetes and obesity. However, NCI-H716 cells are cultured in suspension and tend to form multicellular aggregates, preventing high-throughput calcium imaging due to interferences caused by laborious immobilization and stimulus delivery procedures. Here, we have developed an automated microfluidic platform that is capable of trapping more than 500 single cells into microwells with a loading efficiency of 77% within two minutes, delivering multiple chemical stimuli and performing calcium imaging with enhanced spatial and temporal resolutions when compared to bath perfusion systems. Results revealed the presence of heterogeneity in cellular responses to the type, concentration, and order of applied sweet and bitter stimuli. Sucralose and denatonium benzoate elicited robust increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. However, glucose evoked a rapid elevation of intracellular Ca2+ followed by reduced responses to subsequent glucose stimulation. Using Gymnema sylvestre as a blocking agent for the sweet taste receptor confirmed that different taste receptors were utilized for sweet and bitter tastes. This automated microfluidic platform is cost-effective, easy to fabricate and operate, and may be generally applicable for high-throughput and high-content single-cell analysis and drug screening.

  1. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

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    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  2. The Insula and Taste Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Yiannakas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC, among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate with the induction of signaling cascades involved in synaptic plasticity. Taste learning has been shown to require the differential involvement of dopaminergic GABAergic, glutamatergic, muscarinic neurotransmission across an extended taste learning circuit. The subsequent activation of downstream protein kinases (ERK, CaMKII, transcription factors (CREB, Elk-1 and immediate early genes (c-fos, Arc, has been implicated in the regulation of the different phases of taste learning. This review discusses the relevant neurotransmission, molecular signaling pathways and genetic markers involved in novel and aversive taste learning, with a particular focus on the IC. Imaging and other studies in humans have implicated the IC in the pathophysiology of a number of cognitive disorders. We conclude that the IC participates in circuit-wide computations that modulate the interception and encoding of sensory information, as well as the formation of subjective internal representations that control the expression of motivated behaviors.

  3. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Jaber

    Full Text Available Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic. However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers

  4. Expression of umami-taste-related genes in the tongue: a pilot study for genetic taste diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, N; Kaneta, N; Satoh-Kuriwada, S; Tsuchiya, M; Hashimoto, N; Uneyama, H; Kawai, M; Sasano, T

    2015-09-01

    Expression of taste-related genes in the tongue was analysed to develop a technique for genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders. Tissue samples were collected from healthy volunteers by scraping the foliate papillae of the tongue. Immunocytochemistry staining of gustducin, a taste-cell-specific G protein, and gene expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction of β-actin, gustducin (GNAT3) and umami receptors (T1R1, T1R3 and mGluR1) were performed. Changes in umami receptor expression following application of umami substances onto the tongue were analysed. Gustducin-positive cells were observed in the samples, indicating the presence of taste cells. Gene expression of β-actin, GNAT3, T1R1 and T1R3 was detected in all seven samples tested, while that of mGluR1 was detected in four samples. Sequence analysis by NCBI Blast showed that each polymerase chain reaction product had a 99% rate of identification of its target sequence. Stimulation of the tongue with monosodium glutamate significantly upregulated the gene expression levels of T1R1 and T1R3, indicating that this method can detect alterations in umami-related gene expression. Evaluation of the expression of the umami receptor genes, T1R1 and T1R3, in the tongue may be clinically useful for objective genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Biomimetic Sensors for the Senses: Towards Better Understanding of Taste and Odor Sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Ya-Wen; Huang, Liquan; Ben-Shoshan Galeczki, Yaron; Dagan-Wiener, Ayana; Naim, Michael; Niv, Masha Y; Wang, Ping

    2017-12-11

    Taste and smell are very important chemical senses that provide indispensable information on food quality, potential mates and potential danger. In recent decades, much progress has been achieved regarding the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of taste and odor senses. Recently, biosensors have been developed for detecting odorants and tastants as well as for studying ligand-receptor interactions. This review summarizes the currently available biosensing approaches, which can be classified into two main categories: in vitro and in vivo approaches. The former is based on utilizing biological components such as taste and olfactory tissues, cells and receptors, as sensitive elements. The latter is dependent on signals recorded from animals' signaling pathways using implanted microelectrodes into living animals. Advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches, as well as differences in terms of sensing principles and applications are highlighted. The main current challenges, future trends and prospects of research in biomimetic taste and odor sensors are discussed.

  6. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  7. Gut Taste Stimulants Alter Brain Activity in Areas Related to Working Memory: a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Gersprach Anne Christin; Suenderhauf Claudia; Bereiter Lukas; Zanchi Davide; Beglinger Christoph; Borgwardt Stefan; Wölnerkanssen Bettina K

    2016-01-01

    driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible. Methods: In the present pilot study we determined the effects of five taste qualities “bitter” (quinine) “sweet” (glucose) “sour” (citric acid) “salty” (NaCl) and “umami” (monosodium glutamate MSG) on working...

  8. The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Paroxetine Does Not Alter Consummatory Concentration-Dependent Licking of Prototypical Taste Stimuli by Rats