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Sample records for salt stress response

  1. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  2. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  3. Plant Responses to Salt Stress: Adaptive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón Acosta-Motos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway, and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants.

  4. Global Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Fifteen Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Sévin

    Full Text Available Cells constantly adapt to unpredictably changing extracellular solute concentrations. A cornerstone of the cellular osmotic stress response is the metabolic supply of energy and building blocks to mount appropriate defenses. Yet, the extent to which osmotic stress impinges on the metabolic network remains largely unknown. Moreover, it is mostly unclear which, if any, of the metabolic responses to osmotic stress are conserved among diverse organisms or confined to particular groups of species. Here we investigate the global metabolic responses of twelve bacteria, two yeasts and two human cell lines exposed to sustained hyperosmotic salt stress by measuring semiquantitative levels of hundreds of cellular metabolites using nontargeted metabolomics. Beyond the accumulation of osmoprotectants, we observed significant changes of numerous metabolites in all species. Global metabolic responses were predominantly species-specific, yet individual metabolites were characteristically affected depending on species' taxonomy, natural habitat, envelope structure or salt tolerance. Exploiting the breadth of our dataset, the correlation of individual metabolite response magnitudes across all species implicated lower glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and heme biosynthesis to be generally important for salt tolerance. Thus, our findings place the global metabolic salt stress response into a phylogenetic context and provide insights into the cellular phenotype associated with salt tolerance.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid H Hajrah

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrah, Nahid H.; Obaid, Abdullah Y.; Atef, Ahmed; Ramadan, Ahmed M.; Arasappan, Dhivya; Nelson, Charllotte A.; Edris, Sherif; Mutwakil, Mohammed Z.; Alhebshi, Alawia; Gadalla, Nour O.; Makki, Rania M.; Al-Kordy, Madgy A.; El-Domyati, Fotouh M.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Khiyami, Mohammad A.; Hall, Neil; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl) across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h) to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged. PMID:28520766

  7. Responses of Cymbopogon schoenanthus to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... reducer soluble sugars were the lowest recorded in the absence of salt. Besides, the presence of NaCl, even at low doses (50 mM) caused an increase in these levels. This increase was 51.4, 53.6 and 60.6% respectively at. 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl. At the roots, the content of reducer soluble sugars was ...

  8. Long-term salt stress responsive growth, carbohydrate metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the long-term responses of tobacco tissues to salt stress, with a particular interest for growth parameters, proline (Pro) accumulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Exposure of 17-day-old tobacco plants to 0.2 M NaCl was followed by a higher decrease in dry matter in roots than shoots with a decrease of ...

  9. Variability salt stress response analysis of Tunisian natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the responses to salt stress of 106 Medicago truncatula lines from 11 Tunisian natural populations collected from areas that varied in soil composition, salinity and water availability. Five references lines were also included in this study. Plants were cultivated in two treatments (0 and 50 mM of NaCl) during a ...

  10. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Julkowska, M.M.; Montero Sommerfeld, H.; ter Horst, A.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced

  11. Phospholipid signaling responses in salt-stressed rice leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, E.; Testerink, C.; Khalil, M.; El-Shihy, O.; Munnik, T.

    2009-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting growth and productivity of rice plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on phospholipid signaling responses in rice leaves was investigated. Leaf cuts were radiolabeled with 32 P-orthophosphate and the lipids extracted and analyzed

  12. Hemodynamic responses to mental stress during salt loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefke, Maria; Christensen, Niels Juel; Bech, Per; Frandsen, Erik; Damgaard, Morten; Asmar, Ali; Norsk, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose was to examine whether prolonged moderate stress associated with a student exam would increase the blood pressure response to a salt load in young healthy normotensive individuals. Ten healthy young subjects were examined at two different occasions in random order (i) during preparation for a medical exam (prolonged stress) and (ii) outside the exam period (low stress). All subjects consumed a controlled diet for 3 days with low- or high-salt content in randomized order. The subjective stress was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Scale, SCL Symptom Checklist for stress and the Visual Analogue Scale. On each level of stress, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Furthermore, plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured. Twenty-four-hour ABP, 24-h heart rate, CO as well as plasma levels of NE, E and PRA remained unchanged by changes in stress level. Day-night reduction in SAP was significantly larger during moderate stress and high-salt intake; however, no significant difference was observed during daytime and night-time. Individual increase in mental stress correlated significantly with an individual decrease in PRA (SCL-17, r = -0·80, Pstress over a period of time in young healthy normotensive individuals does not lead to changes in 24-h ABP. However, the augmented reduction in day-to-night systolic blood pressure during high-salt intake and moderate stress may indicate that stress affects blood pressure regulation. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Responses of Jatropha curcas to Salt and Drought Stresses

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    Genhua Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to quantify growth responses of Jatropha curcas to a range of salt and drought stresses. Typical symptoms of salinity stress such as leaf edge yellowing were observed in all elevated salinity treatments and the degree of the foliar salt damage increased with the salinity of irrigation water. Total dry weight (DW of Jatropha plants was reduced by 30%, 30%, and 50%, respectively, when irrigated with saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 dS m−1 compared to that in the control. Leaf Na+ concentration was much higher than that observed in most glycophytes. Leaf Cl− concentrations were also high. In the drought stress experiment, plants were irrigated daily with nutrient solution at 100%, 70%, 50%, or 30% daily water use (DWU. Deficit irrigation reduced plant growth and leaf development. The DW of leaves, roots, and total were reduced in the 70%, 50%, and 30% DWU compared to the 100% DWU control treatment. In summary, salinity stress and deficit irrigation significantly reduced the growth and leaf development of greenhouse-grown Jatropha plants.

  14. Response of Tomato Genotypes to Induced Salt Stress | Agong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) genotypes were subjected to salt treatment under hydroponics and their responses monitored in a set of two experiments with the objective of advancing them as potential salt tolerant tomato scion and/or rootstocks. Salt applications ranged from 0 to 2% NaCl, with the resultant ...

  15. Hemodynamic responses to mental stress during salt loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyal, Maria Gefke; Christensen, Niels Juel; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    ) during preparation for a medical exam (prolonged stress) and (ii) outside the exam period (low stress). All subjects consumed a controlled diet for 3 days with low- or high-salt content in randomized order. The subjective stress was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Scale, SCL...

  16. Physiological responses of salt stress and osmoprotection with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... Keywords: Salt stress, bacterial growth, osmoregulation, proline, stress protein synthesis. INTRODUCTION. Bacterial cells had ... under osmotic stress increase the proline pool of endo- genous origin by regulation of ... synthesis of proteins involved in the protection and repair of macromolecules. As with ...

  17. Physiological responses of salt stress and osmoprotection with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... correct folding of new proteins and prevents aggregation of proteins altered, the SDS PAGE analysis of the proteins contents of two strains CHT1, CHT4, indicated the appearance of high and low molecular mass new proteins. Keywords: Salt stress, bacterial growth, osmoregulation, proline, stress protein synthesis.

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana VDAC2 involvement in salt stress response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil salinity seriously affects plants distribution and yield, while salt stress induces SOS genes, and voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) and a mitochondrial porin, are induced too. In this paper, phenotypes of AtVDAC2 transgenic lines and wild type (RLD) were analyzed. It was found that AtVDAC2 over-expressing ...

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Stress Responsiveness in the Seedlings of Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping; Cui, Fenglei; Zhang, Fantao; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), and is well known for its superior level of tolerance against cold, drought and diseases. To date, however, little is known about the salt-tolerant character of Dongxiang wild rice. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance in Dongxiang wild rice, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of the leaves and roots at the seedling stage under salt stress compared with those under normal conditions. The analysis results for the sequencing data showed that 6,867 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (2,216 up-regulated and 4,651 down-regulated) and 4,988 transcripts in the roots (3,105 up-regulated and 1,883 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factor genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in salt stress tolerance. In addition, the differentially expressed genes were compared with the previous RNA-Seq analysis of salt-stress responses in cultivated rice Nipponbare, indicating the possible specific molecular mechanisms of salt-stress responses for Dongxiang wild rice. A large number of the salt-inducible genes identified in this study were co-localized onto fine-mapped salt-tolerance-related quantitative trait loci, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in rice. PMID:26752408

  20. Microarray Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Abscisic Acid and Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays a crucial role in plant responses to abiotic stress. To investigate differences in plant responses to salt and ABA stimulus, differences in gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to salt and ABA were compared using an Agilent oligo microarray. A total of 144 and 139 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under NaCl stress, while 406 and 381 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under ABA stress conditions. In addition, 31 genes were upregulated by both NaCl and ABA stresses, and 23 genes were downregulated by these stressors, suggesting that these genes may play similar roles in plant responses to salt and ABA stress. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed four subgroups of genes, including genes in the GO categories “Molecular transducer activity”, “Growth”, “Biological adhesion” and “Pigmentation”, which were expressed in response to ABA stress but not NaCl stress. In addition, genes that play specific roles during salt or ABA stress were identified. Our results may help elucidate differences in the response of plants to salt and ABA stress.

  1. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species–Dependent Signaling during the Initial Response to Salt Stress in Rice[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Mieulet, Delphine; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Obata, Toshihiro; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Fisahn, Joachim; San Segundo, Blanca; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of salt stress is vital for plant survival and growth. Still, the molecular processes controlling early salt stress perception and signaling are not fully understood. Here, we identified SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1), a rice (Oryza sativa) transcription factor (TF) gene that shows a root-specific induction upon salt and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. Loss of SERF1 impairs the salt-inducible expression of genes encoding members of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and salt tolerance–mediating TFs. Furthermore, we show that SERF1-dependent genes are H2O2 responsive and demonstrate that SERF1 binds to the promoters of MAPK KINASE KINASE6 (MAP3K6), MAPK5, DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING2A (DREB2A), and ZINC FINGER PROTEIN179 (ZFP179) in vitro and in vivo. SERF1 also directly induces its own gene expression. In addition, SERF1 is a phosphorylation target of MAPK5, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity of SERF1 toward its direct target genes. In agreement, plants deficient for SERF1 are more sensitive to salt stress compared with the wild type, while constitutive overexpression of SERF1 improves salinity tolerance. We propose that SERF1 amplifies the reactive oxygen species–activated MAPK cascade signal during the initial phase of salt stress and translates the salt-induced signal into an appropriate expressional response resulting in salt tolerance. PMID:23800963

  2. The glutathione response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg Jepsen, Helene; Posci, Istvan; Jensen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of glutathione in response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, the biomass and the intracellular pool of protein and the glutathione + glutathione disulphid (GSH + GSSG) was measured for four days in a medium with NaCl or KCl added...... and in the basal medium. Due to the osmotic and ionic stress imposed by the salts, the growth of T. lanuginosus was delayed and the inhibitory effect of KCl exceeded that of NaCl. Glutathione seemed to be involved in the response of T. lanuginosus towards high concentrations of salt, as the level of stress...... was negatively correlated with the amount of total glutathione. Salt stress did not result in an increased intracellular protein production. GSH accumulated while nutrients were abundant and were subsequently degraded later, suggesting that nutrients stored in GSH are used when the medium is depleted....

  3. Towards a synthetic view of potato cold and salt stress response by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, D; Legay, S; Lamoureux, D; Hausman, J F; Hoffmann, L; Renaut, J

    2012-03-01

    Potato can suffer from several abiotic stresses such as cold temperature, high soil salinity, lack of water or heavy metal exposure, to name a few. They are known to affect plant growth as well as productivity, with differential regulations at several levels. Potato response to cold and salt exposure was investigated at both transcriptomic and proteomic levels in a growth chamber experiment. Cold exposure in potato resulted in a higher number of significantly differentially regulated genes compared to salt exposure, whereas there were nearly three times more differentially regulated proteins after salt exposure when compared to cold exposure. The allocation of up and down-regulated genes at the functional category level also differed between salt and cold exposure although common trends, previously described in various abiotic stresses, were observed. In both stresses, the majority of photosynthesis-related genes were down-regulated whereas cell rescue and transcription factor-related genes were mostly up-regulated. In the other functional categories no common trend was observed; salt exposure results displayed a strong down-regulation of genes implicated in primary metabolism, detoxication apparatus and signal transduction, whereas upon cold exposure, up and down-regulated genes were similar in number. At the proteomic level, the abundance of the majority of identified proteins was increased except for the photosynthesis-related proteins, which were mostly less abundant after both salt and cold exposure. Common responses between salt and cold stress and specific responses inherent to these abiotic stresses are described.

  4. The proteome response of salt-resistant and salt-sensitive barley genotypes to long-term salinity stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatehi, F.; Hosseinzadeh, A.; Alizadeh, H.; Brimavandi, T.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Responses of plants to salinity stress and the development of salt tolerance are extremely complex. Proteomics is a powerful technique to identify proteins associated with a particular environmental or developmental signal. We employed a proteomic approach to further understand the mechanism of

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Stress Responsiveness in the Seedlings of Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    Full Text Available Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L., and is well known for its superior level of tolerance against cold, drought and diseases. To date, however, little is known about the salt-tolerant character of Dongxiang wild rice. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance in Dongxiang wild rice, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of the leaves and roots at the seedling stage under salt stress compared with those under normal conditions. The analysis results for the sequencing data showed that 6,867 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (2,216 up-regulated and 4,651 down-regulated and 4,988 transcripts in the roots (3,105 up-regulated and 1,883 down-regulated. Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factor genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in salt stress tolerance. In addition, the differentially expressed genes were compared with the previous RNA-Seq analysis of salt-stress responses in cultivated rice Nipponbare, indicating the possible specific molecular mechanisms of salt-stress responses for Dongxiang wild rice. A large number of the salt-inducible genes identified in this study were co-localized onto fine-mapped salt-tolerance-related quantitative trait loci, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in rice.

  6. Salt stress responsiveness of a wild cotton species (Gossypium klotzschianum) based on transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yangyang; Xu, Yanchao; Lu, Pu; Wang, Xingxing; Li, Zhenqing; Cai, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Zhongli; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Zhenmei; Lin, Zhongxu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Kunbo

    2017-01-01

    Cotton is a pioneer of saline land crop, while salt stress still causes its growth inhibition and fiber production decrease. Phenotype identification showed better salt tolerance of a wild diploid cotton species Gossypium klotzschianum. To elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms in G. klotzschianum, we firstly detected the changes in hormones, H2O2 and glutathione (GSSH and GSH), then investigated the gene expression pattern of roots and leaves treated with 300 mM NaCl for 0, 3, 12, 48 h, and each time control by RNA-seq on the Illumina-Solexa platform. Physiological determination proved that the significant increase in hormone ABA at 48 h, while that in H2O2 was at 12 h, likewise, the GSH content decrease at 48 h and the GSSH content increase at 48 h, under salt stress. In total, 37,278 unigenes were identified from the transcriptome data, 8,312 and 6,732 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered to be involved in salt stress tolerance in roots and leaves, respectively. Gene function annotation and expression analysis elucidated hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salt overly sensitive (SOS) signal transduction related genes revealed the important roles of them in signal transmission, oxidation balance and ion homeostasis in response to salinity stress. This is a report which focuses on primary response to highly salty stress (upto 300 mM NaCl) in cotton using a wild diploid Gossypium species, broadening our understanding of the salt tolerance mechanism in cotton and laying a solid foundation of salt resistant for the genetic improvement of upland cotton with the resistance to salt stress.

  7. Regulation of mRNA decay in plant responses to salt and osmotic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Testerink, C.

    Plant acclimation to environmental stresses requires fast signaling to initiate changes in developmental and metabolic responses. Regulation of gene expression by transcription factors and protein kinases acting upstream are important elements of responses to salt and drought. Gene expression can be

  8. Tissue metabolic responses to salt stress in wild and cultivated barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Wu

    Full Text Available A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare, profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance.

  9. Identification of novel and salt-responsive miRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory network of salt stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Yu, Rugang; Zhu, Xianwen; Luo, Xiaobo; Gong, Yiqin; Wang, Ronghua; Limera, Cecilia; Zhang, Keyun; Liu, Liwang

    2015-03-17

    Salt stress is one of the most representative abiotic stresses that severely affect plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well known for their significant involvement in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Although miRNAs implicated in salt stress response have been widely reported in numerous plant species, their regulatory roles in the adaptive response to salt stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), an important root vegetable crop worldwide, remain largely unknown. Solexa sequencing of two sRNA libraries from NaCl-free (CK) and NaCl-treated (Na200) radish roots were performed for systematical identification of salt-responsive miRNAs and their expression profiling in radish. Totally, 136 known miRNAs (representing 43 miRNA families) and 68 potential novel miRNAs (belonging to 51 miRNA families) were identified. Of these miRNAs, 49 known and 22 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed under salt stress. Target prediction and annotation indicated that these miRNAs exerted a role by regulating specific stress-responsive genes, such as squamosa promoter binding-like proteins (SPLs), auxin response factors (ARFs), nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (CSD1). Further functional analysis suggested that these target genes were mainly implicated in signal perception and transduction, regulation of ion homeostasis, basic metabolic processes, secondary stress responses, as well as modulation of attenuated plant growth and development under salt stress. Additionally, the expression patterns of ten miRNAs and five corresponding target genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). With the sRNA sequencing, salt-responsive miRNAs and their target genes in radish were comprehensively identified. The results provide novel insight into complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network of salt stress response in radish, and facilitate further dissection of molecular mechanism underlying plant adaptive response

  10. Time course transcriptome changes in Shewanella algae in response to salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Fu

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae, which produces tetrodotoxin and exists in various seafoods, can cause human diseases, such as spondylodiscitis and bloody diarrhea. In the present study, we focused on the temporal, dynamic process in salt-stressed S. algae by monitoring the gene transcript levels at different time points after high salt exposure. Transcript changes in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, membrane transport, regulatory functions, and cellular signaling were found to be important for the high salt response in S. algae. The most common strategies used by bacteria to survive and grow in high salt environments, such as Na+ efflux, K+ uptake, glutamate transport and biosynthesis, and the accumulation of compatible solutes, were also observed in S. algae. In particular, genes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and DNA repair were highly and steadily up-regulated, accompanied by rapid and instantaneous enhancement of the transcription of large- and small-ribosome subunits, which suggested that the structural changes in the cell wall and some stressful responses occurred in S. algae. Furthermore, the transcription of genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and the glycolytic pathway was decreased, whereas the transcription of genes involved in anaerobic respiration was increased. These results, demonstrating the multi-pathway reactions of S. algae in response to salt stress, increase our understanding of the microbial stress response mechanisms.

  11. An Arabidopsis Nucleoporin NUP85 modulates plant responses to ABA and salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingfang; Wang, Bangshing; Tang, Kai; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Xie, Shaojun; Du, Hai; Yang, Yuting; Tao, Weiguo Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2017-12-12

    Several nucleoporins in the nuclear pore complex (NPC) have been reported to be involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. However, the molecular mechanism of how NPC regulates abiotic stress responses, especially the expression of stress responsive genes remains poorly understood. From a forward genetics screen using an abiotic stress-responsive luciferase reporter (RD29A-LUC) in the sickle-1 (sic-1) mutant background, we identified a suppressor caused by a mutation in NUCLEOPORIN 85 (NUP85), which exhibited reduced expression of RD29A-LUC in response to ABA and salt stress. Consistently, the ABA and salinity induced expression of several stress responsive genes such as RD29A, COR15A and COR47 was significantly compromised in nup85 mutants and other nucleoporin mutants such as nup160 and hos1. Subsequently, Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that NUP85 is potentially associated with HOS1 and other nucleoporins within the nup107-160 complex, along with several mediator subunits. We further showed that there is a direct physical interaction between MED18 and NUP85. Similar to NUP85 mutations, MED18 mutation was also found to attenuate expression of stress responsive genes. Taken together, we not only revealed the involvement of NUP85 and other nucleoporins in regulating ABA and salt stress responses, but also uncovered a potential relation between NPC and mediator complex in modulating the gene expression in plants.

  12. The proteome and transcriptome of proteins responsive to salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... proteins were identified, mainly representing gene products involved in photosynthesis, carbon assimilation and the ... elevated transcript level of genes needed for salt tolerance, the posttranscriptional mechanisms controlling ... tional and molecular breeding of cultivars with desirable culinary qualities that ...

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana VDAC2 involvement in salt stress response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... 23°C with 16 h light (250 µmol/m2·s1) and 60% humidity (Yan et al., ... experiment. Evaluation of salt sensitive. Seeds of transgenic and wild type plants after vernalization in 4°C for 3 days were surface sterilized with 0.1% mercuric chloride and ..... Geiger TR, Keith CS, Muszynski MG, Newton KJ (1999).

  14. Genetic Components of Root Architecture Remodeling in Response to Salt Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena

    2017-11-07

    Salinity of the soil is highly detrimental to plant growth. Plants respond by a redistribution of root mass between main and lateral roots, yet the genetic machinery underlying this process is still largely unknown. Here, we describe the natural variation among 347 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in root system architecture (RSA) and identify the traits with highest natural variation in their response to salt. Salt-induced changes in RSA were associated with 100 genetic loci using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Two candidate loci associated with lateral root development were validated and further investigated. Changes in CYP79B2 expression in salt stress positively correlated with lateral root development in accessions, and cyp79b2 cyp79b3 double mutants developed fewer and shorter lateral roots under salt stress, but not in control conditions. By contrast, high HKT1 expression in the root repressed lateral root development, which could be partially rescued by addition of potassium. The collected data and Multi-Variate analysis of multiple RSA traits, available through the Salt_NV_Root App, capture root responses to salinity. Together, our results provide a better understanding of effective RSA remodeling responses, and the genetic components involved, for plant performance in stress conditions.

  15. Conserved miRNAs and Their Response to Salt Stress in Wild Eggplant Solanum linnaeanum Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceae family includes some important vegetable crops, and they often suffer from salinity stress. Some miRNAs have been identified to regulate gene expression in plant response to salt stress; however, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in Solanaceae species. To identify salt-responsive miRNAs, high-throughput sequencing was used to sequence libraries constructed from roots of the salt tolerant species, Solanum linnaeanum, treated with and without NaCl. The sequencing identified 98 conserved miRNAs corresponding to 37 families, and some of these miRNAs and their expression were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Under the salt stress, 11 of the miRNAs were down-regulated, and 3 of the miRNAs were up-regulated. Potential targets of the salt-responsive miRNAs were predicted to be involved in diverse cellular processes in plants. This investigation provides valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs in S. linnaeanum, and would be useful for developing strategies for the genetic improvement of the Solanaceae crops.

  16. Transcriptomic profiling of the salt-stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juncheng; Li, Baochun; Meng, Yaxiong; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Ren, Panrong; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun

    2015-03-11

    Halogeton glomeratus (H. glomeratus) is an extreme halophyte that is widely distributed in arid regions, including foothills, the Gobi desert of northwest China, and the marginal loess of Central Asia. However, research on the salt-tolerant mechanisms and genes of this species are limited because of a lack of genomic sequences. In the present study, the transcriptome of H. glomeratus was analyzed using next-generation sequencing technology to identify genes involved in salt tolerance and better understand mechanisms of salt response in the halophyte H. glomeratus. Illumina RNA-sequencing was performed in five sequencing libraries that were prepared from samples treated with 200 mM NaCl for 6, 12, 24, and 72 h and a control sample to investigate changes in the H. glomeratus transcriptome in response to salt stress. The de novo assembly of five transcriptomes identified 50,267 transcripts. Among these transcripts, 31,496 (62.66%) were annotated, including 44 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 128 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Compared with transcriptomes from the control and NaCl-treated samples, there were 2,223, 5,643, 7,510 and 10,908 genes that were differentially expressed after exposure to NaCl for 6, 12, 24, and 72 h, respectively. One hundred and eighteen salt-induced genes were common to at least two stages of salt stress, and 291 up-regulated genes were common to various stages of salt stress. Numerous genes that are related to ion transport, reactive oxygen species scavenging, energy metabolism, hormone-response pathways, and responses to biotic and abiotic stress appear to play a significant role in adaptation to salinity conditions in this species. The detection of expression patterns of 18 salt-induced genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were basically consistent with their changes in transcript abundance determined by RNA sequencing. Our findings provide a genomic sequence resource for functional genetic

  17. Global Analysis of WRKY Genes and Their Response to Dehydration and Salt Stress in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Hou, Lei; Zhao, Shuzhen; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Xia, Han; Li, Pengcheng; Zhang, Ye; Bian, Xiaotong; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins are plant specific transcription factors involved in various developmental and physiological processes, especially in biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Although previous studies suggested that WRKY proteins in soybean (Glycine max var. Williams 82) involved in both abiotic and biotic stress responses, the global information of WRKY proteins in the latest version of soybean genome (Wm82.a2v1) and their response to dehydration and salt stress have not been reported. In this study, we identified 176 GmWRKY proteins from soybean Wm82.a2v1 genome. These proteins could be classified into three groups, namely group I (32 proteins), group II (120 proteins), and group III (24 proteins). Our results showed that most GmWRKY genes were located on Chromosome 6, while chromosome 11, 12, and 20 contained the least number of this gene family. More GmWRKY genes were distributed on the ends of chromosomes to compare with other regions. The cis-acting elements analysis suggested that GmWRKY genes were transcriptionally regulated upon dehydration and salt stress. RNA-seq data analysis indicated that three GmWRKY genes responded negatively to dehydration, and 12 genes positively responded to salt stress at 1, 6, and 12 h, respectively. We confirmed by qRT-PCR that the expression of GmWRKY47 and GmWRKY 58 genes was decreased upon dehydration, and the expression of GmWRKY92, 144 and 165 genes was increased under salt treatment.

  18. Transcriptome-based gene expression profiling identifies differentially expressed genes critical for salt stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Zhu, Xianwen; Kinuthia, Karanja Benard; Nie, Shanshan; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Liu, Liwang

    2016-02-01

    Transcriptome-based gene expression analysis identifies many critical salt-responsive genes in radish and facilitates further dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response. Salt stress severely impacts plant growth and development. Radish, a moderately salt-sensitive vegetable crop, has been studied for decades towards the physiological and biochemical performances under salt stress. However, no systematic study on isolation and identification of genes involved in salt stress response has been performed in radish, and the molecular mechanism governing this process is still indistinct. Here, the RNA-Seq technique was applied to analyze the transcriptomic changes on radish roots treated with salt (200 mM NaCl) for 48 h in comparison with those cultured in normal condition. Totally 8709 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 3931 up- and 4778 down-regulated genes were identified. Functional annotation analysis indicated that many genes could be involved in several aspects of salt stress response including stress sensing and signal transduction, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and ROS scavenging. The association analysis of salt-responsive genes and miRNAs exhibited that 36 miRNA-mRNA pairs had negative correlationship in expression trends. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in line with results from the RNA-Seq analysis. Furthermore, the putative model of DEGs and miRNA-mediated gene regulation was proposed to elucidate how radish sensed and responded to salt stress. This study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome-based gene expression profiling under salt stress in radish. The outcomes of this study could facilitate further dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response and provide a valuable platform for further genetic improvement of salt tolerance in radish breeding programs.

  19. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Multiple Responses to Salt Stress in Populus euphratica Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Ma, Jianchao; Niu, Zhimin; Bai, Xiaotao; Lei, Wenli; Shao, Xuemin; Chen, Ningning; Zhou, Fangfang; Wan, Dongshi

    2017-12-08

    Salt stress is one of the most crucial factors impacting plant growth, development and reproduction. However, information regarding differences in tissue-specific gene expression patterns, which may improve a plant's tolerance to salt stress, is limited. Here, we investigated the gene expression patterns in tissues of Populus euphratica Oliv. seedlings using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. A total of 109.3 million, 125bp paired-end clean reads were generated, and 6428, 4797, 2335 and 3358 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in leaf, phloem, xylem and root tissues, respectively. While the tissue-specific DEGs under salt stress had diverse functions, "membrane transporter activity" was the most significant leaf function, whereas "oxidation-reduction process" was the most significant function in root tissue. Further analysis of the tissue-specific DEGs showed that the expression patterns or functions of gene families, such as SOS, NHX, GolS, GPX, APX, RBOHF and CBL, were diverse, suggesting that calcium signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathways are all involved in ionic homeostasis in tissues from P. euphratica seedlings. The DEGs, for example the up-regulated antioxidant genes, contribute to ROS-scavenging induced by salt stress but result in decreased Na⁺ concentrations in root vasculature cells and in xylem sap, while the down-regulated rbohF leads to the reverse results. These results suggest that the divergence of DEGs expression patterns contribute to maintenance of ionic and ROS homeostasis in tissues and improve plant salinity tolerance. We comprehensively analyzed the response of P. euphratica seedlings to salt stress and provide helpful genetic resources for studying plant-abiotic stress interactions.

  20. Morphological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Osmoadaptive Response of Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus montevidensis ZYD4 to High Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai-Hui; Ding, Xiao-Wei; Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yong-Gui; Liu, Fei-Hu; Liu, Bing-Bing; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Halophilic fungi have evolved unique osmoadaptive strategies, enabling them to thrive in hypersaline habitats. Here, we conduct morphological and transcriptomic response of endophytic fungus (Aspergillus montevidensis ZYD4) in both the presence and absence of salt stress. Under salt stress, the colony morphology of the A. montevidensis ZYD4 changed drastically and exhibited decreased colony pigmentation. Extensive conidiophores development was observed under salt stress; conidiophores rarely developed in the absence of salt stress. Under salt stress, yellow cleistothecium formation was inhibited, while glycerol and compatible sugars continued to accumulate. Among differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs), 733 of them were up-regulated while 1,619 unigenes were down-regulated. We discovered that genes involved in the accumulation of glycerol, the storage of compatible sugars, organic acids, pigment production, and asexual sporulation were differentially regulated under salt stress. These results provide further understanding of the molecular basis of osmoadaptive mechanisms of halophilic endophytic fungi.

  1. Differentially delayed root proteome responses to salt stress in sugar cane varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Cinthya Mirella; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Mansur Custodio Nogueira, Rejane Jurema; Menossi, Marcelo; Calsa, Tercilio

    2013-12-06

    Soil salinity is a limiting factor to sugar cane crop development, although in general plants present variable mechanisms of tolerance to salinity stress. The molecular basis underlying these mechanisms can be inferred by using proteomic analysis. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify differentially expressed proteins in sugar cane plants submitted to salinity stress. For that, a greenhouse experiment was established with four sugar cane varieties and two salt conditions, 0 mM (control) and 200 mM NaCl. Physiological and proteomics analyses were performed after 2 and 72 h of stress induction by salt. Distinct physiological responses to salinity stress were observed in the varieties and linked to tolerance mechanisms. In proteomic analysis, the roots soluble protein fraction was extracted, quantified, and analyzed through bidimensional electrophoresis. Gel images analyses were done computationally, where in each contrast only one variable was considered (salinity condition or variety). Differential spots were excised, digested by trypsin, and identified via mass spectrometry. The tolerant variety RB867515 showed the highest accumulation of proteins involved in growth, development, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolization, protein protection, and membrane stabilization after 2 h of stress. On the other hand, the presence of these proteins in the sensitive variety was verified only in stress treatment after 72 h. These data indicate that these stress responses pathways play a role in the tolerance to salinity in sugar cane, and their effectiveness for phenotypical tolerance depends on early stress detection and activation of the coding genes expression.

  2. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  3. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Xiaobo; Jiang, Haiyan; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops. PMID:28769938

  4. Genome-wide identification of soybean WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Nan; Hu, Ruibo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Members of the large family of WRKY transcription factors are involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes, most particularly in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. Here, an analysis of the soybean genome sequence allowed the identification of the full complement of 188 soybean WRKY genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that soybean WRKY genes were classified into three major groups (I, II, III), with the second group further categorized into five subgroups (IIa-IIe). The soybean WRKYs from each group shared similar gene structures and motif compositions. The location of the GmWRKYs was dispersed over all 20 soybean chromosomes. The whole genome duplication appeared to have contributed significantly to the expansion of the family. Expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that in soybean root, 66 of the genes responded rapidly and transiently to the imposition of salt stress, all but one being up-regulated. While in aerial part, 49 GmWRKYs responded, all but two being down-regulated. RT-qPCR analysis showed that in the whole soybean plant, 66 GmWRKYs exhibited distinct expression patterns in response to salt stress, of which 12 showed no significant change, 35 were decreased, while 19 were induced. The data present here provide critical clues for further functional studies of WRKY gene in soybean salt tolerance.

  5. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattarin eTheerawitaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in northeast of Thailand for remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200 to 600 mM NaCl. Seedlings of A. ampliceps (252 cm in plant height raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress, 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress of salt treatment (NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plant grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 mol g1 FW and 3.2 (42.11 mg g1 DW folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll degradation (R2=0.72. Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl. However, these declined under high level of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl, consequently resulting in reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2=0.81 and plant dry weight (R2= 0.91. The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  6. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Diploid and Tetraploid Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Subjected to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjuan Meng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is adaptable to salt stress. Here, we compared morphological, physiological, ultrastructural, and proteomic traits of leaves in tetraploid black locust and its diploid relatives under salt stress. The results showed that diploid (2× plants suffered from greater negative effects than those of tetraploid (4× plants. After salt treatment, plant growth was inhibited, photosynthesis was reduced, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage increased, and defense-related enzyme activities decreased in 2× compared to those in 4×. In addition, salt stress resulted in distorted chloroplasts, swollen thylakoid membranes, accumulation of plastoglobules, and increased starch grains in 2× compared to those in 4×. However, 4× developed diverse responses under salt stress. A comparative proteomic analysis revealed that 41 and 37 proteins were differentially expressed in 2× and 4×, respectively. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, energy, metabolism, transcription/translation, and transportation. Distinct patterns of protein changes between 2× and 4× were analyzed. Collectively, our results suggest that the plants showed significantly different responses to salt stress based on ploidy level of the plant. The 4× possessed a better salt protection mechanism than that of 2×, suggesting salt tolerance in the polyploid plant.

  7. Brain endoplasmic reticulum stress mechanistically distinguishes the saline-intake and hypertensive response to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Fusakazu; Jo, Hiromi; Hilzendeger, Aline M; Thompson, Anthony P; Cassell, Martin D; Rutkowski, D Thomas; Davisson, Robin L; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2015-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress has become an important mechanism in hypertension. We examined the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in mediating the increased saline-intake and hypertensive effects in response to deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt. Intracerebroventricular delivery of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-reducing chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid did not affect the magnitude of hypertension, but markedly decreased saline-intake in response to DOCA-salt. Increased saline-intake returned after tauroursodeoxycholic acid was terminated. Decreased saline-intake was also observed after intracerebroventricular infusion of 4-phenylbutyrate, another chemical chaperone. Immunoreactivity to CCAAT homologous binding protein, a marker of irremediable endoplasmic reticulum stress, was increased in the subfornical organ and supraoptic nucleus of DOCA-salt mice, but the signal was absent in control and CCAAT homologous binding protein-deficient mice. Electron microscopy revealed abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum structure (decrease in membrane length, swollen membranes, and decreased ribosome numbers) in the subfornical organ consistent with endoplasmic reticulum stress. Subfornical organ-targeted adenoviral delivery of GRP78, a resident endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, decreased DOCA-salt-induced saline-intake. The increase in saline-intake in response to DOCA-salt was blunted in CCAAT homologous binding protein-deficient mice, but these mice exhibited a normal hypertensive response. We conclude that (1) brain endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates the saline-intake, but not blood pressure response to DOCA-salt, (2) DOCA-salt causes endoplasmic reticulum stress in the subfornical organ, which when attenuated by GRP78 blunts saline-intake, and (3) CCAAT homologous binding protein may play a functional role in DOCA-salt-induced saline-intake. The results suggest a mechanistic distinction between the importance of endoplasmic reticulum stress in

  8. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-13

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na + were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato.

  9. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na+ were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato. PMID:28084460

  10. Possible Role of Nutritional Priming for Early Salt and Drought Stress Responses in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Christiana; Mehmeti, Vlora; Turetschek, Reinhard; Lyon, David; Egelhofer, Volker; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N) making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N-fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic Medicago truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N-fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy.

  11. Possible role of nutritional priming for early salt and drought stress responses in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana eStaudinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most legume species establish a symbiotic association with soil bacteria. The plant accommodates the differentiated rhizobia in specialized organs, the root nodules. In this environment, the microsymbiont reduces atmospheric nitrogen (N making it available for plant metabolism. Symbiotic N fixation is driven by the respiration of the host photosynthates and thus constitutes an additional carbon sink for the plant. Molecular phenotypes of symbiotic and non-symbiotic M. truncatula are identified. The implication of nodule symbiosis on plant abiotic stress response mechanisms is not well understood. In this study, we exposed nodulated and non-symbiotic N fertilized plants to salt and drought conditions. We assessed the stress effects with proteomic and metabolomic methods and found a nutritionally regulated phenotypic plasticity pivotal for a differential stress adjustment strategy.

  12. Physiological response of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p35 The study of salinity tolerance provides valuable information about the propagation of species and can help in both characterizing cultures and in providing correct recommendations for cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological response of chia seeds to salt stress. Seeds were placed on paper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl at osmotic potentials equivalent to zero, -0.05, -0.10, -0.15, -0.20, -0.25, and -0.30 MPa. The parameters evaluated were germination percentage, first count, and germination speed index. According to the results, germination and vigor of the chia seeds decrease as salt concentration increases. Therefore, it was concluded that chia seeds are moderately tolerant to salinity levels used in this work and can be intolerant at lower osmotic potentials and in the early stages of seedling development.

  13. Physiological response of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of salinity tolerance provides valuable information about the propagation of species and can help in both characterizing cultures and in providing correct recommendations for cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological response of chia seeds to salt stress. Seeds were placed on paper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl at osmotic potentials equivalent to zero, -0.05, -0.10, -0.15, -0.20, -0.25, and -0.30 MPa. The parameters evaluated were germination percentage, first count, and germination speed index. According to the results, germination and vigor of the chia seeds decrease as salt concentration increases. Therefore, it was concluded that chia seeds are moderately tolerant to salinity levels used in this work and can be intolerant at lower osmotic potentials and in the early stages of seedling development.

  14. Proteome Profiling of Heat, Oxidative, and Salt Stress Responses in Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1

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    Baolei eJia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermophilic species, Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1, a model microorganism for studying hyperthermophiles, has adapted to optimal growth under conditions of high temperature and salinity. However, the environmental conditions for the strain are not always stable, and this strain might face different stresses. In the present study, we compared the proteome response of T. kodakarensis to heat, oxidative, and salt stresses using two-dimensional electrophoresis, and protein spots were identified through MALDI-TOF/MS. Fifty-nine, forty-two, and twenty-nine spots were induced under heat, oxidative, and salt stresses, respectively. Among the up-regulated proteins, four proteins (a hypothetical protein, pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase, peroxiredoxin, and protein disulphide oxidoreductase were associated with all three stresses. Gene ontology analysis showed that these proteins were primarily involved metabolic and cellular processes. The KEGG pathway analysis suggested that the main metabolic pathways involving these enzymes were related to carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. These data might enhance our understanding of the functions and molecular mechanisms of thermophilic Archaea for survival and adaptation in extreme environments.

  15. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

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    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of Petunia hybrida in response to salt stress using high throughput RNA sequencing.

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    Gonzalo H Villarino

    Full Text Available Salinity and drought stress are the primary cause of crop losses worldwide. In sodic saline soils sodium chloride (NaCl disrupts normal plant growth and development. The complex interactions of plant systems with abiotic stress have made RNA sequencing a more holistic and appealing approach to study transcriptome level responses in a single cell and/or tissue. In this work, we determined the Petunia transcriptome response to NaCl stress by sequencing leaf samples and assembling 196 million Illumina reads with Trinity software. Using our reference transcriptome we identified more than 7,000 genes that were differentially expressed within 24 h of acute NaCl stress. The proposed transcriptome can also be used as an excellent tool for biological and bioinformatics in the absence of an available Petunia genome and it is available at the SOL Genomics Network (SGN http://solgenomics.net. Genes related to regulation of reactive oxygen species, transport, and signal transductions as well as novel and undescribed transcripts were among those differentially expressed in response to salt stress. The candidate genes identified in this study can be applied as markers for breeding or to genetically engineer plants to enhance salt tolerance. Gene Ontology analyses indicated that most of the NaCl damage happened at 24 h inducing genotoxicity, affecting transport and organelles due to the high concentration of Na+ ions. Finally, we report a modification to the library preparation protocol whereby cDNA samples were bar-coded with non-HPLC purified primers, without affecting the quality and quantity of the RNA-seq data. The methodological improvement presented here could substantially reduce the cost of sample preparation for future high-throughput RNA sequencing experiments.

  17. Physiological response of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica – Lamiales: Lamiaceae) to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Stefanello; Luiz Augusto Salles das Neves; Marisa Aparecida Binotto Abbad; Bruna Boucinha Viana

    2015-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p35 The study of salinity tolerance provides valuable information about the propagation of species and can help in both characterizing cultures and in providing correct recommendations for cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological response of chia seeds to salt stress. Seeds were placed on paper in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) at osmotic potentials equivalent to zero, -0.05, -0.10, -0.15, -0.20, -0.25, and -0.3...

  18. Transcriptomic profiling of the salt-stress response in the wild recretohalophyte Reaumuria trigyna.

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    Dang, Zhen-hua; Zheng, Lin-lin; Wang, Jia; Gao, Zhe; Wu, Shu-biao; Qi, Zhi; Wang, Ying-chun

    2013-01-16

    Reaumuria trigyna is an endangered small shrub endemic to desert regions in Inner Mongolia. This dicotyledonous recretohalophyte has unique morphological characteristics that allow it to tolerate the stress imposed by semi-desert saline soil. However, it is impossible to explore the mechanisms underlying this tolerance without detailed genomic information. Fortunately, newly developed high-throughput sequencing technologies are powerful tools for de novo sequencing to gain such information for this species. Two sequencing libraries prepared from control (C21) and NaCl-treated samples (T43) were sequenced using short reads sequencing technology (Illumina) to investigate changes in the R. trigyna transcriptome in response to salt stress. Among 65340 unigenes, 35495 (52.27%) were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved domains, gene ontology terms, and metabolic pathways with a cut-off E-value of 10-5. These included 44 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, 119 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, and 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups families. By comparing the transcriptomes from control and NaCl-treated plants, 5032 genes showed significantly differences in transcript abundance under salt stress (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and |log2Ratio| ≥ 1). These genes were significantly enriched in 29 KEGG pathways and 26 GO terms. The transcription profiles indicated that genes related to ion transport and the reactive oxygen species scavenging system were relevant to the morphological and physiological characteristics of this species. The expression patterns of 30 randomly selected genes resulted from quantitative real-time PCR were basically consistent with their transcript abundance changes identified by RNA-seq. The present study identified potential genes involved in salt tolerance of R. trigyna. The globally sequenced genes covered a considerable proportion of the R. trigyna transcriptome. These data represent a genetic resource for the discovery of

  19. Transcriptomic profiling of the salt-stress response in the wild recretohalophyte Reaumuria trigyna

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    Dang Zhen-hua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reaumuria trigyna is an endangered small shrub endemic to desert regions in Inner Mongolia. This dicotyledonous recretohalophyte has unique morphological characteristics that allow it to tolerate the stress imposed by semi-desert saline soil. However, it is impossible to explore the mechanisms underlying this tolerance without detailed genomic information. Fortunately, newly developed high-throughput sequencing technologies are powerful tools for de novo sequencing to gain such information for this species. Results Two sequencing libraries prepared from control (C21 and NaCl-treated samples (T43 were sequenced using short reads sequencing technology (Illumina to investigate changes in the R. trigyna transcriptome in response to salt stress. Among 65340 unigenes, 35495 (52.27% were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved domains, gene ontology terms, and metabolic pathways with a cut-off E-value of 10-5. These included 44 Gene Ontology (GO terms, 119 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, and 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups families. By comparing the transcriptomes from control and NaCl-treated plants, 5032 genes showed significantly differences in transcript abundance under salt stress (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and |log2Ratio| ≥ 1. These genes were significantly enriched in 29 KEGG pathways and 26 GO terms. The transcription profiles indicated that genes related to ion transport and the reactive oxygen species scavenging system were relevant to the morphological and physiological characteristics of this species. The expression patterns of 30 randomly selected genes resulted from quantitative real-time PCR were basically consistent with their transcript abundance changes identified by RNA-seq. Conclusions The present study identified potential genes involved in salt tolerance of R. trigyna. The globally sequenced genes covered a considerable proportion of the R. trigyna transcriptome. These data

  20. Sugars and acid invertase mediate the physiological response of Schenkia spicata root cultures to salt stress.

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    Mišić, Danijela; Dragićević, Milan; Šiler, Branislav; Nestorović Živković, Jasmina; Maksimović, Vuk; Momčilović, Ivana; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2012-09-01

    A heterotrophic model system was established in our studies in order to differentiate the effect of high salt concentrations in external medium on growth and sugar metabolism in roots from the effect of reduced sugar availability resulting from decreased photosynthesis under salinity. Soluble sugar content and the activity of acid invertase in root cultures of salt-tolerant (ST) and salt-sensitive (SS) Schenkia spicata (L.) Mansion genotypes were investigated during exposure to different NaCl concentrations (0-200 mM). Their response to severe salinity was characterized by a metabolic adjustment that led to the accumulation of sucrose (Suc) in root tissues. There was clear evidence that cell wall invertase (CW-Inv) is the major contributor to the Suc/hexose ratio in roots during exposure to elevated salinity. The results of CW-Inv activity and immunodetection assays in our study suggest that the regulation of CW-Inv expression is most likely achieved in a salt stress dependent manner. Also, NaCl modulated soluble acid invertase (SA-Inv) expression differentially in SS and ST genotypes of S. spicata. Regardless of the salt treatment, genotype, or the amount of enzyme, SA-Inv activity was generally low, indicating regulation at the posttranslational level. The results suggest no direct role of SA-Inv in the regulation of the root tissue carbohydrate pool and therefore in the control of the availability of glucose and fructose for the primary metabolism and/or osmotic adjustment in the present heterotrophic model system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Reverse function of ROS-induced CBL10 during salt and drought stress responses.

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    Kang, Hyun Kyung; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2016-02-01

    Cellular levels of Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels in the cytosol but fluctuate greatly when acting as second messengers to decode environmental and developmental signals. Phytohormones are primary signals leading to various changes in ROS or Ca(2+) signaling during synergistic and antagonistic cross-talk. In this study, we found that brassinosteroids (BRs), hormones involved in diverse plant developmental processes, promote ROS production. To identify downstream signaling components of ROS during BR-mediated plant development, we searched for genes whose expression remained unchanged by ROS only in BR- signaling mutants and found calcineurin B-like (CBL) 10, which encodes a CBL should be changed to CBL10. protein that senses calcium. ROS-induced CBL10 expression was nullified and endogenous CBL10 expression in the shoot was low in the BR-signaling mutant. Using a cbl10 mutant and a transgenic plant overexpressing CBL10, we showed that BR sensitivity during hypocotyl growth decreased in the cbl10 mutant under salt stress, providing an additional mechanism for positive regulation of salt stress by CBL10. We also demonstrated that CBL10 negatively affects tolerance to drought and is not mediated by abscisic acid-induced signaling. Our results suggest that Ca(2+) signaling through CBL10 differently affects the response to abiotic stresses, partly by regulating BR sensitivity of plant tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of a cytosolic abiotic stress responsive universal stress protein (SbUSP mitigates salt and osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco plants

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    Pushpika eUdawat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Stress Protein (USP is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologues of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive universal stress protein. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control (wild type and vector control plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1 exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content under stress treatments than control (WT and VC plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2- radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis (PCA exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant.

  3. Transcriptomic profiling of the salt stress response in excised leaves of the halophyte Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupa, Monika; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Domagalski, Krzysztof; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Abu Nahia, Karim; Złoch, Michał; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2016-02-01

    Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima is a halophytic relative of cultivated beets. In the present work a transcriptome response to acute salt stress imposed to excised leaves of sea beet was investigated. Salt treatments consisted of adding NaCl directly to the transpiration stream by immersing the petioles of excised leaves into the salt solutions. Sequencing libraries were generated from leaves subjected to either moderate or strong salt stress. Control libraries were constructed from untreated leaves. Sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We obtained 32970 unigenes by assembling the pooled reads from all the libraries with Trinity software. Screening the nr database returned 18,362 sequences with functional annotation. Using the reference transcriptome we identified 1,246 genes that were differentially expressed after 48 h of NaCl stress. Genes related to several cellular functions such as membrane transport, osmoprotection, molecular chaperoning, redox metabolism or protein synthesis were differentially expressed in response to salt stress. The response of sea beet leaves to salt treatments was marked out by transcriptomic up-regulation of genes related to photosynthetic carbon fixation, ribosome biogenesis, cell wall-building and cell wall expansion. Furthermore, several novel and undescribed transcripts were responsive to salinity in leaves of sea beet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteomic analysis of seedling roots of two maize inbred lines that differ significantly in the salt stress response.

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    Dezhou Cui

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant productivity and quality throughout the world. Roots are the sites of salt uptake. To better understand salt stress responses in maize, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling roots from the salt-tolerant genotype F63 and the salt-sensitive genotype F35 under 160 mM NaCl treatment for 2 days. Under salinity conditions, the shoot fresh weight and relative water content were significantly higher in F63 than in F35, while the osmotic potential was significantly lower and the reduction of the K+/Na+ ratio was significantly less pronounced in F63 than in F35. Using an iTRAQ approach, twenty-eight proteins showed more than 2.0- fold changes in abundance and were regarded as salt-responsive proteins. Among them, twenty-two were specifically regulated in F63 but remained constant in F35. These proteins were mainly involved in signal processing, water conservation, protein synthesis and biotic cross-tolerance, and could be the major contributors to the tolerant genotype of F63. Functional analysis of a salt-responsive protein was performed in yeast as a case study to confirm the salt-related functions of detected proteins. Taken together, the results of this study may be helpful for further elucidating salt tolerance mechanisms in maize.

  5. Differential Response of Two Scented Indica Rice (Oryza sativa Cultivars under Salt Stress

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    Sunita Danai-Tambhale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Present report deals with the effect of varying (0 – 200 mM NaCl salt stress on two popular scented non-basmati type indica rice cultivars, namely Indrayani and Ambemohar on germination and growth and biochemical parameters. In the present investigation the effect of increasing salt stress was seen on germination, biomass production and biochemical parameters including total protein content, proline accumulation, starch content, polyphenols levels, and reducing and non-reducing sugars. Contrasting behavior was evidenced in both the cultivars in terms of germination rate and biomass production at seedling and early vegetative growth level. Salt stress-induced proline accumulation was observed in both the cultivars, however, with much higher extent of proline accumulation in Ambemohar than Indrayani. A salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl resulted into 305% higher proline content than the control plants of Ambemohar against 222% higher proline in Indrayani at the same stress level. Similarly protein content was also higher in Ambemohar than Indrayani at the highest stress level used in this study. Contrasting results were seen in terms of starch content amongst both the cultivars, where continuous decrease with increasing salt stress was observed in Indrayani, on the other hand, an increase in starch content was evident in Ambemohar under the influence of NaCl-induced salt stress. These finding clearly indicates the comparably higher salt tolerant nature of Ambemohar than Indrayani which might be attributed to higher proline, protein and starch content than Indrayani cultivar under salt stress.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress.

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    Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Ke; Liang, Qian-Yu; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat) of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress.

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress.

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    Yin-Huan Wu

    Full Text Available Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a promoter responsive to salt, osmotic and dehydration stresses in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforte, Alessandra Jordano; Guimarães-Dias, Fábia; Neves-Borges, Anna Cristina; Bencke-Malato, Marta; Felix-Whipps, Durvalina; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress is the main limiting factor of soybean yield. Currently, genetic engineering has been one important tool in the development of drought-tolerant cultivars. A widely used strategy is the fusion of genes that confer tolerance under the control of the CaMV35S constitutive promoter; however, stress-responsive promoters would constitute the best alternative to the generation of drought-tolerant crops. We characterized the promoter of α-galactosidase soybean (GlymaGAL) gene that was previously identified as highly up-regulated by drought stress. The β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity of Arabidopsis transgenic plants bearing 1000- and 2000-bp fragments of the GlymaGAL promoter fused to the uidA gene was evaluated under air-dried, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and salt stress treatments. After 24 h of air-dried and PEG treatments, the pGAL-2kb led to an increase in GUS expression in leaf and root samples when compared to the control samples. These results were corroborated by qPCR expression analysis of the uidA gene. The pGAL-1kb showed no difference in GUS activity between control and treated samples. The pGAL-2kb promoter was evaluated in transgenic soybean roots, leading to an increase in EGFP expression under air-dried treatment. Our data indicates that pGAL-2kb could be a useful tool in developing drought-tolerant cultivars by driving gene expression.

  9. The Effect of Phosphorus and Sulfur Nanofertilizers on the Growth and Nutrition of Ocimum basilicum in Response to Salt Stress

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    Zarrin Taj Alipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication is one of the most serious ecological threats to aquatic environments. It is defined as the enrichment of water bodies by organic matter or surface runoff containing nitrate and phosphate that directly control the growth of algae and other water plants. The use of nanofertilizers increases nutrient use efficiency and consequently reduces soil toxicity and minimizes the adverse effects of the over application of chemical fertilizers. This study was conducted in factorial form of a completely randomized design with four replications to evaluate the effect of phosphorus nanoparticles on the growth and nutrition of basil under salt stress. The first factor was three levels of salt stress, namely, 1, 3, and 6 dS m−1. The second factor was three levels of phosphorus fertilizer, namely, without phosphorus fertilizer (P1, ammonium phosphate (P2, and phosphorus nanoparticles (P3. Powdered elemental sulfur with a particle diameter of <0.6 mm at two rates, namely, 0% (S0 and 20% (S2, was utilized in the experiment. Physiological traits (i.e., chlorophyll content, P uptake, and proline content of leaves were investigated in this study. Plant growth and P uptake decreased with the increase in salinity (P < 0.05. The application of phosphorus nanoparticles significantly increased P uptake in response to salt stress. Phosphorus nanoparticles significantly increased photosynthetic activity and plant weight in response to salt stress. Leaf proline content increased significantly in response to salt stress.

  10. Salt-tolerant and -sensitive alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars have large variations in defense responses to the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera litura under normal and salt stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Liu, Qing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Cao, Guoyan; Tan, Qing; Zhao, Weiye; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple stress factors at the same time. Yet, little is known about how plants modulate their physiology to counteract simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, such as soil salinity and insect herbivory. In this study, insect performance bioassays, phytohormone measurements, quantification of transcripts, and protein determination were employed to study the phenotypic variations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars in response to insect Spodoptera litura feeding under normal and salt stress condition. When being cultivated in normal soil, the salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar Zhongmu-1 exhibited lower insect resistance than did the salt-sensitive cultivar Xinjiang Daye. Under salinity stress, the defense responses of Xinjiang Daye were repressed, whereas Zhongmu-1 did not show changes in resistance levels. It is likely that salinity influenced the resistance of Xinjiang Daye through suppressing the accumulation of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which is the bioactive hormone inducing herbivore defense responses, leading to attenuated trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI) activity. Furthermore, exogenous ABA supplementation suppressed the insect herbivory-induced JA/JA-Ile accumulation and levels of JAR1 (jasmonate resistant 1) and TPI, and further decreased the resistance of Xinjiang Daye, whereas Zhongmu-1 showed very little response to the increased ABA level. We propose a mechanism, in which high levels of abscisic acid induced by salt treatment may affect the expression levels of JAR1 and consequently decrease JA-Ile accumulation and thus partly suppress the defense of Xinjiang Daye against insects under salt stress. This study provides new insight into the mechanism by which alfalfa responds to concurrent abiotic and biotic stresses.

  11. Comparing genomic expression patterns across plant species reveals highly diverged transcriptional dynamics in response to salt stress

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    Close Timothy J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice and barley are both members of Poaceae (grass family but have a marked difference in salt tolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference was previously unexplored. This study employs a comparative genomics approach to identify analogous and contrasting gene expression patterns between rice and barley. Results A hierarchical clustering approach identified several interesting expression trajectories among rice and barley genotypes. There were no major conserved expression patterns between the two species in response to salt stress. A wheat salt-stress dataset was queried for comparison with rice and barley. Roughly one-third of the salt-stress responses of barley were conserved with wheat while overlap between wheat and rice was minimal. These results demonstrate that, at transcriptome level, rice is strikingly different compared to the more closely related barley and wheat. This apparent lack of analogous transcriptional programs in response to salt stress is further highlighted through close examination of genes associated with root growth and development. Conclusion The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that conservation of transcriptional signatures in response to environmental cues depends on the genetic similarity among the genotypes within a species, and on the phylogenetic distance between the species.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

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    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  13. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

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    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress-responsive proteins in roots of SnRK2 transgenic rice

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    Nam Myung Hee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rice roots are highly salt-sensitive organ and primary root growth is rapidly suppressed by salt stress. Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2 family is one of the key regulator of hyper-osmotic stress signalling in various plant cells. To understand early salt response of rice roots and identify SnRK2 signaling components, proteome changes of transgenic rice roots over-expressing OSRK1, a rice SnRK2 kinase were investigated. Results Proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein spots were identified by LC-MS/MS from wild type and OSRK1 transgenic rice roots exposed to 150 mM NaCl for either 3 h or 7 h. Fifty two early salt -responsive protein spots were identified from wild type rice roots. The major up-regulated proteins were enzymes related to energy regulation, amino acid metabolism, methylglyoxal detoxification, redox regulation and protein turnover. It is noted that enzymes known to be involved in GA-induced root growth such as fructose bisphosphate aldolase and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase were clearly down-regulated. In contrast to wild type rice roots, only a few proteins were changed by salt stress in OSRK1 transgenic rice roots. A comparative quantitative analysis of the proteome level indicated that forty three early salt-responsive proteins were magnified in transgenic rice roots at unstressed condition. These proteins contain single or multiple potential SnRK2 recognition motives. In vitro kinase assay revealed that one of the identified proteome, calreticulin is a good substrate of OSRK1. Conclusions Our present data implicate that rice roots rapidly changed broad spectrum of energy metabolism upon challenging salt stress, and suppression of GA signaling by salt stress may be responsible for the rapid arrest of root growth and development. The broad spectrum of functional categories of proteins affected by over-expression of OSRK1 indicates that OSRK1

  15. Influence of salt stress on growth and antioxidant responses of two malus species at callus and plantlet stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil salinization has become a significant factor limiting apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some areas of China. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of salt stress i.e. 150 mmol/L NaCl in Murashige and Skoog medium on growth and antioxidant responses of 15-d old callus and ...

  16. Response of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L. genotypes from semiarid regions of China to salt stress

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    Minxuan Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance of crops is becoming more and more important, owing to the constant increase of salinity in arid and semi-arid regions. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L., generally considered tolerant to salinity, can be an alternative crop for salt affected areas. To assess genotypic variation for vegetative-stage salinity tolerance, 195 broomcorn millet accessions from a core collection were evaluated for germination percentage, shoot length, and root length during germination in 8 mL of deionized water (control or 8 mL of a 120 mmol L− 1 salt solution (treatment. Six genotypes with different levels of salt tolerance were selected based on the growth parameters and ion concentrations in plant at the seedling stage and used for confirmation of the initial salinity response. Substantial variation for salinity tolerance was found on the basis of salt damage index [(germination percentage under control − germination percentage under salinity / germination percentage under control × 100, SDI] and 39 accessions exhibited strong salt tolerance with SDI lower than 20%. The salt tolerance performance of the genotypes was generally consistent across experiments. In the seedling growth study, seedling number, root length and belowground biomass were adversely affected (showing more than 70%, 50%, and 32% reduction, respectively in sensitive genotypes compared to tolerant genotypes (35%, 31%, and 3% reduction, respectively under 160 mmol L− 1 NaCl treatment. In general, whole-plant salinity tolerance was associated with increased Na+ concentration and Na+/K+ ratio, and salt-tolerant genotypes often had higher root and lower shoot Na+ concentration than sensitive ones. Na+ concentration in root was closely related to salt tolerance and may be considered as a selection criterion for screening salt tolerance of broomcorn millet at the seedling or vegetative stages.

  17. Responses of Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Fluorescence and ROS-Scavenging Systems to Salt Stress During Seedling and Reproductive Stages in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Foad; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Salinity is a widespread soil problem limiting productivity of cereal crops worldwide. Rice is particularly sensitive to salt stress during the seedling stage, with consequent poor crop establishment, as well as during reproduction where salinity can severely disrupt grain formation and yield. Tolerance at the seedling stage is weakly associated with tolerance during reproduction. Physiological responses to salinity were evaluated for contrasting genotypes, during the seedling and reproductive stages. Methods Three rice genotypes differing in their tolerance of salinity were evaluated in a set of greenhouse experiments under salt stress during both seedling stage and reproduction. Key Results Photosynthetic CO2 fixation, stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration decreased substantially because of salt stress, but with greater reduction in the sensitive cultivar IR29. The tolerant lines IR651 and IR632 had more responsive stomata that tended to close faster during the first few hours of stress, followed by partial recovery after a brief period of acclimation. However, in the sensitive line, gs continued to decrease for longer duration and with no recovery afterward. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed that non-photochemical quenching increased, whereas the electron transport rate decreased under salt stress. Salt-tolerant cultivars exhibited much lower lipid peroxidation, maintained elevated levels of reduced ascorbic acid and showed increased activities of the enzymes involved in the reactive oxygen scavenging system during both developmental stages. Conclusions Upregulation of the anti-oxidant system appears to play a role in salt tolerance of rice, with tolerant genotypes also maintaining relatively higher photosynthetic function; during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. PMID:17428832

  18. Antioxidant responses of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings to prolonged salt-induced stress

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    Kavas Musa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of long-term NaCl treatment were investigated in two cultivars of peanut designated as drought-resistant and drought-sensitive. Growth parameters, changes in the concentrations of MDA, H2O2 and proline, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined under salinity stress. Growth parameters indicated the superiority of cv. Florispan to cv. Gazipaşa under milder salinity stress treatment. However, comparative analysis of the two cultivars showed that MDA, H2O2, ion leakage levels and photosystem II activities were not significantly different, except for the proline activity, which increased only in Florispan leaf tissues under 100 mM salt treatment. Among the processes that govern the tolerance in peanut tissues, proline level and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR appeared to be only components that play an important part in salt stress protection.

  19. Transcriptome analyses of a salt-tolerant cytokinin-deficient mutant reveal differential regulation of salt stress response by cytokinin deficiency.

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    Rie Nishiyama

    Full Text Available Soil destruction by abiotic environmental conditions, such as high salinity, has resulted in dramatic losses of arable land, giving rise to the need of studying mechanisms of plant adaptation to salt stress aimed at creating salt-tolerant plants. Recently, it has been reported that cytokinins (CKs regulate plant environmental stress responses through two-component systems. A decrease in endogenous CK levels could enhance salt and drought stress tolerance. Here, we have investigated the global transcriptional change caused by a reduction in endogenous CK content under both normal and salt stress conditions. Ten-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT and CK-deficient ipt1,3,5,7 plants were transferred to agar plates containing either 0 mM (control or 200 mM NaCl and maintained at normal growth conditions for 24 h. Our experimental design allowed us to compare transcriptome changes under four conditions: WT-200 mM vs. WT-0 mM, ipt1,3,5,7-0 mM vs. WT-0 mM, ipt1,3,5,7-200 mM vs. ipt1,3,5,7-0 mM and ipt1,3,5,7-200 mM vs. WT-200 mM NaCl. Our results indicated that the expression of more than 10% of all of the annotated Arabidopsis genes was altered by CK deficiency under either normal or salt stress conditions when compared to WT. We found that upregulated expression of many genes encoding either regulatory proteins, such as NAC, DREB and ZFHD transcription factors and the calcium sensor SOS3, or functional proteins, such as late embryogenesis-abundant proteins, xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases, glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases, defensins and glyoxalase I family proteins, may contribute to improved salt tolerance of CK-deficient plants. We also demonstrated that the downregulation of photosynthesis-related genes and the upregulation of several NAC genes may cause the altered morphological phenotype of CK-deficient plants. This study highlights the impact of CK regulation on the well-known stress-responsive signaling pathways, which

  20. Comparative assessment of chloroplast transcriptional responses highlights conserved and unique patterns across Triticeae members under salt stress.

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    Mirzaei, Saeid; Mansouri, Mehdi; Mohammadi-Nejad, Ghasem; Sablok, Gaurav

    2017-12-11

    Chloroplast functional genomics, in particular understanding the chloroplast transcriptional response is of immense importance mainly due to its role in oxygenic photosynthesis. As a photosynthetic unit, its efficiency and transcriptional activity is directly regulated by reactive oxygen species during abiotic and biotic stress and subsequently affects carbon assimilation, and plant biomass. In crops, understanding photosynthesis is crucial for crop domestication by identifying the traits that could be exploited for crop improvement. Transcriptionally and translationally active chloroplast plays a key role by regulating the PSI and PSII photo-reaction centres, which ubiquitously affects the light harvesting. Using a comparative transcriptomics mapping approach, we identified differential regulation of key chloroplast genes during salt stress across Triticeae members with potential genes involved in photosynthesis and electron transport system such as CytB6f. Apart from differentially regulated genes involved in PSI and PSII, we found widespread evidence of intron splicing events, specifically uniquely spliced petB and petD in Triticum aestivum and high proportion of RNA editing in ndh genes across the Triticeae members during salt stress. We also highlight the role and differential regulation of ATP synthase as member of CF0CF1 and also revealed the effect of salt stress on the water-splitting complex under salt stress. It is worthwhile to mention that the observed conserved down-regulation of psbJ across the Triticeae is limiting the assembly of water-splitting complexes and thus making the BEP clade Triticeae members more vulnerable to high light during the salt stress. Comparative understanding of the chloroplast transcriptional dynamics and photosynthetic regulation will improve the approaches for improved crop domestication.

  1. Short-Term Exposure of Paddy Soil Microbial Communities to Salt Stress Triggers Different Transcriptional Responses of Key Taxonomic Groups.

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    Peng, Jingjing; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Liesack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization due to seawater intrusion along coastal areas is an increasing threat to rice cultivation worldwide. While the detrimental impact on rice growth and yield has been thoroughly studied, little is known about how severe salinity affects structure and function of paddy soil microbial communities. Here, we examined their short-term responses to half- and full-strength seawater salinity in controlled laboratory experiments. Slurry microcosms were incubated under anoxic conditions, with rice straw added as carbon source. Stress exposure time was for 2 days after a pre-incubation period of 7 days. Relative to the control, moderate (300 mM NaCl) and high (600 mM NaCl) salt stress suppressed both net consumption of acetate and methane production by 50% and 70%, respectively. Correspondingly, community-wide mRNA expression decreased by 50-65%, with significant changes in relative transcript abundance of family-level groups. mRNA turnover was clearly more responsive to salt stress than rRNA dynamics. Among bacteria, Clostridiaceae were most abundant and the only group whose transcriptional activity was strongly stimulated at 600 mM NaCl. In particular, clostridial mRNA involved in transcription/translation, fermentation, uptake and biosynthesis of compatible solutes, and flagellar motility was significantly enriched in response salt stress. None of the other bacterial groups were able to compete at 600 mM NaCl. Their responses to 300 mM NaCl were more diverse. Lachnospiraceae increased, Ruminococcaceae maintained, and Peptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Syntrophomonadaceae decreased in relative mRNA abundance. Among methanogens, Methanosarcinaceae were most dominant. Relative to other family-level groups, salt stress induced a significant enrichment of transcripts related to the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-coenzyme A synthase complex, methanogenesis, heat shock, ammonium uptake, and thermosomes, but the absolute abundance of methanosarcinal mRNA decreased. Most

  2. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  3. The Mitochondrial Phosphate Transporters Modulate Plant Responses to Salt Stress via Affecting ATP and Gibberellin Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Yang, Guodong; Wu, Changai; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT) plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana. PMID:22937061

  4. Occurrence of polyamines in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici in response to salt stress.

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    López-Gómez, Miguel; Cobos-Porras, Libertad; Hidalgo-Castellanos, Javier; Lluch, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds that have been shown to be an important part of plant responses to salt stress. For that reason in this work we have investigated the involvement of PAs in the response to salt stress in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici. The level and variety of PAs was higher in nodules, compared to leaves and roots, and in addition to the common PAs (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) we found homospermidine (Homspd) as the most abundant polyamine in nodules. UPLC-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 4-aminobutylcadaverine (4-ABcad), only described in nodules of Vigna angularis before. Indeed, the analysis of different nodular fractions revealed higher level of 4-ABcad, as well as Homspd, in bacteroids which indicate the production of these PAs by the bacteria in symbiosis. The genes involved in PAs biosynthesis in nodules displayed an induction under salt stress conditions which was not consistent with the decline of free PAs levels, probably due to the nitrogen limitations provoked by the nitrogenase activity depletion and/or the conversion of free PAs to theirs soluble conjugated forms, that seems to be one of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PAs levels. On the contrary, cadaverine (Cad) and 4-ABcad concentrations augmented by the salinity, which might be due to their involvement in the response of bacteroids to hyper-osmotic conditions. In conclusion, the results shown in this work suggest the alteration of the bacteroidal metabolism towards the production of uncommon PAs such as 4-ABcad in the response to salt stress in legume root nodules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does stress induce salt intake?

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    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  6. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress.

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    Munns, R.

    2002-02-01

    Plant responses to salt and water stress have much in common. Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in growth rate, along with a suite of metabolic changes identical to those caused by water stress. The initial reduction in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated by the roots. There may be salt-specific effects that later have an impact on growth; if excessive amounts of salt enter the plant, salt will eventually rise to toxic levels in the older transpiring leaves, causing premature senescence, and reduce the photosynthetic leaf area of the plant to a level that cannot sustain growth. These effects take time to develop. Salt-tolerant plants differ from salt-sensitive ones in having a low rate of Na+ and Cl-- transport to leaves, and the ability to compartmentalize these ions in vacuoles to prevent their build-up in cytoplasm or cell walls and thus avoid salt toxicity. In order to understand the processes that give rise to tolerance of salt, as distinct from tolerance of osmotic stress, and to identify genes that control the transport of salt across membranes, it is important to avoid treatments that induce cell plasmolysis, and to design experiments that distinguish between tolerance of salt and tolerance of water stress.

  7. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativusL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Xiaobo; Jiang, Haiyan; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  8. Mild Salt Stress Conditions Induce Different Responses in Root Hydraulic Conductivity of Phaseolus vulgaris Over-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to salinity by altering their physiological parameters in order to maintain their water balance. The reduction in root hydraulic conductivity is one of the first responses of plants to the presence of salt in order to minimize water stress. Although its regulation has been commonly attributed to aquaporins activity, osmotic adjustment and the toxic effect of Na+ and Cl− have also a main role in the whole process. We studied the effects of 30 mM NaCl on Phaseolus vulgaris plants after 9 days and found different responses in root hydraulic conductivity over-time. An initial and final reduction of root hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential in response to NaCl was attributed to an initial osmotic shock after 1 day of treatment, and to the initial symptoms of salt accumulation within the plant tissues after 9 days of treatment. After 6 days of NaCl treatment, the increase in root hydraulic conductivity to the levels of control plants was accompanied by an increase in root fructose content, and with the intracellular localization of root plasma membrane aquaporins (PIP) to cortex cells close to the epidermis and to cells surrounding xylem vessels. Thus, the different responses of bean plants to mild salt stress over time may be connected with root fructose accumulation, and intracellular localization of PIP aquaporins. PMID:24595059

  9. Mild salt stress conditions induce different responses in root hydraulic conductivity of phaseolus vulgaris over-time.

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    Monica Calvo-Polanco

    Full Text Available Plants respond to salinity by altering their physiological parameters in order to maintain their water balance. The reduction in root hydraulic conductivity is one of the first responses of plants to the presence of salt in order to minimize water stress. Although its regulation has been commonly attributed to aquaporins activity, osmotic adjustment and the toxic effect of Na+ and Cl- have also a main role in the whole process. We studied the effects of 30 mM NaCl on Phaseolus vulgaris plants after 9 days and found different responses in root hydraulic conductivity over-time. An initial and final reduction of root hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential in response to NaCl was attributed to an initial osmotic shock after 1 day of treatment, and to the initial symptoms of salt accumulation within the plant tissues after 9 days of treatment. After 6 days of NaCl treatment, the increase in root hydraulic conductivity to the levels of control plants was accompanied by an increase in root fructose content, and with the intracellular localization of root plasma membrane aquaporins (PIP to cortex cells close to the epidermis and to cells surrounding xylem vessels. Thus, the different responses of bean plants to mild salt stress over time may be connected with root fructose accumulation, and intracellular localization of PIP aquaporins.

  10. Response to drought and salt stress in leaves of poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa): expression profiling by oligonucleotide microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo-Kyung; Park, Eung-Jun; Choi, Young-Im; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Joon-Hyeok; Park, So-Young; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Lee, Hyoshin

    2014-11-01

    Drought and salt stresses are major environmental constraints on forest productivity. To identify genes responsible for stress tolerance, we conducted a genome-wide analysis in poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) leaves exposed to drought and salt (NaCl) stresses. We investigated gene expression at the mRNA level using oligonucleotide microarrays containing 44,718 genes from Populus trichocarpa. A total of 1604 and 1042 genes were up-regulated (≥2-fold; P value < 0.05) by drought and salt stresses, respectively, and 765 genes were up-regulated by both stresses. In addition, 2742 and 1685 genes were down-regulated by drought and salt stresses, respectively, and 1564 genes were down-regulated by both stresses. The large number of genes regulated by both stresses suggests that crosstalk occurs between the drought and salt stress responses. Most up-regulated genes were involved in functions such as subcellular localization, signal transduction, metabolism, and transcription. Among the up-regulated genes, we identified 47 signaling proteins, 65 transcription factors, and 43 abiotic stress-related genes. Several genes were modulated by only one of the two stresses. About 25% of the genes significantly regulated by these stresses are of unknown function, suggesting that poplar may provide an opportunity to discover novel stress-related genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Elucidation of Cross-Talk and Specificity of Early Response Mechanisms to Salt and PEG-Simulated Drought Stresses in Brassica napus Using Comparative Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junling; Tang, Shaohua; Peng, Xiaojue; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Li, Jun; Li, Xiaofei; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To understand the cross-talk and specificity of the early responses of plants to salt and drought, we performed physiological and proteome analyses of Brassica napus seedlings pretreated with 245 mM NaCl or 25% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 under identical osmotic pressure (-1.0 MPa). Significant decreases in water content and photosynthetic rate and excessive accumulation of compatible osmolytes and oxidative damage were observed in response to both stresses. Unexpectedly, the drought response was more severe than the salt response. We further identified 45 common differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), 143 salt-specific DEPs and 160 drought-specific DEPs by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis. The proteome quantitative data were then confirmed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The differences in the proteomic profiles between drought-treated and salt-treated seedlings exceeded the similarities in the early stress responses. Signal perception and transduction, transport and membrane trafficking, and photosynthesis-related proteins were enriched as part of the molecular cross-talk and specificity mechanism in the early responses to the two abiotic stresses. The Ca2+ signaling, G protein-related signaling, 14-3-3 signaling pathway and phosphorylation cascades were the common signal transduction pathways shared by both salt and drought stress responses; however, the proteins with executive functions varied. These results indicate functional specialization of family proteins in response to different stresses, i.e., CDPK21, TPR, and CTR1 specific to phosphorylation cascades under early salt stress, whereas STN7 and BSL were specific to phosphorylation cascades under early drought stress. Only the calcium-binding EF-hand family protein and ZKT were clearly identified as signaling proteins that acted as cross-talk nodes for salt and drought signaling pathways. Our study provides new clues and insights for developing strategies to

  12. Elucidation of Cross-Talk and Specificity of Early Response Mechanisms to Salt and PEG-Simulated Drought Stresses in Brassica napus Using Comparative Proteomic Analysis.

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    Junling Luo

    Full Text Available To understand the cross-talk and specificity of the early responses of plants to salt and drought, we performed physiological and proteome analyses of Brassica napus seedlings pretreated with 245 mM NaCl or 25% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 under identical osmotic pressure (-1.0 MPa. Significant decreases in water content and photosynthetic rate and excessive accumulation of compatible osmolytes and oxidative damage were observed in response to both stresses. Unexpectedly, the drought response was more severe than the salt response. We further identified 45 common differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, 143 salt-specific DEPs and 160 drought-specific DEPs by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ analysis. The proteome quantitative data were then confirmed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM. The differences in the proteomic profiles between drought-treated and salt-treated seedlings exceeded the similarities in the early stress responses. Signal perception and transduction, transport and membrane trafficking, and photosynthesis-related proteins were enriched as part of the molecular cross-talk and specificity mechanism in the early responses to the two abiotic stresses. The Ca2+ signaling, G protein-related signaling, 14-3-3 signaling pathway and phosphorylation cascades were the common signal transduction pathways shared by both salt and drought stress responses; however, the proteins with executive functions varied. These results indicate functional specialization of family proteins in response to different stresses, i.e., CDPK21, TPR, and CTR1 specific to phosphorylation cascades under early salt stress, whereas STN7 and BSL were specific to phosphorylation cascades under early drought stress. Only the calcium-binding EF-hand family protein and ZKT were clearly identified as signaling proteins that acted as cross-talk nodes for salt and drought signaling pathways. Our study provides new clues and insights for

  13. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  14. The Role of Plant Cell Wall Proteins in Response to Salt Stress

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    Lyuben Zagorchev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary agriculture is facing new challenges with the increasing population and demand for food on Earth and the decrease in crop productivity due to abiotic stresses such as water deficit, high salinity, and extreme fluctuations of temperatures. The knowledge of plant stress responses, though widely extended in recent years, is still unable to provide efficient strategies for improvement of agriculture. The focus of study has been shifted to the plant cell wall as a dynamic and crucial component of the plant cell that could immediately respond to changes in the environment. The investigation of plant cell wall proteins, especially in commercially important monocot crops revealed the high involvement of this compartment in plants stress responses, but there is still much more to be comprehended. The aim of this review is to summarize the available data on this issue and to point out the future areas of interest that should be studied in detail.

  15. Use of the nutrient film technique as a method for assessment of plant response to salt stress in the cereals

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    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient film technique (NFT/rockwool system was adapted for use as a method for assessing the response of wheat and barley to saline stress. Wheat plants grown by the NFT/rockwool system in 200 mmol NaCl were vegetatively more vigorous and were more fertile than when suspended over bowls containing the same saline nutrient solution. Signifcant intervarietal differential responses were observed in both wheat and barley for vegetative vigour under saline stress. By increasing the concentration of NaCI to 260 mM and growing seedlings in miniaturized rockwool plugs, a screening system for salt tolerance in wheat, which allowed substantial plant numbers to be tested, was made possible. Seedlings which survived 4 weeks of this treatment could be successfully rescued into soil, where they developed normally.

  16. Drought and salt stress in Chrysopogon zizanioides leads to common and specific transcriptomic responses and may affect essential oil composition and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids metabolism

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    Suja George

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses affect crop productivity worldwide. Understanding molecular mechanisms of plant abiotic stress tolerance is important for developing stress tolerant crop plants for sustaining crop productivity in future. Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver is a perennial C4 grass reported to be tolerant to water, salinity and submergence stress. Here, we subjected C. zizanioides seedlings to salt and drought stress and carried out whole transcriptome profiling of leaf and root tissues. Assessing the global transcriptome changes under drought and salt stress resulted in the identification of several genes contributing to stress response in this species. Overall, more transcriptomic changes were observed in leaf tissue compared to root tissue. The response to either stress manifested primarily as upregulation of gene expression in both leaf and root. The study identified stress responsive genes commonly and differently regulated under stress/tissue conditions. Several DEGs in our data were identified as enzymes involved in biosynthesis of essential oil components. The differential expression of these genes under drought and salt stress may affect the vetiver essential oil composition under these stresses. Similarly, several genes involved in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphin were found to be differentially expressing in our data. Our data may facilitate further molecular studies on stress tolerance of C. zizanioides. The DEGs from our results are potential candidates for understanding and engineering abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity in response to dietary salt stress: Na+ and K+ transport by the gut of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikkhwah, Wida; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Drosophila provides a useful model system for studies of the mechanisms involved in regulation of internal ion levels in response to variations in dietary salt load. This study assessed whether alterations in Na(+) and K(+) transport by the gut of larval D. melanogaster reared on salt-rich diets contribute to haemolymph ionoregulation. Na(+) and K(+) fluxes across the isolated guts of third instar larvae reared on control or salt-rich diets were measured using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). K(+) absorption across the anterior portion of the posterior midgut of larvae reared on diet in which the concentration of KCl was increased 0.4 mol l(-1) above that in the control diet was reduced eightfold relative to the same gut segment of larvae reared on the control diet. There was also an increase in the magnitude and extent of K(+) secretion across the posterior half of the posterior midgut. Na(+) was absorbed across the ileum of larvae reared on the control diet, but was secreted across the ileum of larvae reared on diet in which the concentration of NaCl was increased 0.4 mol l(-1) above that in the control diet. There was also a small reduction in the extent of Na(+) absorption across the middle midgut of larvae reared on the NaCl-rich diet. The results indicate considerable phenotypic plasticity with respect to K(+) and Na(+) transport by the gut epithelia of larval D. melanogaster. SIET measurements of K(+) and Na(+) fluxes along the length of the gut show that ion transport mechanisms of the gut are reconfigured during salt stress so that there are reductions in K(+) and Na(+) absorption and increases in K(+) and Na(+) secretion. Together with previously described changes in salt secretion by the Malpighian tubules, these changes contribute to haemolymph ionoregulation.

  18. Contrasting responses of salinity-stressed salt-tolerant and intolerant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y H; Li, X; Li, Y G; Miao, B H; Xu, H; Simmons, M; Yang, X H

    2012-03-01

    Contrasting winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant DK961 and intolerant JN17, which sown in no salinity (-S) and salinity (+S) boxes were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CF) and elevated O(3) (+O(3)) in open top chambers (OTCs) for 30 days. In -S DK961 and JN17 plants, +O(3) DK961 and JN17 plants had significantly lower light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (A(sat), 26% and 24%), stomatal conductance (g(s), 20% and 32%) and chlorophyll contents (10% and 21%), while O(3) considerably increased foliar electrolyte leakage (13% and 39%), malondialdehyde content (9% and 23%), POD activity and ABA content. However, responses of these parameters to O(3) were significant in DK961 but not in JN17 in +S treatment. Correlation coefficient of DK961 reached significance level of 0.01, but it was not significant in JN17 under interaction of O(3) and salinity. O(3)-induced reductions were larger in shoot than in root in both cultivars. Results indicate that the salt-tolerant cultivar sustained less damage from salinity than did the intolerant cultivar but was severely injured by O(3) under +S condition. Therefore, selecting for greater salt tolerance may not lead to the expected gains in yield in areas of moderate (100 mM) salinity when O(3) is present in high concentrations. In contrast, salinity-induced stomatal closure effectively reduced sensitivity to O(3) in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Hence we suggest salt-tolerant winter wheat cultivars might be well adapted to areas of high (>100 mM) salinity and O(3) stress, while intolerant cultivars might be adaptable to areas of mild/moderate salinity but high O(3) pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify genes induced during the salt stress response in barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L) seedlings, a cDNA library by salt stress was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Total RNA from 15-day-old seedlings was used as a 'driver', and total RNA from seedlings induced by salt was ...

  20. RiceMetaSys for salt and drought stress responsive genes in rice: a web interface for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Maninder; Sureshkumar, V; Prakash, Chandra; Dixit, Rekha; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Mohapatra, Trilochan; S V, Amitha Mithra

    2017-09-30

    Genome-wide microarray has enabled development of robust databases for functional genomics studies in rice. However, such databases do not directly cater to the needs of breeders. Here, we have attempted to develop a web interface which combines the information from functional genomic studies across different genetic backgrounds with DNA markers so that they can be readily deployed in crop improvement. In the current version of the database, we have included drought and salinity stress studies since these two are the major abiotic stresses in rice. RiceMetaSys, a user-friendly and freely available web interface provides comprehensive information on salt responsive genes (SRGs) and drought responsive genes (DRGs) across genotypes, crop development stages and tissues, identified from multiple microarray datasets. 'Physical position search' is an attractive tool for those using QTL based approach for dissecting tolerance to salt and drought stress since it can provide the list of SRGs and DRGs in any physical interval. To identify robust candidate genes for use in crop improvement, the 'common genes across varieties' search tool is useful. Graphical visualization of expression profiles across genes and rice genotypes has been enabled to facilitate the user and to make the comparisons more impactful. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) search in the SRGs and DRGs is a valuable tool for fine mapping and marker assisted selection since it provides primers for survey of polymorphism. An external link to intron specific markers is also provided for this purpose. Bulk retrieval of data without any limit has been enabled in case of locus and SSR search. The aim of this database is to facilitate users with a simple and straight-forward search options for identification of robust candidate genes from among thousands of SRGs and DRGs so as to facilitate linking variation in expression profiles to variation in phenotype. Database URL: http://14.139.229.201.

  1. Changes in free polyamine levels, expression of polyamine biosynthesis genes, and performance of rice cultivars under salt stress: a comparison with responses to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phuc T.; Drechsel, Oliver; Heyer, Arnd G.; Hincha, Dirk K.; Zuther, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity affects a large proportion of rural area and limits agricultural productivity. To investigate differential adaptation to soil salinity, we studied salt tolerance of 18 varieties of Oryza sativa using a hydroponic culture system. Based on visual inspection and photosynthetic parameters, cultivars were classified according to their tolerance level. Additionally, biomass parameters were correlated with salt tolerance. Polyamines have frequently been demonstrated to be involved in plant stress responses and therefore soluble leaf polyamines were measured. Under salinity, putrescine (Put) content was unchanged or increased in tolerant, while dropped in sensitive cultivars. Spermidine (Spd) content was unchanged at lower NaCl concentrations in all, while reduced at 100 mM NaCl in sensitive cultivars. Spermine (Spm) content was increased in all cultivars. A comparison with data from 21 cultivars under long-term, moderate drought stress revealed an increase of Spm under both stress conditions. While Spm became the most prominent polyamine under drought, levels of all three polyamines were relatively similar under salt stress. Put levels were reduced under both, drought and salt stress, while changes in Spd were different under drought (decrease) or salt (unchanged) conditions. Regulation of polyamine metabolism at the transcript level during exposure to salinity was studied for genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and compared to expression under drought stress. Based on expression profiles, investigated genes were divided into generally stress-induced genes (ADC2, SPD/SPM2, SPD/SPM3), one generally stress-repressed gene (ADC1), constitutively expressed genes (CPA1, CPA2, CPA4, SAMDC1, SPD/SPM1), specifically drought-induced genes (SAMDC2, AIH), one specifically drought-repressed gene (CPA3) and one specifically salt-stress repressed gene (SAMDC4), revealing both overlapping and specific stress responses under these conditions

  2. Identification and characterization of Wilt and salt stress-responsive microRNAs in chickpea through high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Deshika; Joshi, Gopal; Deokar, Amit Atmaram; Bhardwaj, Ankur R; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Jain, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most widely grown legume worldwide and is the most important pulse crop in the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea productivity is adversely affected by a large number of biotic and abiotic stresses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of plant responses to several biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is the first attempt to identify chickpea miRNAs that are associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. The wilt infection that is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris is one of the major diseases severely affecting chickpea yields. Of late, increasing soil salinization has become a major problem in realizing these potential yields. Three chickpea libraries using fungal-infected, salt-treated and untreated seedlings were constructed and sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 12,135,571 unique reads were obtained. In addition to 122 conserved miRNAs belonging to 25 different families, 59 novel miRNAs along with their star sequences were identified. Four legume-specific miRNAs, including miR5213, miR5232, miR2111 and miR2118, were found in all of the libraries. Poly(A)-based qRT-PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR) was used to validate eleven conserved and five novel miRNAs. miR530 was highly up regulated in response to fungal infection, which targets genes encoding zinc knuckle- and microtubule-associated proteins. Many miRNAs responded in a similar fashion under both biotic and abiotic stresses, indicating the existence of cross talk between the pathways that are involved in regulating these stresses. The potential target genes for the conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted based on sequence homologies. miR166 targets a HD-ZIPIII transcription factor and was validated by 5' RLM-RACE. This study has identified several conserved and novel miRNAs in the chickpea that are associated with gene regulation following exposure to wilt and salt stress.

  3. Identification and characterization of Wilt and salt stress-responsive microRNAs in chickpea through high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshika Kohli

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum is the second most widely grown legume worldwide and is the most important pulse crop in the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea productivity is adversely affected by a large number of biotic and abiotic stresses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of plant responses to several biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is the first attempt to identify chickpea miRNAs that are associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. The wilt infection that is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris is one of the major diseases severely affecting chickpea yields. Of late, increasing soil salinization has become a major problem in realizing these potential yields. Three chickpea libraries using fungal-infected, salt-treated and untreated seedlings were constructed and sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 12,135,571 unique reads were obtained. In addition to 122 conserved miRNAs belonging to 25 different families, 59 novel miRNAs along with their star sequences were identified. Four legume-specific miRNAs, including miR5213, miR5232, miR2111 and miR2118, were found in all of the libraries. Poly(A-based qRT-PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate eleven conserved and five novel miRNAs. miR530 was highly up regulated in response to fungal infection, which targets genes encoding zinc knuckle- and microtubule-associated proteins. Many miRNAs responded in a similar fashion under both biotic and abiotic stresses, indicating the existence of cross talk between the pathways that are involved in regulating these stresses. The potential target genes for the conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted based on sequence homologies. miR166 targets a HD-ZIPIII transcription factor and was validated by 5' RLM-RACE. This study has identified several conserved and novel miRNAs in the chickpea that are associated with gene regulation following exposure to wilt and salt stress.

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Characterization, Gene Expression Profiling and Ionic Responses of Nitraria sibirica Pall. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyong Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitraria sibirica Pall., a typical halophyte of great ecological value, is widely distributed in desert, saline, and coastal saline-alkali environments. Consequently, researching the salt tolerance mechanism of N. sibirica Pall. has great significance to the cultivation and utilization of salt-tolerant plants. In this research, RNA-seq, digital gene expression (DGE, and high flux element analysis technologies were used to investigate the molecular and physiological mechanisms related to salt tolerance of N. sibirica Pall. Integrative analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly generated 137,421 unigenes. In total, 58,340 and 34,033 unigenes were annotated with gene ontology (GO terms and mapped in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. Three differentially expressed genes (DEGs libraries were subsequently constructed from the leaves of N. sibirica Pall. seedlings under different treatments: control (CK, light short-term salt stress (CL2, and heavy long-term salt stress (CL6. Eight hundred and twenty-six, and 224 differentially expressed genes were identified in CL2 and CL6 compared to CK, respectively. Finally, ionomic analysis of N. sibirica Pall. seedlings treated with 0, 100, 200 or 300 mM concentrations of NaCl for one day showed that the uptake and distribution of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and K in different organs of N. sibirica Pall. were significantly affected by salt stress. Our findings have identified potential genes involved in salt tolerance and in the reference transcriptome and have revealed the salt tolerance mechanism in N. sibirica Pall. These findings will provide further insight into the molecular and physiological mechanisms related to salt stress in N. sibirica Pall. and in other halophytes.

  5. Overexpression of a partial fragment of the salt-responsive gene OsNUC1 enhances salt adaptation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa L.) during salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripinyowanich, Siriporn; Chamnanmanoontham, Nontalee; Udomchalothorn, Thanikarn; Maneeprasopsuk, Somporn; Santawee, Panudda; Buaboocha, Teerapong; Qu, Li-Jia; Gu, Hongya; Chadchawan, Supachitra

    2013-12-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) nucleolin gene, OsNUC1, transcripts were expressed in rice leaves, flowers, seeds and roots but differentially expressed within and between two pairs of salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rice lines when subjected to salt stress. Salt-resistant lines exhibited higher OsNUC1 transcript expression levels than salt-sensitive lines during 0.5% (w/v) NaCl salt stress for 6d. Two sizes of OsNUC1 full-length cDNA were found in the rice genome database and northern blot analysis confirmed their existence in rice tissues. The longer transcript (OsNUC1-L) putatively encodes for a protein with a serine rich N-terminal, RNA recognition motifs in the central domain and a glycine- and arginine-rich repeat in the C-terminal domain, while the shorter one (OsNUC1-S) putatively encodes for the similar protein without the N-terminus. Without salt stress, OsNUC1-L expressing Arabidopsis thaliana Atnuc1-L1 plants displayed a substantial but incomplete revertant phenotype, whereas OsNUC1-S expression only induced a weak effect. However, under 0.5% (w/v) NaCl salt stress they displayed a higher relative growth rate, longer root length and a lower H2O2 level than the wild type plants, suggesting a higher salt resistance. Moreover, they displayed elevated AtSOS1 and AtP5CS1 transcript levels. We propose that OsNUC1-S plays an important role in salt resistance during salt stress, a new role for nucleolin in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE analysis of whole cell lysate protein complexes of rice in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Amenehsadat; Gharechahi, Javad; Nematzadeh, Ghorbanali; Shekari, Faezeh; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2016-08-01

    To understand the biology of a plant in response to stress, insight into protein-protein interactions, which almost define cell behavior, is thought to be crucial. Here, we provide a comparative complexomics analysis of leaf whole cell lysate of two rice genotypes with contrasting responses to salt using two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE (2D-BN/SDS-PAGE). We aimed to identify changes in subunit composition and stoichiometry of protein complexes elicited by salt. Using mild detergent for protein complex solubilization, we were able to identify 9 protein assemblies as hetero-oligomeric and 30 as homo-oligomeric complexes. A total of 20 proteins were identified as monomers in the 2D-BN/SDS-PAGE gels. In addition to identifying known protein complexes that confirm the technical validity of our analysis, we were also able to discover novel protein-protein interactions. Interestingly, an interaction was detected for glycolytic enzymes enolase (ENO1) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and also for a chlorophyll a-b binding protein and RuBisCo small subunit. To show changes in subunit composition and stoichiometry of protein assemblies during salt stress, the differential abundance of interacting proteins was compared between salt-treated and control plants. A detailed exploration of some of the protein complexes provided novel insight into the function, composition, stoichiometry and dynamics of known and previously uncharacterized protein complexes in response to salt stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liliana J.; Azevedo, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Santos, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In ‘Pokkali’, the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In ‘IR29’, the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses. PMID:25932633

  8. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana J Ferreira

    Full Text Available DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In 'Pokkali', the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In 'IR29', the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses.

  9. Comparative effects of neutral salt and alkaline salt stress on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of neutral salt and alkaline salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and physiological response of a halophyte species Chenopodium glaucum. ... No obvious increase of osmolytes (proline, soluble sugar, betaine) was detected under lower concentration of NaCl and NaHCO3 stress.

  10. Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibitory effect of salt stress in rice is complex and is one of the main reasons for reduction of plant growth and crop productivity. In the present study, the response of rice callus cultivar Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105), commonly known as Thai jasmine rice, to salt stress was examined. Callus cultures of KDML105 rice ...

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of cultured suspension cells of the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus by iTRAQ provides insights into response mechanisms to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity severely threatens land use capability and crop yields worldwide. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in halophytes will contribute to the development of salt-tolerant crops. In this study, a combination of physiological characteristics and iTRAQ-based proteomic approaches was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the salt response of suspension cell cultures of halophytic Halogeton glomeratus. These cells showed halophytic growth responses comparable to those of the whole plant. In total, 97 up-regulated proteins and 192 down-regulated proteins were identified as common to both 200 and 400 mM NaCl concentration treatments. Such salinity responsive proteins were mainly involved in energy, carbohydrate metabolism, stress defense, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell growth, and cytoskeleton metabolism. Effective regulatory protein expression related to energy, stress defense, and carbohydrate metabolism play important roles in the salt-tolerance of H. glomeratus suspension cell cultures. However, known proteins regulating Na+ efflux from the cytoplasm and its compartmentalization into the vacuole did not change significantly under salinity stress suggesting our existing knowledge concerning Na+ extrusion and compartmentalization in halophytes needs to be evaluated further. Such data are discussed in the context of our current understandings of the mechanisms involved in the salinity response of the halophyte, H. glomeratus.

  12. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the role of antioxidative enzymes in the responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar Cang 6001 to high-salt stress compared to ...

  13. Genome-wide Identification of WRKY Genes in the Desert Poplar Populus euphratica and Adaptive Evolution of the Genes in Response to Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianchao; Lu, Jing; Xu, Jianmei; Duan, Bingbing; He, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant development and responses to various stresses in plants. However, little is known about the evolution of the WRKY genes in the desert poplar species Populus euphratica, which is highly tolerant of salt stress. In this study, we identified 107 PeWRKY genes from the P. euphratica genome and examined their evolutionary relationships with the WRKY genes of the salt-sensitive congener Populus trichocarpa. Ten PeWRKY genes are specific to P. euphratica, and five of these showed altered expression under salt stress. Furthermore, we found that two pairs of orthologs between the two species showed evidence of positive evolution, with dN/dS ratios>1 (nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions), and both of them altered their expression in response to salinity stress. These findings suggested that both the development of new genes and positive evolution in some orthologs of the WRKY gene family may have played an important role in the acquisition of high salt tolerance by P. euphratica.

  14. A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the core genetic components of salt and osmotic stress responses in Braya humilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengshan Zhao

    Full Text Available Braya humilis is a member of the Euclidieae tribe within the family Brassicaceae. This species exhibits a broad range of adaptations to different climatic zones and latitudes as it has a distribution that ranges from northern Asia to the arctic-alpine regions of northern North America. In China, B. humilis is mainly found on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and in adjacent arid regions. In this study, we sequenced a sample from an arid region adjacent to the QTP using the Illumina platform generating a total of 46,485 highly accurate unigenes, of which 78.41% were annotated by BLASTing versus public protein databases. The B. humilis transcriptome is characterized by a high level of sequence conservation compared with its close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. We also used reciprocal blast to identify shared orthologous genes between B. humilis and four other sequenced Brassicaceae species (i.e. A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Capsella rubella, and Thellungiella parvula. To enable precise characterization of orthologous genes, the early-diverging basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda was also included. A total of 6,689 orthologous genes were identified before stricter criteria for the determination of e-values, amino acid hit lengths, and identity values was applied to further reduce this list. This led to a final list of 381 core orthologous genes for B. humilis; 39 out of these genes are involved in salt and osmotic stress responses and estimations of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios for this species and A. thaliana orthologs show that these genes are under purifying selection in B. humilis. Expression of six genes was detected in B. humilis seedlings under salt and osmotic stress treatments. Comparable expression patterns to their counterparts in Arabidopsis suggest that these orthologous genes are both sequence and functional conservation. The results of this study demonstrate that the environmental adaptations of B. humilis are mainly the

  15. Trait specific expression profiling of salt stress responsive genes in diverse rice genotypes as determined by modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashed Hossain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress responsive gene expression is commonly profiled in a comparative manner involving different stress conditions or genotypes with contrasting reputation of tolerance/resistance. In contrast, this research exploited a wide natural variation in terms of taxonomy, origin and salt sensitivity in eight genotypes of rice to identify the trait specific patterns of gene expression under salt stress. Genome wide transcptomic responses were interrogated by the weighted continuous morpho-physiological trait responses using modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays. More number of genes was found to be differentially expressed under salt stressed compared to that of under unstressed conditions. Higher numbers of genes were observed to be differentially expressed for the traits shoot Na+/K+, shoot Na+, root K+, biomass and shoot Cl-, respectively. The results identified around sixty genes to be involved in Na+, K+ and anion homeostasis, transport and transmembrane activity under stressed conditions. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis identified 1.36% (578 genes of the entire transcriptome to be involved in the major molecular functions such as signal transduction (>150 genes, transcription factor (81 genes and translation factor activity (62 genes etc. under salt stress. Chromosomal mapping of the genes suggests that majority of the genes are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 & 7. The gene network analysis showed that the transcription factors and translation initiation factors formed the major gene networks and are mostly active in nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria whereas the membrane and vesicle bound proteins formed a secondary network active in plasma membrane and vacuoles. The novel genes and the genes with unknown functions thus identified provide picture of a synergistic salinity response representing the potentially fundamental mechanisms that are active in the wide natural genetic background of rice and will be of greater use once

  16. A Glycine soja ABA-responsive receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, GsRLCK, positively controls plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, XiaoLi; Sun, Mingzhe; Luo, Xiao; Ding, XiaoDong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Liu, XiaoFei; Zhu, YanMing

    2013-06-01

    Receptor such as protein kinases are proposed to work as sensors to initiate signaling cascades in higher plants. However, little is known about the precise functions of receptor such as protein kinases in abiotic stress response in plants, especially in wild soybean. Here, we focused on characterization of the biological functions of a receptor-like cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase gene, GsRLCK, which was previously identified as a putative salt-alkali stress-related gene from the transcriptome profiles of Glycine soja. Bioinformatic analysis showed that GsRLCK protein contained a conserved kinase catalytic domain and two transmembrane domains at the N-terminus, but no typical extracellular domain. Consistently, GsRLCK-eGFP fusion protein was observed on the plasma membrane, but eGFP alone was distributing throughout the cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of GsRLCK by ABA, salt, alkali, and drought stresses. However, the expression levels of GsRLCK seemed to be similar in different tissues, except soybean pod. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that GsRLCK overexpression decreased ABA sensitivity and altered expression levels of ABA-responsive genes. Furthermore, we also found that GsRLCK conferred increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses and increased expression levels of a handful of stress-responsive genes, when overexpressing in Arabidopsis. In a word, we gave exact evidence that GsRLCK was a novel receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase and played a crucial role in plant responses to ABA, salt, and drought stresses.

  17. Genome-Wide Analyses of the Soybean F-Box Gene Family in Response to Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qi; Xiao, Zhi-Xia; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Sun, Song; Liang, Kang-Jing; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-04-12

    The F-box family is one of the largest gene families in plants that regulate diverse life processes, including salt responses. However, the knowledge of the soybean F-box genes and their roles in salt tolerance remains limited. Here, we conducted a genome-wide survey of the soybean F-box family, and their expression analysis in response to salinity via in silico analysis of online RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to predict their potential functions. A total of 725 potential F-box proteins encoded by 509 genes were identified and classified into 9 subfamilies. The gene structures, conserved domains and chromosomal distributions were characterized. There are 76 pairs of duplicate genes identified, including genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication events, which lead to the expansion of the number of F-box genes. The in silico expression analysis showed that these genes would be involved in diverse developmental functions and play an important role in salt response. Our qRT-PCR analysis confirmed 12 salt-responding F-box genes. Overall, our results provide useful information on soybean F-box genes, especially their potential roles in salt tolerance.

  18. Alleviation of salt stress by enterobacter sp. EJ01 in tomato and Arabidopsis is accompanied by up-regulation of conserved salinity responsive factors in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-02-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways.

  19. Molecular dissection of Oryza sativa salt-induced RING Finger Protein 1 (OsSIRP1): possible involvement in the sensitivity response to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Goo; Kim, Jung Ju; Lim, Sung Don; Park, Yong Chan; Moon, Jun-Cheol; Jang, Cheol Seong

    2016-10-01

    Ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation via Really Interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ligase plays an important role in plant responses to abiotic stress conditions. Many plant studies have found that RING proteins regulate the perception of various abiotic stresses and signal transduction. In this study, Oryza sativa salt-induced RING Finger Protein 1 (OsSIRP1) gene was selected randomly from 44 Oryza sativa RING Finger Proteins (OsRFPs) genes highly expressed in rice roots exposed to salinity stress. Transcript levels of OsSIRP1 in rice leaves after various stress treatments, including salt, heat, drought and hormone abscisic acid (ABA), were observed. Poly-ubiquitinated products of OsSIRP1 were investigated via an in vitro ubiquitination assay.35S:OsSIRP1-EYFP was distributed in the cytosol of untreated and salt-treated rice protoplasts. Heterogeneous overexpression of OsSIRP1 in Arabidopsis reduced tolerance for salinity stress during seed germination and root growth. Our findings indicate that OsSIRP1 acts as a negative regulator of salinity stress tolerance mediated by the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile, and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters (NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase, ion channels (Cl−, Ca2+, aquaporins, antioxidant encoding genes (APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes. It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  1. BdCIPK31, a Calcineurin B-Like Protein-Interacting Protein Kinase, Regulates Plant Response to Drought and Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchen Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin B-like protein interacting protein kinases (CIPKs are vital elements in plant abiotic stress signaling pathways. However, the functional mechanism of CIPKs has not been understood clearly, especially in Brachypodium distachyon, a new monocot model plant. In this study, BdCIPK31, a CIPK gene from B. distachyon was characterized. BdCIPK31 was downregulated by polyethylene glycol, NaCl, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA treatments. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing BdCIPK31 presented improved drought and salt tolerance, and displayed hypersensitive response to exogenous ABA. Further investigations revealed that BdCIPK31 functioned positively in ABA-mediated stomatal closure, and transgenic tobacco exhibited reduced water loss under dehydration conditions compared with the controls. BdCIPK31 also affected Na+/K+ homeostasis and root K+ loss, which contributed to maintain intracellular ion homeostasis under salt conditions. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species scavenging system and osmolyte accumulation were enhanced by BdCIPK31 overexpression, which were conducive for alleviating oxidative and osmotic damages. Additionally, overexpression of BdCIPK31 could elevate several stress-associated gene expressions under stress conditions. In conclusion, BdCIPK31 functions positively to drought and salt stress through ABA signaling pathway. Overexpressing BdCIPK31 functions in stomatal closure, ion homeostasis, ROS scavenging, osmolyte biosynthesis, and transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes.

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  3. The Arabidopsis translocator protein (AtTSPO is regulated at multiple levels in response to salt stress and perturbations in tetrapyrrole metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umen James G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO, previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR, is important for many cellular functions in mammals and bacteria, such as steroid biosynthesis, cellular respiration, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunomodulation, transport of porphyrins and anions. Arabidopsis thaliana contains a single TSPO/PBR-related gene with a 40 amino acid N-terminal extension compared to its homologs in bacteria or mammals suggesting it might be chloroplast or mitochondrial localized. Results To test if the TSPO N-terminal extension targets it to organelles, we fused three potential translational start sites in the TSPO cDNA to the N-terminus of GFP (AtTSPO:eGFP. The location of the AtTSPO:eGFP fusion protein was found to depend on the translational start position and the conditions under which plants were grown. Full-length AtTSPO:eGFP fusion protein was found in the endoplasmic reticulum and in vesicles of unknown identity when plants were grown in standard conditions. However, full length AtTSPO:eGFP localized to chloroplasts when grown in the presence of 150 mM NaCl, conditions of salt stress. In contrast, when AtTSPO:eGFP was truncated to the second or third start codon at amino acid position 21 or 42, the fusion protein co-localized with a mitochondrial marker in standard conditions. Using promoter GUS fusions, qRT-PCR, fluorescent protein tagging, and chloroplast fractionation approaches, we demonstrate that AtTSPO levels are regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels in response to abiotic stress conditions. Salt-responsive genes are increased in a tspo-1 knock-down mutant compared to wild type under conditions of salt stress, while they are decreased when AtTSPO is overexpressed. Mutations in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis genes and the application of chlorophyll or carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors also affect AtTSPO expression. Conclusion Our

  4. Salt Stress Effects on Secondary Metabolites of Cotton in Relation to Gene Expression Responsible for Aphid Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Many secondary metabolites have insecticidal efficacy against pests and may be affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known of how plants may respond to such stress as pertains the growth and development of pests. The objective of this study was to determine if and how salt stress on cotton plants affects the population dynamics of aphids. The NaCl treatment (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM increased contents of gossypol in cotton by 26.8-51.4%, flavonoids by 22.5-37.6% and tannic by 15.1-24.3% at 7-28 d after salt stress. Compared with non-stressed plants, the population of aphids on 150 and 200 mM NaCl stressed plants was reduced by 46.4 and 65.4% at 7d and by 97.3 and 100% at 14 days after infestation. Reductions in aphid population were possibly attributed to the elevated secondary metabolism under salt stress. A total of 796 clones for aphids transcriptome, 412 clones in the positive- library (TEST and 384 clones in the reverse-library (Ck, were obtained from subtracted cDNA libraries and sequenced. Gene ontology (GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis showed more genes related to fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, and fewer genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and cell motility pathways in TEST than in Ck library, which might be the reason of aphids population reduction. A comparative analysis with qRT-PCR indicated high expression of transcripts CYP6A14, CYP6A13, CYP303A1, NADH dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase in the TEST group. However, CYP307A1 and two ecdysone-induced protein genes were down regulated. The results indicate that genes of aphids related to growth and development can express at a higher level in reaction to the enhanced secondary metabolism in cotton under salinity stress. The expression of CYP307A1 was positively correlated with the population dynamics of aphids since it was involved in ecdysone synthesis.

  5. Contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment in Halostachys caspica response to salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Youling; Li, Ling; Yang, Ruirui; Yi, Xiaoya; Zhang, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which plants cope with salt stress remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment (OA) in the halophyte species Halostachys caspica. The results indicate that 100–200 mM NaCl is optimal for plant growth; the water content and degree of succulence of the assimilating branches are higher in this treatment range than that in other treatments; parenchyma cells are more numerous with 100 mM NaCl treatment than they are in control. Inorganic ions (mainly Na+ and Cl-) may play a more important role than organic compounds in NaCl-induced OA and are the primary contributors in OA in H. caspica. The inorganic ions and organic solutes display a tissue-dependent distribution. Na+ and Cl− are accumulated in the reproductive organs and within assimilating branches, which may represent a mechanism for protecting plant growth by way of salt ion dilution and organ abscission. Additionally, OA via increased accumulation of organic substances also protected plant growth and development. This finding provides additional evidence for plant tolerance to salinity stress which can be used for breeding new cultivars for stress tolerance. PMID:26350977

  6. Contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment in Halostachys caspica response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Youling; Li, Ling; Yang, Ruirui; Yi, Xiaoya; Zhang, Baohong

    2015-09-09

    The mechanism by which plants cope with salt stress remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment (OA) in the halophyte species Halostachys caspica. The results indicate that 100-200 mM NaCl is optimal for plant growth; the water content and degree of succulence of the assimilating branches are higher in this treatment range than that in other treatments; parenchyma cells are more numerous with 100 mM NaCl treatment than they are in control. Inorganic ions (mainly Na+ and Cl-) may play a more important role than organic compounds in NaCl-induced OA and are the primary contributors in OA in H. caspica. The inorganic ions and organic solutes display a tissue-dependent distribution. Na+ and Cl- are accumulated in the reproductive organs and within assimilating branches, which may represent a mechanism for protecting plant growth by way of salt ion dilution and organ abscission. Additionally, OA via increased accumulation of organic substances also protected plant growth and development. This finding provides additional evidence for plant tolerance to salinity stress which can be used for breeding new cultivars for stress tolerance.

  7. NaCl-induced expression of AtVHA-c5 gene in the roots plays a role in response of Arabidopsis to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aimin; Liu, Enhui; Ma, Hongping; Feng, Shuang; Gong, Shufang; Wang, Jingang

    2018-01-06

    Suppression of AtVHA-c5 expression results in changes in H+ and Na+ fluxes of roots, and increase sensitivity to salt in Arabidopsis. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit endomembrane proton pump, is essential in plant growth and response to environmental stresses. In the present study, the function of Arabidopsis V-ATPase subunit c5 (AtVHA-c5) gene in response to salt stress was investigated. Subcellular localization showed that AtVHA-c5 was mainly localized to endosomes and the vacuolar membrane in Arabidopsis. The analysis of quantitative real-time PCR showed that expression of AtVHA-c5 gene was induced by NaCl stress. Histochemical analysis revealed that AtVHA-c5 was expressed in the root epidermis of untreated Arabidopsis and in the whole root elongation zone after NaCl treatment. Phenotypic analysis showed that the atvha-c5 mutant is sensitive to high NaCl as compared to the wild type. The non-invasive micro-test technology measurement demonstrated that the net H+ and Na+ efflux in the root elongation zone of the atvha-c5 mutant was weaker than that of the wild type under NaCl treatment, suggesting that H+ and Na+ fluxes in atvha-c5 roots are impaired under NaCl stress. Moreover, compared to the wild type, the expression of AtSOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) and AtAHA1 (plasma membrane H+-ATPase 1) were down-regulated in atvha-c5 roots under NaCl stress. Overall, our results indicate that AtVHA-c5 plays a role in Arabidopsis root response to NaCl stress by influencing H+ and Na+ fluxes.

  8. Contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment in Halostachys caspica response to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Youling Zeng; Ling Li; Ruirui Yang; Xiaoya Yi; Baohong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which plants cope with salt stress remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment (OA) in the halophyte species Halostachys caspica. The results indicate that 100–200 mM NaCl is optimal for plant growth; the water content and degree of succulence of the assimilating branches are higher in this treatment range than that in other treatments; pa...

  9. What molecular mechanism is adapted by plants during salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress harmfully shocks agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic outcomes. The plant response to salinity consists of numerous processes that must function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyper-osmolarity and ion disequilibrium. Salt tolerance and ...

  10. Invasive Knotweeds are Highly Tolerant to Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouifed, Soraya; Byczek, Coline; Laffray, Daniel; Piola, Florence

    2012-12-01

    Japanese knotweed s.l. are some of the most invasive plants in the world. Some genotypes are known to be tolerant to the saline concentrations found in salt marshes. Here we focus on tolerance to higher concentrations in order to assess whether the species are able to colonize and establish in highly stressful environments, or whether salt is an efficient management tool. In a first experiment, adult plants of Fallopia japonica, Fallopia × bohemica and Fallopia sachalinensis were grown under salt stress conditions by watering with saline concentrations of 6, 30, 120, or 300 g L-1 for three weeks to assess the response of the plants to a spill of salt. At the two highest concentrations, their leaves withered and fell. There were no effects on the aboveground parts at the lowest concentrations. Belowground dry weight and number of buds were reduced from 30 and 120 g L-1 of salt, respectively. In a second experiment, a single spraying of 120 g L-1 of salt was applied to individuals of F. × bohemica and their stems were clipped to assess the response to a potential control method. 60 % of the plants regenerated. Regeneration was delayed by the salt treatment and shoot growth slowed down. This study establishes the tolerance of three Fallopia taxa to strong salt stress, with no obvious differences between taxa. Their salt tolerance could be an advantage in their ability to colonize polluted environments and to survive to spills of salt.

  11. Kale BoRACK1 is involved in the plant response to salt stress and Peronospora brassicae Gaumann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Hong; Shen, Fu-Jia; Li, Hong-Yan; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) belongs to a protein subfamily containing a tryptophan-aspartic acid-domain (WD) repeat structure. Compelling evidence indicates that RACK1 can interact with many signal molecules and affect different signal transduction pathways. In this study, a kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f.tricolor) RACK1 gene (BoRACK1) was cloned by RT-PCR. The amino acid sequence of BoRACK1 had seven WD repeats in which there were typical GH (glycine-histidine) and WD dipeptides. Comparison with AtRACK1 from Arabidopsis revealed 87.1% identity at the amino acid level. Expression pattern analysis by RT-PCR showed that BoRACK1 was expressed in all analyzed tissues of kale and that its transcription in leaves was down-regulated by salt, abscisic acid, and H2O2 at a high concentration. Overexpression of BoRACK1 in kale led to a reduction in symptoms caused by Peronospora brassicae Gaumann on kale leaves. The expression levels of the pathogenesis-related protein genes, PR-1 and PRB-1, increased 2.5-4-fold in transgenic kale, and reactive oxygen species production was more active than in the wild-type. They also exhibited increased tolerance to salt stress in seed germination. H2O2 may also be involved in the regulation of BoRACK1 during seed germination under salt stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of BoRbohs genes were significantly higher in overexpression of BoRACK1 transgenic lines. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that BoRACK1 could interact with WNK8, eIF6, RAR1, and SGT1. This study and previous work lead us to believe that BoRACK1 may form a complex with regulators of plant salt and disease resistance to coordinate kale reactions to pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. K+ Efflux and Retention in Response to NaCl Stress Do Not Predict Salt Tolerance in Contrasting Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Jean, Yuel-Kai; Kabir, Imtiaz; Tolay, Inci; Torun, Ayfer A.; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden elevations in external sodium chloride (NaCl) accelerate potassium (K+) efflux across the plasma membrane of plant root cells. It has been proposed that the extent of this acceleration can predict salt tolerance among contrasting cultivars. However, this proposal has not been considered in the context of plant nutritional history, nor has it been explored in rice (Oryza sativa L.), which stands among the world’s most important and salt-sensitive crop species. Using efflux analysis with 42K, coupled with growth and tissue K+ analyses, we examined the short- and long-term effects of NaCl exposure to plant performance within a nutritional matrix that significantly altered tissue-K+ set points in three rice cultivars that differ in salt tolerance: IR29 (sensitive), IR72 (moderate), and Pokkali (tolerant). We show that total short-term K+ release from roots in response to NaCl stress is small (no more than 26% over 45 min) in rice. Despite strong varietal differences, the extent of efflux is shown to be a poor predictor of plant performance on long-term NaCl stress. In fact, no measure of K+ status was found to correlate with plant performance among cultivars either in the presence or absence of NaCl stress. By contrast, shoot Na+ accumulation showed the strongest correlation (a negative one) with biomass, under long-term salinity. Pharmacological evidence suggests that NaCl-induced K+ efflux is a result of membrane disintegrity, possibly as result of osmotic shock, and not due to ion-channel mediation. Taken together, we conclude that, in rice, K+ status (including efflux) is a poor predictor of salt tolerance and overall plant performance and, instead, shoot Na+ accumulation is the key factor in performance decline on NaCl stress. PMID:23460903

  13. K+ efflux and retention in response to NaCl stress do not predict salt tolerance in contrasting genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Coskun

    Full Text Available Sudden elevations in external sodium chloride (NaCl accelerate potassium (K(+ efflux across the plasma membrane of plant root cells. It has been proposed that the extent of this acceleration can predict salt tolerance among contrasting cultivars. However, this proposal has not been considered in the context of plant nutritional history, nor has it been explored in rice (Oryza sativa L., which stands among the world's most important and salt-sensitive crop species. Using efflux analysis with (42K, coupled with growth and tissue K(+ analyses, we examined the short- and long-term effects of NaCl exposure to plant performance within a nutritional matrix that significantly altered tissue-K(+ set points in three rice cultivars that differ in salt tolerance: IR29 (sensitive, IR72 (moderate, and Pokkali (tolerant. We show that total short-term K(+ release from roots in response to NaCl stress is small (no more than 26% over 45 min in rice. Despite strong varietal differences, the extent of efflux is shown to be a poor predictor of plant performance on long-term NaCl stress. In fact, no measure of K(+ status was found to correlate with plant performance among cultivars either in the presence or absence of NaCl stress. By contrast, shoot Na(+ accumulation showed the strongest correlation (a negative one with biomass, under long-term salinity. Pharmacological evidence suggests that NaCl-induced K(+ efflux is a result of membrane disintegrity, possibly as result of osmotic shock, and not due to ion-channel mediation. Taken together, we conclude that, in rice, K(+ status (including efflux is a poor predictor of salt tolerance and overall plant performance and, instead, shoot Na(+ accumulation is the key factor in performance decline on NaCl stress.

  14. Calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins in response to ABA signaling and salt stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chang, Shu; Chu, Zhilin; Wang, Hanmeng; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2017-12-02

    The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are a class of plant-specific kinase that directly bind Ca2+ and mediate the calcium-signaling pathways to play important physiological roles in growth and development. The rice genome contains 31 CDPK genes, one of which, OsCPK21, is known to modulate the abscisic acid (ABA) and salt stress responses in this crop; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are largely unknown. In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the interaction between OsCPK21 and one of its putative targets, Os14-3-3 (OsGF14e). We used an in vitro kinase assay and site-directed mutagenesis to verify that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e at Tyr-138. We used real-time PCR to reveal that several ABA and salt inducible genes were more highly expressed in the OsCPK21-OE and OsGF14e WT-OE plants than in the mutant OsGF14e Y138A-OE and wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e to facilitate the response to ABA and salt stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of source-sink relationship and hormonal control in the response of Medicago ciliaris - Sinorhizobium medicae symbiosis to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Imène; Jelali, Nahida; Slatni, T; Gruber, Margaret; Albacete, A; Martínez Andújar, Cristina; Martinez, V; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Abdelly, C

    2012-03-01

    In order to explore the relationship between leaf hormonal status and source-sink relations in the response of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) to salt stress, three major phytohormones (cytokinins, abscisic acid and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), sucrose phosphate synthase activity in source leaves and sucrolytic activities in sink organs were analysed in two lines of Medicago ciliaris (salt-tolerant TNC 1.8 and salt-sensitive TNC 11.9). SNF (measured as nitrogenase activity and amount of N-fixed) was more affected by salt treatment in the TNC 11.9 than in TNC 1.8, and this could be explained by a decrease in nodule sucrolytic activities. SNF capacity was reflected in leaf biomass production and in the sink activity under salinity, as suggested by the higher salt-induced decrease in the young leaf sucrolytic activities in the sensitive line TNC 11.9, while they were not affected in the tolerant line TNC 1.8. As a consequence of maintaining sink activities in the actively growing organs, the key enzymatic activity for synthesis of sucrose (sucrose phosphate synthase) was also less affected in the mature leaves of the more tolerant genotype. Ours results showed also that the major hormone factor associated with the relative tolerance of TNC 1.8 was the stimulation of abscisic acid concentration in young leaves under salt treatment. This stimulation may control photosynthetic organ growth and also may contribute to a certain degree in the maintenance of coordinated sink-source relationships. Therefore, ABA may be an important component which conserves sucrose synthesis in source leaves.

  16. The U-box family genes in Medicago truncatula: Key elements in response to salt, cold, and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianbo; Mo, Xiaowei; Yang, Haiqi; Yue, Luming; Song, Jun; Mo, Beixin

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitination pathway regulates growth, development, and stress responses in plants, and the U-box protein family of ubiquitin ligases has important roles in this pathway. Here, 64 putative U-box proteins were identified in the Medicago truncatula genome. In addition to the conserved U-box motif, other functional domains, such as the ARM, kinase, KAP, and WD40 domains, were also detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the M. truncatula U-box proteins grouped them into six subfamilies, and chromosomal mapping and synteny analyses indicated that tandem and segmental duplications may have contributed to the expansion and evolution of the U-box gene family in this species. Using RNA-seq data from M. truncatula seedlings subjected to three different abiotic stresses, we identified 33 stress-inducible plant U-box genes (MtPUBs). Specifically, 25 salinity-, 15 drought-, and 16 cold-regulated MtPUBs were detected. Among them, MtPUB10, MtPUB17, MtPUB18, MtPUB35, MtPUB42, and MtPUB44 responded to all three stress conditions. Expression profiling by qRT-PCR was consistent with the RNA-seq data, and stress-related elements were identified in the promoter regions. The present findings strongly indicate that U-box proteins play critical roles in abiotic stress response in M. truncatula.

  17. Expression of Hsp70, Igf1, and Three Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Response to Handling and Salt Treatment at Different Water Temperatures in Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Eissa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor that causes diseases and mortality in the aquaculture industry. The goal was to analyze the expression of stress-related biomarkers in response to different stressors in yellow perch, which is an important aquaculture candidate in North America and highly sensitive to handling in captivity. Three fish groups were established, each having four replicates, and subjected to water temperatures of 14, 20, and 26°C and acute handling stress was performed followed by a salt treatment for 144h at a salinity of 5 ppt. Serum and hepatic mRNA levels of heat shock protein (hsp70, insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx, superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1, and glutathione reductase (Gsr were quantified at seven times interval over 144 h using ELISA and RT-qPCR. Handling stress caused a significant down-regulation in Hsp70, Gpx, Sod1, and Gsr at a water temperature of 20°C compared to 14 and 26°C. Igf1 was significantly upregulated at 20°C and down-regulated at 14 and 26°C. Salt treatment had a transient reverse effect on the targeted biomarkers in all groups at 72 h, then caused an upregulation after 144 h, compared to the control groups. The data showed a negative strong regulatory linear relationship between igf1 with hsp70 and anti-oxidative gene expressions. These findings could provide valuable new insights into the stress responses that affect fish health and could be used to monitor the stress.

  18. Metabolomics: creating new potentials for unraveling the mechanisms in response to salt and drought stress and for the biotechnological improvement of xero-halophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Cheng-Jiang; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2011-06-01

    Breeders have long been interested in understanding the biological function and mechanism of xero-halophytes and their ability for growth in drought-stricken and salinized environments. However, the mechanisms in response to stress have been difficult to unravel because their defenses require regulatory changes to the activation of multiple genes and pathways. Metabolomics is becoming a key tool in comprehensively understanding the cellular response to abiotic stress and represents an important addition to the tools currently employed in genomics-assisted selection for plant improvement. In this review, we highlight the applications of plant metabolomics in characterizing metabolic responses to salt and drought stress, and identifying metabolic quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We also discuss the potential of metabolomics as a tool to unravel stress response mechanisms, and as a viable option for the biotechnological improvement of xero-halophytes when no other genetic information such as linkage maps and QTLs are available, by combining with germplasm-regression-combined marker-trait association identification.

  19. Response of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots with Altered Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP Gene Expression to the Clubroot Disease and Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Jülke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot disease of Brassicaceae is caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae. The disease is characterized by abnormal tumorous swellings of infected roots that result in reduced drought resistance and insufficient distribution of nutrients, leading to reduced crop yield. It is one of the most damaging diseases among cruciferous crops worldwide. The acquisition of nutrients by the protist is not well understood. Gene expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana clubroots indicate that lipid transfer proteins (LTPs could be involved in disease development or at least in adaptation to the disease symptoms. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the role of some, of the still enigmatic LTPs during clubroot development. For a functional approach, we have generated transgenic plants that overexpress LTP genes in a root specific manner or show reduced LTP gene expression. Our results showed that overexpression of some of the LTP genes resulted in reduced disease severity whereas the lipid content in clubs of LTP mutants seems to be unaffected. Additional studies indicate a role for some LTPs during salt stress conditions in roots of A. thaliana.

  20. Physiological and proteomic responses of diploid and tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) subjected to salt stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mingyue; Liu, Likun; Meng, Fanjuan

    2013-01-01

    .... After salt treatment, plant growth was inhibited, photosynthesis was reduced, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage increased, and defense-related enzyme...

  1. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  2. Metabolic Profiles Reveal Changes in Wild and Cultivated Soybean Seedling Leaves under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available Clarification of the metabolic mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in plants will allow further optimization of crop breeding and cultivation to obtain high yields in saline-alkali land. Here, we characterized 68 differential metabolites of cultivated soybean (Glycine max and wild soybean (Glycine soja under neutral-salt and alkali-salt stresses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-based metabolomics, to reveal the physiological and molecular differences in salt tolerance. According to comparisons of growth parameters under the two kinds of salt stresses, the level of inhibition in wild soybean was lower than in cultivated soybean, especially under alkali-salt stress. Moreover, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of phenylalanine, asparagine, citraconic acid, citramalic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under neutral-salt stress, and higher amounts of palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, glucose, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under alkali-salt stress, than cultivated soybean. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of wild soybean to salt tolerance was mainly based on the synthesis of organic and amino acids, and the more active tricarboxylic acid cycle under neutral-salt stress. In addition, the metabolite profiling analysis suggested that the energy generation from β-oxidation, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle plays important roles under alkali-salt stress. Our results extend the understanding of mechanisms involved in wild soybean salt tolerance and provide an important reference for increasing yields and developing salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  3. Signal transduction during cold, salt, and drought stresses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Tao; Ma, Shi-Liang; Bai, Li-Ping; Zhang, Li; Ma, Hui; Jia, Ping; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Zhi-Fu

    2012-02-01

    Abiotic stresses, especially cold, salinity and drought, are the primary causes of crop loss worldwide. Plant adaptation to environmental stresses is dependent upon the activation of cascades of molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction, and the expression of specific stress-related genes and metabolites. Plants have stress-specific adaptive responses as well as responses which protect the plants from more than one environmental stress. There are multiple stress perception and signaling pathways, some of which are specific, but others may cross-talk at various steps. In this review article, we first expound the general stress signal transduction pathways, and then highlight various aspects of biotic stresses signal transduction networks. On the genetic analysis, many cold induced pathways are activated to protect plants from deleterious effects of cold stress, but till date, most studied pathway is ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway. The Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) pathway, identified through isolation and study of the sos1, sos2, and sos3 mutants, is essential for maintaining favorable ion ratios in the cytoplasm and for tolerance of salt stress. Both ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways appear to be involved in osmotic stress tolerance. ROS play a dual role in the response of plants to abiotic stresses functioning as toxic by-products of stress metabolism, as well as important signal transduction molecules and the ROS signaling networks can control growth, development, and stress response. Finally, we talk about the common regulatory system and cross-talk among biotic stresses, with particular emphasis on the MAPK cascades and the cross-talk between ABA signaling and biotic signaling.

  4. Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the identification of some novel genes – such as SnRK1-type protein kinase; 17 kDa, class I, small heat shock protein; and RNase S-like protein precursor genes – may offer a new avenue for better understanding the salt stress response in plants, knowledge which might be helpful for developing future strategies.

  5. Silicon alleviates salt stress, decreases malondialdehyde content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Hernandez JA, Corpass FJ, Gomez M, del Río LA, Sevilla F (1993). Salt-induced oxidative stress mediated by active oxygen species in pen leaf mitochondria, Physiol. Plant. 89: 103-110. Hwang SJ, Hamayun M, Kim HY, Na CI, Kim KU, Shin DH, Kim SY, Lee. IJ (2008). Effect of nitrogen and silicon nutrition ...

  6. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to salt stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings raised from seed treated with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nusrat; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2013-05-01

    Salt tolerance is a complex trait which involves the coordinated action of many genes that perform a variety of functions, such as ion sequestration, metabolic adjustment, osmotic adjustment and antioxidative defence. In this article, the growth and the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under normal (ECiw [Electrical conductivity of irrigation water] = 0.5 dS m(-1)) and salt stress conditions (ECiw = 3.4, 6.1, 8.6 and 10.8 dS m(-1) ) in relation to the priming of seeds of the two important oil yielding crops, i.e. safflower and sunflower, with different concentrations of chitosan [0% (control), 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%] is discussed. Induced salinity stress significantly decreased germination percentage, germination rate, length and weight of root and shoot, and protein content. Proline content, malondialdehyde content (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activity increased at 10.8 dS m(-1). Under control conditions there were no significant differences in germination percentage among different concentrations of chitosan, whereas CAT and POX activity were increased by low concentrations of chitosan. With increasing salt stress, low concentrations of chitosan increased germination percentage but decreased MDA and proline contents and CAT and POX activity. Generation of ROS seems to be unavoidable under normal conditions and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in plants varies in terms of ROS generation under salt stress. However, the data indicate that plants subjected to salt stress-induced oxidative stress and the low concentrations of chitosan exhibited positive effects on salt stress alleviation through the reduction of enzyme activity in both crops. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Differential responses of CO2 assimilation, carbohydrate allocation and gene expression to NaCl stress in perennial ryegrass with different salt tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of NaCl stress on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. photosynthesis and carbohydrate flux. The objective of this study was to understand the carbohydrate metabolism and identify the gene expression affected by salinity stress. Seventy-four days old seedlings of two perennial ryegrass accessions (salt-sensitive 'PI 538976' and salt-tolerant 'Overdrive' were subjected to three levels of salinity stress for 5 days. Turf quality in all tissues (leaves, stems and roots of both grass accessions negatively and significantly correlated with GFS (Glu+Fru+Suc content, except for 'Overdrive' stems. Relative growth rate (RGR in leaves negatively and significantly correlated with GFS content in 'Overdrive' (P0.05 for turf quality. A greater up-regulation in the expression of SPS, SS, SI, 6-SFT gene was observed in 'Overdrive' than 'PI 538976'. A higher level of SPS and SS expression in leaves was found in 'PI 538976' relative to 'Overdrive'. Accumulation of hexoses in roots, stems and leaves can induce a feedback repression to photosynthesis in salt-stressed perennial ryegrass and the salt tolerance may be changed with the carbohydrate allocation in leaves and stems.

  8. Research Paper Silicon alleviates salt stress, decreases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of silicon (Si) application on cut rose (Rosa xhybrida L.) 'Hot Lady' under two levels of salt stress. Four Si concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm) as Si were combined with a 25 mM NaCl (EC 3.8) level in the nutrient solution supplied to ...

  9. Polyamine biosynthesis in rice cultivars under salt stress and comparison with observations under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Thi Do

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity affects a large proportion of rural area and limits agricultural productivity. To investigate differential adaptation to soil salinity, we studied salt tolerance of 18 varieties of Oryza sativa using a hydroponic culture system. Based on visual inspection and photosynthetic parameters, cultivars were classified according to their tolerance level. Additionally, biomass parameters were correlated with salt tolerance. Polyamines have frequently been demonstrated to be involved in plant stress responses and therefore soluble leaf polyamines were measured. Under salinity, putrescine (Put content was unchanged or increased in tolerant, while dropped in sensitive cultivars. Spermidine (Spd content was unchanged at lower NaCl concentrations in all, while reduced at 100 mM NaCl in sensitive cultivars. Spermine (Spm content was increased in all cultivars. A comparison with data from 21 cultivars under long-term, moderate drought stress revealed an increase of Spm under both stress conditions. While Spm became the most prominent polyamine under drought, levels of all three polyamines were relatively similar under salt stress. Put levels were reduced under both, drought and salt stress, while changes in Spd were different under drought (decrease or salt (unchanged conditions. Regulation of polyamine metabolism at the transcript level during exposure to salinity was studied for genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and compared to expression under drought stress. Based on expression profiles, investigated genes were divided into generally stress-induced genes (ADC2, SPD/SPM2, SPD/SPM3, one generally stress-repressed gene (ADC1, constitutively expressed genes (CPA1, CPA2, CPA4, SAMDC1, SPD/SPM1, specifically drought-induced genes (SAMDC2, AIH, one specifically drought-repressed gene (CPA3 and one specifically salt-stress repressed gene (SAMDC4, revealing both overlapping and specific stress responses under these

  10. Leaf sodium accumulation facilitates salt stress adaptation and preserves photosystem functionality in salt stressed Ocimum basilicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancarella, S.; Orsini, F.; Oosten, van M.J.; Sanoubar, R.; Stanghellini, C.; Kondo, S.; Gianquinto, G.; Maggio, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, plant growth, water relations, ABA levels, ion accumulation patterns and chlorophyll fluorescence were functionally linked to salt stress tolerance of two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with different stress sensitivity levels. Plants were treated with salty water at 0,

  11. Accumulation of trehalose in the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum in response to heat or salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Helene Friborg; Jensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The disaccharide trehalose, known to be an effective protectant against various kinds of stress, was observed to accumulate in the cytosol of Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum during heat stress. Trehalose was apparently neither involved in the defence of C. thermophilum var. coprophilum...... against high concentrations of sodium chloride nor directly linked to thermophily. In C. thermophilum var. coprophilum three different trehalose hydrolyzing activities were eluted from a mono Q anion exchange column by sodium chloride concentrations of 0.10, 0.15 and 0.24 M, respectively....

  12. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  13. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.

    2005-12-08

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  14. De novo assembly of the Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) root transcriptome and identification of candidate unigenes related to early responses under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Niu, Jun; Xu, Xilin; Xu, Lixin; Zhang, Yinbing; Fan, Bo; Liang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lijuan; Yin, Shuxia; Han, Liebao

    2015-01-01

    Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is an important warm-season turfgrass that is able to survive in a range of soils, from infertile sands to clays, and to grow well under saline conditions. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in its resistance to salt stress. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the changes in gene expression of Zoysia grass at high NaCl concentrations. We first constructed two sequencing libraries, including control and NaCl-treated samples, and sequenced them using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Approximately 157.20 million paired-end reads with a total length of 68.68 Mb were obtained. Subsequently, 32,849 unigenes with an N50 length of 1781 bp were assembled using Trinity. Furthermore, three public databases, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Swiss-prot, and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), were used for gene function analysis and enrichment. The annotated genes included 57 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, 120 KEGG pathways, and 24 COGs. Compared with the control, 1455 genes were significantly different (false discovery rate ≤0.01, |log2Ratio |≥1) in the NaCl-treated samples. These genes were enriched in 10 KEGG pathways and 73 GO terms, and subjected to 25 COG categories. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing, we built a database as a global transcript resource for Z. japonica Steud. roots. The results of this study will advance our understanding of the early salt response in Japanese lawngrass roots. PMID:26347751

  15. The upregulation of thiamine (vitamin B1 biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under salt and osmotic stress conditions is mediated by abscisic acid at the early stages of this stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapala-Kozik Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports suggest that vitamin B1 (thiamine participates in the processes underlying plant adaptations to certain types of abiotic and biotic stress, mainly oxidative stress. Most of the genes coding for enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified. In our present study, we examined the expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes, of genes encoding thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes and the levels of thiamine compounds during the early (sensing and late (adaptation responses of Arabidopsis seedlings to oxidative, salinity and osmotic stress. The possible roles of plant hormones in the regulation of the thiamine contribution to stress responses were also explored. Results The expression of Arabidopsis genes involved in the thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis pathway, including that of THI1, THIC, TH1 and TPK, was analyzed for 48 h in seedlings subjected to NaCl or sorbitol treatment. These genes were found to be predominantly up-regulated in the early phase (2-6 h of the stress response. The changes in these gene transcript levels were further found to correlate with increases in thiamine and its diphosphate ester content in seedlings, as well as with the enhancement of gene expression for enzymes which require thiamine diphosphate as a cofactor, mainly α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and transketolase. In the case of the phytohormones including the salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids which are known to be involved in plant stress responses, only abscisic acid was found to significantly influence the expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes, the thiamine diphosphate levels, as well as the expression of genes coding for main thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes. Using Arabidopsis mutant plants defective in abscisic acid production, we demonstrate that this phytohormone is important in the regulation of THI1 and THIC gene expression during salt stress

  16. Salt stress induces changes in the proteomic profile of micropropagated sugarcane shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; Rangel, Patricia L.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Grativol, Clícia; Veiga, Carlos F. M.; Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A.

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the most common stresses in agricultural regions worldwide. In particular, sugarcane is affected by salt stress conditions, and no sugarcane cultivar presently show high productivity accompanied by a tolerance to salt stress. Proteomic analysis allows elucidation of the important pathways involved in responses to various abiotic stresses at the biochemical and molecular levels. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the proteomic effects of salt stress in micropropagated shoots of two sugarcane cultivars (CB38-22 and RB855536) using a label-free proteomic approach. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006075. The RB855536 cultivar is more tolerant to salt stress than CB38-22. A quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis identified 1172 non-redundant proteins, and 1160 of these were observed in both cultivars in the presence or absence of NaCl. Compared with CB38-22, the RB855536 cultivar showed a greater abundance of proteins involved in non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms, ion transport, and photosynthesis. Some proteins, such as calcium-dependent protein kinase, photosystem I, phospholipase D, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were more abundant in the RB855536 cultivar under salt stress. Our results provide new insights into the response of sugarcane to salt stress, and the changes in the abundance of these proteins might be important for the acquisition of ionic and osmotic homeostasis during exposure to salt stress. PMID:28419154

  17. Salt stress induced lipid accumulation in heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides: Mechanisms based on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Haiyan; Liu, Tingting; Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Zejian; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-06-20

    Salt stress as an effective stress factor that could improve the lipid content and lipid yield of glucose in the heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides was demonstrated in this study. The highest lipid content of 41.2% and lipid yield of 185.8mg/g were obtained when C. protothecoides was stressed under 30g/L NaCl condition at its late logarithmic growth phase. Moreover, the effects of salt and osmotic stress on lipid accumulation were comparatively analyzed, and it was found that the effects of NaCl and KCl stress had no significant differences at the same osmolarity level of 1150mOsm/kg with lipid contents of 41.7 and 40.8% as well as lipid yields of 192.9 and 186.8mg/g, respectively, whereas these results were obviously higher than those obtained under the iso-osmotic glycerol and sorbitol stresses. Furthermore, basing on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration, the superior performance of salt stress driving lipid over-synthesis was probably ascribed to the more ROS production as a result of additional ion effect besides the osmotic effect, subsequently mediating the alteration from carbohydrate storage to lipid accumulation in signal transduction process of C. protothecoides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Endogenous cytokinin overproduction modulates ROS homeostasis and decreases salt stress resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping eWang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8 and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of CAT and SOD, which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein gene family reveals differential expression patterns, localization and salt stress response in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eZang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs are a subclass of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs involved in plant growth, development and response to abiotic stress. Although many studies have been performed to identify molecular functions of individual family members, little information is available on genome-wide identification and characterization of FLAs in the genus Populus. Based on genome-wide analysis, we have identified 35 Populus FLAs which were distributed on 16 chromosomes and phylogenetically clustered into four major groups. Gene structure and motif composition were relatively conserved in each group. All the members contained N-terminal signal peptide, 23 of which included predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI modification sites and were anchored to plasma membranes. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PtrFLA2/20/26 were localized in cell membrane and cytoplasm of protoplasts from Populus stem-differentiating xylem. The Ka/Ks ratios showed that purifying selection has played a leading role in the long-term evolutionary period which greatly maintained the function of this family. The expression profiles showed that 32 PtrFLAs were differentially expressed in four tissues at four seasons based on publicly available microarray data. 18 FLAs were further verified with qRT-PCR in different tissues, which indicated that PtrFLA1/2/3/7/11/12/20/21/22/24/26/30 were significantly expressed in male and female flowers, suggesting close correlations with the reproductive development. In addition, PtrFLA1/9/10/11/17/21/23/24/26/28 were highly expressed in the stems and differentiating xylem, which may be involved in stem development. To determine salt response of FLAs, qRT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression of 18 genes under salinity stress across two time points. Results demonstrated that all the 18 FLAs were expressed in root tissues; especially, PtrFLA2/12/20/21/24/30 were significantly induced at different time

  20. Genetic analysis of Myanmar Vigna species in responses to salt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve (12) Vigna genotypes were investigated for the evaluation of their tolerance levels in responses to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 75, 150 and 225 mM) at seedling stage. In the investigation, salt stress inhibited almost all the growth parameters as well as relative water content; however, the degree of reduction was ...

  1. Molecular phylogenetic study and expression analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family in Oryza sativa in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayita; Sengupta, Atreyee; Gupta, Kamala; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2015-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a large gene superfamily that utilizes the energy released from ATP hydrolysis for transporting myriad of substrates across the biological membranes. Although many investigations have been done on the structural and functional analysis of the ABC transporters in Oryza sativa, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression pattern of the complete ABC family in rice. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis constructing neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood trees based on various statistical methods of different ABC protein subfamily of five plant lineages including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green algae), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Selaginella moellendorffii (lycophyte), Arabidopsis thaliana (dicot) and O. sativa (monocot) to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these ABC genes. We have identified several conserved motifs in nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of ABC proteins among all plant lineages during evolution. Amongst the different ABC protein subfamilies, 'ABCE' has not yet been identified in lower plant genomes (algae, moss and lycophytes). The result indicated that gene duplication and diversification process acted upon these genes as a major operative force creating new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. We have demonstrated that rice ABCI subfamily consists of only half size transporters that represented highly dynamic members showing maximum sequence variations among the other rice ABC subfamilies. The evolutionary and the expression analysis contribute to a deep insight into the evolution and diversity of rice ABC proteins and their roles in response to salt stress that facilitate our further understanding on rice ABC transporters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptome analysis reveals that distinct metabolic pathways operate in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive upland cotton varieties subjected to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinyan; Shi, Gongyao; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Liwei; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Yumei; Su, Zhen; Hua, Jinping

    2015-09-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses in crop plants. As a moderately salt-tolerant crop, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major cash crop in saline areas and a suitable model for salt stress tolerance research. In this study, we compared the transcriptome changes between the salt-tolerant upland cotton cultivar Zhong 07 and salt-sensitive cultivar Zhong G5 in response to NaCl treatments. Transcriptional regulation, signal transduction and secondary metabolism in two varieties showed significant differences, all of which might be related to mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. The transcriptional profiles presented here provide a foundation for deciphering the mechanism underlying salt tolerance. Based on our findings, we proposed several candidate genes that might be used to improve salt tolerance in upland cotton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitrate and Ammonium Contribute to the Distinct Nitrogen Metabolism of Populus simonii during Moderate Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Sen; Su, Li; Li, Yiming; Wang, Yinjuan; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stressor affecting plant growth. Salinity affects nitrification and ammonification in the soil, however, limited information is available on the influence of different N sources on N metabolism during salt stress. To understand the N metabolism changes in response to different N sources during moderate salt stress, we investigated N uptake, assimilation and the transcript abundance of associated genes in Populus simonii seedlings treated with moderate salt stress (75mM NaCl) under hydroponic culture conditions with nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+). Salt stress negatively affected plant growth in both NH4+-fed and NO3--fed plants. Both NH4+ uptake and the total N concentration were significantly increased in the roots of the NH4+-fed plants during salt stress. However, the NO3- uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity primarily depended on the NO3- supply and was not influenced by salt stress. Salt stress decreased glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity in the roots and leaves. Most genes associated with NO3-uptake, reduction and N metabolism were down-regulated or remained unchanged; while two NH4+ transporter genes closely associated with NH4+ uptake (AMT1;2 and AMT1;6) were up-regulated in response to salt stress in the NH4+-fed plants. The accumulation of different amino acid compounds was observed in the NH4+- and NO3-- fed plants during salt treatment. The results suggested that N metabolism in P. simonii plants exposed to salt enhanced salt resistance in the plants that were fed with NO3- instead of NH4+ as the sole N source.

  4. Male Gametophytic Screening of Citrus Genotypes for Salt Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barandan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are classified as a sensitive group of trees to salt stress, but the levels of their sensitivity or tolerance to salt are different among cultivars. In order to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on pollen germination of some citrus cultivars, an experiment was performed in factorial, based on completely randomized design in three replications with Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni and Poncirus trifoliata as tolerant and sensitive controls along with 13 genotypes. Pollen grains of these genotypes were cultured in media containing different levels of sodium chloride (0, 0.87, 1.6, 2.4, 3.1 dS/m along with 15% sucrose, 0.7% agar and 100 mg/L boric acid. In order to understand the biochemical responses of pollen grains to salt stress, they were cultured in liquid media with three levels of salinity (i.e. 0, 0.87 and 1.6 dS/m and then the amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX were evaluated. Significant differences of pollen germination (P ≤ 0.01 were observed in different salinity levels, but there were no significant differences in pollen tube growth. Pollen germination in Cleopatra was greater in comparison to Poncirus trifoliate, indicating that Cleopatra is a tolerant cultivar. The amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of SOD and APX were influenced by genotypes, salinity levels and their interactions (P ≤ 0.01. Considering the fastness and accuracy of this type of experiment, the evaluation of citrus pollen responses may, potentially, be hired as an initial screening criteria for detecting salt-sensitive varieties from the tolerant citrus ones.

  5. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  6. Salt stress change chlorophyll fluorescence in mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Cartaxo de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the tolerance of mango cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Uba' grafted on rootstock 'Imbú' to salt stress using chlorophyll fluorescence. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution containing 0, 15, 30, and 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. At 97 days the parameters of the chlorophyll fluorescence (F0, Fm, Fv, F0/Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', ΦPSII = [(Fm'-Fs/(Fm'], D = (1- Fv'/Fm' and ETR = (ΦPSII×PPF×0,84×0,5 were determined. At 100 days, the leaf emission and leaf area, toxicity and leaf abscission indexes were determined. In all cultivars evaluated, in different degree, there were decreases in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, enhanced concentrations from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decreases in the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were 27.9, 18.7, 20.5, and 27.4%, for cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba', respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was found decreases in leaf emission and mean leaf area in all cultivars from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. There were increases in leaf toxicity of 33.0, 67.5, 41.6 and 80.8% and in leaf abscission of 71.8, 29.2, 32.5, and 67.9% for the cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba' respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. Leaf toxicity and leaf abscission were not observed in 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decrease in Fv/Fm ratio were accompanied by decreasing in leaf emission and increased leaf toxicity index, showing, therefore, the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence in the early detection of salt stress in mango tree.

  7. Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... 4Institute of Molecular Bio Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Accepted 26 March ... cultures of KDML105 rice were exposed to salt stress by placing on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ... Key word: Aromatic rice, osmoprotectant, callus culture, salt stress.

  8. Effects of salt stress on germination of some maize (Zea mays L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effects of salt stress on germination of six maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars (ADA-523, Bora, .... In addition 15 ml of distilled water without NaCl was used as control. Dishes ..... Salt Tolerance During Seed Germination in Tomato: Analysis of. Response and Correlated ...

  9. Comparative metabolite profiling of two rice genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance at the seedling stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is sensitive to salt stress, especially at the seedling stage, with rice varieties differing remarkably in salt tolerance (ST. To understand the physiological mechanisms of ST, we investigated salt stress responses at the metabolite level. METHODS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite changes in the salt-tolerant line FL478 and the sensitive variety IR64 under a salt-stress time series. Additionally, several physiological traits related to ST were investigated. RESULTS: We characterized 92 primary metabolites in the leaves and roots of the two genotypes under stress and control conditions. The metabolites were temporally, tissue-specifically and genotype-dependently regulated under salt stress. Sugars and amino acids (AAs increased significantly in the leaves and roots of both genotypes, while organic acids (OAs increased in roots and decreased in leaves. Compared with IR64, FL478 experienced greater increases in sugars and AAs and more pronounced decreases in OAs in both tissues; additionally, the maximum change in sugars and AAs occurred later, while OAs changed earlier. Moreover, less Na+ and higher relative water content were observed in FL478. Eleven metabolites, including AAs and sugars, were specifically increased in FL478 over the course of the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic responses of rice to salt stress are dynamic and involve many metabolites. The greater ST of FL478 is due to different adaptive reactions at different stress times. At early salt-stress stages, FL478 adapts to stress by decreasing OA levels or by quickly depressing growth; during later stages, more metabolites are accumulated, thereby serving as compatible solutes against osmotic challenge induced by salt stress.

  10. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Two Rice Genotypes with Contrasting Salt Stress Tolerance at the Seedling Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Deng, Jianli; Li, Zhikang; Fu, Binying

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice is sensitive to salt stress, especially at the seedling stage, with rice varieties differing remarkably in salt tolerance (ST). To understand the physiological mechanisms of ST, we investigated salt stress responses at the metabolite level. Methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite changes in the salt-tolerant line FL478 and the sensitive variety IR64 under a salt-stress time series. Additionally, several physiological traits related to ST were investigated. Results We characterized 92 primary metabolites in the leaves and roots of the two genotypes under stress and control conditions. The metabolites were temporally, tissue-specifically and genotype-dependently regulated under salt stress. Sugars and amino acids (AAs) increased significantly in the leaves and roots of both genotypes, while organic acids (OAs) increased in roots and decreased in leaves. Compared with IR64, FL478 experienced greater increases in sugars and AAs and more pronounced decreases in OAs in both tissues; additionally, the maximum change in sugars and AAs occurred later, while OAs changed earlier. Moreover, less Na+ and higher relative water content were observed in FL478. Eleven metabolites, including AAs and sugars, were specifically increased in FL478 over the course of the treatment. Conclusions Metabolic responses of rice to salt stress are dynamic and involve many metabolites. The greater ST of FL478 is due to different adaptive reactions at different stress times. At early salt-stress stages, FL478 adapts to stress by decreasing OA levels or by quickly depressing growth; during later stages, more metabolites are accumulated, thereby serving as compatible solutes against osmotic challenge induced by salt stress. PMID:25265195

  11. ROOT ANATOMICAL PLASTICITY IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS UNDER REAL AND FULL-SEASON FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETERMINATION OF NEW ANATOMIC SELECTION CHARACTERS FOR BREEDING SALT-RESISTANT RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  12. Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Waheed Qurashi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1 and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4 have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1 and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4 in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98 growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity.

  13. Phenotypic effects of salt and heat stress over three generations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léonie Suter

    Full Text Available Current and predicted environmental change will force many organisms to adapt to novel conditions, especially sessile organisms such as plants. It is therefore important to better understand how plants react to environmental stress and to what extent genotypes differ in such responses. It has been proposed that adaptation to novel conditions could be facilitated by heritable epigenetic changes induced by environmental stress, independent of genetic variation. Here we assessed phenotypic effects of heat and salt stress within and across three generations using four highly inbred Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes (Col, Cvi, Ler and Sha. Salt stress generally decreased fitness, but genotypes were differently affected, suggesting that susceptibility of A. thaliana to salt stress varies among genotypes. Heat stress at an early rosette stage had less detrimental effects but accelerated flowering in three out of four accessions. Additionally, we found three different modes of transgenerational effects on phenotypes, all harboring the potential of being adaptive: heat stress in previous generations induced faster rosette growth in Sha, both under heat and control conditions, resembling a tracking response, while in Cvi, the phenotypic variance of several traits increased, resembling diversified bet-hedging. Salt stress experienced in earlier generations altered plant architecture of Sha under salt but not control conditions, similar to transgenerational phenotypic plasticity. However, transgenerational phenotypic effects depended on the type of stress as well as on genotype, suggesting that such effects may not be a general response leading to adaptation to novel environmental conditions in A. thaliana.

  14. Computational gene expression profiling under salt stress reveals patterns of co-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchita; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-03-01

    Plants respond differently to environmental conditions. Among various abiotic stresses, salt stress is a condition where excess salt in soil causes inhibition of plant growth. To understand the response of plants to the stress conditions, identification of the responsible genes is required. Clustering is a data mining technique used to group the genes with similar expression. The genes of a cluster show similar expression and function. We applied clustering algorithms on gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum showing differential expression in Capsicum annuum under salt stress. The clusters, which were common in multiple algorithms were taken further for analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) further validated the findings of other cluster algorithms by visualizing their clusters in three-dimensional space. Functional annotation results revealed that most of the genes were involved in stress related responses. Our findings suggest that these algorithms may be helpful in the prediction of the function of co-expressed genes.

  15. Computational gene expression profiling under salt stress reveals patterns of co-expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond differently to environmental conditions. Among various abiotic stresses, salt stress is a condition where excess salt in soil causes inhibition of plant growth. To understand the response of plants to the stress conditions, identification of the responsible genes is required. Clustering is a data mining technique used to group the genes with similar expression. The genes of a cluster show similar expression and function. We applied clustering algorithms on gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum showing differential expression in Capsicum annuum under salt stress. The clusters, which were common in multiple algorithms were taken further for analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA further validated the findings of other cluster algorithms by visualizing their clusters in three-dimensional space. Functional annotation results revealed that most of the genes were involved in stress related responses. Our findings suggest that these algorithms may be helpful in the prediction of the function of co-expressed genes.

  16. Leaf conductance and carbon gain under salt-stressed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of plants to salt stress is often accompanied by reductions in leaf photosynthesis and in stomatal and mesophyll conductances. To separate the effects of salt stress on these quantities, a model based on the hypothesis that carbon gain is maximized subject to a water loss cost is proposed. The optimization problem of adjusting stomatal aperture for maximizing carbon gain at a given water loss is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function. A key novel theoretical outcome of the optimality hypothesis is an explicit relationship between the stomatal and mesophyll conductances that can be evaluated against published measurements. The approaches here successfully describe gas-exchange measurements reported for olive trees (Olea europea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceaL.) in fresh water and in salt-stressed conditions. Salt stress affected both stomatal and mesophyll conductances and photosynthetic efficiency of both species. The fresh water/salt water comparisons show that the photosynthetic capacity is directly reduced by 30%-40%, indicating that reductions in photosynthetic rates under increased salt stress are not due only to a limitation of CO2diffusion. An increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water parameter (or marginal water use efficiency) exceeding 100%, analogous in magnitude to findings from extreme drought stress studies. The proposed leaf-level approach can be incorporated into physically based models of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to assess how saline conditions and elevated atmospheric CO2 jointly impact transpiration and photosynthesis.

  17. of Kidney Bean, Soybean and Alfalfa Under Salt Stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    kidney bean, soybean and alfalfa under salt stress were investigated in the greenhouse. Growth and ... Continuous irrigation with water loaded with material in the soil, different substances are soluble salts results in ..... alfalfa at 100 mM Na,SO, was observed There appears to be no published work for both composts but ...

  18. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  19. Molecular cloning of two novel peroxidases and their response to salt stress and salicylic acid in the living fossil Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Martínez-Cortés, Teresa; Pomar, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Peroxidase isoenzymes play diverse roles in plant physiology, such as lignification and defence against pathogens. The actions and regulation of many peroxidases are not known with much accuracy. A number of studies have reported direct involvement of peroxidase isoenzymes in the oxidation of monolignols, which constitutes the last step in the lignin biosynthesis pathway. However, most of the available data concern only peroxidases and lignins from angiosperms. This study describes the molecular cloning of two novel peroxidases from the 'living fossil' Ginkgo biloba and their regulation by salt stress and salicylic acid. Suspension cell cultures were used to purify peroxidases and to obtain the cDNAs. Treatments with salicylic acid and sodium chloride were performed and peroxidase activity and gene expression were monitored. A novel peroxidase was purified, which preferentially used p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols as substrates and was able to form dehydrogenation polymers in vitro from coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. Two peroxidase full-length cDNAs, GbPrx09 and GbPrx10, were cloned. Both peroxidases showed high similarity to other basic peroxidases with a putative role in cell wall lignification. Both GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 were expressed in leaves and stems of the plant. Sodium chloride enhanced the gene expression of GbPrx09 but repressed GbPrx10, whereas salicylic acid strongly repressed both GbPrx09 and GbPrx10. Taken together, the data suggest the participation of GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 in the developmental lignification programme of the cell wall. Both peroxidases possess the structural characteristics necessary for sinapyl alcohol oxidation. Moreover, GbPrx09 is also involved in lignification induced by salt stress, while salicylic acid-mediated lignification is not a result of GbPrx09 and GbPrx10 enzymatic activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  20. Adrenal Responses to Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Based on concepts proposed by Langley, Cannon, and Selye, adrenal responses to stress occur in a syndrome that reflects activation of the sympathoadrenal system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis; and a “stress syndrome” maintains homeostasis in emergencies such as “fight or flight” situations, but if the stress response is excessive or prolonged then any of a variety of clinical disorders can arise. The idea of a unitary sympathoadrenal system does not account for evidence ...

  1. Extension of the M-D model for treating stress drops in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, K.L.; Fossum, A.F.; Callahan, G.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US)

    1993-07-01

    Development of the multimechanism deformation (M-D) constitutive model for steady state creep, which incorporates irreversible workhardening and recovery transient strains, was motivated by the need to predict very long term closures in underground rooms for radioactive waste repositories in salt. The multimechanism deformation model for the creep deformation of salt is extended to treat the response of salt to imposed stress drops. Stress drop tests produce a very distinctive behavior where both reversible elastic strain and reversible time dependent strain occur. These transient strains are negative compared to the positive transient strains produced by the normal creep workhardening and recovery processes. A simple micromechanical evolutionary process is defined to account for the accumulation of these reversible strains, and their subsequent release with decreases in stress. A number of experimental stress drop tests for various stress drop magnitudes and temperatures are adequately simulated with the model.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam; Giri, Bhoopander

    2009-12-01

    Salt stress has become a major threat to plant growth and productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize plant root systems and modulate plant growth in various ways. This review addresses the significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms in mycorrhizal plants to alleviate salt stress. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating salt stress is well documented. This paper reviews the mechanisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi employ to enhance the salt tolerance of host plants such as enhanced nutrient acquisition (P, N, Mg and Ca), maintenance of the K(+) : Na(+) ratio, biochemical changes (accumulation of proline, betaines, polyamines, carbohydrates and antioxidants), physiological changes (photosynthetic efficiency, relative permeability, water status, abscissic acid accumulation, nodulation and nitrogen fixation), molecular changes (the expression of genes: PIP, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, Lsnced, Lslea and LsP5CS) and ultra-structural changes. Theis review identifies certain lesser explored areas such as molecular and ultra-structural changes where further research is needed for better understanding of symbiosis with reference to salt stress for optimum usage of this technology in the field on a large scale. This review paper gives useful benchmark information for the development and prioritization of future research programmes.

  3. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  4. Soil bacteria conferred a positive relationship and improved salt stress tolerance in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) harboring Na+/H+ antiporter

    OpenAIRE

    ALI, ZAHID; ULLAH, NASR; NASEEM, SAADIA; HAQ, MUHAMMAD INAM UL; JACOBSEN, HANS JOERG

    2015-01-01

    Among grain legumes, peas (Pisum sativum L.) are highly sensitive to salt stress. Acclimatization of plants to such conditions is mandatory. We provide improved salt stress tolerance response of transgenic pea plants overexpressing the Na+/H+ gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and a positive association with salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In addition to salt stress tolerance and phosphate solubilization, the selected rhizobacterial isolates were identified for indole a...

  5. The integrated stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Koryga, Izabela; Mnich, Katarzyna; Ljujic, Mila; Samali, Afshin; Gorman, Adrienne M

    2016-10-01

    In response to diverse stress stimuli, eukaryotic cells activate a common adaptive pathway, termed the integrated stress response (ISR), to restore cellular homeostasis. The core event in this pathway is the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) by one of four members of the eIF2α kinase family, which leads to a decrease in global protein synthesis and the induction of selected genes, including the transcription factor ATF4, that together promote cellular recovery. The gene expression program activated by the ISR optimizes the cellular response to stress and is dependent on the cellular context, as well as on the nature and intensity of the stress stimuli. Although the ISR is primarily a pro-survival, homeostatic program, exposure to severe stress can drive signaling toward cell death. Here, we review current understanding of the ISR signaling and how it regulates cell fate under diverse types of stress. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Physiological and proteomic analyses of Saccharum spp. grown under salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Melro Murad

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is the world most productive sugar producing crop, making an understanding of its stress physiology key to increasing both sugar and ethanol production. To understand the behavior and salt tolerance mechanisms of sugarcane, two cultivars commonly used in Brazilian agriculture, RB867515 and RB855536, were submitted to salt stress for 48 days. Physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, water potential, dry root and shoot mass and malondialdehyde (MDA content of leaves were determined. Control plants of the two cultivars showed similar values for most traits apart from higher root dry mass in RB867515. Both cultivars behaved similarly during salt stress, except for MDA levels for which there was a delay in the response for cultivar RB867515. Analysis of leaf macro- and micronutrients concentrations was performed and the concentration of Mn(2+ increased on day 48 for both cultivars. In parallel, to observe the effects of salt stress on protein levels in leaves of the RB867515 cultivar, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis was performed. Four proteins were differentially expressed between control and salt-treated plants. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase was down-regulated, a germin-like protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed increased expression levels under salt stress, and heat-shock protein 70 was expressed only in salt-treated plants. These proteins are involved in energy metabolism and defense-related responses and we suggest that they may be involved in protection mechanisms against salt stress in sugarcane.

  7. Changes in root hydraulic conductivity facilitate the overall hydraulic response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to salt and osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Delong; Fricke, Wieland

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the significance of changes in root AQP gene expression and hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in the regulation of water balance in two hydroponically-grown rice cultivars (Azucena, Bala) which differ in root morphology, stomatal regulation and aquaporin (AQP) isoform expression. Plants were exposed to NaCl (25 mM, 50 mM) and osmotic stress (5%, 10% PEG6000). Root Lp was determined for exuding root systems (osmotic forces driving water uptake; 'exudation Lp') and transpiring plants (hydrostatic forces dominating; 'transpiration-Lp'). Gene expression was analysed by qPCR. Stress treatments caused a consistent and significant decrease in plant growth, transpirational water loss, stomatal conductance, shoot-to-root surface area ratio and root Lp. Comparison of exudation-with transpiration-Lp supported a significant contribution of AQP-facilitated water flow to root water uptake. Changes in root Lp in response to treatments were correlated much stronger with root morphological characteristics, such as the number of main and lateral roots, surface area ratio of root to shoot and plant transpiration rate than with AQP gene expression. Changes in root Lp, involving AQP function, form an integral part of the plant hydraulic response to stress and facilitate changes in the root-to-shoot surface area ratio, transpiration and stomatal conductance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki eNakahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1 a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2 a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3 a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  9. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yoshiki; Sawabe, Shogo; Kainuma, Kenta; Katsuhara, Maki; Shibasaka, Mineo; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Oguri, Suguru; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1) a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2) a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3) a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  10. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes.

  11. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan-Ampudia, C.S.; Testerink, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to

  12. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seedlings exposed to salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salt stress interferes with plant growth and production. Plants have evolved a series of molecular and morphological adaptations to cope with this abiotic stress, and overexpression of salt response genes reportedly enhances the productivity of various crops. However, little is known about the salt responsive genes in the energy plant physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.. Thus, excavate salt responsive genes in this plant are informative in uncovering the molecular mechanisms for the salt response in physic nut. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of physic nut plants (roots and leaves 2 hours, 2 days and 7 days after the onset of salt stress. A total of 1,504 and 1,115 genes were significantly up and down-regulated in roots and leaves, respectively, under salt stress condition. Gene ontology (GO analysis of physiological process revealed that, in the physic nut, many "biological processes" were affected by salt stress, particular those categories belong to "metabolic process", such as "primary metabolism process", "cellular metabolism process" and "macromolecule metabolism process". The gene expression profiles indicated that the associated genes were responsible for ABA and ethylene signaling, osmotic regulation, the reactive oxygen species scavenging system and the cell structure in physic nut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The major regulated genes detected in this transcriptomic data were related to trehalose synthesis and cell wall structure modification in roots, while related to raffinose synthesis and reactive oxygen scavenger in leaves. The current study shows a comprehensive gene expression profile of physic nut under salt stress. The differential expression genes detected in this study allows the underling the salt responsive mechanism in physic nut with the aim of improving its salt resistance in the future.

  13. Comparative proteomics of contrasting maize genotypes provides insights into salt-stress tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meijie; Zhao, Yanxin; Wang, Yuandong; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Yunxia; Song, Wei; Zhao, Jiuran

    2017-12-01

    Salt stress is a major abiotic factor limiting maize yield. To characterize the mechanism underlying maize salt tolerance, we compared the seedling root proteomes of salt-tolerant Jing724 and salt-sensitive D9H. The germination rate and growth parameter values (weight and length) were higher for Jing724 than for D9H under saline conditions. Using an iTRAQ-based method, we identified 513 differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), with 83 and 386 DRPs specific to Jing724 and D9H, respectively. In salt-stressed Jing724, the DRPs were primarily associated with the pentose phosphate pathway, glutathione metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Key DRPs, such as glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, NADPH-producing dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, and glutamine synthetase, were identified based on pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction analyses. Moreover, salt-responsive proteins in Jing724 seedlings were implicated in energy management, maintenance of redox homeostasis, detoxification of ammonia, regulation of osmotic homeostasis, stress defense and adaptation, biotic cross-tolerance, and regulation of gene expression. Quantitative analyses of superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde content, relative electrolyte leakage, and proline content were consistent with the predicted changes based on DRP functions. Furthermore, changes in the abundance of eight representative DRPs were correlated with the corresponding mRNA levels. Our results may be useful for elucidating the molecular networks mediating salt tolerance.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing of pre-mRNA under salt stress in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Feng

    2014-06-04

    Background: Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an important gene regulation process that potentially regulates many physiological processes in plants, including the response to abiotic stresses such as salt stress.Results: To analyze global changes in AS under salt stress, we obtained high-coverage (~200 times) RNA sequencing data from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings that were treated with different concentrations of NaCl. We detected that ~49% of all intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced under salt stress, 10% of which experienced significant differential alternative splicing (DAS). Furthermore, AS increased significantly under salt stress compared with under unstressed conditions. We demonstrated that most DAS genes were not differentially regulated by salt stress, suggesting that AS may represent an independent layer of gene regulation in response to stress. Our analysis of functional categories suggested that DAS genes were associated with specific functional pathways, such as the pathways for the responses to stresses and RNA splicing. We revealed that serine/arginine-rich (SR) splicing factors were frequently and specifically regulated in AS under salt stresses, suggesting a complex loop in AS regulation for stress adaptation. We also showed that alternative splicing site selection (SS) occurred most frequently at 4 nucleotides upstream or downstream of the dominant sites and that exon skipping tended to link with alternative SS.Conclusions: Our study provided a comprehensive view of AS under salt stress and revealed novel insights into the potential roles of AS in plant response to salt stress. 2014 Ding et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  15. Calcium supplementation improves Na+/K+ ratio, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in salt-stressed rice seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur eRahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-d-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47 seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger for three days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt-induced stress caused oxidative stress in rice seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS production and methylglyoxal (MG formation. The salt-stressed rice seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the rice seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system.

  16. Tocopherol deficiency reduces sucrose export from salt-stressed potato leaves independently of oxidative stress and symplastic obstruction by callose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi-Fabado, María Amparo; Ammon, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Voll, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Tocopherol cyclase, encoded by the gene SUCROSE EXPORT DEFECTIVE1, catalyses the second step in the synthesis of the antioxidant tocopherol. Depletion of SXD1 activity in maize and potato leaves leads to tocopherol deficiency and a ‘sugar export block’ phenotype that comprises massive starch accumulation and obstruction of plasmodesmata in paraveinal tissue by callose. We grew two transgenic StSXD1:RNAi potato lines with severe tocopherol deficiency under moderate light conditions and subjected them to salt stress. After three weeks of salt exposure, we observed a strongly reduced sugar exudation rate and a lack of starch mobilization in leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants, but not in wild-type plants. However, callose accumulation in the vasculature declined upon salt stress in all genotypes, indicating that callose plugging of plasmodesmata was not the sole cause of the sugar export block phenotype in tocopherol-deficient leaves. Based on comprehensive gene expression analyses, we propose that enhanced responsiveness of SnRK1 target genes in mesophyll cells and altered redox regulation of phloem loading by SUT1 contribute to the attenuation of sucrose export from salt-stressed SXD:RNAi source leaves. Furthermore, we could not find any indication that elevated oxidative stress may have served as a trigger for the salt-induced carbohydrate phenotype of SXD1:RNAi transgenic plants. In leaves of the SXD1:RNAi plants, sodium accumulation was diminished, while proline accumulation and pools of soluble antioxidants were increased. As supported by phytohormone contents, these differences seem to increase longevity and prevent senescence of SXD:RNAi leaves under salt stress. PMID:25428995

  17. Cold Responsive Gene Expression Profiling of Sugarcane and Saccharum spontaneum with Functional Analysis of a Cold Inducible Saccharum Homolog of NOD26-Like Intrinsic Protein to Salt and Water Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Won; Benatti, Thiago R; Marconi, Thiago; Yu, Qingyi; Solis-Gracia, Nora; Mora, Victoria; da Silva, Jorge A

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of sugarcane hybrid CP72-1210 (cold susceptible) and Saccharum spontaneum TUS05-05 (cold tolerant) using Sugarcane Assembled Sequences (SAS) from SUCEST-FUN Database showed that a total of 35,340 and 34,698 SAS genes, respectively, were expressed before and after chilling stress. The analysis revealed that more than 600 genes are differentially expressed in each genotype after chilling stress. Blast2Go annotation revealed that the major difference in gene expression profiles between CP72-1210 and TUS05-05 after chilling stress are present in the genes related to the transmembrane transporter activity. To further investigate the relevance of transmembrane transporter activity against abiotic stress tolerance, a S. spontaneum homolog of a NOD26-like major intrinsic protein gene (SspNIP2) was selected for functional analysis, of which expression was induced after chilling stress in the cold tolerant TUS05-05. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that SspNIP2 expression was increased ~2.5 fold at 30 minutes after cold treatment and stayed induced throughout the 24 hours of cold treatment. The amino acid sequence analysis of the cloned SspNIP2 confirmed the presence of six transmembrane domains and two NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala) motifs, signature features of major intrinsic protein families. Amino acid analysis confirmed that four amino acids, comprising the ar/R (aromatic residue/arginine) region responsible for the substrate specificity among MIPs, are conserved among monocot silicon transporters and SspNIP2. Salinity stress test on SspNIP2 transgenic tobacco plants resulted in more vigorous transgenic lines than the non-transgenic tobacco plants, suggesting some degree of tolerance to salt stress conferred by SspNIP2. SspNIP2-transgenic plants, exposed to 2 weeks of water stress without irrigation, developed various degrees of water stress symptom. The water stress test confirmed that the SspNIP2 transgenic lines had lower evapotranspiration rates than non

  18. Silicon alleviates salt stress, decreases malondialdehyde content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... stressed barley. One effect of free oxygen radicals accu- mulation in plant cells under stress is lipid peroxidation via oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids leading to .... Effect of different treatments of Si and NaCl on growth and chlorophyll content of R. xhybrida 'Hot lady' in soilless culture. Treatment. Peduncle.

  19. Overexpression of SDH confers tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, but decreases ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Pu; Ren, Jing-Jing; Yu, Qin; Zhou, Shu-Mei; Ren, Qiu-Ping; Kong, Lan-Jing; Wang, Xiu-Ling

    2017-11-10

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of sorbitol, xylitol and ribitol to their corresponding ketoses. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of Arabidopsis SDH in salt and osmotic stress tolerance, and abscisic acid (ABA) response. The expression patterns of SDH were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing beta-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of promoter with the first intron of SDH. qRT-PCR and histochemical assay of GUS activity were used to study SDH expression regulation by ABA, salt and osmotic stress. The SDH-overexpression lines of Arabidopsis were used to investigate the role of SDH involved in salt and osmotic stress, and ABA response. Arabidopsis SDH was predominantly expressed in source organs such as green cotyledons, fully expanded leaves and sepals, especially in the vascular tissues of theses organs. The SDH expression was inhibited by NaCl and mannitol treatments. Seed germination and post-germination growth of SDH-overexpressing lines exhibited decreased sensitivity toward salt and osmotic stress compared to wild-type plants. The transcript of SDH was induced by ABA. Overexpression of SDH decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and post-germination growth. Expression of AAO3 was increased but ABI5 and MYB2 was decreased in SDH-overexpressing lines after ABA treatment. This study demonstrated that the expression of SDH is regulated by ABA, salt and osmotic stress. SDH functions in plant tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, and ABA response via specific regulating gene expression of ABA synthesis and signaling in Arabidopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Seed priming with hormones does not alleviate induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Falleiros Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming with hormones has been an efficient method for increasing seed vigor as well as seedling growth under stressful conditions. These responses have in the past been attributed to the activation of antioxidant systems in a range of crops. The results described in this work show that hormonal priming with methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid or CEPA (chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene (ET releaser, does not induce the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase or glutathione reductase in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress. The enhanced biomass of maize seedlings under salt stress that was observed only from ET priming indicates that the stress tolerance in maize from ethylene priming is a fundamental process for stress tolerance acquisition, which is explained, however, by other biochemical mechanisms but not by changes in the antioxidant system.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Long

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus) under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Weihua; Zou, Xiling; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control) and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  3. Salt stress encourages proline accumulation by regulating proline biosynthesis and degradation in Jerusalem artichoke plantlets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengrong Huang

    Full Text Available Proline accumulation is an important mechanism for osmotic regulation under salt stress. In this study, we evaluated proline accumulation profiles in roots, stems and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. plantlets under NaCl stress. We also examined HtP5CS, HtOAT and HtPDH enzyme activities and gene expression patterns of putative HtP5CS1, HtP5CS2, HtOAT, HtPDH1, and HtPDH2 genes. The objective of our study was to characterize the proline regulation mechanisms of Jerusalem artichoke, a moderately salt tolerant species, under NaCl stress. Jerusalem artichoke plantlets were observed to accumulate proline in roots, stems and leaves during salt stress. HtP5CS enzyme activities were increased under NaCl stress, while HtOAT and HtPDH activities generally repressed. Transcript levels of HtP5CS2 increased while transcript levels of HtOAT, HtPDH1 and HtPDH2 generally decreased in response to NaCl stress. Our results supports that for Jerusalem artichoke, proline synthesis under salt stress is mainly through the Glu pathway, and HtP5CS2 is predominant in this process while HtOAT plays a less important role. Both HtPDH genes may function in proline degradation.

  4. Salt stress encourages proline accumulation by regulating proline biosynthesis and degradation in Jerusalem artichoke plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zengrong; Zhao, Long; Chen, Dandan; Liang, Mingxiang; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Long, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Proline accumulation is an important mechanism for osmotic regulation under salt stress. In this study, we evaluated proline accumulation profiles in roots, stems and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plantlets under NaCl stress. We also examined HtP5CS, HtOAT and HtPDH enzyme activities and gene expression patterns of putative HtP5CS1, HtP5CS2, HtOAT, HtPDH1, and HtPDH2 genes. The objective of our study was to characterize the proline regulation mechanisms of Jerusalem artichoke, a moderately salt tolerant species, under NaCl stress. Jerusalem artichoke plantlets were observed to accumulate proline in roots, stems and leaves during salt stress. HtP5CS enzyme activities were increased under NaCl stress, while HtOAT and HtPDH activities generally repressed. Transcript levels of HtP5CS2 increased while transcript levels of HtOAT, HtPDH1 and HtPDH2 generally decreased in response to NaCl stress. Our results supports that for Jerusalem artichoke, proline synthesis under salt stress is mainly through the Glu pathway, and HtP5CS2 is predominant in this process while HtOAT plays a less important role. Both HtPDH genes may function in proline degradation.

  5. OsGA2ox5, a gibberellin metabolism enzyme, is involved in plant growth, the root gravity response and salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Shan

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA 2-oxidases play an important role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2β-hydroxylation. There are two classes of GA2oxs, i.e., a larger class of C₁₉-GA2oxs and a smaller class of C₂₀-GA2oxs. In this study, the gene encoding a GA 2-oxidase of rice, Oryza sativa GA 2-oxidase 5 (OsGA2ox5, was cloned and characterized. BLASTP analysis showed that OsGA2ox5 belongs to the C₂₀-GA2oxs subfamily, a subfamily of GA2oxs acting on C₂₀-GAs (GA₁₂, GA₅₃. Subcellular localization of OsGA2ox5-YFP in transiently transformed onion epidermal cells revealed the presence of this protein in both of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis, along with GUS staining, revealed that OsGA2ox5 is expressed in the roots, culms, leaves, sheaths and panicles of rice. Rice plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 exhibited dominant dwarf and GA-deficient phenotypes, with shorter stems and later development of reproductive organs than the wild type. The dwarfism phenotype was partially rescued by the application of exogenous GA3 at a concentration of 10 µM. Ectopic expression of OsGA2ox5 cDNA in Arabidopsis resulted in a similar phenotype. Real-time PCR assays revealed that both GA synthesis-related genes and GA signaling genes were expressed at higher levels in transgenic rice plants than in wild-type rice; OsGA3ox1, which encodes a key enzyme in the last step of the bioactive GAs synthesis pathway, was highly expressed in transgenic rice. The roots of OsGA2ox5-ox plants exhibited increased starch granule accumulation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Furthermore, rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 were more resistant to high-salinity stress than wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsGA2ox5 plays important roles in GAs homeostasis, development, gravity responses and stress tolerance in rice.

  6. OsGA2ox5, a Gibberellin Metabolism Enzyme, Is Involved in Plant Growth, the Root Gravity Response and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Shan, Chi

    Gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidases play an important role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2b-hydroxylation. There are two classes of GA2oxs, i.e., a larger class of C19-GA2oxs and a smaller class of C20-GA2oxs. In this study, the gene encoding a GA 2-oxidase of rice, Oryza sativa GA 2-oxidase 5 (OsGA2ox5), was cloned and characterized. BLASTP analysis showed that OsGA2ox5 belongs to the C20-GA2oxs subfamily, a subfamily of GA2oxs acting on C20-GAs (GA12, GA53). Subcellular localization of OsGA2ox5-YFP in transiently transformed onion epidermal cells revealed the presence of this protein in both of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis, along with GUS staining, revealed that OsGA2ox5 is expressed in the roots, culms, leaves, sheaths and panicles of rice. Rice plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 exhibited dominant dwarf and GAdeficient phenotypes, with shorter stems and later development of reproductive organs than the wild type. The dwarfism phenotype was partially rescued by the application of exogenous GA3 at a concentration of 10 mM. Ectopic expression of OsGA2ox5 cDNA in Arabidopsis resulted in a similar phenotype. Real-time PCR assays revealed that both GA synthesis-related genes and GA signaling genes were expressed at higher levels in transgenic rice plants than in wild-type rice; OsGA3ox1, which encodes a key enzyme in the last step of the bioactive GAs synthesis pathway, was highly expressed in transgenic rice. The roots of OsGA2ox5-ox plants exhibited increased starch granule accumulation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Furthermore, rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 were more resistant to high-salinity stress than wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsGA2ox5 plays important roles in GAs homeostasis, development, gravity responses and stress tolerance in rice.

  7. The Populus trichocarpa PtHSP17.8 involved in heat and salt stress tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Jin; Jia, Huixia; Li, Yu; Xu, Xiangdong; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Mengzhu

    2016-08-01

    PtHSP17.8 was regulated by various abiotic stresses. Overexpression of PtHSP17.8 enhanced the tolerance to heat and salt stresses through maintain ROS homeostasis and cooperate with stress-related genes in Arabidopsis. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) play important roles in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, especially in heat tolerance. However, limited information is available on the stress tolerance roles of sHSPs in woody species. To explore the function of sHSPs in poplar, we isolated and characterized PtHSP17.8 from Populus trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis and subcellular localization revealed that PtHSP17.8 was a cytosolic class I sHSP. The gene expression profile of PtHSP17.8 in various tissues showed that it was significantly accumulated in stem and root, which was consistent with the GUS expression pattern driven by promoter of PtHSP17.8. The expression of PtHSP17.8 could be induced by various abiotic stresses and significantly activated by heat stress. Overexpression of PtHSP17.8 enhanced the tolerance to heat and salt stresses in Arabidopsis. The seedling survival rate, root length, relative water content, antioxidative enzyme activities, proline, and soluble sugar content were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis under heat and salt stresses, but not in normal condition. The co-expression network of PtHSP17.8 were constructed and demonstrated many stress responsive genes included. The stress-related genes in the co-expression network were up-regulated in the PtHSP17.8 overexpression seedlings. These results suggest that PtHSP17.8 confers heat and salt tolerances in plants.

  8. Integrating role of ethylene and ABA in tomato plants adaptation to salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, Muhammad; Akhtar, Javaid; Anwar-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Saline stress seriously disrupts the growth and physiology of plants, whereas phytohormones play an important role in regulating plant responses to salinity stress. The involvement of phytohormones in salt tolerance of tomato and the interaction between potassium and phytohormones was studied...... the negative impact of salinity stress and thus increased the hormone concentration. Enhanced concentration of hormones in salt-tolerant genotype positively affected plant physiology and thus better chlorophyll content index (CCI), stomatal conductance and ion homeostasis that is higher K+/Na+ ratio...... concentrations of ABA and ethylene under saline conditions compared to control (0mM NaCl) and salt-sensitive genotype. The concentration of hormones was significantly higher in the treatment where no K was applied and it was lower in treatments where K was applied indicating that K application reduced...

  9. S-nitrosylation/denitrosylation as a regulatory mechanism of salt stress sensing in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prachi; von Toerne, Christine; Lindermayr, Christian; Bhatla, Satish C

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and various reactive nitrogen species produced in cells in normal growth conditions, and their enhanced production under stress conditions are responsible for a variety of biochemical aberrations. The present findings demonstrate that sunflower seedling roots exhibit high sensitivity to salt stress in terms of nitrite accumulation. A significant reduction in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity is evident in response to salt stress. Restoration of GSNOR activity with dithioerythritol shows that the enzyme is reversibly inhibited under conditions of 120 mM NaCl. Salt stress-mediated S-nitrosylation of cytosolic proteins was analyzed in roots and cotyledons using biotin-switch assay. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed opposite patterns of S-nitrosylation in seedling cotyledons and roots. Salt stress enhances S-nitrosylation of proteins in cotyledons, whereas roots exhibit denitrosylation of proteins. Highest number of proteins having undergone S-nitrosylation belonged to the category of carbohydrate metabolism followed by other metabolic proteins. Of the total 61 proteins observed to be regulated by S-nitrosylation, 17 are unique to cotyledons, 4 are unique to roots whereas 40 are common to both. Eighteen S-nitrosylated proteins are being reported for the first time in plant systems, including pectinesterase, phospholipase d-alpha and calmodulin. Further physiological analysis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and monodehydroascorbate reductase showed that salt stress leads to a reversible inhibition of both these enzymes in cotyledons. However, seedling roots exhibit enhanced enzyme activity under salinity stress. These observations implicate the role of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation in NO signaling thereby regulating various enzyme activities under salinity stress in sunflower seedlings. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. salinity. Increased salinization of arable land is expected expected to have devastating global effects, with predictions of 30% land loss within the next 25 years, and up to 50% by the year 2050 (Wang et al., 2003).This has led to the research of salt stress with the ...

  11. Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Wanlchananan et al., 2003). Reports of high-quality aromatic rice linked to salt stress are very few. Thus, the effects of high salinity on total fresh and dry weight, relative water content, proline content, Na+, K+, Ca+ and Na+/K+ ratio in callus ...

  12. Transcriptome - Scale characterization of salt responsive bean TCP transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Emre; Büyük, İlker; İnal, Behcet

    2017-11-09

    TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) proteins are important regulators of growth and developmental processes including branching, floral organ morphogenesis and leaf growth as well as stress response. This study identified 27 TCP genes of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), which were divided into three clusters based on phylogenetic relationship. In addition, this study showed that some of TCP genes such as Pvul-TCP-4 and Pvul-TCP-15 located on chromosomes 3 and 7, Pvul-TCP-7 and Pvul-TCP-20 located on chromosome 7 and 9, were segmentally duplicated. On the other hand, a total of 20 Pvul-TCP genes have predicted to be targeted by microRNAs (miRNA). Most of the miRNA-target genes were Pvul-TCP-1, -11, -13 and -27, which were targeted by 13, 17, 22 and 13 plant miRNAs, respectively. miR319 was one of the highly represented regulatory miRNAs to target TCP transcripts. Promoter region analysis of TCP genes resulted that the GT-1 motif, which was related to salt stress, was found in 14 different Pvul-TCP genes. Expression profiling of 10 Pvul-TCP genes based on RNA-sequencing data further confirmed with quantitative real-time RT-PCR measurements identified that Pvul-TCP genes under salt stress are expressed in a cultivar- and tissue-specific manner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Salt-stress induced physiological and proteomic changes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaa, Arafet; Ahmed, Hela Ben; Smiti, Samira; Faurobert, Mireille

    2011-11-01

    Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stress limiting crop productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the salinity stress responses at physiological and molecular level in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. cv. Supermarmande), we carried out a comparative physiological and proteomic analysis. The tomato seedlings were cultivated using a hydroponic system in the controlled environment growth chamber. The salt stress (NaCl) was applied (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM), and maintained for 14 days. Salt treatment induced a plant growth reduction estimated as fresh-dry weight. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) content of NaCl-treated tomato plants was significantly decreased as the salinity level increased. Proline accumulation levels in leaf and root tissues increased significantly with increasing NaCl concentration. Relative electrolyte leakage known as an indicator of membrane damage caused by salt stress was increased proportionally according to the NaCl concentrations. Roots of control and salt-stressed plants were also sampled for phenol protein extraction. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE). Several proteins showed up- and downregulation during salt stress. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and database searching of some of the identified proteins indicated that the proteins are known to be in a wide range of physiological processes, that is, energy metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging and detoxification, protein translation, processing and degradation, signal transduction, hormone and amino acid metabolism, and cell wall modifications. All proteins might work cooperatively to reestablish cellular homeostasis under salt stress, water deficiency, and ionic toxicity.

  14. A meta-analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal effects on plants grown under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Boughattas, Sonia; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2014-11-01

    Salt stress limits crop yield and sustainable agriculture in most arid and semiarid regions of the world. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered bio-ameliorators of soil salinity tolerance in plants. In evaluating AMF as significant predictors of mycorrhizal ecology, precise quantifiable changes in plant biomass and nutrient uptake under salt stress are crucial factors. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze the magnitude of the effects of AMF inoculation on growth and nutrient uptake of plants under salt stress through meta-analyses. For this, data were compared in the context of mycorrhizal host plant species, plant family and functional group, herbaceous vs. woody plants, annual vs. perennial plants, and the level of salinity across 43 studies. Results indicate that, under saline conditions, AMF inoculation significantly increased total, shoot, and root biomass as well as phosphorous (P), nitrogen (N), and potassium (K) uptake. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase also increased significantly in mycorrhizal compared to nonmycorrhizal plants growing under salt stress. In addition, sodium (Na) uptake decreased significantly in mycorrhizal plants, while changes in proline accumulation were not significant. Across most subsets of the data analysis, identities of AMF (Glomus fasciculatum) and host plants (Acacia nilotica, herbs, woody and perennial) were found to be essential in understanding plant responses to salinity stress. For the analyzed dataset, it is concluded that under salt stress, mycorrhizal plants have extensive root traits and mycorrhizal morphological traits which help the uptake of more P and K, together with the enhanced production of antioxidant enzymes resulting in salt stress alleviation and increased plant biomass.

  15. The Arabidopsis RNA-Binding Protein AtRGGA Regulates Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Ambrosone, Alfredo

    2015-03-17

    Salt and drought stress severely reduce plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. The identification of genes underlying stress response and tolerance is the subject of intense research in plant biology. Through microarray analyses, we previously identified in potato (Solanum tuberosum) StRGGA, coding for an Arginine Glycine Glycine (RGG) box-containing RNA-binding protein, whose expression was specifically induced in potato cell cultures gradually exposed to osmotic stress. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, AtRGGA, is a functional RNA-binding protein required for a proper response to osmotic stress. AtRGGA gene expression was up-regulated in seedlings after long-term exposure to abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol, while treatments with NaCl resulted in AtRGGA down-regulation. AtRGGA promoter analysis showed activity in several tissues, including stomata, the organs controlling transpiration. Fusion of AtRGGA with yellow fluorescent protein indicated that AtRGGA is localized in the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic perinuclear region. In addition, the rgga knockout mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in root growth and survival tests and to salt stress during germination and at the vegetative stage. AtRGGA-overexpressing plants showed higher tolerance to ABA and salt stress on plates and in soil, accumulating lower levels of proline when exposed to drought stress. Finally, a global analysis of gene expression revealed extensive alterations in the transcriptome under salt stress, including several genes such as ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2, GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE TAU9, and several SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED RNA-like genes showing opposite expression behavior in transgenic and knockout plants. Taken together, our results reveal an important role of AtRGGA in the mechanisms of plant response and adaptation to stress.

  16. Stress triggering and stress memory observed from acoustic emission records in a salt mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.; Cailleau, B.; Dahm, T.; Shapiro, S.; Kaiser, D.

    2010-08-01

    Some of the most interesting questions in geosciences are whether results from laboratory experiments can be applied to processes in the earth crust and whether in situ studies with high spatio-temporal resolution can bridge the gap between laboratory work and seismology. In this study, acoustic emission (AE) activity caused by stress changes due to the backfilling of a cavity in an abandoned salt mine is studied to answer questions regarding (1) the dependence of AE event rates, event distribution and b-value on the stress state, (2) the stress memory effect of rock (Kaiser effect), (3) the possibility to detect significant changes in the system like the initiation of macrocracks and (4) the possibility to estimate future activity from previous AE records. The large number of events studied (>3 × 105) allows a spatial resolution of the order of 1 m and a temporal one on the order of 1 hr. Stress changes are created due to the thermal expansion and contraction of the rock mass in response to the temperature changes caused by the backfilling. A roughly 20 × 50 × 50 m section of the mining complex just above the backfilled cavity is well covered by a network of 24 piezo-electric receivers and poses an optimal volume for the study. Results of a 2-D finite element thermoelastic stress model are in agreement with the spatio-temporal AE event distribution. In addition to the initial upward migration of the AE event front, which correlates with the calculated stress field, the rock salt exhibits a pronounced Kaiser effect for the first few thermal loading cycles throughout the whole study region. The deviation from the Kaiser effect during later loading cycles seems to be caused by the initiation of a planar macroscopic crack, which is subsequently reactivated. AE activity tends to concentrate along this macrocrack. Calculated b-values decrease before and increase after the supposed initiation of the macrocrack supporting this explanation. In intact rock volumes not

  17. Spliceosomal protein U1A is involved in alternative splicing and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Jinbao

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinity is a significant threat to sustainable agricultural production worldwide. Plants must adjust their developmental and physiological processes to cope with salt stress. Although the capacity for adaptation ultimately depends on the genome, the exceptional versatility in gene regulation provided by the spliceosome-mediated alternative splicing (AS) is essential in these adaptive processes. However, the functions of the spliceosome in plant stress responses are poorly understood. Here, we report the in-depth characterization of a U1 spliceosomal protein, AtU1A, in controlling AS of pre-mRNAs under salt stress and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. The atu1a mutant was hypersensitive to salt stress and accumulated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild-type under salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed that AtU1A regulates AS of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition of 5′ splice sites. We showed that AtU1A is associated with the pre-mRNA of the ROS detoxification-related gene ACO1 and is necessary for the regulation of ACO1 AS. ACO1 is important for salt tolerance because ectopic expression of ACO1 in the atu1a mutant can partially rescue its salt hypersensitive phenotype. Our findings highlight the critical role of AtU1A as a regulator of pre-mRNA processing and salt tolerance in plants.

  18. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant air1 implicates SOS3 in the regulation of anthocyanins under salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Van Oosten, Michael James

    2013-08-08

    The accumulation of anthocyanins in plants exposed to salt stress has been largely documented. However, the functional link and regulatory components underlying the biosynthesis of these molecules during exposure to stress are largely unknown. In a screen of second site suppressors of the salt overly sensitive3-1 (sos3-1) mutant, we isolated the anthocyanin-impaired-response-1 (air1) mutant. air1 is unable to accumulate anthocyanins under salt stress, a key phenotype of sos3-1 under high NaCl levels (120 mM). The air1 mutant showed a defect in anthocyanin production in response to salt stress but not to other stresses such as high light, low phosphorous, high temperature or drought stress. This specificity indicated that air1 mutation did not affect anthocyanin biosynthesis but rather its regulation in response to salt stress. Analysis of this mutant revealed a T-DNA insertion at the first exon of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding for a basic region-leucine zipper transcription factor. air1 mutants displayed higher survival rates compared to wild-type in oxidative stress conditions, and presented an altered expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes such as F3H, F3′H and LDOX in salt stress conditions. The results presented here indicate that AIR1 is involved in the regulation of various steps of the flavonoid and anthocyanin accumulation pathways and is itself regulated by the salt-stress response signalling machinery. The discovery and characterization of AIR1 opens avenues to dissect the connections between abiotic stress and accumulation of antioxidants in the form of flavonoids and anthocyanins. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  19. A Nucleus-localized Long Non-Coding RNA Enhances Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Tao

    2017-09-09

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) affect gene expression through a wide range of mechanisms and are considered as important regulators in many essential biological processes. A large number of lncRNA transcripts have been predicted or identified in plants in recent years. However, the biological functions for most of them are still unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana lncRNA, Drought induced RNA (DRIR), as a novel positive regulator of plant response to drought and salt stress. DRIR was expressed at a low level under non-stress conditions but can be significantly activated by drought and salt stress as well as by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. We identified a T-DNA insertion mutant, drirD, which had higher expression of the DRIR gene than the wild type plants. The drirD mutant exhibits increased tolerance to drought and salt stress. Overexpressing DRIR in Arabidopsis also increased tolerance to drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants. The drirD mutant and the overexpressing seedlings are more sensitive to ABA than the wild type in stomata closure and seedling growth. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis demonstrated that the expression of a large number of genes was altered in drirD and the overexpressing plants. These include genes involved in ABA signaling, water transport and other stress-relief processes. Our study reveals a mechanism whereby DRIR regulates plant response to abiotic stress by modulating the expression of a series of genes involved in stress response.

  20. Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

    2014-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and characterization of maize PMP3 genes involved in salt stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fu

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane protein 3 (PMP3, a class of small hydrophobic polypeptides with high sequence similarity, is responsible for salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid. These small hydrophobic ploypeptides play important roles in maintenance of ion homeostasis. In this study, eight ZmPMP3 genes were cloned from maize and responsive to salt, drought, cold and abscisic acid. The eight ZmPMP3s were membrane proteins and their sequences in trans-membrane regions were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they were categorized into three groups. All members of group II were responsive to ABA. Functional complementation showed that with the exception of ZmPMP3-6, all were capable of maintaining membrane potential, which in turn allows for regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis. This process was independent of the presence of Ca(2+. Lastly, over-expression of ZmPMP3-1 enhanced growth of transgenic Arabidopsis under salt condition. Through expression analysis of deduced downstream genes in transgenic plants, expression levels of three ion transporter genes and four important antioxidant genes in ROS scavenging system were increased significantly in transgenic plants during salt stress. This tolerance was likely achieved through diminishing oxidative stress due to the possibility of ZmPMP3-1's involvement in regulation of ion homeostasis, and suggests that the modulation of these conserved small hydrophobic polypeptides could be an effective way to improve salt tolerance in plants.

  2. Chrysanthemum WRKY gene DgWRKY5 enhances tolerance to salt stress in transgenic chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian-Yu; Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Ke; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Bei-Bei

    2017-07-06

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant growth development, resistance and substance metabolism regulation. However, the exact function of the response to salt stress in plants with specific WRKY transcription factors remains unclear. In this research, we isolated a new WRKY transcription factor DgWRKY5 from chrysanthemum. DgWRKY5 contains two WRKY domains of WKKYGQK and two C2H2 zinc fingers. The expression of DgWRKY5 in chrysanthemum was up-regulated under various treatments. Meanwhile, we observed higher expression levels in the leaves contrasted with other tissues. Under salt stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes in transgenic chrysanthemum were significantly higher than those in WT, whereas the accumulation of H2O2, O2(-) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in transgenic chrysanthemum. Several parameters including root length, root length, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and leaf gas exchange parameters in transgenic chrysanthemum were much better compared with WT under salt stress. Moreover, the expression of stress-related genes DgAPX, DgCAT, DgNCED3A, DgNCED3B, DgCuZnSOD, DgP5CS, DgCSD1 and DgCSD2 was up-regulated in DgWRKY5 transgenic chrysanthemum compared with that in WT. These results suggested that DgWRKY5 could function as a positive regulator of salt stress in chrysanthemum.

  3. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Afrasayab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%, seedling growth (46% and fresh weight (39% in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM NaCl, Staphylococcus xylosus ST-1 caused 25% increments in seedling length over respective control. Soluble protein content significantly enhanced (49% under salt stress as compared to salt free control. At 100 mM NaCl parental strain PT-5 resulted about 32% enhancement in protein content over respective control treatment. Salt stress induced the promotion of auxin content in seedlings. Overall, Bacillus subtilis HAa2 and transformed E. coli-SP-7-T, caused 33% and 30% increases in auxin content, respectively, were recorded under salt stress in comparison to control.

  4. Knock-out of Arabidopsis AtNHX4 gene enhances tolerance to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Tao; Liu, Hua; Gao, Xiao-Shu [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Hongxia, E-mail: hxzhang@sippe.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2009-05-08

    AtNHX4 belongs to the monovalent cation:proton antiporter-1 (CPA1) family in Arabidopsis. Several members of this family have been shown to be critical for plant responses to abiotic stress, but little is known on the biological functions of AtNHX4. Here, we provide the evidence that AtNHX4 plays important roles in Arabidopsis responses to salt stress. Expression of AtNHX4 was responsive to salt stress and abscisic acid. Experiments with CFP-AtNHX4 fusion protein indicated that AtNHX4 is vacuolar localized. The nhx4 mutant showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress, and lower Na{sup +} content under high NaCl stress compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, heterologous expression of AtNHX4 in Escherichia coli BL21 rendered the transformants hypersensitive to NaCl. Deletion of the hydrophilic C-terminus of AtNHX4 dramatically increased the hypersensitivity of transformants, indicating that AtNHX4 may function in Na{sup +} homeostasis in plant cell, and its C-terminus plays a role in regulating the AtNHX4 activity.

  5. Proteome Analysis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) under Severe Drought and Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rabey, Haddad A; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Abulnaja, Khalid O

    2016-01-01

    Date palm cultivars differently tolerate salinity and drought stress. This study was carried out to study the response of date palm to severe salinity and drought based on leaf proteome analysis. Eighteen-month-old date palm plants were subjected to severe salt (48 g/L NaCl) and drought (82.5 g/L PEG or no irrigation) conditions for one month. Using a protein 2D electrophoresis method, 55 protein spots were analyzed using mass spectrometry. ATP synthase CF1 alpha chains were significantly upregulated under all three stress conditions. Changes in the abundance of RubisCO activase and one of the RubisCO fragments were significant in the same spots only for salt stress and drought stress with no irrigation, and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 was changed in different spots. Transketolase was significantly changed only in drought stress with PEG. The expression of salt and drought stress genes of the chosen protein spots was either overexpressed or downexpressed as revealed by the high or low protein abundance, respectively. In addition, all drought tolerance genes due to no irrigation were downregulated. In conclusion, the proteome analysis of date palm under salinity and drought conditions indicated that both salinity and drought tolerance genes were differentially expressed resulting in high or low protein abundance of the chosen protein spots as a result of exposure to drought and salinity stress condition.

  6. Environmental Heat and Salt Stress Induce Transgenerational Phenotypic Changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Léonie; Widmer, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Plants that can adapt their phenotype may be more likely to survive changing environmental conditions. Heritable epigenetic variation could provide a way to rapidly adapt to such changes. Here we tested whether environmental stress induces heritable, potentially adaptive phenotypic changes independent of genetic variation over few generations in Arabidopsis thaliana. We grew two accessions (Col-0, Sha-0) of A. thaliana for three generations under salt, heat and control conditions and tested for induced heritable phenotypic changes in the fourth generation (G4) and in reciprocal F1 hybrids generated in generation three. Using these crosses we further tested whether phenotypic changes were maternally or paternally transmitted. In generation five (G5), we assessed whether phenotypic effects persisted over two generations in the absence of stress. We found that exposure to heat stress in previous generations accelerated flowering under G4 control conditions in Sha-0, but heritable effects disappeared in G5 after two generations without stress exposure. Previous exposure to salt stress increased salt tolerance in one of two reciprocal F1 hybrids. Transgenerational effects were maternally and paternally inherited. Lacking genetic variability, maternal and paternal inheritance and reversibility of transgenerational effects together indicate that stress can induce heritable, potentially adaptive phenotypic changes, probably through epigenetic mechanisms. These effects were strongly dependent on plant genotype and may not be a general response to stress in A. thaliana. PMID:23585834

  7. Poaceae vs. Abiotic Stress: Focus on Drought and Salt Stress, Recent Insights and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Landi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poaceae represent the most important group of crops susceptible to abiotic stress. This large family of monocotyledonous plants, commonly known as grasses, counts several important cultivated species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum, rice (Oryza sativa, maize (Zea mays, and barley (Hordeum vulgare. These crops, notably, show different behaviors under abiotic stress conditions: wheat and rice are considered sensitive, showing serious yield reduction upon water scarcity and soil salinity, while barley presents a natural drought and salt tolerance. During the green revolution (1940–1960, cereal breeding was very successful in developing high-yield crops varieties; however, these cultivars were maximized for highest yield under optimal conditions, and did not present suitable traits for tolerance under unfavorable conditions. The improvement of crop abiotic stress tolerance requires a deep knowledge of the phenomena underlying tolerance, to devise novel approaches and decipher the key components of agricultural production systems. Approaches to improve food production combining both enhanced water use efficiency (WUE and acceptable yields are critical to create a sustainable agriculture in the future. This paper analyzes the latest results on abiotic stress tolerance in Poaceae. In particular, the focus will be directed toward various aspects of water deprivation and salinity response efficiency in Poaceae. Aspects related to cell wall metabolism will be covered, given the importance of the plant cell wall in sensing environmental constraints and in mediating a response; the role of silicon (Si, an important element for monocots' normal growth and development, will also be discussed, since it activates a broad-spectrum response to different exogenous stresses. Perspectives valorizing studies on landraces conclude the survey, as they help identify key traits for breeding purposes.

  8. Global plant-responding mechanisms to salt stress: physiological and molecular levels and implications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The increasing seriousness of salinization aggravates the food, population and environmental issues. Ameliorating the salt-resistance of plants especially the crops is the most effective measure to solve the worldwide problem. The salinity can cause damage to plants mainly from two aspects: hyperosmotic and hyperionic stresses leading to the restrain of growth and photosynthesis. To the adverse effects, the plants derive corresponding strategies including: ion regulation and compartmentalization, biosynthesis of compatible solutes, induction of antioxidant enzymes and plant hormones. With the development of molecular biology, our understanding of the molecular and physiology knowledge is becoming clearness. The complex signal transduction underlying the salt resistance is being illuminated brighter and clearer. The SOS pathway is the central of the cell signaling in salt stress. The accumulation of the compatible solutes and the activation of the antioxidant system are the effective measures for plants to enhance the salt resistance. How to make full use of our understanding to improve the output of crops is a huge challenge for us, yet the application of the genetic engineering makes this possible. In this review, we will discuss the influence of the salt stress and the response of the plants in detail expecting to provide a particular account for the plant resistance in molecular, physiological and transgenic fields.

  9. Comparative transcriptomics of rice plants under cold, iron, and salt stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Arge, Luis Willian Pacheco; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Danielowski, Rodrigo; Silveira, Solange Ferreira da Silveira; Farias, Daniel da Rosa; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, iron toxicity, and low temperatures are the main limiting factors of rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield. The elucidation of the genes involved in responses to these stresses is extremely important to understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance, as well as for the development of cultivars adapted to these conditions. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to compare the transcriptional profile of rice leaves (cv. BRS Querência) in stage V3, exposed to cold, iron, and salt stresses for 24 h. A range of 41 to 51 million reads was aligned, in which a total range of 88.47 to 89.21 % was mapped in the reference genome. For cold stress, 7905 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed, 2092 for salt and 681 for iron stress; 370 of these were common to the three DEG stresses. Functional annotation by software MapMan demonstrated that cold stress usually promoted the greatest changes in the overall metabolism, and an enrichment analysis of overrepresented gene ontology (GO) terms showed that most of them are contained in plastids, ribosome, and chloroplasts. Saline stress induced a more complex interaction network of upregulated overrepresented GO terms with a relatively low number of genes compared with cold stress. Our study demonstrated a high number of differentially expressed genes under cold stress and a greater relationship between salt and iron stress levels. The physiological process most affected at the molecular level by the three stresses seems to be photosynthesis.

  10. Vegetative and reproductive growth of salt-stressed chickpea are carbon-limited: sucrose infusion at the reproductive stage improves salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hammad A; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Colmer, Timothy D

    2017-04-01

    Reproductive processes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are particularly sensitive to salinity. We tested whether limited photoassimilate availability contributes to reproductive failure in salt-stressed chickpea. Rupali, a salt-sensitive genotype, was grown in aerated nutrient solution, either with non-saline (control) or 30mM NaCl treatment. At flowering, stems were either infused with sucrose solution (0.44M), water only or maintained without any infusion, for 75 d. The sucrose and water infusion treatments of non-saline plants had no effect on growth or yield, but photosynthesis declined in response to sucrose infusion. Salt stress reduced photosynthesis, decreased tissue sugars by 22-47%, and vegetative and reproductive growth were severely impaired. Sucrose infusion of salt-treated plants increased total sugars in stems, leaves and developing pods, to levels similar to those of non-saline plants. In salt-stressed plants, sucrose infusion increased dry mass (2.6-fold), pod numbers (3.8-fold), seed numbers (6.5-fold) and seed yield (10.4-fold), yet vegetative growth and reproductive failure were not rescued completely by sucrose infusion. Sucrose infusion partly rescued reproductive failure in chickpea by increasing vegetative growth enabling more flower production and by providing sucrose for pod and seed growth. We conclude that insufficient assimilate availability limits yield in salt-stressed chickpea. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Identification and characterization of a salt stress-inducible zinc finger protein from Festuca arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ruth C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased biotic and abiotic plant stresses due to climate change together with an expected global human population of over 9 billion by 2050 intensifies the demand for agricultural production on marginal lands. Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses responsible for reduced crop productivity worldwide and the salinization of arable land has dramatically increased over the last few decades. Consequently, as land becomes less amenable for conventional agriculture, plants grown on marginal soils will be exposed to higher levels of soil salinity. Forage grasses are a critical component of feed used in livestock production worldwide, with many of these same species of grasses being utilized for lawns, erosion prevention, and recreation. Consequently, it is important to develop a better understanding of salt tolerance in forage and related grass species. Findings A gene encoding a ZnF protein was identified during the analysis of a salt-stress suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH expression library from the forage grass species Festuca arundinacea. The expression pattern of FaZnF was compared to that of the well characterized gene for delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS, a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis, which was also identified in the salt-stress SSH library. The FaZnF and P5CS genes were both up-regulated in response to salt and drought stresses suggesting a role in dehydration stress. FaZnF was also up-regulated in response to heat and wounding, suggesting that it might have a more general function in multiple abiotic stress responses. Additionally, potential downstream targets of FaZnF (a MAPK [Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase], GST [Glutathione-S-Transferase] and lipoxygenase L2 were found to be up-regulated in calli overexpressing FaZnF when compared to control cell lines. Conclusions This work provides evidence that FaZnF is an AN1/A20 zinc finger protein that is involved in the regulation

  12. Differential and Dynamic Regulation of miRNA398 in Response to ABA and Salt Stress in Populus tremula and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs of ~22 nucleotides (nt) that play a key role in down regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants and animals. Various studies have identified numerous miRNAs that were either up regulated or down regulated upon stress treatme...

  13. Review on sugar beet salt stress studies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayamim, S.; Noshad, H.; Jahadakbar, M. R.; Fotuhi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Increase of saline lands in most regions of the world and Iran, limit of production increase based on land enhancement and also threat of saline water and soils for crop production make related researches and production of salt tolerant variety to be more serious. There have been many researches about salt stress in Sugar Beet Seed Institute of Iran (SBSI) during several years. Accordingly, the new screening methods for stress tolerance to be continued based on these researches. Previous researches in SBSI were reviewed and results concluded to this study which is presented in this article in three categories including: Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology. In agronomy researches, suitable planting medium, EC, growth stage and traits for salinity tolerance screening were determined and agronomic technique such as planting date, planting method and suitable nutrition for sugar beet under salt stress were introduced. Sand was salinizied by saline treatments two times more than Perlit so large sized Perlit is suitable medium for saline studies. Sugar beet genotypes screening for salt tolerance and should be conducted at EC=20 in laboratory and EC= 16 dS/M in greenhouse. Although sugar beet seed germination has been known as more susceptible stage to salinity, it seems establishment is more susceptible than germination in which salinity will cause 70-80% decrease in plant establishment. Measurements of leaves Na, K and total carbohydrate at establishment stage would be useful for faster screening of genotypes, based on high and significant correlation of these traits at establishment with yield at harvest time. In breeding section, SBSI genotypes with drought tolerance background would be useful for salinity stress studies and finally there is a need for more research in the field of biotechnology in Iran.

  14. Salt Stess On Soybean Glycine Max L Merr Improving Salt Stress Tolerance Through Seed Priming

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    Maman Suryaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seeds rapidly deteriorate or loss of viability and vigor especially in stress conditions including by saline. This study was aimed to obtain the best seed viability and vigor of soybean treated by seed priming under salt stress. This study used a randomized completely block design with factorial pattern. First factor was the saline stress of NaCl concentration C which consisted of three levels c0 0 0.5 c1 c2 1.Second factor was the treatment of seed priming P that consisted of 4 levels p0 hydropriming p1 osmopriming p2 matripriming p3 vitamin priming. The experiment was repeated three times. Data collected consisted of germination capacity germination rate hypocotyl and epicotyl length the weight of seedling and the electrical conductivity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Duncans multiple range test at 5 percent. The results showed that osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming improved total germination and germination rate of soybean seeds under salinity stress while seed priming with hydropriming caused significantly the reduction of germination total and germination rate in salinity stress of 1 percent. Increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent caused a reduction in hypocotyl and epicotyl length different with osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming that produced hypocotyl and epicotyl longer than hydropriming. In all seed primings increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent lowered the weight of seedlings and most drastic reduction of seedling weight occurred in seeds treated with hydropriming. Among seed priming treatments osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming were more able to reduce membrane leakage compared to hydropriming as indicated by lower electrical conductivity rates contributing the increase in tolerance to salt stress and high in seed viability and vigor.

  15. Expression Profiling of Ribosomal Protein Gene Family in Dehydration Stress Responses and Characterization of Transgenic Rice Plants Overexpressing RPL23A for Water-Use Efficiency and Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stresses

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    Mazahar Moin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our previous findings on the screening of a large-pool of activation tagged rice plants grown under limited water conditions revealed the activation of Ribosomal Protein Large (RPL subunit genes, RPL6 and RPL23A in two mutants that exhibited high water-use efficiency (WUE with the genes getting activated by the integrated 4x enhancers (Moin et al., 2016a. In continuation of these findings, we have comprehensively characterized the Ribosomal Protein (RP gene family including both small (RPS and large (RPL subunits, which have been identified to be encoded by at least 70 representative genes; RP-genes exist as multiple expressed copies with high nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity. The differential expression of all the representative genes in rice was performed under limited water and drought conditions at progressive time intervals in the present study. More than 50% of the RP genes were upregulated in both shoot and root tissues. Some of them exhibited an overlap in upregulation under both the treatments indicating that they might have a common role in inducing tolerance under limited water and drought conditions. Among the genes that became significantly upregulated in both the tissues and under both the treatments are RPL6, 7, 23A, 24, and 31 and RPS4, 10 and 18a. To further validate the role of RP genes in WUE and inducing tolerance to other stresses, we have raised transgenic plants overexpressing RPL23A in rice. The high expression lines of RPL23A exhibited low Δ13C, increased quantum efficiency along with suitable growth and yield parameters with respect to negative control under the conditions of limited water availability. The constitutive expression of RPL23A was also associated with transcriptional upregulation of many other RPL and RPS genes. The seedlings of RPL23A high expression lines also showed a significant increase in fresh weight, root length, proline and chlorophyll contents under simulated drought and salt

  16. Putative 3-nitrotyrosine detoxifying genes identified in the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii: In silico search of regulatory sequences responsive to salt and nitrogen stress

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    Daniela E. Castro

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: D. hansenii can grow in the presence of 3-nitrotyrosine as the only nitrogen source and has a high specific denitrase activity to degrade 3-nitrotyrosine in 1 and 2 M NaCl stress conditions. The results suggest that given the lack of information on transcriptional factors in D. hansenii, the genes identified in our in silico analysis may help explain 3-nitrotyrosine assimilation mechanisms.

  17. Salt stress induced changes in germination, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of four lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) genotypes viz., Great Lakes (GL), Paris Island cos, Kagraner Sommer (KS) and Isadora were assessed for their response to salt at the germination and seedling stages. The germination rate of the four varieties was comparatively studied under 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM sodium ...

  18. Salt stress affects the redox status of Arabidopsis root meristems

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    Keni eJiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the redox status (profiles for specific populations of cells that comprise the Arabidopsis root tip. For recently germinated, 3-5-day-old seedlings we show that the region of the root tip with the most reduced redox status includes the root cap initials, the quiescent center and the most distal portion of the proximal meristem, and coincides with (overlays the region of the auxin maximum. As one moves basally, further into the proximal meristem, and depending on the growth conditions, the redox status becomes more oxidized, with a 5-10 mV difference in redox potential between the two borders delimiting the proximal meristem. At the point on the root axis at which cells of the proximal meristem cease division and enter the transition zone, the redox potential levels off and remains more or less unchanged throughout the transition zone. As cells leave the transition zone and enter the zone of elongation the redox potentials become more oxidized. Treating roots with salt (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl results in marked changes in root meristem structure and development, and is preceded by changes in the redox profile, which flattens, and initially becomes more oxidized, with pronounced changes in the redox potentials of the root cap, the root cap initials and the quiescent center. Roots exposed to relatively mild levels of salt (< 100 mM are able to re-establish a normal, pre-salt treatment redox profile 3-6 days after exposure to salt. Coincident with the salt-associated changes in redox profiles are changes in the distribution of auxin transporters (AUX1, PIN1/2, which become more diffuse in their localization. We conclude that salt stress affects root meristem maintenance, in part, through changes in redox and auxin transport.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the MaASR1 gene in banana and functional characterization under salt stress

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    Hongxia Miao

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that overexpression of MaASR1 in Arabidopsis confers salt stress tolerance by reducing the expression of ABA/stress-responsive genes, but does not affect the expression of the ABA-independent pathway and biosynthesis pathway genes.

  20. CarNAC4, a NAC-type chickpea transcription factor conferring enhanced drought and salt stress tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingwang; Liu, Yanmin; Wang, Shuang; Tao, Yuan; Wang, Zhankui; Shu, Yingjie; Peng, Hui; Mijiti, Abudoukeyumu; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Hao

    2016-03-01

    CarNAC4 is a typical stress-responsive NAC transcription factor and enhances drought and salt stress tolerances in transgenic Arabidopsis. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is relatively vulnerable to abiotic stress conditions, but the tolerance mechanisms for such stresses in chickpea are largely unknown. To identify stress-related factors in chickpea, we previously constructed a cDNA library of chickpea leaves exposed to drought stress conditions. A cDNA encoding a putative NAC transcription factor (CarNAC4) was identified as a putative stress-responsive gene. Our study indicated that the transcript levels of CarNAC4 were enhanced in response to several abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of CarNAC4. CarNAC4 is localized in the nucleus and binds to the DNA sequence containing CGT[G/A], while the C-terminal region of CarNAC4 contains a transcriptional activation domain. Over-expression of CarNAC4 in Arabidopsis plants improved tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Transgenic plants exhibited greater reduced rates of water loss and more proline accumulation than Col-0 plants under drought stress and less MDA contents than Col-0 plants under salt stress. In addition, over-expression of CarNAC4 enhanced the expression of stress-responsive genes such as RD29A, ERD10, COR15A, COR47, KIN1 and DREB2A. These results indicated that CarNAC4 functions as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of drought and salt stress response.

  1. Approaches in modulating proline metabolism in plants for salt and drought stress tolerance: Phytohormones, mineral nutrients and transgenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Masood, Asim; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Khan, M Iqbal R; Anjum, Naser A

    2017-06-01

    Major abiotic stress factors such as salt and drought adversely affect important physiological processes and biochemical mechanisms and cause severe loss in crop productivity worldwide. Plants develop various strategies to stand healthy against these stress factors. The accumulation of proline (Pro) is one of the striking metabolic responses of plants to salt and drought stress. Pro biosynthesis and signalling contribute to the redox balance of cell under normal and stressful conditions. However, literature is meager on the sustainable strategies potentially fit for modulating Pro biosynthesis and production in stressed plants. Considering the recent literature, this paper in its first part overviews Pro biosynthesis and transport in plants and also briefly highlights the significance of Pro in plant responses to salt and drought stress. Secondly, this paper discusses mechanisms underlying the regulation of Pro metabolism in salt and drought-exposed plant via phytohormones, mineral nutrients and transgenic approaches. The outcome of the studies may give new opportunities in modulating Pro metabolism for improving plant tolerance to salt and drought stress and benefit sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Salt stress alters physiological indicators in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

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    Basel Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate performance of four upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties, Deir-Ezzor22, Niab78, Aleppo118 and Deltapine50 grown under non-saline conditions (control and salt stress (200 mol m-3 NaCl for 7 weeks. Results showed that seedling height, root length, leaf number, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll a and b, osmotic potential, chlorophyll content index (CCI, dry biomass and root/shoot weight ratio were significantly reduced with salinity treatment. This reduction was more pronounced in Deltapine50 and Aleppo118 than Niab78 and Deir-Ezzor22. Leaf relative water content (RWC was strongly reduced for Deltapine50 and Aleppo118, while, it was slightly increased for Niab78 and Deir-Ezzor22. In conclusion, osmotic potential, RWC, CCI, dry biomass and root/shoot weight ratio could be considered as useful indictors for salt tolerance screening among cotton varieties.

  3. Effect of Salt Stress on Germination of Satureja hortensis L., Cichorium intybus‌ ‌L. and Cynara scolymus L.

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    M.J Seghatoleslami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soil salinity is one of the most important constraints that limit crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Seed germination is a critical stage in the history of plants and salt tolerance during germination is crucial for the establishment of plants that grow in saline soils. Salinity induced inhibition in germination of Satureja hortensis L. Cichorium intybus L. and Cynara scolymus L. were measured in response to increasing NaCl concentrations. The salinity (NaCl concentrations in solution were 0 (control, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS.m-1. Experimental design was completely randomized design with three replications. 100 seeds for each of the four NaCl treatments as well as control were used. Seeds were allowed to germinate in germinator on filter paper in Petri dishes. Salt stress reduced significantly seedling length of Satureja hortensis L. and seedling weight of Cynara scolymus L. Seed germination of Satureja hortensis L. inhibited at high salt concentration (4,6 and 8 dS.m-1 but, induced at low salt concentration (2 dS.m -1. Salt stress had no significant effect on seed germination of Cichorium intybus L. and Cynara scolymus L. Seed germination rate and seed vigor index of Satureja hortensis L. reduced in salt stress treatments. In conclusion, we revealed that germination processes of Satureja hortensis L. were more sensitive to salt stress than the other two species. Keywords: Salinity, Germination, Seedling, Seed vigor, Medicinal plants

  4. Silicon alleviates salt and drought stress of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by altering antioxidant metabolism and osmotic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Xie, Zhicai; Wang, Lianhong; Li, Ming; Lang, Duoyong; Zhang, Xinhui

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine effect and mechanism of exogenous silicon (Si) on salt and drought tolerance of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by focusing on the pathways of antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment. Seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolism, osmolytes concentration and Si content of G. uralensis seedlings were analyzed under control, salt and drought stress [100 mM NaCl with 0, 10 and 20% of PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol-6000)] with or without 1 mM Si. Si addition markedly affected the G. uralensis growth in a combined dose of NaCl and PEG dependent manner. In brief, Si addition improved germination rate, germination index, seedling vitality index and biomass under control and NaCl; Si also increased radicle length under control, NaCl and NaCl-10% PEG, decreased radicle length, seedling vitality index and germination parameters under NaCl-20% PEG. The salt and drought stress-induced-oxidative stress was modulated by Si application. Generally, Si application increased catalase (CAT) activity under control and NaCl-10% PEG, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments and glutathione (GSH) content under salt combined drought stress as compared with non-Si treatments, which resisted to the increase of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide caused by salt and drought stress and further decreased membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Si application also increased proline concentration under NaCl and NaCl-20% PEG, but decreased it under NaCl-10% PEG, indicating proline play an important role in G. uralensis seedling response to osmotic stress. In conclusion, Si could ameliorate adverse effects of salt and drought stress on G. uralensis likely by reducing oxidative stress and osmotic stress, and the oxidative stress was regulated through enhancing of antioxidants (mainly CAT, APX and GSH) and osmotic stress was regulated by proline.

  5. Effects of salt stress on ion balance and nitrogen metabolism of old and young leaves in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that salt stress has different effects on old and young tissues. However, it remains largely unexplored whether old and young tissues have different regulatory mechanism during adaptation of plants to salt stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether salt stress has different effects on the ion balance and nitrogen metabolism in the old and young leaves of rice, and to compare functions of both organs in rice salt tolerance. Results Rice protected young leaves from ion harm via the large accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in old leaves. The up-regulation of OsHKT1;1, OsHAK10 and OsHAK16 might contribute to accumulation of Na+ in old leaves under salt stress. In addition, lower expression of OsHKT1;5 and OsSOS1 in old leaves may decrease frequency of retrieving Na+ from old leaf cells. Under salt stress, old leaves showed higher concentration of NO3− content than young leaves. Up-regulation of OsNRT1;2, a gene coding nitrate transporter, might contribute to the accumulation of NO3− in the old leaves of salt stressed-rice. Salt stress clearly up-regulated the expression of OsGDH2 and OsGDH3 in old leaves, while strongly down-regulated expression of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves. Conclusions The down-regulation of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves might be a harmful response to excesses of Na+ and Cl−. Under salt stress, rice might accumulate Na+ and Cl− to toxic levels in old leaves. This might influence photorespiration process, reduce NH4+ production from photorespiration, and immediately down-regulate the expression of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves of salt stressed rice. Excesses of Na+ and Cl− also might change the pathway of NH4+ assimilation in old leaves of salt stressed rice plants, weaken GOGAT/GS pathway and elevate GDH pathway. PMID:23082824

  6. Characterization of 19 novel cotton FLA genes and their expression profiling in fiber development and in response to phytohormones and salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Geng-Qing; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gong, Si-Ying; Li, Bing; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Xu, Dan; Li, Xue-Bao

    2008-10-01

    Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs), a subclass of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), are usually involved in cell development in plants. To investigate the expression profiling as well as the role of FLA genes in fiber development, 19 GhFLA genes (cDNAs) were isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Among them, 15 are predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored to the plasma membranes. The isolated cotton FLAs could be divided into four groups. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the GhFLA genes are differentially expressed in cotton tissues. Three genes (GhFLA1/2/4) were specifically or predominantly expressed in 10 days post-anthesis fibers, and the transcripts of the other four genes (GhFLA6/14/15/18) were accumulated at relatively high levels in cotton fibers. Furthermore, expressions of the GhFLA genes are regulated in fiber development and in response to phytohormones and NaCl. The identification of cotton FLAs will facilitate the study of their roles in cotton fiber development and cell wall biogenesis.

  7. Leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll as indicators for salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masoome salehi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salinity on nitrogen absorption and leaf chlorophyll content of wheat (cv. Falat was studied in two separate greenhouse traits, both in a completely randomized block design with three replication. Three levels of nitrogen (0, 1.19 and 5.94 g Urea/pot and three levels of salinity (0, 150 and 300 mol/m3 salts were used as treatments. Salinity conducted by combining sodium and calcium chloride in a 1:10 molar ratio and pots were irrigated with modified Hogland solution in close system. Leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen contents, stomatal resistance, specific leaf weight (SLW specific leaf nitrogen (SLN were measured at booting and anthesis stages. The results showed a high correlation between SPAD reading (leaf chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen content and SLN. Leaf nitrogen content reduced but SLN and stomatal resistance increased by increasing salinity levels. SPAD reading increased up to salinity levels of 150 mol/m3 but reduced at higher salt concentration. Adjusted SPAD reading on SLW (SPAD/SLW showed higher correlation with salinity levels compared to unadjusted SPAD reading and may used as indicator for severity of salt stress.

  8. OsNucleolin1-L Expression in Arabidopsis Enhances Photosynthesis via Transcriptome Modification under Salt Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomchalothorn, Thanikarn; Plaimas, Kitiporn; Sripinyowanich, Siriporn; Boonchai, Chutamas; Kojonna, Thammaporn; Chutimanukul, Panita; Comai, Luca; Buaboocha, Teerapong; Chadchawan, Supachitra

    2017-04-01

    OsNUC1 encodes rice nucleolin, which has been shown to be involved in salt stress responses. Expression of the full-length OsNUC1 gene in Arabidopsis resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA during germination. Transcriptome analysis of the transgenic lines, in comparison with the wild type, revealed that the RNA abundance of >1,900 genes was significantly changed under normal growth conditions, while under salt stress conditions the RNAs of 999 genes were found to be significantly regulated. Gene enrichment analysis showed that under normal conditions OsNUC1 resulted in repression of genes involved in photosynthesis, while in salt stress conditions OsNUC1 increased expression of the genes involved in the light-harvesting complex. Correspondingly, the net rate of photosynthesis of the transgenic lines was increased under salt stress. Transgenic rice lines with overexpression of the OsNUC1-L gene were generated and tested for photosynthetic performance under salt stress conditions. The transgenic rice lines treated with salt stress at the booting stage had a higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in flag leaves and second leaves than the wild type. Moreover, higher contents of Chl a and carotenoids were found in flag leaves of the transgenic rice. These results suggest a role for OsNUC1 in the modification of the transcriptome, especially the gene transcripts responsible for photosynthesis, leading to stabilization of photosynthesis under salt stress conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. GENDER RESPONSES TO STRESS OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Zafir Mohd Makhbul; Fazilah Mohamad Hasun

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences have been highlighted by the researchers in discussing the stress outcomes. Stress studies consistently show that females report significantly higher levels of psychological and physical stress than their male counterparts. The literature has shown that rarely have there been any studies conducted which are able to look at the gender responses to stress outcomes among supporting staff. The main objective of this paper is to compare the stress outcomes experienced by male an...

  10. Salt stress effects on some morphological and physiological characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan Shahid*, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Rashid Mukhtar Balal, Rashid Ahmad, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Tahira Abbas and Naheed Akhtar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is worldwide problem that limits the growth and productivity of all vegetations and it is going toincreasing day by day. The objective of the investigation was to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL. in terms of morphological and physiological characteristics under salt stress conditions. Okra seeds of cultivarChinese Red were grown in plastic pots having fine sand as growth medium. After 30 days of germination, theplants were subjected to salt stress under control, 25, 50, and 75 mM NaCl. Increasing salinity caused a decrease ofgermination percentage, shoot and root length, plant height, pod weight, pod length, photosynthesis rate, andstomatal conductance. The Na+ and Cl- accumulation were correlated with a decline in concentration of K+ inleaves and roots. Under salinity, a high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were noted in both leave and roots portions.

  11. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  12. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level.

  13. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    of plant with halophytic plant growth promoting bacteria) approaches. The results showed that: - Biochar mitigated drought stress in plants by enhancing soil moisture availability due to its high porosity and large surface area - Biochar ameliorated salinity stress in plant by a high transient Na+ binding...... moisture content, improve nutrient acquisition and reduce Na+ uptake under drought and salinity stress, respectively - Biochar had long-term positive residual effect on plant growth and performance under salinity stress - Positive responses of biochar on plants could be further enhanced by adopting....... Drought and salinity are the two most crucial abiotic stresses that limit crops production worldwide. In this PhD project, it was hypothesized that biochar could be used to effectively mitigate drought and salinity stresses in crop plants due to its putative physiochemical properties. The overall...

  14. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... salt-sensitive wheat cultivar Shi 4185. Under NaCl stress, oxidative damage was more severe and the potassium (K), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) accumulations were lower in Shi 4185 seedlings than in. Cang 6001 ... reductions in the yield and quality of many important crops. (Boyer, 1982; Jia et ...

  15. Effect of salt stress on some sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtereva Lydia A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out hydroponically under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of salt stress on several physiological and biochemical parameters of three sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata genotypes: lines 6-13, C-6 (pollen source and their heterotic F1 hybrid “Zaharina”. The degree of salinity tolerance among these genotypes was evaluated at three different sodium chloride (NaCl concentrations: 0 mM, 100 mM, 125 mM and 150 mM. Seed germination, plant growth and biochemical stress determining parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, proline content and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 levels were compared between seedlings of lines and hybrid. The obtained results indicated that both lines and hybrid have similar responses at different salinity levels for all examined traits. All the seedlings’ growth parameters, such as germination percentage, root length, shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, decreased with increasing salinity level. MDA, proline and H2O2 increased at different saline conditions in comparison to the control. Based on the results, of the three genotypes examined, the hybrid Zaharina, followed by line C-6, was more salt-sensitive than line 6-13 in salt stress condition.

  16. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle O Iranloye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.

  17. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-09-21

    Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PEPCase Transcript Levels in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Decline Rapidly upon Relief from Salt Stress 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Daniel M.; Ostrem, James A.; Schmitt, Juergen M.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1988-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants respond to water stress by changing their pathway of carbon assimilation from C3 to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Stressed plants are characterized by elevated levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity. We wanted to determine whether CAM is a reversible response to environmental conditions or a developmentally programmed adaptation that is irreversibly expressed once induced. Plants were osmotically stressed by irrigation with 500 millimolar NaCl for 12 days to elicit CAM. Salt was then thoroughly flushed from the soil and PEPCase protein and transcript levels were monitored. PEPCase mRNA levels dropped by 77% within 2.5 hours after salt removal. PEPCase activity and polypeptide levels declined more slowly, with a half-life of 2 to 3 days. These results show that PEPCase expression in M. crystallinum is a reversible response to stress that is regulated at the level of transcription or stability of the PEPCase mRNA. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16666021

  19. An Arabidopsis mitochondrial uncoupling protein confers tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Begcy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants are challenged by a large number of environmental stresses that reduce productivity and even cause death. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions; however, stress causes an imbalance in these species that leads to deviations from normal cellular conditions and a variety of toxic effects. Mitochondria have uncoupling proteins (UCPs that uncouple electron transport from ATP synthesis. There is evidence that UCPs play a role in alleviating stress caused by reactive oxygen species overproduction. However, direct evidence that UCPs protect plants from abiotic stress is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tolerances to salt and water deficit were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress a UCP (AtUCP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds of AtUCP1 transgenic lines germinated faster, and adult plants showed better responses to drought and salt stress than wild-type (WT plants. These phenotypes correlated with increased water retention and higher gas exchange parameters in transgenic plants that overexpress AtUCP1. WT plants exhibited increased respiration under stress, while transgenic plants were only slightly affected. Furthermore, the transgenic plants showed reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in stressed leaves compared with WT plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher levels of AtUCP1 improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and this protection was correlated with lower oxidative stress. Our data support previous assumptions that UCPs reduce the imbalance of reactive oxygen species. Our data also suggest that UCPs may play a role in stomatal closure, which agrees with other evidence of a direct relationship between these proteins and photosynthesis. Manipulation of the UCP protein expression in mitochondria is a new avenue for crop improvement and may lead to crops with greater tolerance for challenging environmental conditions.

  20. An Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein Confers Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Mariano, Eduardo D.; Mattiello, Lucia; Nunes, Alessandra V.; Mazzafera, Paulo; Maia, Ivan G.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Background Plants are challenged by a large number of environmental stresses that reduce productivity and even cause death. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions; however, stress causes an imbalance in these species that leads to deviations from normal cellular conditions and a variety of toxic effects. Mitochondria have uncoupling proteins (UCPs) that uncouple electron transport from ATP synthesis. There is evidence that UCPs play a role in alleviating stress caused by reactive oxygen species overproduction. However, direct evidence that UCPs protect plants from abiotic stress is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Tolerances to salt and water deficit were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress a UCP (AtUCP1) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds of AtUCP1 transgenic lines germinated faster, and adult plants showed better responses to drought and salt stress than wild-type (WT) plants. These phenotypes correlated with increased water retention and higher gas exchange parameters in transgenic plants that overexpress AtUCP1. WT plants exhibited increased respiration under stress, while transgenic plants were only slightly affected. Furthermore, the transgenic plants showed reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in stressed leaves compared with WT plants. Conclusions/Significance Higher levels of AtUCP1 improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and this protection was correlated with lower oxidative stress. Our data support previous assumptions that UCPs reduce the imbalance of reactive oxygen species. Our data also suggest that UCPs may play a role in stomatal closure, which agrees with other evidence of a direct relationship between these proteins and photosynthesis. Manipulation of the UCP protein expression in mitochondria is a new avenue for crop improvement and may lead to crops with greater tolerance for challenging environmental conditions. PMID:21912606

  1. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Adrees, Muhammad; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-10-01

    Drought and salinity are the main abiotic stresses limiting crop yield and quality worldwide. Improving food production in drought- and salt-prone areas is the key to meet the increasing food demands in near future. It has been widely reported that silicon (Si), a second most abundant element in soil, could reduce drought and salt stress in plants. Here, we reviewed the emerging role of Si in enhancing drought and salt tolerance in plants and highlighted the mechanisms through which Si could alleviate both drought and salt stress in plants. Silicon application increased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, straw and grain yield, and quality under either drought or salt stress. Under both salt and drought stress, the key mechanisms evoked are nutrient elements homeostasis, modification of gas exchange attributes, osmotic adjustment, regulating the synthesis of compatible solutes, stimulation of antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in plants. In addition, Si application decreased Na(+) uptake and translocation while increased K(+) uptake and translocation under salt stress. However, these mechanisms vary with plant species, genotype, growth conditions, duration of stress imposed, and so on. This review article highlights the potential for improving plant resistance to drought and salt stress by Si application and provides a theoretical basis for application of Si in saline soils and arid and semiarid regions worldwide. This review article also highlights the future research needs about the role of Si under drought stress and in saline soils.

  2. Potassium Retention under Salt Stress Is Associated with Natural Variation in Salinity Tolerance among Arabidopsis Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Sun

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to various environmental stresses during their life cycle such as salt, drought and cold. Natural variation mediated plant growth adaptation has been employed as an effective approach in response to the diverse environmental cues such as salt stress. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. In the present study, a collection of 82 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions (ecotypes was screened with a view to identify variation for salinity tolerance. Seven accessions showed a higher level of tolerance than Col-0. The young seedlings of the tolerant accessions demonstrated a higher K(+ content and a lower Na(+/K(+ ratio when exposed to salinity stress, but its Na(+ content was the same as that of Col-0. The K(+ transporter genes AtHAK5, AtCHX17 and AtKUP1 were up-regulated significantly in almost all the tolerant accessions, even in the absence of salinity stress. There was little genetic variation or positive transcriptional variation between the selections and Col-0 with respect to Na+-related transporter genes, as AtSOS genes, AtNHX1 and AtHKT1;1. In addition, under salinity stress, these selections accumulated higher compatible solutes and lower reactive oxygen species than did Col-0. Taken together, our results showed that natural variation in salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis seems to have been achieved by the strong capacity of K(+ retention.

  3. Salt Marsh Response and Recovery to Coseismic Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, A. N.; Carlin, J. A.; Rhodes, B. P.; Kirby, M.; Leeper, R. J.; Smith, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes worldwide are under increasing stress from eustatic sea level rise. Along the tectonically active west coast of North America, some salt marshes are also vulnerable to abrupt increases in relative sea level rise (RSLR) resulting from coseismic subsidence. Elevation zonation of sub-environments within a marsh provides the opportunity to interpret the sedimentary record in marshes to infer past earthquakes, which may improve understanding of regional seismic hazards and ecosystem response to increases in sea level. Our study area is the Seal Beach Wetlands (SBW), an 3 km2 salt marsh straddling the seismically active Newport-Inglewood fault zone in southern California. A previous study of the SBW identified sedimentary evidence of three coseismic subsidence events. Here, our goals were to identify coseismic subsidence events preserved in SBW stratigraphy and to quantify marsh recovery following an earthquake to assess marsh resiliency to rapid RSLR. To do this, we focused on one core collected near the fringe of the SBW and applied a suite of sedimentary and geochemical analyses. Our results indicated that the SBW may preserve sedimentary evidence of four potential coseismic subsidence events. Events were distinguished in the stratigraphy by a sharp upper contact interpreted as an abrupt shift in marsh depositional sub-environments, from a vegetated marsh, to an intertidal mudflat or a subtidal environment. This stratigraphy suggests that the marsh rapidly subsided, preserving the evidence of the vegetated marsh as a peat deposit overlain by a low-organic mud or muddy-sand layer. A typical marsh accretion facies succession occurred above each earthquake event in the core, suggesting full marsh recovery. From the core data, we also observed that the net average rate of marsh recovery, i.e., marsh accretion, was consistent. Estimated recovery rates between 0.6 and 1.1 mm/yr were comparable to the overall accretion rate and regional late Holocene RSLR rate

  4. [Natural nucleotide polymorphism of the Srlk gene that determines salt stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaia, M S; Pavlov, A V; Dziubenko, E A; Dziubenko, N I; Potokina, E K

    2014-04-01

    Based on legume genome syntheny, the nucleotide sequence of Srlk gene, key role of which in response to salt stress was demonstrated for the model species Medicago truncatula, was identified in the major forage and siderate crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In twelve alfalfa samples originating from regions with contrasting growing conditions, 19 SNPs were revealed in the Srlk gene. For two nonsynonymous SNPs, molecular markers were designed that could be further used to analyze the association between Srlk gene nucleotide polymorphism and the variability in salt stress tolerance among alfalfa cultivars.

  5. Effects of salt stress on germination of some maize (Zea mays L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effects of salt stress on germination of six maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars ... Key words: Maize, NaCl, germination percentage, stress tolerance ındex, germination ındex. INTRODUCTION ... Salt tolerance at germination stage is important factor, where soil salinity is ...

  6. Biochar soil amendment on alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Ok, Yong Sik; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Hafeez, Farhan; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem

    2017-05-01

    Drought and salt stress negatively affect soil fertility and plant growth. Application of biochar, carbon-rich material developed from combustion of biomass under no or limited oxygen supply, ameliorates the negative effects of drought and salt stress on plants. The biochar application increased the plant growth, biomass, and yield under either drought and/or salt stress and also increased photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and modified gas exchange characteristics in drought and salt-stressed plants. Under drought stress, biochar increased the water holding capacity of soil and improved the physical and biological properties of soils. Under salt stress, biochar decreased Na+ uptake, while increased K+ uptake by plants. Biochar-mediated increase in salt tolerance of plants is primarily associated with improvement in soil properties, thus increasing plant water status, reduction of Na+ uptake, increasing uptake of minerals, and regulation of stomatal conductance and phytohormones. This review highlights both the potential of biochar in alleviating drought and salt stress in plants and future prospect of the role of biochar under drought and salt stress in plants.

  7. Comparative Salt Stress Study on Intracellular Ion Concentration in Marine and Salt-adapted Freshwater Strains of Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad TALEBI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salinity imposes significant stresses in various living organisms including microalgae. High extracellular concentration of Na+ directly influences ionic balance inside the cell and subsequently the cellular activities. In the present study, the effect of such stress on growth and intracellular ions concentration (IIC of Dunaliella salina and Chlorella Spp. was investigated. IIC was analyzed using Ion chromatography technique. D. salina showed the highest degree of resistance to increase in salinity as little changes occurred both in IIC and in growth parameters. D. salina could maintain the balance of K+ inside the cell and eject the excess Na+ even at NaCl concentrations above 1M. Moreover, D. salina accumulated β-carotene in order to protect its photosynthetic apparatus. Among Chlorella species, C. vulgaris showed signs of adaptation to high content of salinity, though it is a fresh water species by nature. Moreover, the response shown by C. vulgaris to rise in salinity was even stronger than that of C. salina, which is presumably a salt-water resistant species. In fact, C. vulgaris could maintain intracellular K+ better than C. salina in response to increasing salinity, and as a result, it could survive at NaCl concentrations as high as 0.75 M. Marine strains such as D. salina well cope with the fluctuations in salinity through the existing adaptation mechanisms i.e. maintaining the K+/N+ balance inside the cell, K+ accumulation and Na+ ejection, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments like β-carotene.

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the rice (Oryza sativa L. salt response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Xu

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of most serious limiting factors for crop growth and production. An isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ approach was used to analyze proteomic changes in rice shoots under salt stress in this study. A total of 56 proteins were significantly altered and 16 of them were enriched in the pathways of photosynthesis, antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation. Among these 16 proteins, peroxiredoxin Q and photosystem I subunit D were up-regulated, while thioredoxin M-like, thioredoxin x, thioredoxin peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase F3, PSI subunit H, light-harvesting antenna complex I subunits, chloroplast chaperonin, vacuolar ATP synthase subunit H, and ATP synthase delta chain were down-regulated. Moreover, physiological data including total antioxidant capacity, peroxiredoxin activity, chlorophyll a/b content, glutathione S-transferase activity, reduced glutathione content and ATPase activity were consistent with changes in the levels of these proteins. The levels of the mRNAs encoding these proteins were also analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and approximately 86% of the results were consistent with the iTRAQ data. Importantly, our data suggest the important role of PSI in balancing energy supply and ROS generation under salt stress. This study provides information for an improved understanding of the function of photosynthesis and PSI in the salt-stress response of rice.

  9. The maize WRKY transcription factor ZmWRKY17 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ronghao; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Congsheng; Wang, Yan; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yang; Ma, Qing; Xiang, Yan; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-12-01

    We cloned and characterized the ZmWRKY17 gene from maize. Overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis led to increased sensitivity to salt stress and decreased ABA sensitivity through regulating the expression of some ABA- and stress-responsive genes. The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to function as positive or negative regulators in many different biological processes including plant development, defense regulation and stress response. This study isolated a maize WRKY gene, ZmWRKY17, and characterized its role in tolerance to salt stress by generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of the ZmWRKY17 was up-regulated by drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ZmWRKY17 was localized in the nucleus with no transcriptional activation in yeast. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that ZmWRKY17 can specifically bind to W-box, and it can activate W-box-dependent transcription in planta. Heterologous overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis remarkably reduced plant tolerance to salt stress, as determined through physiological analyses of the cotyledons greening rate, root growth, relative electrical leakage and malondialdehyde content. Additionally, ZmWRKY17 transgenic plants showed decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and early seedling growth. Transgenic plants accumulated higher content of ABA than wild-type (WT) plants under NaCl condition. Transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that some stress-related genes in transgenic seedlings showed lower expression level than that in the WT when treated with NaCl. Taken together, these results suggest that ZmWRKY17 may act as a negative regulator involved in the salt stress responses through ABA signalling.

  10. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  11. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses...... include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review...... the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level....

  12. Salt stress-induced changes in antioxidative defense system and proteome profiles of salt-tolerant and sensitive Frankia strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amrita; Singh, Anumeha; Singh, Satya S; Mishra, Arun K

    2017-04-16

    An appreciation of comparative microbial survival is most easily done while evaluating their adaptive strategies during stress. In the present experiment, antioxidative and whole cell proteome variations based on spectrophotometric analysis and SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis have been analysed among salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive Frankia strains. This is the first report of proteomic basis underlying salt tolerance in these newly isolated Frankia strains from Hippophae salicifolia D. Don. Salt-tolerant strain HsIi10 shows higher increment in the contents of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase as compared to salt-sensitive strain HsIi8. Differential 2-DGE profile has revealed differential profiles for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive strains. Proteomic confirmation of salt tolerance in the strains with inbuilt efficiency of thriving in nitrogen-deficient locales is a definite advantage for these microbes. This would be equally beneficial for improvement of soil nitrogen status. Efficient protein regulation in HsIi10 suggests further exploration for its potential use as biofertilizer in saline soils.

  13. Effects of partial defoliation on the growth, ion relations and photosynthesis of Lycium chinense Mill. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of artificial defoliation on the growth and physiological response of Lycium chinense Mill. to salt stress. Our results show that partial defoliation increases the plant relative growth rate, leaf water content and dry weight-based leaf Na+ content, and reduces the fresh weight-based leaf Na+ content under salt stress. In response to defoliation, the leaf Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/Mg2+ ratios were decreased, but the K+ content remained unchanged. The contents of ROS and MDA were decreased in defoliated plants. Net The photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gs, electron transport rate (ETR, actual photochemical quenching (ΦPSII and photochemical quenching (qp were enhanced by defoliation. Together, these findings indicate that partial defoliation mitigates the salt-induced growth inhibition and physiological damage in L. chinense.

  14. The osmotin of Calotropis procera latex is not expressed in laticifer-free cultivated callus and under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Isabel C C; Ramos, Márcio V; Costa, José H; Freitas, Cleverson D T; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Moreno, Frederico B; Moreira, Renato A; Carvalho, Cristina P S

    2017-10-01

    The latex of Calotropis procera has previously been reported to contain osmotin. This protein (CpOsm) inhibited phytopathogens and this was mechanistically characterized. Here, the time-course profile of CpOsm transcripts was examined in the salt-stressed cultivated callus of C. procera in order to better understand its role in the physiology of the plant. Stressed callus (80 mM NaCl) showed an unbalanced content of organic compounds (proline and total soluble sugar) and inorganic ions (Na + , Cl - , and K + ). Under salt treatment, the transcripts of CpOsm were detected after 12 h and slightly increased to a maximum at day seven, followed by reduction. Interestingly, CpOsm was not detected in the soluble protein fraction recovered from the salt-stressed callus as probed by electrophoresis, dot/Western blotting and mass spectrometry. The results suggested that (1) CpOsm is not constitutive in cultivated cells (laticifer-free tissues); (2) CpOsm transcripts appear under salt-stressed conditions; (3) the absence of CpOsm in the protein fractions of stressed cultivated cells indicated that salt-induced transcripts were not used for protein synthesis and this accounts to the belief that CpOsm may be a true laticifer protein in C. procera. More effort will be needed to unveil this process. In this study we show evidences that CpOsm gene is responsive to salt stress. However the corresponding protein is not produced in cultivated cells. Therefore, presently the hypothesis that CpOsm is involved in abiotic stress is not fully supported. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Antarctic Moss Multiprotein Bridging Factor 1c Overexpression in Arabidopsis Resulted in Enhanced Tolerance to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemasundar Alavilli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polytrichastrum alpinum is one of the moss species that survives extreme conditions in the Antarctic. In order to explore the functional benefits of moss genetic resources, P. alpinum multiprotein-bridging factor 1c gene (PaMBF1c was isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaMBF1c comprises of a multiprotein-bridging factor (MBF1 domain and a helix-turn-helix (HTH domain. PaMBF1c expression was induced by different abiotic stresses in P. alpinum, implying its roles in stress responses. We overexpressed PaMBF1c in Arabidopsis and analyzed the resulting phenotypes in comparison with wild type and/or Arabidopsis MBF1c (AtMBF1c overexpressors. Overexpression of PaMBF1c in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, as well as to cold and heat stress. More specifically, enhanced salt tolerance was observed in PaMBF1c overexpressors in comparison to wild type but not clearly observable in AtMBF1c overexpressing lines. Thus, these results implicate the evolution of PaMBF1c under salt-enriched Antarctic soil. RNA-Seq profiling of NaCl-treated plants revealed that 10 salt-stress inducible genes were already up-regulated in PaMBF1c overexpressing plants even before NaCl treatment. Gene ontology enrichment analysis with salt up-regulated genes in each line uncovered that the terms lipid metabolic process, ion transport, and cellular amino acid biosynthetic process were significantly enriched in PaMBF1c overexpressors. Additionally, gene enrichment analysis with salt down-regulated genes in each line revealed that the enriched categories in wild type were not significantly overrepresented in PaMBF1c overexpressing lines. The up-regulation of several genes only in PaMBF1c overexpressing lines suggest that enhanced salt tolerance in PaMBF1c-OE might involve reactive oxygen species detoxification, maintenance of ATP homeostasis, and facilitation of Ca2+ signaling. Interestingly, many salt down

  16. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  17. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group cv. Berangan Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sin Lee

    Full Text Available Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  18. Prion switching in response to environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Tyedmers

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolution depends on the manner in which genetic variation is translated into new phenotypes. There has been much debate about whether organisms might have specific mechanisms for "evolvability," which would generate heritable phenotypic variation with adaptive value and could act to enhance the rate of evolution. Capacitor systems, which allow the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation and release it under stressful conditions, might provide such a mechanism. In yeast, the prion [PSI(+] exposes a large array of previously hidden genetic variation, and the phenotypes it thereby produces are advantageous roughly 25% of the time. The notion that [PSI(+] is a mechanism for evolvability would be strengthened if the frequency of its appearance increased with stress. That is, a system that mediates even the haphazard appearance of new phenotypes, which have a reasonable chance of adaptive value would be beneficial if it were deployed at times when the organism is not well adapted to its environment. In an unbiased, high-throughput, genome-wide screen for factors that modify the frequency of [PSI(+] induction, signal transducers and stress response genes were particularly prominent. Furthermore, prion induction increased by as much as 60-fold when cells were exposed to various stressful conditions, such as oxidative stress (H2O2 or high salt concentrations. The severity of stress and the frequency of [PSI(+] induction were highly correlated. These findings support the hypothesis that [PSI(+] is a mechanism to increase survival in fluctuating environments and might function as a capacitor to promote evolvability.

  19. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Dianthus superbus (Caryophyllaceae by Activating Photosynthesis, Protecting Morphological Structure, and Enhancing the Antioxidant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress critically affects the physiological processes and morphological structure of plants, resulting in reduced plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on plants. Large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae usually exhibit salt-tolerant traits under natural conditions. To further clarify the salt-tolerance level of D. superbus and the regulating mechanism of exogenous SA on the growth of D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to examine the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, stomatal structure, chloroplast ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities of D. superbus young shoots under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions, with and without 0.5 mM SA. D. superbus exhibited reduced growth rate, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn, increased relative electric conductivity (REC and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, and poorly developed stomata and chloroplasts under 0.6 and 0.9% salt stress. However, exogenously SA effectively improved the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and stoma and chloroplast development of D. superbus. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl condition, there was no significant difference in the plant growth and physiological responses between SA-treated and non-SA-treated plants. Therefore, our research suggests that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effect of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  1. The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 regulates abiotic stress-responsive gene expression by binding to different cis-acting elements in response to different stress signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Chun; Liao, Po-Ming; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2013-07-01

    ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) is an upstream component in both jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling and is involved in pathogen resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that ERF1 might be related to the salt stress response through ethylene signaling. However, the specific role of ERF1 in abiotic stress and the molecular mechanism underlying the signaling cross talk still need to be elucidated. Here, we report that ERF1 was highly induced by high salinity and drought stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The salt stress induction required both JA and ET signaling but was inhibited by abscisic acid. ERF1-overexpressing lines (35S:ERF1) were more tolerant to drought and salt stress. They also displayed constitutively smaller stomatal aperture and less transpirational water loss. Surprisingly, 35S:ERF1 also showed enhanced heat tolerance and up-regulation of heat tolerance genes compared with the wild type. Several suites of genes activated by JA, drought, salt, and heat were found in microarray analysis of 35S:ERF1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays found that ERF1 up-regulates specific suites of genes in response to different abiotic stresses by stress-specific binding to GCC or DRE/CRT. In response to biotic stress, ERF1 bound to GCC boxes but not DRE elements; conversely, under abiotic stress, we observed specific binding of ERF1 to DRE elements. Furthermore, ERF1 bound preferentially to only one among several GCC box or DRE/CRT elements in the promoter region of its target genes. ERF1 plays a positive role in salt, drought, and heat stress tolerance by stress-specific gene regulation, which integrates JA, ET, and abscisic acid signals.

  2. Effect of salt stress on growth and physiology in amaranth and lettuce: Implications for bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Cheng, Quanyong; Chen, Guang

    2013-02-01

    Growing plants can be used to clean waste water in bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, NaCl contained in the human urine always restricts plant growth and further reduces the degree of mass cycle closure of the system (i.e. salt stress). This work determined the effect of NaCl stress on physiological characteristics of plants for the life support system. Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. var. Huahong) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Luoma) were cultivated at nutrient solutions with different NaCl contents (0, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 ppm, respectively) for 10 to 18 days after planted in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System Experimental Facility in China. Results showed that the two plants have different responses to the salt stress. The amaranth showed higher salt-tolerance with NaCl stress. If NaCl content in the solution is below 5000 ppm, the salt stress effect is insignificant on above-ground biomass output, leaf photosynthesis rate, Fv/Fm, photosynthesis pigment contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and inducing lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the lettuce is sensitive to NaCl which significantly decreases those indices of growth and physiology. Notably, the lettuce remains high productivity of edible biomass in low NaCl stress, although its salt-tolerant limitation is lower than amaranth. Therefore, we recommended that amaranth could be cultivated under a higher NaCl stress condition (<5000 ppm) for NaCl recycle while lettuce should be under a lower NaCl stress (<1000 ppm) for water cleaning in future BLSS.

  3. Overexpression of Small Heat Shock Protein Enhances Heat- and Salt-Stress Tolerance of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaskheli, Gul Bahar; Zuo, FangLei; Yu, Rui; Chen, ShangWu

    2015-07-01

    Bifidobacteria are probiotics that are incorporated live into various dairy products. They confer health-promotive effects via gastrointestinal tract colonization. However, to provide their health-beneficial properties, they must battle the various abiotic stresses in that environment, such as bile salts, acids, oxygen, and heat. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum salt- and heat-stress tolerance was enhanced by homologous overexpression of a small heat shock protein (sHsp). A positive contribution of overproduced sHsp to abiotic stress tolerance was observed when the bacterium was exposed to heat and salt stresses. Significantly higher survival of B. l ongum NCC2705 overexpressing sHsp was observed at 30 and 60 min into heat (55 °C) and salt (5 M NaCl) treatment, respectively. Thermotolerance analysis at 47 °C with sampling every 2 h also revealed the great potential tolerance of the engineered strain. Cell density and acid production rate increased for the sHsp-overexpressing strain after 8 and 10 h of both heat and salt stresses. In addition, tolerance to bile salts, low pH (3.5) and low temperature (4 °C) was also increased by homologous overexpression of the sHsp hsp20 in B. l ongum. Results revealed that hsp20 overexpression in B longum NCC2705 plays a positive cross-protective role in upregulating abiotic responses, ensuring the organism's tolerance to various stress conditions; therefore, sHsp-overexpressing B. l ongum is advised for fermented dairy foods and other probiotic product applications.

  4. OsPEX11, a peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11, contributes to salt stress tolerance in Oryza sativa

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    Cui Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000, was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1 involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than wild type and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  5. Maintaining methylation activities during salt stress. The involvement of adenosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weretilnyk, E A; Alexander, K J; Drebenstedt, M; Snider, J D; Summers, P S; Moffatt, B A

    2001-02-01

    Synthesis of the compatible osmolyte Gly betaine is increased in salt-stressed spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Gly betaine arises by oxidation of choline from phosphocholine. Phosphocholine is synthesized in the cytosol by three successive S-adenosyl-Met-dependent N-methylations of phosphoethanolamine. With each transmethylation, a molecule of S-adenosylhomo-Cys (SAH) is produced, a potent inhibitor of S-adenosyl-Met-dependent methyltransferases. We examined two enzymes involved in SAH metabolism: SAH hydrolase (SAHH) catabolizes SAH to adenosine plus homo-Cys and adenosine kinase (ADK) converts adenosine to adenosine monophosphate. In vitro SAHH and ADK activities increased incrementally in extracts from leaves of spinach plants subjected to successively higher levels of salt stress and these changes reflected increased levels of SAHH and ADK protein and transcripts. Another Gly betaine accumulator, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), also showed salt-responsive increases in SAHH and ADK activities and protein whereas tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and canola (Brassica napus), which do not accumulate Gly betaine, did not show comparable changes in these enzymes. In spinach, subcellular localization positions SAHH and ADK in the cytosol with the phospho-base N-methyltransferase activities. Because SAHH activity is inhibited by its products, we propose that ADK is not a stress-responsive enzyme per se, but plays a pivotal role in sustaining transmethylation reactions in general by serving as a coarse metabolic control to reduce the cellular concentration of free adenosine. In support of this model, we grew Arabidopsis under a short-day photoperiod that promotes secondary cell wall development and found both ADK activity and transcript levels to increase severalfold.

  6. MusaDHN-1, a novel multiple stress-inducible SK(3)-type dehydrin gene, contributes affirmatively to drought- and salt-stress tolerance in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-11-01

    Dehydrins are highly hydrophilic proteins involved in playing key adaptive roles in response to abiotic stress conditions having dehydration as a common component. In the present study, a novel banana SK(3)-type dehydrin, MusaDHN-1, was identified and later characterized using transgenic banana plants to investigate its functions in abiotic stress tolerance. Expression profiling in native banana plants demonstrated that MusaDHN-1 was induced in leaves by drought, salinity, cold, oxidative and heavy metal stress as well as by treatment with signalling molecules like abscisic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate. Promoter analysis carried out by making a MusaDHN-1 promoter: β-glucuronidase fusion construct reconfirmed the abiotic stress inducibility of MusaDHN-1. Transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing MusaDHN-1 were phenotypically normal and displayed improved tolerance to drought and salt-stress treatments in both in vitro and ex vitro assays. Enhanced accumulation of proline and reduced malondialdehyde levels in drought and salt-stressed MusaDHN-1 overexpressing plants further established their superior performance in stressed conditions. This study is the first to report generation of transgenic banana plants engineered for improved drought and salt-stress tolerance.

  7. Rapid determination of the damage to photosynthesis caused by salt and osmotic stresses using delayed fluorescence of chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Xing, Da

    2008-03-01

    Chloroplasts are one of the most susceptible systems to salt and osmotic stresses. Based on quantitative measurements of delayed fluorescence (DF) of the chloroplasts, we have investigated the damage to photosynthesis caused by these two kinds of stresses in Arabidopsis seedlings by using a custom-built multi-channel biosensor. Results showed that the DF intensity and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased in a similar way with increasing NaCl or sorbitol concentration. Incubation of the seedlings in 200 mM NaCl induced a rapid and reversible decline and subsequent slow and irreversible loss in both the DF intensity and Pn. The rapid decline was dominantly related to osmotic stress, whereas the slow declines in the DF intensity and Pn were specific to ionic stress and could be reversed to a similar extent by a Na+-channel blocker. The DF intensity and Pn also exhibited a similar response to irradiation light under NaCl or sorbitol stress. All results indicated that the DF intensity correlated well with Pn under salt and osmotic stresses. We thus conclude that DF is an excellent marker for detecting the damage to photosynthesis caused by these two stresses. The mechanism of the correlation between the DF intensity and Pn under salt and osmotic stresses was also analyzed in theory and investigated with experiments by measuring intercellular CO2 concetration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, and chlorophyll content. This proposed DF technique holds the potential to be a useful means for analyzing the dynamics of salt and osmotic stresses in vivo and elucidating the mechanism by which plants respond to stress.

  8. A bi-functional xyloglucan galactosyltransferase is an indispensable salt stress tolerance determinant in arabidop

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenbo

    2013-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that substantially limits crop production worldwide. To identify salt stress tolerance determinants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants that are hypersensitive to salt stress and designated these mutants as short root in salt medium (rsa). One of these mutants, rsa3-1, is hypersensitive to NaCl and LiCl but not to CsCl or to general osmotic stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulate in rsa3-1 plants under salt stress. Gene expression profiling with Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed that RSA3 controls expression of many genes including genes encoding proteins for ROS detoxification under salt stress. Map-based cloning showed that RSA3 encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase, which is allelic to a gene previously named MUR3/KAM1. The RSA3/ MUR3/KAM1-encoded xylogluscan galactosyltransferase regulates actin microfilament organization (and thereby contributes to endomembrane distribution) and is also involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In rsa3-1, actin cannot assemble and form bundles as it does in the wild-type but instead aggregates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, addition of phalloidin, which prevents actin depolymerization, can rescue salt hypersensitivity of rsa3-1. Together, these results suggest that RSA3/MUR3/KAM1 along with other cell wall-associated proteins plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by maintaining the proper organization of actin microfilaments in order to minimize damage caused by excessive ROS. © 2013 The Author.

  9. Salt Stress Increases the Level of Translatable mRNA for Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrem, James A.; Olson, Steve W.; Schmitt, Jürgen M.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1987-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum responds to salt stress by switching from C3 photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). During this transition the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) increases in soluble protein extracts from leaf tissue. We monitored CAM induction in plants irrigated with 0.5 molar NaCl for 5 days during the fourth, fifth, and sixth week after germination. Our results indicate that the age of the plant influenced the response to salt stress. There was no increase in PEPCase protein or PEPCase enzyme activity when plants were irrigated with 0.5 molar NaCl during the fourth and fifth week after germination. However, PEPCase activity increased within 2 to 3 days when plants were salt stressed during the sixth week after germination. Immunoblot analysis with anti-PEPCase antibodies showed that PEPCase synthesis was induced in both expanded leaves and in newly developing axillary shoot tissue. The increase in PEPCase protein was paralleled by an increase in PEPCase mRNA as assayed by immunoprecipitation of PEPCase from the in vitro translation products of RNA from salt-stressed plants. These results demonstrate that salinity increased the level of PEPCase in leaf and shoot tissue via a stress-induced increase in the steady-state level of translatable mRNA for this enzyme. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665596

  10. Native-Invasive Plants vs. Halophytes in Mediterranean Salt Marshes: Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Chaura, Juliana; López-Gresa, María P; Borsai, Orsolya; Daniso, Enrico; Donat-Torres, María P; Mayoral, Olga; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in "La Albufera" Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain). The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves-where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles-and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na(+) and Cl(-) contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose) accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K(+) transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides. Based on these results, we

  11. Native-invasive plants vs. halophytes in Mediterranean salt marshes: Stress tolerance mechanisms in two related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad eAl Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain. The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves – where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles – and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na+ and Cl- contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K+ transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level – estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation – was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides

  12. ABA pretreatment can alter the distribution of polysomes in salt-stressed barley sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szypulska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed caryopses of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Stratus. Caryopses were germinated in darkness at 20°C in three experimental setups: (a in distilled water for 24 hours, followed by 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (salinity stress, SS, (b in 100 μM of abscisic acid for the first 24 hours, followed by rinsing with distilled water to remove residual ABA, and in 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (ABA pretreatment + salinity stress, ABAS, (c in distilled water only (control, C. Changes in the content of free polysomes (FP, membrane-bound polysomes (MBP, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (CBP and cytomatrix-bound polysomes (CMBP were examined in barley sprouts germinated in SS and ABAS treatments for 48 hours. In salt-stressed barley sprouts, the concentrations of membrane-bound and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (MBP, CBP and CMBP decreased significantly, whereas an increase was noted only in the free polysome (FP fraction. ABA pretreatment altered the distribution of polysomes in stressed plants. The content of cytoskeletonbound polysomes (CBP and CMBP increased, FP levels decreased, whereas no changes in MBP content were observed in response to ABA treatment. Our results suggest that plants respond to salt stress by increasing the concentrations of free polysomes that are probably released from damaged cell structures, mainly membranes. Our present and previous findings indicate that ABA could inhibit the release of FP in stressed plants by enhancing polysome binding to the cytoskeleton.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of hexaploid hulless oat in response to salinity stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    Full Text Available Oat is a cereal crop of global importance used for food, feed, and forage. Understanding salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in plants is an important step towards generating crop varieties that can cope with environmental stresses. To date, little is known about the salt tolerance of oat at the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in oat, we investigated the transcriptomes of control and salt-treated oat using RNA-Seq.Using Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform, we generated 72,291,032 and 356,891,432 reads from non-stressed control and salt-stressed oat, respectively. Assembly of 64 Gb raw sequence data yielded 128,414 putative unique transcripts with an average length of 1,189 bp. Analysis of the assembled unigenes from the salt stressed and control libraries indicated that about 65,000 unigenes were differentially expressed at different stages. Functional annotation showed that ABC transporters, plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and other secondary metabolite pathways were enriched under salt stress. Based on the RPKM values of assembled unigenes, 24 differentially expressed genes under salt stress were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation, which successfully confirmed the results of RNA-Seq. Furthermore, we identified 18,039 simple sequence repeats, which may help further elucidate salt tolerance mechanisms in oat.Our global survey of transcriptome profiles of oat plants in response to salt stress provides useful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in this crop. These findings also represent a rich resource for further analysis of salt tolerance and for breeding oat with improved salt tolerance through the use of salt-related genes.

  14. Numerical Simulation on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Equivalent Stress in Bedded Salt Rock Stratum

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    Jianjun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  15. Numerical simulation on open wellbore shrinkage and casing equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Linzhi; Zhao, Jinzhou

    2013-01-01

    Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  16. Salt stress is an environmental signal affecting degradative enzyme synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, F; Rapoport, G

    1995-05-01

    Growth under conditions of salt stress has important effects on the synthesis of degradative enzymes in Bacillus subtilis. Salt stress strongly stimulates the expression of sacB, encoding levansucrase (about ninefold), and downregulates the expression of aprE, encoding alkaline protease (about sixfold). It is suggested that the DegS-DegU two-component system is involved in sensing salt stress. Moreover, it has been shown that the level of sacB expression strongly depends on the growth conditions; its expression level is about eightfold higher in cells grown on agar plates than in cells grown in liquid medium.

  17. Influence of Rhizoglomus irregulare on nutraceutical quality and regeneration of Lycium barbarum leaves under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongguang; Wang, Yajun; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2017-05-01

    Whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi augment the nutraceutical quality of crops under salt stress is critical as a potential agronomic practice in salinized farmland. To evaluate the effect of Rhizoglomus irregulare on the nutraceutical quality of Lycium barbarum leaves under salt stress, we analyzed growth parameters and the rutin, polysaccharide, acidic polysaccharide, and amino acids contents of 2 harvests. Inoculation of R. irregulare significantly increased the regenerated bud number (partial eta squared (PES) = 0.577, P nutraceutical quality and facilitated the sustainable production of L. barbarum leaves exposed to salt stress.

  18. A banana aquaporin gene, MaPIP1;1, is involved in tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Miao, Hongxia; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-08

    Aquaporin (AQP) proteins function in transporting water and other small molecules through the biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to survive in drought or salt stress conditions. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought and salt stresses is not completely understood in plants. In this study, we have identified a PIP1 subfamily AQP (MaPIP1;1) gene from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Transient expression of MaPIP1;1-GFP fusion protein indicated its localization at plasma membrane. The expression of MaPIP1;1 was induced by NaCl and water deficient treatment. Overexpression of MaPIP1;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in an increased primary root elongation, root hair numbers and survival rates compared to WT under salt or drought conditions. Physiological indices demonstrated that the increased salt tolerance conferred by MaPIP1;1 is related to reduced membrane injury and high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio. Additionally, the improved drought tolerance conferred by MaPIP1;1 is associated with decreased membrane injury and improved osmotic adjustment. Finally, reduced expression of ABA-responsive genes in MaPIP1;1-overexpressing plants reflects their improved physiological status. Our results demonstrated that heterologous expression of banana MaPIP1;1 in Arabidopsis confers salt and drought stress tolerances by reducing membrane injury, improving ion distribution and maintaining osmotic balance.

  19. Identification and Target Prediction of MicroRNAs in Ulmus pumila L. Seedling Roots under Salt Stress by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small RNAs with important roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Ulmus pumila L., a deciduous broadleaved tree species of northern temperate regions, is widely distributed in central and northern Asia and has important economic and ecological value. With the spread and aggravation of soil salinization, salt stress has become a major abiotic stress affecting the normal growth and development of U. pumila. However, the influence of salt stress on U. pumila miRNA expression has not been investigated. To identify miRNAs and predict their target mRNA genes under salt stress, three small RNA libraries were generated and sequenced from roots of U. pumila seedlings treated with various concentrations of NaCl corresponding to no salt stress, light short-term salt stress, and medium-heavy long-term salt stress. Integrative analysis identified 254 conserved miRNAs representing 29 families and 49 novel miRNAs; 232 potential targets of the miRNAs were also predicted. Expression profiling of miRNAs between libraries was performed, and the expression of six miRNAs was validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Our findings provide an overview of potential miRNAs and corresponding targets involved in regulating U. pumila salt defense responses. These results lay the foundation for further research into molecular mechanisms involved in salt stress resistance in U. pumila and other Ulmaceae species.

  20. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  1. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  2. [Study on salt stress tolerance of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Hangbaiju' and 'Huangju' and F1 seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangcai; Huang, Ying; Tang, Xingli; Li, Danxia

    2011-09-01

    To study the salt stress tolerance of Hongxinju, Huangju and F1 seedlings from orthogonal and reciprocal cross under different salt treatments. Grope for transmissibility of salt tolerance between parents and F1 seedlings, and relativity between flavone, chlorogenic acid contents and salt tolerance. The materials were put in 5 different concentrations of Hoagland nutrient solution (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 mmol x L(-1)) containing NaCl, keeping grads while raising the consistency of NaCl day by day. The injured leaf area per plant, proline, betaine, MDA, flavones and chlorogenic acid contents were measured and analyzed after treatment. As NaCl concentration was below 120 mmol x L(-1), the salt tolerance of Hongxinju was higher than that of Huangju, the salt tolerance of Hongxinju x Huangju higher than that of parents, the salt tolerance of Huangju x Hongxinju was at the level of parents. As NaCl concentration between 120 to 160 mmol x L(-1), the salt tolerance of Huangju was higher than that of Hongxinju, the salt tolerance of Huangju x Hongxinju higher than that of parents and the salt tolerance of Hongxinju x Huangju was at the level of parents. Salt tolerance of F1 is more influenced by female parent, relativity showed between flavonoids, chlorogenic acid contents and salt tolerance.

  3. Evaluation of rice genotypes to salt stress in different growth stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolerant genotypes were tested in young seedling stage in hydroponic system and then reproductive stage in 2010. Results show that vegetative growth was less affected by salt stress comparison to reproductive stage. Na and Na-K ratio in tolerant genotypes were lower than suspectible genotypes in salt condition in ...

  4. Effects of salt stress levels on five maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigation the effects of salt stress levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM NaCl) on five maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars at germination stage, this study was performed at Ardabil, Iran in 2011. The results showed that in all cultivars, as the salt concentration increased, both germination percentage and germination index ...

  5. Effects of salt stress on germination of some maize ( Zea mays L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of salt stress on germination of six maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars (ADA-523, Bora, C-955, PR 3394, Progen 1150 and Trebbia). The degrees of salinity tolerance among these cultivars were evaluated at seed germination stage at six different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, ...

  6. Potato responds to salt stress by increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Ehsanpour, Ali Akber; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2009-12-01

    To understand the response of potato to salt stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and ion content were analyzed for a sensitive and a tolerant cultivar. Nodal cuttings of the tolerant cultivar, Kennebec, and the sensitive cultivar, Concord, were exposed to media without or with 30, 60, 90 or 120 mmol/L NaCl for 4 weeks. On exposure to NaCl, the length and fresh and dry weight of both shoots and roots of Concord showed greater decrease than those of Kennebec. The decrease in shoot growth was more severe than that of the root for both cultivars. The K(+) content of shoots and roots of both cultivars was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to NaCl; the Na(+) content increased. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in NaCl-exposed shoots of Kennebec; the corresponding activities in NaCl-exposed shoots of Concord were decreased. Roots of both cultivars showed similar changes in the activities of these enzymes on exposure to NaCl. These studies established that enzyme activities in Concord shoots are inversely related to the NaCl concentration, whereas those in Kennebec do not show a dose dependency, which is also the case for the roots of both cultivars. Our findings suggest that an increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, can contribute to salt tolerance in Kennebec, a salt resistant cultivar of potato.

  7. Effects of salt stress on micropropagation of potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(40), pp. ... Plants of this cultivar had greater shoot length than other cultivars at all salt concentrations tested. The results indicated that cultivar "Bartina" is more salt tolerant than other cultivars studied. Key words: Potato .... Breeding for salinity resistance in crop. Plant ...

  8. Analysis of gene expression by ESTs from suppression subtractive hybridization library in Chenopodium album L. under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lili; Xu, Dongsheng; You, Tianyu; Li, Xiuming; Yao, Shixiang; Chen, Shasha; Zhao, Juan; Lan, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2011-11-01

    To identify genes expression in Chenopodium album exposed to NaCl stress and screen ESTs related to salt stress, a subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) library of C. album under salt stress was constructed in the present study. Random EST sequencing produced 825 high-quality ESTs with GenBank ID GE746311-GE747007, which had 301 bp of average size and were clustered into 88 contigs and 550 singletons. They were classified into 12 categories according to their function annotations. 635 ESTs (76.97%) showed similarities to gene sequences in the non-redundancy database, while 190 ESTs (23.03%) showed low or no similarities. The transcriptional profiles of 56 ESTs randomly selected from 347 unknown or novel ESTs of SSH library under varying NaCl concentration and at different time points were analyzed. The results indicated that a high proportion of tested ESTs were activated by salt stress. Four in 56 ESTs responded to NaCl were also enhanced in expression level when exposed to ABA and PEG stresses. The above four ESTs were validated by northern blotting which was consistent with the results of RT-PCR. The results suggested that genes corresponded to these ESTs might be involved in stress response or regulation. The complete sequences and detailed function of these ESTs need to be further studied.

  9. The validity of using juvenile stages for evaluation of salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Triticum durum) on the basis of their salt stress tolerance. The effect of this abiotic constraint was investigated at tillering stage using hydroponic culture. Some growth and development parameters were measured between three and six leaves stages ...

  10. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Varatharajan, G.R.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Vijayakanth, S.; HarishKumar, A; Meena, R.M.

    Salinity tolerance a key factor helps in understanding the ionic homeostasis in general is a fundamental cellular phenomenon in all living cells. A marine derived pathogenic fungus was examined for its adaptation under salt stress using antioxidant...

  11. Stress and subsidy effects of seagrass wrack duration, frequency, and magnitude on salt marsh community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Torrance C; Kimbro, David L; Hughes, Anne Randall

    2017-07-01

    Environmental perturbations can strongly affect community processes and ecosystem functions by acting primarily as a subsidy that increases productivity, a stress that decreases productivity, or both, with the predominant effect potentially shifting from subsidy to stress as the overall intensity of the perturbation increases. While perturbations are often considered along a single axis of intensity, they consist of multiple components (e.g., magnitude, frequency, and duration) that may not have equivalent stress and/or subsidy effects. Thus, different combinations of perturbation components may elicit community and ecosystem responses that differ in strength and/or direction (i.e., stress or subsidy) even if they reflect a similar overall perturbation intensity. To assess the independent and interactive effects of perturbation components, we experimentally manipulated the magnitude, frequency, and duration of wrack deposition, a common stress-subsidy in a variety of coastal systems. The effects of wrack perturbation on salt marsh community and ecosystem properties were assessed both in the short-term (at the end of a 12-week experimental manipulation) and long-term (6 months after the end of the experiment). In the short-term, plants and associated benthic invertebrates exhibited primarily stress-based responses to wrack perturbation. The extent of these stress effects on density of the dominant plant Spartina alterniflora, total plant percent cover, invertebrate abundance, and sediment oxygen availability were largely determined by perturbation duration. Yet, higher nitrogen content of Spartina, which indicates a subsidy effect of wrack, was influenced primarily by perturbation magnitude in the short-term. In the longer term, perturbation magnitude determined the extent of both stress and subsidy effects of wrack perturbation, with lower subordinate plant percent cover and snail density, and higher Spartina nitrogen content in high wrack biomass treatments

  12. Pressure effects on the hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrot, Thierry

    1994-01-01

    Benefiting from good specific mechanical properties, exceptional oxidation resistance, and high temperature capability, Titanium Alloys are used in Gas Turbine Engines, especially in the early stages of the compressor. However they are subject to stresscorrosion cracking in the laboratory when subjected to stresses and contaminated with salts at elevated temperatures. The lack of in-service failures of titanium components due to Hot-Salt Stress-Corrosion Cracking (HSSCC) is not...

  13. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türk, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaa.turk@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); East Anatolian High Technology Research and Application Center, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Genişel, Mucip, E-mail: m.genisel@hotmail.com [Department of Crop and Animal Production, Vocational High School, Agri (Turkey); Erdal, Serkan, E-mail: serkanerdal25@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K{sup +}. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  14. Genome-wide expression analysis of salt-stressed diploid and autotetraploid Paulownia tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenli; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Haifang; Zhai, Xiaoqiao; Deng, Minjie; Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is a fast-growing tree species with multiple uses. It is grown worldwide, but is native to China, where it is widely cultivated in saline regions. We previously confirmed that autotetraploid P. tomentosa plants are more stress-tolerant than the diploid plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. tomentosa salinity tolerance has not been fully characterized. Using the complete Paulownia fortunei genome as a reference, we applied next-generation RNA-sequencing technology to analyze the effects of salt stress on diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa plants. We generated 175 million clean reads and identified 15,873 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from four P. tomentosa libraries (two diploid and two autotetraploid). Functional annotations of the differentially expressed genes using the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases revealed that plant hormone signal transduction and photosynthetic activities are vital for plant responses to high-salt conditions. We also identified several transcription factors, including members of the AP2/EREBP, bHLH, MYB, and NAC families. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the expression patterns of eight differentially expressed genes. Our findings and the generated transcriptome data may help to accelerate the genetic improvement of cultivated P. tomentosa and other plant species for enhanced growth in saline soils.

  15. Genome-wide expression analysis of salt-stressed diploid and autotetraploid Paulownia tomentosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenli Zhao

    Full Text Available Paulownia tomentosa is a fast-growing tree species with multiple uses. It is grown worldwide, but is native to China, where it is widely cultivated in saline regions. We previously confirmed that autotetraploid P. tomentosa plants are more stress-tolerant than the diploid plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. tomentosa salinity tolerance has not been fully characterized. Using the complete Paulownia fortunei genome as a reference, we applied next-generation RNA-sequencing technology to analyze the effects of salt stress on diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa plants. We generated 175 million clean reads and identified 15,873 differentially expressed genes (DEGs from four P. tomentosa libraries (two diploid and two autotetraploid. Functional annotations of the differentially expressed genes using the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases revealed that plant hormone signal transduction and photosynthetic activities are vital for plant responses to high-salt conditions. We also identified several transcription factors, including members of the AP2/EREBP, bHLH, MYB, and NAC families. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the expression patterns of eight differentially expressed genes. Our findings and the generated transcriptome data may help to accelerate the genetic improvement of cultivated P. tomentosa and other plant species for enhanced growth in saline soils.

  16. Identification and characterization of microRNAs related to salt stress in broccoli, using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yunhong; Tian, Yunming; Luo, Xiaojun; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Zuoping; Liu, Ying; Qiu, Yihan; Hou, Bing; Sun, Dan; Deng, Hongyu; Qian, Shen; Yao, Kaitai

    2014-09-03

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of endogenous regulators of a broad range of physiological processes, which act by regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. The brassica vegetable, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), is very popular with a wide range of consumers, but environmental stresses such as salinity are a problem worldwide in restricting its growth and yield. Little is known about the role of miRNAs in the response of broccoli to salt stress. In this study, broccoli subjected to salt stress and broccoli grown under control conditions were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Differential miRNA expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The prediction of miRNA targets was undertaken using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology (KO) database and Gene Ontology (GO)-enrichment analyses. Two libraries of small (or short) RNAs (sRNAs) were constructed and sequenced by high-throughput Solexa sequencing. A total of 24,511,963 and 21,034,728 clean reads, representing 9,861,236 (40.23%) and 8,574,665 (40.76%) unique reads, were obtained for control and salt-stressed broccoli, respectively. Furthermore, 42 putative known and 39 putative candidate miRNAs that were differentially expressed between control and salt-stressed broccoli were revealed by their read counts and confirmed by the use of stem-loop real-time RT-PCR. Amongst these, the putative conserved miRNAs, miR393 and miR855, and two putative candidate miRNAs, miR3 and miR34, were the most strongly down-regulated when broccoli was salt-stressed, whereas the putative conserved miRNA, miR396a, and the putative candidate miRNA, miR37, were the most up-regulated. Finally, analysis of the predicted gene targets of miRNAs using the GO and KO databases indicated that a range of metabolic and other cellular functions known to be associated with salt stress were up-regulated in broccoli treated with salt. A comprehensive

  17. A Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor is involved in the tolerance to salt stress in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lei; Li, Cuiling; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2008-08-01

    A salt-responsive gene WRSI5 was characterized from salt-tolerant cultivar Shanrong No. 3 (SR3), an introgression line via asymmetric somatic hybrid between Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinan177 (JN177) and Thinopyrum ponticum Podp. The peptide encoded by WRSI5 contains a Bowman-Birk domain sharing a high level of sequence identity to monocotyledonous protease inhibitors. When expressed in vitro, the WRSI5 gene product exhibited trypsin, but not chymotrypsin inhibition. The expression level of WRSI5 was increased in SR3 roots exposed to salt, drought or oxidative stress. In situ hybridization showed that it is induced in the endodermal cells of the mature region of the SR3 root tip, with no signal detectable in the corresponding region of the salt-susceptible cultivar JN177. SR3 has a higher selectivity for K(+) over Na(+), and therefore limits the transport of Na(+) from the root to the shoot. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, WRSI5 improves the ability of seedlings to grow on a medium containing 150 mM NaCl. We suggest that WRSI5 plays an important role in regulating the plant growth rate or long-distance Na(+) transport in SR3 plants exposed to salt stress.

  18. Increased tolerance to salt stress in OPDA-deficient rice ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE mutants is linked to an increased ROS-scavenging activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazman, Mohamed; Hause, Bettina; Eiche, Elisabeth; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress represents a global constraint for rice, the most important staple food worldwide. Therefore the role of the central stress signal jasmonate for the salt response was analysed in rice comparing the responses to salt stress for two jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis rice mutants (cpm2 and hebiba) impaired in the function of ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) and their wild type. The aoc mutants were less sensitive to salt stress. Interestingly, both mutants accumulated smaller amounts of Na+ ions in their leaves, and showed better scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under salt stress. Leaves of the wild type and JA mutants accumulated similar levels of abscisic acid (ABA) under stress conditions, and the levels of JA and its amino acid conjugate, JA–isoleucine (JA-Ile), showed only subtle alterations in the wild type. In contrast, the wild type responded to salt stress by strong induction of the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), which was not observed in the mutants. Transcript levels of representative salinity-induced genes were induced less in the JA mutants. The absence of 12-OPDA in the mutants correlated not only with a generally increased ROS-scavenging activity, but also with the higher activity of specific enzymes in the antioxidative pathway, such as glutathione S-transferase, and fewer symptoms of damage as, for example, indicated by lower levels of malondialdehyde. The data are interpreted in a model where the absence of OPDA enhanced the antioxidative power in mutant leaves. PMID:25873666

  19. [Effects of spent mushroom compost on greenhouse cabbage growth under soil salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-Ling; Wu, Liang-Huan; Dong, Lan-Xue; Chen, Zai-Ming; Wang, Zhong-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of spent mushroom compost (SMC) in alleviating greenhouse soil secondary salinization and cabbage salt stress. With the amendment of SMC, the salinized soil after 60 day cabbage cultivation had a pH value close to 7.0, its organic matter and available phosphorous contents increased significantly, and the increment of total water-soluble salt content reduced, compared with the control. When the amendment amount of SMC was 10 g x kg(-1), the increment of soil water soluble salt content was the least, suggesting that appropriate amendment with SMC could reduce the salt accumulation in greenhouse soil. Amendment with SMC increased the cabbage seed germination rate, plant height, plant fresh mass, chlorophyll SPAD value, and vitamin C content, and decreased the proline content significantly. All the results indicated that SMC could improve the growth environment of greenhouse cabbage, and effectively alleviate the detrimental effect of salt stress.

  20. Physiological Mechanism of Enhancing Salt Stress Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BR regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR's impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl. The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn. Exogenous EBR reduced EL and MDA, increased Pn, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance (gs. The EBR applications also alleviated decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity when compared to salt treatment alone. Salt stress increased leaf abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin A4 (GA4 content but reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin riboside (ZR, isopentenyl adenosine (iPA, and salicylic acid (SA. Exogenous EBR at 10 nm and 100 nM increased ABA, and iPA content under salt stress. The EBR treatment at 100 nM also increased leaf IAA, ZR, JA, and SA. In addition, EBR treatments increased leaf proline and ions (K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ content, and reduced Na+/K+ in leaf tissues. The results of this study suggest that EBR treatment may improve salt stress tolerance by increasing the level of selected hormones and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT activity, promoting accumulation of proline and ions (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in perennial ryegrass.

  1. Nisin resistance of Listeria monocytogenes is increased by exposure to salt stress and is mediated via LiaR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Tang, Silin; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2013-09-01

    Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on refrigerated, ready-to-eat food is a significant food safety concern. Natural antimicrobials, such as nisin, can be used to control this pathogen on food, but little is known about how other food-related stresses may impact how the pathogen responds to these compounds. Prior work demonstrated that exposure of L. monocytogenes to salt stress at 7°C led to increased expression of genes involved in nisin resistance, including the response regulator liaR. We hypothesized that exposure to salt stress would increase subsequent resistance to nisin and that LiaR would contribute to increased nisin resistance. Isogenic deletion mutations in liaR were constructed in 7 strains of L. monocytogenes, and strains were exposed to 6% NaCl in brain heart infusion broth and then tested for resistance to nisin (2 mg/ml Nisaplin) at 7°C. For the wild-type strains, exposure to salt significantly increased subsequent nisin resistance (P nisin resistance of wild-type strains, ΔliaR strains were significantly more sensitive to nisin (P nisin. Transcript levels of LiaR-regulated genes were induced by salt stress, and lmo1746 and telA were found to contribute to LiaR-mediated salt-induced nisin resistance. These data suggest that environmental stresses similar to those on foods can influence the resistance of L. monocytogenes to antimicrobials such as nisin, and potential cross-protective effects should be considered when selecting and applying control measures for this pathogen on ready-to-eat foods.

  2. Plant behaviour under combined stress: tomato responses to combined salinity and pathogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuling; Kissoudis, Christos; Yan, Zhe; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, Gerard

    2017-12-13

    Crop plants are subjected to a variety of stresses during their lifecycle, including abiotic stress factors such as salinity and biotic stress factors such as pathogens. Plants have developed a multitude of defense and adaption responses to these stress factors. In the field, different stress factors mostly occur concurrently resulting in a new state of stress, the combined stress. There is evidence that plant resistance to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stress factors. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on plant responses to individual stresses, the understanding of a plants' ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited. In the last few years, we studied powdery mildew resistance under salt stress conditions in the model crop plant tomato with the aim to understand the requirements to achieve plant resilience to a wider array of combined abiotic and biotic stress combinations. We uncovered specific responses of tomato plants to combined salinity-pathogen stress, which varied with salinity intensity and plant resistance genes. Moreover, hormones, with their complex regulation and cross-talk, were shown to play a key role in the adaption of tomato plants to the combined stress. In this review, we attempt to understand the complexity of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress combinations, with a focus on tomato responses (genetic control and cross talk of signaling pathways) to combined salinity and pathogen stresses. Further, we provide recommendations on how to design novel strategies for breeding crops with a sustained performance under diverse environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic dietary salt stress mitigates hyperkalemia and facilitates chill coma recovery in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerushalmi, Gil Y; Misyura, Lidiya; Donini, Andrew; MacMillan, Heath A

    2016-12-01

    Chill susceptible insects like Drosophila lose the ability to regulate water and ion homeostasis at low temperatures. This loss of hemolymph ion and water balance drives a hyperkalemic state that depolarizes cells, causing cellular injury and death. The ability to maintain ion homeostasis at low temperatures and/or recover ion homeostasis upon rewarming is closely related to insect cold tolerance. We thus hypothesized that changes to organismal ion balance, which can be achieved in Drosophila through dietary salt loading, could alter whole animal cold tolerance phenotypes. We put Drosophila melanogaster in the presence of diets highly enriched in NaCl, KCl, xylitol (an osmotic control) or sucrose (a dietary supplement known to impact cold tolerance) for 24h and confirmed that they consumed the novel food. Independently of their osmotic effects, NaCl, KCl, and sucrose supplementation all improved the ability of flies to maintain K+ balance in the cold, which allowed for faster recovery from chill coma after 6h at 0°C. These supplements, however, also slightly increased the CTmin and had little impact on survival rates following chronic cold stress (24h at 0°C), suggesting that the effect of diet on cold tolerance depends on the measure of cold tolerance assessed. In contrast to prolonged salt stress, brief feeding (1.5h) on diets high in salt slowed coma recovery, suggesting that the long-term effects of NaCl and KCl on chilling tolerance result from phenotypic plasticity, induced in response to a salty diet, rather than simply the presence of the diet in the gut lumen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mcarmen eMartinez-Ballesta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolatesExposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress

  5. Transcriptome analysis of salt-stressed Deinococcus radiodurans and characterization of salt-sensitive mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Seonghun; Joe, Minho; Kim, Dongho; Park, Don-Hee; Lim, Sangyong

    2013-11-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is a bacterium best known for its extreme resistance to high levels of ionizing radiation. Gene expression profiles of D. radiodurans exposed to 0.3 M NaCl revealed that at least 389 genes were induced and 415 were repressed by twofold or more. A general down-regulation of the central metabolic pathways and a strong decrease of nrd gene expression, which encodes proteins necessary for DNA synthesis, likely reflect the growth retardation induced by NaCl stress. The expression of rsbRSTX, which encodes sigma B (σ(B)) activity regulators, was also reduced by NaCl stress even though D. radiodurans does not have σ(B). The mutation of rsbX (drB0027) decreased the tolerance of D. radiodurans to NaCl, suggesting the possible role of the Rsb module in NaCl response. On the other hand, NaCl stress activated genes associated with osmoprotectant accumulation: the pstSCAB operon, which encodes a high affinity phosphate transporter, and DRA0135 and DR1438, which are components of transporters of glycine betaine and trehalose. Survival analysis of mutant strains lacking DR0392 (membrane-binding protein) and DR1115 (S-layer protein), whose expressions were highly activated by NaCl, showed a reduction in NaCl tolerance. In addition, the Δdr0392 strain showed sensitivity to γ-irradiation compared to the wild type. These results suggest that DR0392 plays a role in the resistance of D. radiodurans to NaCl and γ-irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Influence of salt stress on the genetically polymorphic system of Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchak, O N; Provorov, N A; Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Roumiantseva, M L; Simarov, B V

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of salt stress (75 mM NaC1) on the ecological efficiency of the genetically polymorphic Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago truncatula system were studied. Its impact on a symbiotic system results in an increase of the partners' variability for symbiotic traits and of the symbiosis integrity as indicated by: a) the specificity of the partners' interactions--the nonadditive inputs of their genotypes into the variation of symbiotic parameters; and b) the correlative links between these parameters. The structure of the nodDI locus and the content correlates to the efficiency of the symbiosis between S. meliloti and M. truncatula genotypes under stress conditions more sufficiently than in the absence of stress. Correlations between the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia strains and their growth rate outside symbiosis are expressed under stress conditions, not in the absence of stress. Under salt stress symbiotic effectiveness was decreased for M. truncatula line F83005.5, which was salt sensitive for mineral nutrition. The inhibition of symbiotic activity for this line is linked with decreased nodule formation, whereas for Jemalong 6 and DZA315.16 lines it is associated with repressed N2-fixation. It was demonstrated for the first time that salt stress impairs the M. truncatula habitus (the mass : height ratio increased 2- to 6-fold), which in the salt-resistant cultivar Jemalong 6 is normalized as the result of rhizobia inoculation.

  7. Seed priming and transgenerational drought memory improves tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahira; Farooq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Riaz; Zohaib, Ali; Wahid, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl2) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz. 10 mM NaCl (control) and 100 mM NaCl were imposed. Seed from terminal drought stressed source had less fat (5%), and more fibers (11%), proteins (22%) and total soluble phenolics (514%) than well-watered seed source. Salt stress reduced the plant growth, perturbed water relations and decreased yield. However, an increase in osmolytes accumulation (4-18%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (27-35%) and tissue Na+ contents (149-332%) was observed under salt stress. The seeds collected from drought stressed crop had better tolerance against salt stress as indicated by better yield (28%), improved water relations (3-18%), osmolytes accumulation (21-33%), and less MDA (8%) and Na contents (35%) than progeny of well-watered crop. Seed priming, osmopriming in particular, further improved the tolerance against salt stress through improvement in leaf area, water relations, leaf proline, glycine betaine and grain yield while lowering MDA and Na+ contents. In conclusion, changed seed composition during terminal drought and seed priming improved the salt tolerance in wheat by modulating the water relations, osmolytes accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A Medicago truncatula EF-hand family gene, MtCaMP1, is involved in drought and salt stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Zuo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calcium-binding proteins that contain EF-hand motifs have been reported to play important roles in transduction of signals associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. To functionally characterize genes of EF-hand family in response to abiotic stress, an MtCaMP1 gene belonging to EF-hand family from legume model plant Medicago truncatula was isolated and its function in response to drought and salt stress was investigated by expressing MtCaMP1 in Arabidopsis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings expressing MtCaMP1 exhibited higher survival rate than wild-type seedlings under drought and salt stress, suggesting that expression of MtCaMP1 confers tolerance of Arabidopsis to drought and salt stress. The transgenic plants accumulated greater amounts of Pro due to up-regulation of P5CS1 and down-regulation of ProDH than wild-type plants under drought stress. There was a less accumulation of Na(+ in the transgenic plants than in WT plants due to reduced up-regulation of AtHKT1 and enhanced regulation of AtNHX1 in the transgenic plants compared to WT plants under salt stress. There was a reduced accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in the transgenic plants than in WT plants under both drought and salt stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of MtCaMP1 in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought and salt stress by effective osmo-regulation due to greater accumulation of Pro and by minimizing toxic Na(+ accumulation, respectively. The enhanced accumulation of Pro and reduced accumulation of Na(+ under drought and salt stress would protect plants from water default and Na(+ toxicity, and alleviate the associated oxidative stress. These findings demonstrate that MtCaMP1 encodes a stress-responsive EF-hand protein that plays a regulatory role in response of plants to drought and salt stress.

  9. Effect of Salt Stress on Morphological Traits of Lettuce Genotypes (Lactuca Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam zare

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recognition of salt tolerant plants is important as a result ofincreasing saline lands in Iran and world. Cultivation of plants in hydroponic environment is a reliable and economical method in order to select the salt tolerant plant. Salt stress can effect on plant growth and development by ion toxicity, ionic disturb the balance and osmotic potential. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops. This plant is one of the most important leafy vegetables which is used for salad and fresh marketing, also some types of this vegetable is used in baked type. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of lettuce genotypes undersalt stress in the hydroponic system. Materials and Methods: To assess response of lettuce seedlings to salt stress, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications at Biotechnology Research Institute for hydroponic cultivation of Zabol. In this experiment, the effects of three salinity levels (0, 2 and 4 dS/m on morphological characteristics of 15 lettuce genotypes were evaluated. The seeds were sterilized for ten seconds in ethanol 96% and then 15% sodium hypochlorite solution for 50 seconds, then rinsed several times with distilled water, then disinfected seeds were cultured in plastic pots containing coco peat and perlite. After …days plants were transferred to hydroponic system containing Hoagland solution. Collected data were analyzed and means comparisons were made using LSD by SAS software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that salinity has a significant effect on seedling growth of lettuce genotypes (p≤0.01. significant difference between salinity levels and genotype were observed for all traits. Interaction of genotype and salinity for all the traits except root length, plant length and leaf were significant at 1%. Based on the results, the greatest root length was belong to Esfahan Varzaneh leafy lettuce and

  10. Differential responses of the antioxidant defence system and ultrastructure in a salt-adapted potato cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Filipa; Rodrigues, José A; Almeida, José M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Fidalgo, Fernanda

    2011-12-01

    Changes in lipid peroxidation and ion content and the possible involvement of the antioxidant system in salt tolerance at the cellular level was studied in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) callus line grown on 150 mM NaCl (salt-adapted) and in a non-adapted line exposed to 150 mM NaCl (salt-stressed). Salinity reduced the growth rate and increased lipid peroxidation in salt-stressed line, which remained unaltered in the adapted line. Na⁺ and Cl⁻ content increased due to salinity in both lines, but the adapted line displayed greater K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than the stressed one. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities decreased in both salt-exposed lines; catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity did not change in the adapted line, but decreased in the stressed cell line. Salinity caused the suppression of one GR isoform, while the isozyme patterns of SOD, APX, and CAT were not affected. Ascorbate and reduced glutathione increased in both salt-exposed calli lines. α-Tocopherol increased as a result of salt exposure, with higher levels found in adapted calli. Electron microscopy showed that neither the structural integrity of the cells nor membrane structure were affected by salinity, but plastids from adapted cells had higher starch content. The results suggest that the enzymic and non-enzymic components of the antioxidant system are differentially modulated by salt. Different concentrations of antioxidant metabolites are more relevant to the adaptive response to salinity in potato calli than the differences in activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Achim; Kilian, Joachim; Mohrholz, Anne; Ladwig, Friederike; Peschke, Florian; Dautel, Rebecca; Harter, Klaus; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Wanke, Dierk

    2013-01-01

    Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt) can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR), e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner. PMID:23567274

  12. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  13. Effect of Salt Stress on Germination and Growth Parameters of Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of eight varieties of Oryza sativa L. (‘NERICA 1’, ‘NERICA 5’, ‘NERICA 12’, ‘NERICA 19’, ‘IR 29’, ‘IR 20’, ‘IWA 11’, and ‘POKKALI’, a salt tolerant check against four salinity levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 ds m-1 were studied at germination and early growth stages. Data were analyzed using Statistical Analytical System (SAS and means were separated by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT for Final Germination Percentage (FGP, Speed of Germination (SG, Germination Energy Percentage (GE%, shoot and root length and root and shoot dry weight. Based on dry matter yield reduction, rice varieties were classified as tolerant (T, moderately tolerant (MT, moderately susceptible (MS or susceptible (S. Germination was not recorded at 20 ds m-1 salt concentration in all cultivars. Salinity decreased FGP, SG, GE% and led to reduction in shoot and root length and dry weight in all varieties and the magnitude of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Rice varieties ‘NERICA 12’, ‘IR 20’, ‘IWA 11’ and ‘NERICA 19’ showed greater salt tolerance during germination (germinated at 10 ds m-1 salinity. However, ‘NERICA 1’, ‘IR 29’, and ‘IR 20’ performed better based on dry matter yield reduction. The result suggested that ‘NERICA 1’, ‘IR 29’, and ‘IR 20’ might be used for further study of salinity effect on growth processes and physiological consequences at advanced stage of growth. The physiological responses of rice plants to salinity at various developmental stages are therefore critical for identifying salinity tolerance in the cultivars.

  14. Salt stress reduces kernel number of corn by inhibiting plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stephan; Hütsch, Birgit W; Schubert, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Salt stress affects yield formation of corn (Zea mays L.) at various physiological levels resulting in an overall grain yield decrease. In this study we investigated how salt stress affects kernel development of two corn cultivars (cvs. Pioneer 3906 and Fabregas) at and shortly after pollination. In an earlier study, we found an accumulation of hexoses in the kernel tissue. Therefore, it was hypothesized that hexose uptake into developing endosperm and embryo might be inhibited. Hexoses are transported into the developing endosperm by carriers localized in the plasma membrane (PM). The transport is driven by the pH gradient which is built up by the PM H(+)-ATPase. It was investigated whether the PM H(+)-ATPase activity in developing corn kernels was inhibited by salt stress, which would cause a lower pH gradient resulting in impaired hexose import and finally in kernel abortion. Corn grown under control and salt stress conditions was harvested 0 and 2 days after pollination (DAP). Under salt stress sucrose and hexose concentrations in kernel tissue were higher 0 and 2 DAP. Kernel PM H(+)-ATPase activity was not affected at 0 DAP, but it was reduced at 2 DAP. This is in agreement with the finding, that kernel growth and thus kernel setting was not affected in the salt stress treatment at pollination, but it was reduced 2 days later. It is concluded that inhibition of PM H(+)-ATPase under salt stress impaired the energization of hexose transporters into the cells, resulting in lower kernel growth and finally in kernel abortion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Adaptation to Salt Stress in Experimental Evolution of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Aifen; Hillesland, Kristina; He, Zhili; Joachimiak, Marcin; Zane, Grant; Dehal, Paramvir; Arkin, Adam; Stahl, David; Wall, Judy; Hazen, Terry; Zhou, Jizhong; Baidoo, Edward; Benke, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    High salinity is one of the most common environmental stressors. In order to understand how environmental organisms adapt to salty environment, an experiment evolution with sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vugaris Hildenborough was conducted. Control lines and salt-stressed lines (6 lines each) grown in minimal medium LS4D or LS4D + 100 mM NaCl were transferred for 1200 generations. The salt tolerance was tested with LS4D supplemented with 250 mM NaCl. Statistical analysis of the growth data suggested that all lines adapted to their evolutionary environment. In addition, the control lines performed better than the ancestor with faster growth rate, higher biomass yield and shorter lag phase under salty environment they did not evolve in. However, the salt-adapted lines performed better than the control lines on measures of growth rate and yield under salty environment, suggesting that the salt?evolved lines acquired mutations specific to having extra salt in LS4D. Growth data and gene transcription data suggested that populations tended to improve till 1000 generations and active mutations tended to be fixed at the stage of 1000 generations. Point mutations and insertion/deletions were identified in isolated colonies from salt-adapted and control lines via whole genome sequencing. Glu, Gln and Ala appears to be the major osmoprotectant in evolved salt-stressed line. Ongoing studies are now characterizing the contribution of specific mutations identified in the salt-evolved D. vulgaris.

  16. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Differential contribution of individual dehydrin genes from Physcomitrella patens to salt and osmotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Cecilia; Salamó, Imma Pérez; Carballo, Valentina; Castro, Alexandra; Bentancor, Marcel; Borsani, Omar; Szabados, László; Vidal, Sabina

    2012-07-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens can withstand extreme environmental conditions including drought and salt stress. Tolerance to dehydration in mosses is thought to rely on efficient limitation of stress-induced cell damage and repair of cell injury upon stress relief. Dehydrin proteins (DHNs) are part of a conserved cell protecting mechanism in plants although their role in stress tolerance is not well understood. Four DHNs and two DHN-like proteins were identified in the predicted proteome of P. patens. Expression of PpDHNA and PpDHNB was induced by salt and osmotic stress and controlled by abscisic acid. Subcellular localization of the encoded proteins suggested that these dehydrins are localized in cytosol and accumulate near membranes during stress. Comparative analysis of dhnA and dhnB targeted knockout mutants of P. patens revealed that both genes play a role in cellular protection during salt and osmotic stress, although PpDHNA has a higher contribution to stress tolerance. Overexpression of PpDHNA and PpDHNB genes in transgenic Arabidopsis improved rosette and root growth in stress conditions, although PpDHNA was more efficient in this role. These results suggest that specific DHNs contribute considerably to the high stress tolerance of mosses and offer novel tools for genetic engineering stress tolerance of higher plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of exposure cycle on hot salt stress corrosion of a titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.; Johnston, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of exposure cycle on the hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking resistance of the Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was determined. Both temperature and stress were cycled simultaneously to simulate turbine-powered aircraft service cycles. Temperature and stress were also cycled independently to determine their individual effects. Substantial increases in crack threshold stresses were observed for cycles in which both temperature and stress or temperature alone were applied for 1 hour and removed for 3 hours. The crack threshold stresses for these cyclic exposures were twice those determined for continuous exposure for the same total time of 96 hours.

  19. Salt stress tolerance of methylotrophic bacteria Methylophilus sp. and Methylobacterium sp. isolated from coal mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Deen Dayal; Kumar, Ajay; Shukla, Prabhu Nath; Singh, Ritu; Singh, P K; Pandey, Kapil Deo

    2013-01-01

    Two methylotrophic strains of Bina coalmine spoil BNV7b and BRV25 were identified based on physiological traits and 16S rDNA sequence as Methylophilus and Methylobacterium species.' The strains exhibited similar carbon utilization but differed in N utilization and their response to the metabolic inhibitors. Methylophilus sp. was less tolerant to salt stress and it viability declined to one tenth within 4 h of incubation in 2M NaCI due to membrane damage and leakage of the intracellular electrolytes as evident from malondiaaldehyde (MDA) assay. In 200 mM NaCI, they exhibited increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity while in 500 mM NaCI, enzyme activities declined in Methylophilus sp. and increased in Methylobacterium sp. Among exogenously applied osmoprotectants proline was most efficient; however, polyols (mannitol, sorbitol and glycerol) also supported growth under lethal NaCI concentration.

  20. System analysis of salt and osmotic stress induced proteins in Nostoc muscorum and Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kaithwas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the proteome response of the two diazotrophic organism’s viz. Nostoc muscorum and Bradyrhizobium japonicum exposed to salt (NaCl and osmotic (sucrose stresses was compared. Out of the total over expressed proteins; we have selected only three over expressed proteins viz. GroEL chaperonin, nitrogenase Mo-Fe protein and argininosuccinate synthase for further analysis, and then we analyzed the amino acid frequencies of all the three over expressed proteins. That led to the conclusion that amino acids e.g. alanine, glycine and valine that were energetically cheaper to produce were showing higher frequencies. This study would help in tracing the phylogenetic relationship between protein families.

  1. Nisin Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Is Increased by Exposure to Salt Stress and Is Mediated via LiaR

    OpenAIRE

    Bergholz, Teresa M.; Tang, Silin; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on refrigerated, ready-to-eat food is a significant food safety concern. Natural antimicrobials, such as nisin, can be used to control this pathogen on food, but little is known about how other food-related stresses may impact how the pathogen responds to these compounds. Prior work demonstrated that exposure of L. monocytogenes to salt stress at 7°C led to increased expression of genes involved in nisin resistance, including the response regulator liaR. We hy...

  2. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na+, (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na+/K+ homeostasis and hormonal balance. PMID:23299430

  3. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Arabidopsis RabF1 (ARA6) Is Involved in Salt Stress and Dark-Induced Senescence (DIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Congfei; Karim, Sazzad; Zhang, Hongsheng; Aronsson, Henrik

    2017-02-01

    Arabidopsis small GTPase RabF1 (ARA6) functions in endosomal vesicle transport and may play a crucial role in recycling and degradation of molecules, thus involved in stress responses. Here we have reported that complementary overexpression lines RabF1OE (overexpression), GTPase mutants RabF1Q93L (constitutively active) and RabF1S47N (dominant negative) lines show longer root growth than wild-type, rabF1 knockout and N-myristoylation deletion (Δ1-29, N-terminus) complementary overexpression mutant plants under salt induced stress, which indicates that N-myristoylation of RabF1 is indispensable for salt tolerance. Moreover, RabF1 is highly expressed during senescence and RabF1OE lines were more tolerant of dark-induced senescence (DIS) than wild-type and rabF1.

  5. Arabidopsis RabF1 (ARA6 Is Involved in Salt Stress and Dark-Induced Senescence (DIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congfei Yin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis small GTPase RabF1 (ARA6 functions in endosomal vesicle transport and may play a crucial role in recycling and degradation of molecules, thus involved in stress responses. Here we have reported that complementary overexpression lines RabF1OE (overexpression, GTPase mutants RabF1Q93L (constitutively active and RabF1S47N (dominant negative lines show longer root growth than wild-type, rabF1 knockout and N-myristoylation deletion (Δ1−29, N-terminus complementary overexpression mutant plants under salt induced stress, which indicates that N-myristoylation of RabF1 is indispensable for salt tolerance. Moreover, RabF1 is highly expressed during senescence and RabF1OE lines were more tolerant of dark-induced senescence (DIS than wild-type and rabF1.

  6. Monitoring the Short-Term Response to Salt Exposure of Two Genetically Distinct Phragmites australis Clones with Different Salinity Tolerance Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Luciana; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    in the 15-minute experiment. The Greeny-type also recovered after the 70-minute exposure, but not the Land-type. We conclude that the response to osmotic stress is genotype-dependent and that the salt-tolerant clone possesses very efficient signaling pathways to detect changes in the soil water potential......Aims: Two genetically distinct clones of Phragmites australis were used to investigate the immediate response induced by osmotic stress. The study aimed at elucidating if the response time, the inhibition rate and the recovery from salinity stress vary between these two genotypes. The experimental...... salt concentrations (20 and 40 parts per thousand salinity). Important findings: The osmotic stress induced stomata closure and reduction of Pmax and E for both clones. The clone-specific responses as measured through physiological parameters were negatively correlated with exposure time and salt...

  7. Microarray analysis of genes affected by salt stress in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LANDA

    drop spectrometer (Nanodrop Technologies, USA). The DNA free. RNA samples were used for further analysis. Microarray hybridization, data acquisition and analysis .... General features of the salt regulated gene expres- ..... 2CVO Chain D, Crystal Structure Of Putative N-Acetyl-Gamma-Glutamyl- Phosphate Reductase.

  8. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in Na+ was positively related to total soluble sugars, resulting in an osmotic adjustment of the membrane that maintained water availability. The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: Mannitol, membrane injury, ...

  9. Potential of duckweed (Lemna minor) for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from water under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Dai, Zheng; Sun, Hongwen

    2017-02-01

    Duckweed plays a major role in the removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from water. To determine the effect of salt stress on the removal of N and P by duckweed, we cultured Lemna minor, a common species of duckweed, in N and P-rich water with NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mM for 24 h and 72 h, respectively. The results show that the removal capacity of duckweed for N and P was reduced by salt stress. Higher salt stress with longer cultivation period exerts more injury to duckweed and greater inhibition of N and P removal. Severe salt stress (100 mM NaCl) induced duckweed to release N and P and even resulted in negative removal efficiencies. The results indicate that L. minor should be used to remove N and P from water with salinities below 75 mM NaCl, or equivalent salt stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  11. EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON THE GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATE OF BEAN PLANTS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

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    Nevena STOEVA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salt stress оn some physiological parameters in young bean plants (cv. Lody was studied under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution. The plants were treated for 7 days with 50 and 100 mM NaCl and Na2SO4 , starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the applied doses of both salt types caused stress on the young bean plants, which found expression in the suppression of growth, photosynthesis activity and the plastid pigment content. The amount of proline in the tissues of the salt-treated plants was increased, while the cell water potential was reduced.

  12. NADPH from the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway drives the operation of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in high-intertidal macroalgae under severe salt stress.

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    Lu, Xiaoping; Huan, Li; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Wang, Guangce

    2016-04-01

    Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) is a representative species of high-intertidal macroalgae, whose blades can tolerate extreme stresses, such as salt stress and desiccation. In this study, the photosystem (PS) responses of P. yezoensis blades under salt stress were studied. Our results showed that when the effective photochemical quantum yield of PS (Y) II decreased to almost zero under high salt stress, YI still had a relatively high activity rate. PSII was therefore more sensitive to salt stress than PSI. Furthermore, in the presence of 3-(3', 4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), YI rose as salinity increased. The YI values for DCMU-treated thalli decreased in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, G6PDH) inhibitor (glucosamine, Glucm). The YI values were ∼0.09 in the presence of methyl viologen (MV) and almost zero in the presence of dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB). These results demonstrated that under severe salt stress (120‰ salinity) PSI activity was driven from a source other than PSII, and that stromal reductants probably supported the operation of PSI. Under salt stress, the starch content decreased and soluble sugar levels increased. The G6PDH and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44) activities increased, but cytosolic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12) activity decreased. Furthermore, the NADPH content increased, but NADH decreased, which suggested that soluble sugar entered the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). All these results suggested that NADPH from OPPP increases the cyclic electron flow around PSI in high-intertidal macroalgae under severe salt stress. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

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    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  14. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

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    Hyacinthe Le Gall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic, transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions.

  15. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

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    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  16. Transcriptome-wide identification of salt-responsive members of the WRKY gene family in Gossypium aridum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinqi; Guo, Qi; Xu, Peng; Gong, YuanYong; Shu, Hongmei; Yang, Yang; Ni, Wanchao; Zhang, Xianggui; Shen, Xinlian

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are plant-specific, zinc finger-type transcription factors. The WRKY superfamily is involved in abiotic stress responses in many crops including cotton, a major fiber crop that is widely cultivated and consumed throughout the world. Salinity is an important abiotic stress that results in considerable yield losses. In this study, we identified 109 WRKY genes (GarWRKYs) in a salt-tolerant wild cotton species Gossypium aridum from transcriptome sequencing data to elucidate the roles of these factors in cotton salt tolerance. According to their structural features, the predicted members were divided into three groups (Groups I-III), as previously described for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, 28 salt-responsive GarWRKY genes were identified from digital gene expression data and subjected to real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The expression patterns of most GarWRKY genes revealed by this analysis are in good agreement with those revealed by RNA-Seq analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed that 27 GarWRKY genes were expressed in roots and one was exclusively expressed in roots. Analysis of gene orthology and motif compositions indicated that WRKY members from Arabidopsis, rice and soybean generally shared the similar motifs within the same subgroup, suggesting they have the similar function. Overexpression-GarWRKY17 and -GarWRKY104 in Arabidopsis revealed that they could positively regulate salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis during different development stages. The comprehensive data generated in this study provide a platform for elucidating the functions of WRKY transcription factors in salt tolerance of G. aridum. In addition, GarWRKYs related to salt tolerance identified in this study will be potential candidates for genetic improvement of cultivated cotton salt stress tolerance.

  17. Transcriptome-wide identification of salt-responsive members of the WRKY gene family in Gossypium aridum.

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    Xinqi Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are plant-specific, zinc finger-type transcription factors. The WRKY superfamily is involved in abiotic stress responses in many crops including cotton, a major fiber crop that is widely cultivated and consumed throughout the world. Salinity is an important abiotic stress that results in considerable yield losses. In this study, we identified 109 WRKY genes (GarWRKYs in a salt-tolerant wild cotton species Gossypium aridum from transcriptome sequencing data to elucidate the roles of these factors in cotton salt tolerance. According to their structural features, the predicted members were divided into three groups (Groups I-III, as previously described for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, 28 salt-responsive GarWRKY genes were identified from digital gene expression data and subjected to real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The expression patterns of most GarWRKY genes revealed by this analysis are in good agreement with those revealed by RNA-Seq analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed that 27 GarWRKY genes were expressed in roots and one was exclusively expressed in roots. Analysis of gene orthology and motif compositions indicated that WRKY members from Arabidopsis, rice and soybean generally shared the similar motifs within the same subgroup, suggesting they have the similar function. Overexpression-GarWRKY17 and -GarWRKY104 in Arabidopsis revealed that they could positively regulate salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis during different development stages. The comprehensive data generated in this study provide a platform for elucidating the functions of WRKY transcription factors in salt tolerance of G. aridum. In addition, GarWRKYs related to salt tolerance identified in this study will be potential candidates for genetic improvement of cultivated cotton salt stress tolerance.

  18. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of Salt-Responsive Members of the WRKY Gene Family in Gossypium aridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinqi; Guo, Qi; Xu, Peng; Gong, YuanYong; Shu, Hongmei; Yang, Yang; Ni, Wanchao; Zhang, Xianggui; Shen, Xinlian

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are plant-specific, zinc finger-type transcription factors. The WRKY superfamily is involved in abiotic stress responses in many crops including cotton, a major fiber crop that is widely cultivated and consumed throughout the world. Salinity is an important abiotic stress that results in considerable yield losses. In this study, we identified 109 WRKY genes (GarWRKYs) in a salt-tolerant wild cotton species Gossypium aridum from transcriptome sequencing data to elucidate the roles of these factors in cotton salt tolerance. According to their structural features, the predicted members were divided into three groups (Groups I–III), as previously described for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, 28 salt-responsive GarWRKY genes were identified from digital gene expression data and subjected to real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The expression patterns of most GarWRKY genes revealed by this analysis are in good agreement with those revealed by RNA-Seq analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed that 27 GarWRKY genes were expressed in roots and one was exclusively expressed in roots. Analysis of gene orthology and motif compositions indicated that WRKY members from Arabidopsis, rice and soybean generally shared the similar motifs within the same subgroup, suggesting they have the similar function. Overexpression-GarWRKY17 and –GarWRKY104 in Arabidopsis revealed that they could positively regulate salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis during different development stages. The comprehensive data generated in this study provide a platform for elucidating the functions of WRKY transcription factors in salt tolerance of G. aridum. In addition, GarWRKYs related to salt tolerance identified in this study will be potential candidates for genetic improvement of cultivated cotton salt stress tolerance. PMID:25951083

  19. Cotton GhERF38 gene is involved in plant response to salt/drought and ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liufeng; Hu, Longxing; Fan, Jibiao; Amombo, Erick; Khaldun, A B M; Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang

    2017-08-01

    ERF (ethylene-responsive factor) transcription factors play important roles in plant stress signaling transduction pathways. However, their specific roles during diverse abiotic stresses tolerance in Gossypium hirsutum are largely unknown. Here, a novel ERF transcription factor, designated GhERF38, homologous to AtERF38 in Arabidopsis, was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). GhERF38 expression was up-regulated by salt, drought and ABA treatments. Subcellular localization results indicated that GhERF38 was localized in the cell nucleus. Over-expression of GhERF38 in Arabidopsis reduced plant tolerance to salt and drought stress as indicated by a decline of seed germination, plant greenness frequency, primary roots length and the survival rate in transgenic plants compared to those of wild type plants under salt or drought treatment. Besides, stress tolerance related physiological parameters such as proline content, relative water content, soluble sugar and chlorophyll content were all significantly lower in transgenic plants than those of wild type plants under salt or drought treatment. Furthermore, over-expression of GhERF38 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA sensitivity in transgenic plants during both seed germination and seedling growth. Interestingly, the stomatal aperture of guard cells in the transgenic plants was larger than that in transgenic plant after ABA treatment, suggesting that GhERF38-overexpressing plants were insensitive to ABA in terms of stomatal closure. Furthermore, expressions of the stress-related genes were altered in the GhERF38 transgenic plants under high salinity, drought or ABA treatment. Together, our results revealed that GhERF38 functions as a novel regulator that is involved in response to salt/drought stress and ABA signaling during plant development.

  20. Integrated Stress Responses in Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Fang, Ferric C.

    2011-01-01

    The foodborne gram-negative pathogen Salmonella must adapt to varied environmental conditions encountered within foods, the host gastrointestinal tract and the phagosomes of host macrophages. Adaptation is achieved through the coordinate regulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals such as temperature, pH, osmolarity, redox state, antimicrobial peptides, and nutrient deprivation. This review will examine mechanisms by which the integration of regulatory responses to a broad array of environmental signals can be achieved. First, in the most straightforward case, tandem promoters allow gene expression to respond to multiple signals. Second, versatile sensor proteins may respond to more than one environmental signal. Third, transcriptional silencing and counter-silencing as demonstrated by the H-NS paradigm provides a general mechanism for the convergence of multiple regulatory inputs. Fourth, signaling cascades allow gene activation by independent sensory elements. These mechanisms allow Salmonella to utilize common adaptive stress pathways in response to a diverse range of environmental conditions. PMID:21570144

  1. Stress Response of Granular Systems

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    Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2017-10-01

    We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.

  2. Transcriptional responses of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to increased environmental osmolality caused by salt or urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withman, Benjamin; Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Beesetty, Pavani; Agans, Richard; Paliy, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infections in humans. The majority of urinary infections develop via ascending route through the urethra, where bacterial cells come in contact with human urine prior to reaching the bladder or kidneys. Since urine contains significant amounts of inorganic ions and urea, it imposes osmotic and denaturing stresses on bacterial cells. In this study, we determined the transcriptional adaptive responses of UPEC strain CFT073 to the presence of 0.3 M NaCl or 0.6 M urea in the growth medium. The cell responses to these two osmolytes were drastically different. Although most of the genes of the osmotically inducible regulon were overexpressed in medium with salt, urea failed to stimulate osmotic stress response. At the same time, UPEC colonization genes encoding type 1 and F1C fimbriae and capsule biosynthesis were transcriptionally induced in the presence of urea but did not respond to increased salt concentration. We speculate that urea can potentially be sensed by uropathogenic bacteria to initiate infection program. In addition, several molecular chaperone genes were overexpressed in the presence of urea, whereas adding NaCl to the medium led to an upregulation of a number of anaerobic metabolism pathways.

  3. Long Term Salinity Stress Reveals Variety Specific Differences in Root Oxidative Stress Response

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    Prasad SENADHEERA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress induces oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS: superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals. Activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the antioxidant system and related growth parameters were studied in the roots of the salt tolerant rice variety FL478 and the sensitive variety IR29 in response to long term stress (12 d induced by 50 mmol/L NaCl. The comparative study showed that FL478 maintained higher relative growth rate and lower Na+/K+ in the roots than IR29 due to a higher membrane stability index that effectively exclude Na+. Lower TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content in FL478 roots indicated that its membrane was relatively unaffected by ROS despite high H2O2 content recorded under the salinity stress. Relatively higher superoxide dismutase activity along with a parallel increase in transcript level of superoxide dismutase (Os07g46990 in FL478 indicated that this protein might make a vital contribution to salt stress tolerance. Although the content of ascorbic acid remained unchanged in FL478, the activity of ascorbic peroxidases (APOXs was reduced comparably in the both varieties. Transcriptomic data showed that a larger number of peroxidase genes were upregulated in FL478 compared to IR29 and several of which might provide engineering targets to improve rice salt tolerance.

  4. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes.

  5. [Effect of AM fungi on water and nutrition status of corn plants under salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G; Li, X; Zhang, F; Li, S

    2000-08-01

    Under NaCl stress, the dry matter production of corn plants inoculated with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) was decreased, but the decrement for non-mycorrhizal plants was 10% higher than that for mycorrhizal ones. Under salt stress condition, the dry weights of root system and aboveground part of mycorrhizal corn and its leaf water potential were higher than those of non-mycorrhizal corn, while the proline content of mycorrhizal corn was less than that of non-mycorrhizal corn. The contribution of hypha to P uptake of plants decreased from 45.3% to 42.6%, while the effect of AM fungi on plant growth increased from 30.9% to 63.5% under salt stress condition. The above-mentioned results indicated that the mechanism that AM fungi enhance the salt-resistance of corn is related with the improvements of water and P nutrition conditions. Meanwhile, it was found whether under salt stress or not, the ratio of P accumulation of root system to aboveground part of mycorrhizal corn was higher than that of non-mycorrhizal corn, indicating that the infection of AM fungi changed the P distribution pattern in plant bodies, which is beneficial to increase the salt-resistance of plants.

  6. Impact of AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter, upon gene expression during short- and long-term salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Blumwald Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AtNHX1, the most abundant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, mediates the transport of Na+ and K+ into the vacuole, influencing plant development and contributing to salt tolerance. In this report, microarray expression profiles of wild type plants, a T-DNA insertion knockout mutant of AtNHX1 (nhx1, and a 'rescued' line (NHX1::nhx1 were exposed to both short (12 h and 48 h and long (one and two weeks durations of a non-lethal salt stress to identify key gene transcripts associated with the salt response that are influenced by AtNHX1. Results 147 transcripts showed both salt responsiveness and a significant influence of AtNHX1. Fifty-seven of these genes showed an influence of the antiporter across all salt treatments, while the remaining genes were influenced as a result of a particular duration of salt stress. Most (69% of the genes were up-regulated in the absence of AtNHX1, with the exception of transcripts encoding proteins involved with metabolic and energy processes that were mostly down-regulated. Conclusion While part of the AtNHX1-influenced transcripts were unclassified, other transcripts with known or putative roles showed the importance of AtNHX1 to key cellular processes that were not necessarily limited to the salt stress response; namely calcium signaling, sulfur metabolism, cell structure and cell growth, as well as vesicular trafficking and protein processing. Only a small number of other salt-responsive membrane transporter transcripts appeared significantly influenced by AtNHX1.

  7. Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39 alleviates salt stress and promotes growth of 'Micro Tom' tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Damodharan, K; Yang, S H; Suh, J W

    2014-09-01

    To identify an actinobacterial strain that can promote growth and alleviate salinity stress in tomato plants. Actinobacteria were isolated from agricultural soil and screened for ACC deaminase activity, production of indole acetic acid (IAA), solubilization of tricalcium phosphate and sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity tolerance. Among the several strains tested, one strain designated PGPA39 exhibited higher IAA production, and phosphate solubilization in addition to ACC deaminase activity, and tolerance to 1 mol l(-1) NaCl. Strain PGPA39 was identified as a Streptomyces strain based on 16S rDNA sequence and designated Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39. It promoted the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings in vitro as evidenced by a significant increase in plant biomass and number of lateral roots. Salinity stress-alleviating activity of PGPA39 was evaluated using 'Micro Tom' tomato plants with 180 mmol l(-1) NaCl stress under gnotobiotic condition. A significant increase in plant biomass and chlorophyll content and a reduction in leaf proline content were observed in PGPA39-inoculated tomato plants under salt stress compared with control and salt-stressed noninoculated plants. Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39 alleviated salt stress and promoted the growth of tomato plants. This study shows the potential of Streptomyces sp. strain PGPA39 in alleviating salinity stress in tomato plants and could be utilized for stress alleviation in crop plants under field conditions. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Changes in sulphur metabolism of grey poplar (Populus x canescens) leaves during salt stress: a metabolic link to photorespiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Cornelia; Teuber, Markus; Eiblmeier, Monika; Ehlting, Barbara; Ache, Peter; Polle, Andrea; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2010-09-01

    The poplar hybrid Populus x canescens (syn. Populus tremula x Populus alba) was subjected to salt stress by applying 75 mM NaCl for 2 weeks in hydroponic cultures. Decreasing maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) indicated damage of photosystem II (PS II), which was more pronounced under nitrate compared with ammonium nutrition. In vivo staining with diaminobenzidine showed no accumulation of H(2)O(2) in the leaf lamina; moreover, staining intensity even decreased. But at the leaf margins, development of necrotic tissue was associated with a strong accumulation of H(2)O(2). Glutathione (GSH) contents increased in response to NaCl stress in leaves but not in roots, the primary site of salt exposure. The increasing leaf GSH concentrations correlated with stress-induced decreases in transpiration and net CO(2) assimilation rates at light saturation. Enhanced rates of photorespiration could also be involved in preventing reactive oxygen species formation in chloroplasts and, thus, in protecting PS II from damage. Accumulation of Gly and Ser in leaves indeed indicates increasing rates of photorespiration. Since Ser and Gly are both immediate precursors of GSH that can limit GSH synthesis, it is concluded that the salt-induced accumulation of leaf GSH results from enhanced photorespiration and is thus probably restricted to the cytosol.

  9. The maize AAA-type protein SKD1 confers enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with Lyst-interacting protein 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Xia

    Full Text Available ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA proteins are important regulators involved in diverse cellular functions. To date, the molecular mechanisms of AAA proteins involved in response to salt and drought stresses in plants are largely unknown. In this study, a putative SKD1 (suppressor of K(+ transport growth defect 1 ortholog from Zea mays (ZmSKD1, which encodes a putative AAA protein, was isolated. The transcript levels of ZmSKD1 were higher in aerial tissues and were markedly up-regulated by salt or drought stress. Over-expression of ZmSKD1 in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerances not only to salt but to drought. Moreover, reactive oxygen species accumulations in ZmSKD1 transgenic lines were relative less than those in wild-type plants during salt or PEG-induced water stress. The interaction between ZmSKD1 and NtLIP5 (Lyst-Interacting Protein 5 homolog from Nicotiana tabacum was confirmed by both yeast two-hybrid and immuno-precipitation assays; moreover, the α-helix-rich domain in the C-terminus of ZmSKD1 was identified to be required for its interaction with NtLIP5 using truncation mutations. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ZmSKD1could be involved in salt and drought stress responses and its over-expression enhances salt or drought stress tolerance possibly through interacting with LIP5 in tobacco. This study may facilitate our understandings of the biological roles of SKD1-mediated ESCRT pathway under stress conditions in higher plants and accelerate genetic improvement of crop plants tolerant to environmental stresses.

  10. Elevated compartmentalization of Na+ into vacuoles improves salt and cold stress tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Deng, Gaifang; Wang, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Salinity and low temperature are the main limiting factors for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) growth and agricultural productivity. Various studies have shown that plant NHX-type antiporter plays a crucial role in regulating plant tolerance to salt stress by intracellular Na(+) compartmentalization. The Arabidopsis thaliana AtNHX1 gene that encodes a vacuolar Na(+) /H(+) antiporter was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Xushu-22 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer abiotic stress tolerance. Stable insertion of AtNHX1 into the sweet potato genome and its expression was confirmed by Southern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A remarkably higher Na(+) /H(+) exchange activity of tonoplast membrane from transgenic sweet potato lines (NOE) in comparison with wild-type (WT) plants confirmed the vacuolar antiporter function in mediating Na(+) /H(+) exchange. Under salt stress, NOE plants accumulated higher Na(+) and K(+) levels in their tissues compared with WT plants, maintaining high K(+) /Na(+) ratios. Consequently, NOE plants showed enhanced protection against cell damage due to the increased proline accumulation, preserved cell membrane integrity, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (e.g. increased superoxide dismutase activity), and reduced H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, the transgenic plants showed improved cold tolerance through multiple mechanisms of action, revealing the first molecular evidence for NHX1 function in cold response. The transgenic plants showed better biomass production and root yield under stressful conditions. These findings demonstrate that overexpressing AtNHX1 in sweet potato renders the crop tolerant to both salt and cold stresses, providing a greater capacity for the use of AtNHX1 in improving crop performance under combined abiotic stress conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Neurovascular responses to mental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R; Kupiers, Nathan T; Ray, Chester A

    2005-01-01

    The effects of mental stress (MS) on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and limb blood flows have been studied independently in the arm and leg, but they have not been studied collectively. Furthermore, the cardiovascular implications of postmental stress responses have not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of the current investigation was to comprehensively examine concurrent neural and vascular responses during and after mental stress in both limbs. In Study 1, MSNA, blood flow (plethysmography), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in both the arm and leg in 12 healthy subjects during and after MS (5 min of mental arithmetic). MS significantly increased MAP (Δ15 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.01) and HR (Δ19 ± 3 beats min−1; P < 0.01), but did not change MSNA in the arm (14 ± 3 to 16 ± 3 bursts min−1; n= 6) or leg (14 ± 2 to 15 ± 2 bursts min−1; n= 8). MS decreased forearm vascular resistance (FVR) by −27 ± 7% (P < 0.01; n= 8), while calf vascular resistance (CVR) did not change (−6 ± 5%; n= 11). FVR returned to baseline during recovery, whereas MSNA significantly increased in the arm (21 ± 3 bursts min−1; P < 0.01) and leg (19 ± 3 bursts min−1; P < 0.03). In Study 2, forearm and calf blood flows were measured in an additional 10 subjects using Doppler ultrasound. MS decreased FVR (−27 ± 10%; P < 0.02), but did not change CVR (5 ± 14%) as in Study 1. These findings demonstrate differential vascular control of the arm and leg during MS that is not associated with muscle sympathetic outflow. Additionally, the robust increase in MSNA during recovery may have acute and chronic cardiovascular implications. PMID:15705649

  12. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Involved in Seed Imbibition under Salt Stress in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enshun; Chen, Mingming; He, Hui; Zhan, Chengfang; Cheng, Yanhao; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhoufei

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of salinity tolerance during seed germination is very important for direct seeding in rice. In this study, the salt-tolerant japonica landrace Jiucaiqing was used to determine the regulators that are involved in seed imbibition under salt stress. Briefly, the comparative proteomic analysis was conducted between dry (0 h) and imbibed (24 h) seeds with 150 mM NaCl. Under salt stress, the uptake of water increased rapidly before 24 h imbibition (Phase I), followed by a plateau of seed imbibition from 24 to 96 h imbibition (Phase II). We identified 14 proteins involved in seed imbibition, in which the majority of these proteins were involved in energy supply and storage protein. The early imbibition process was mediated by protein catabolism; the most of proteins were down-regulated after 24 h imbibition. Eleven genes in salt stress treated seeds were expressed early during the seed imbibition in comparison to control seeds. By comparison, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (BPM), glutelin (GLU2.2 and GLU2.3), glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase large subunit (GAS8), and cupin domain containing protein (CDP3.1 and CDP3.2) were near the regions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed dormancy, seed reserve utilization, and seed germination in Jiucaiqing. In particular, CDP3.1 was co-located in the region of qIR-3 for imbibition rate, and qGP-3 for germination percentage. The role of CDP3.1 was verified in enhancing seed germination under salt stress using T-DNA mutant. The identified proteins might be applicable for the improvement of seed germination under salt stress in rice.

  13. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...

  14. Global Gene Expression of Kosteletzkya virginica Seedlings Responding to Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tang

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is becoming a serious threat to crop yield all over the world. Nowadays, acquainting the specific molecular mechanisms underlying various abiotic stresses especially to salt stress should be of great importance. While the development of the high-throughout sequencing technology promoted the progress powerfully. The intricate perception, transduction and regulation mechanisms underlying salt stress are being illustrated more and more clearly. As a perennial halophytic plant, Kosteletzkya virginica is able to help us to understand the mechanisms more directly and effectively. We carried out the whole transcriptome analysis on young seedlings with or without salt treatment through high-throughout sequencing technology. The results revealed that the numbers of different expressed transcripts between control and different treatments are 4145 and 9134, respectively. The ORF prediction suggested that there were 94308 ORF out of the 103489 (91.10% total transcripts. We also carried out further differential expression analysis through gene ontology (GO classification, cluster of orthologous groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis. In a word, our transcriptome study on Kosteletzkya virginica would provide direct and effective references for researches on molecular mechanisms of salt-tolerance, extending our view of salt tolerance in plant further. Above all, the related report in this paper is the first about Kosteletzkya virginica.

  15. Effect of saline solutions and salt stress on seed germination of some tropical forest tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Agboola

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of several saline solutions (as given by six salts and salt stress (as given by 0.1 - 2m sodium chloride solutions on the germination of seeds of six selected tropical forest tree species was investigated. Saline solutions (0.2m of the six salts used had highly significant effects on seed germination in most of the tree species. Sodium sulphate (Na2So4 permitted germination in the seeds of Ceiba pentandra and Tectona grandis presoaked in its 0.2m solution for 36 and 48h respectively. The Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 solution enhanced the germination of seeds of Terminalia ivorensis and Terminalia superba. Solution of Potassium per Manganate favoured the germination of seeds of T. grandis, T. ivorensis and T. superba. In general, increase in molar concentration of NaCl adversely affected the germination rate of seeds. Sees of the two Terminalia species could withstand NaCl salt stress. Seeds of T. grandis have high ability to withstand salt stress comparatively.

  16. Alteration of the Helicobacter pylori membrane proteome in response to changes in environmental salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bradley J; Loh, John T; Hill, Salisha; Rose, Kristie L; McDonald, W Hayes; Cover, Timothy L

    2015-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection and a high dietary salt intake are each risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. We hypothesize that changes in environmental salt concentrations lead to alterations in the H. pylori membrane proteome. Label-free and iTRAQ methods were used to identify H. pylori proteins that change in abundance in response to alterations in environmental salt concentrations. In addition, we biotinylated intact bacteria that were grown under high- or low-salt conditions, and thereby analyzed salt-induced changes in the abundance of surface-exposed proteins. Proteins with increased abundance in response to high salt conditions included CagA, the outer membrane protein HopQ, and fibronectin domain-containing protein HP0746. Proteins with increased abundance in response to low salt conditions included VacA, two VacA-like proteins (ImaA and FaaA), outer-membrane iron transporter FecA3, and several proteins involved in flagellar activity. Consistent with the proteomic data, bacteria grown in high salt conditions exhibited decreased motility compared to bacteria grown in lower salt conditions. Alterations in the H. pylori membrane proteome in response to high salt conditions may contribute to the increased risk of gastric cancer associated with a high salt diet. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Balance between salt stress and endogenous hormones influence dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Lingling; Wu, Yawen; Chen, Manxia; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-10-15

    Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized. Under mild salt stress (≤2.2gNaClkg(-1) soil), Nanyu-1 grew well with no significant alteration of dry matter distribution to stems and tubers. In contrast, under moderate salt stress (2.7gNaClkg(-1) soil), the distribution to stem decreased and to tubers decreased significantly. Mild salt stress induced sugar accumulation in tubers at the beginning of the tuber-expansion period, but significantly inhibited (i) transfer of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (ii) polymerization and accumulation of fructan during the tuber-expansion stage. Under different salinity stress, before the stolon growth, the ratio of IAA/ABA in leaves increased significantly and that of GA3/ABA increased slightly; during tuber development, these ratios continued to decrease and reached the minimum late in the tuber-expansion period. While, salt stress inhibited (i) underground dry matter accumulation, (ii) tuber dry matter accumulation efficiency, (iii) transport of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (iv) fructan accumulation efficiency during the tuber-expansion period; these effects were accompanied by significantly decreased tuber yield with an increase in salinity. With soil salinity increasing, the synthesis of IAA and GA3 was inhibited in leaves and tubers, while ABA synthesis was stimulated. In brief, tuber yield would significantly decreased with the increase of salinity

  18. Effects of salt stress on wild type and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana: Model plant to engineer tolerance towards salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalatbari Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental constraints impairing plant distribution and yield is believed to be salt stress. Additionally, engineered abiotic stress resistance or/and tolerance is considered as an indispensable target in order to enhance plant productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on physiological and morphological of wild type (Columbia-0 and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under different NaCl concentrations. These salt treatments, including control condition, 50mM and 100mM NaCl were imposed on the plants. Each salt treatment was replicated three times in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement. Wild type and mutant A.thaliana plants were subjected to the abiotic stress (salinity for up to 11 days to evaluate the parameters of growth, development and water relations. As a result, the performance of wild type plants was stronger than vte4 mutant under different salt treatments. Under control condition, rosette dry weight, maximum quantum efficiency (PSII and specific leaf area obtained the highest values of 13.85 mg, considered, wild type A.thaliana recorded higher value of 0.82 gW/gFW for relative water content (RWC under 50mM NaCl whereas mutant plants gained the value of 0.78 gW/gFW under the same condition. However, root mass fraction indicated an increase for both wild type and vte4 mutant plants after 11 days of salt stress onset. The reduction of water potential was observed for wild type and mutant A.thaliana where it scored -1.3 MPa and -1.4, respectively. As a conclusion, these findings implied that under different salt treatments morphological and physiological responses of wild type and vte4 mutant were affected in which wild type plants showed more tolerance. Lack of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ -TMT gene in vte4 seemed to impair defence mechanism of this mutant against salinity.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide regulates salt tolerance in rice by maintaining Na+/K+ balance, mineral homeostasis and oxidative metabolism under excessive salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Mostofa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being a salt sensitive crop, rice growth and development are frequently affected by soil salinity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been recently explored as an important priming agent regulating diverse physiological processes of plant growth and development. Despite its enormous prospects in plant systems, the role of H2S in plant stress tolerance is still elusive. Here, a combined pharmacological, physiological and biochemical approach was executed aiming to examine the possible mechanism of H2S in enhancement of salt stress tolerance in rice. We show that pretreating rice plants with H2S donor sodium bisulfide (NaHS clearly improved, but application of H2S scavenger hypotaurine with NaHS decreased growth and biomass-related parameters under salt stress. NaHS-pretreated salt-stressed plants exhibited increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein contents, as well as suppressed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, contributing to oxidative damage protection. The protective mechanism of H2S against oxidative stress was correlated with the elevated levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, redox states, and the enhanced activities of ROS- and methylglyoxal-detoxifying enzymes. Notably, decreased uptake of Na+, decreased Na+/K+ ratio and balanced mineral contents indicated a role of H2S in ion homeostasis under salt stress. Altogether, our results highlight that modulation of the level of endogenous H2S genetically or exogenously could be employed to attain better growth and development of rice, and perhaps other crops, under salt stress. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of the implication of gasotransmitter like H2S for the management of salt stress, thus assisting rice plants to adapt to adverse environmental changes.

  20. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the root system of maize plants under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui

    2009-07-01

    Salt stress has become a severe global problem, and salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting plant growth and yield. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi decrease plant yield losses under salinity. With the aim of determining whether AM inoculation would give an advantage to root development under salt stress, a greenhouse experiment was carried out with AM or without AM fungi. Maize plants were grown in a sand and soil mixture with 5 NaCl levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg dry substrate) for 55 days, following 15 days of nonsaline pretreatment. At all salt levels, mycorrhizal plants had higher dry shoot and root mass, higher root activity, and lower root to shoot ratios than non-mycorrhizal plants. In salt-free soil, root length, root surface area, root volume, and number of root tips and forks were significantly larger in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal plants, whereas, under salt stress, average root diameter and root volume of mycorrhizal plants were larger than those of non-mycorrhizal plants. Regardless of the NaCl level, mycorrhizal plants had lower specific root length, lower percentage of root length in the 0-0.2 mm diameter class, and higher percentage of root length in both the 0.2-0.4 mm and 0.4-0.6 mm diameter classes, which suggests that the root system shows a significant shift towards a thicker root system when maize plants were inoculated with Glomus mosseae (Nicolson & Gerdemann). The results presented here indicate that the improvements in root activity and the coarse root system of mycorrhizal maize may help in alleviating salt stress on the plant.

  1. Effect of salt and drought stress on acid phosphatase activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acid phosphatase is wildly found in plants. This enzyme has intra and extra cellular activity. For instance, it dephosphorylase organic phosphate and change it to inorganic phosphate. However, acid phosphatase activity is increased by salt and osmotic stress. In this experiments, calluses were produced from invitro grown ...

  2. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M.S. Abdul Qados

    2011-01-01

    An increase was observed in the protein content in the two measurement periods due to the impact of salinity stress. A directly proportional relationship was found between protein content and the increase in salt concentrations in the first measurement period, while it was inversely proportional in the second.

  3. Effect of salt and drought stress on acid phosphatase activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This enzyme has intra and extra cellular activity. For instance, it dephosphorylase organic phosphate and change it to inorganic phosphate. However, acid phosphatase activity is increased by salt and osmotic stress. In this experiments, calluses were produced from invitro grown explants of Medicago sativa cv. Yazdi and cv ...

  4. Alleviation of salt stress by Halomonas sp. and osmolytes in Zea mays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ascertain this, strains were checked for osmolyte accumulation under salt stress. Growth and osmolyte accumulation of inoculated and non-inoculated seeds of the economically significant plant, Zea mays Var. EV.90, was recorded. Seeds were sown in soil supplemented with and without exogenous proline and glycine ...

  5. Effect of salt stress on growth and contents of organic and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of salt stress on growth and contents of organic and inorganic compounds in noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Alide Mitsue Watanabe Cova, André Dias de Azevedo Neto, Rogério Ferreira Ribas, Hans Raj Gheyi, Renata Velasques Menezes ...

  6. Comparative study for salt stress among seed, root stock and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were carried out to evaluate the comparative study for salt stress among seed, root stock and direct regenerated violet (Viola odorata L.) seedlings. Violet seedlings propagated through tissue culture (direct regeneration) had significantly higher salicylic acid (SA) concentrations from seed and rootstock ...

  7. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS TO ABIOTIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špoljarević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought, temperature and salt stress are the most prominent among different types of abiotic stress in soybean production. This PhD dissertation aimed to investigate the physiological mechanisms of soybean response to the above mentioned stresses. The research was performed with 6 cultivars in the germination - emergence stage and two cultivars in the flowering stage. In the first experiment, soybean seed was germinated in paper towels soaked in water or the solution with given osmotic pressure. Two levels of drought (5% and 10% PEG solutions, salt (50 and 100 mM NaCl solutions and temperature stress (10°C and 30°C, as well as a control treatment (20°C, water were applied through a 7 day germination period. Seed germinability (% and morphological traits were analysed, as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters in hypocotyls. The most effective were higher level of drought stress and low temperature. High temperature stimulated seedling development and mild drought stress had a priming effect and increased germination rate. In the second experiment, two cultivars were grown in pots filled with soil and kept in the open until flowering, and afterwards exposed to different temperature degrees (30°C, 10°C and 20°C as control during 3 days in a climate chamber. The photosynthesis efficiency parameters and, like in first experiment, physiological indicators of plant stress response were determined in the leaf tissue. Highly significant treatment influence on the analysed parameters in the both growth stages, confirms that the applied treatments invoked the oxidative stress and defence reactions in soybean.

  8. Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Chloroplasts Prevents Leaf Damage but Not Growth Arrest in Salt-Stressed Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeyro, Anabella F; Giró, Mariana; Poli, Hugo O; Bettucci, Gabriel; Cortadi, Adriana; Ferri, Alejandro M; Carrillo, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Crop yield reduction due to salinity is a growing agronomical concern in many regions. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells accompanies many abiotic stresses including salinity, acting as toxic and signaling molecules during plant stress responses. While ROS are generated in various cellular compartments, chloroplasts represent a main source in the light, and plastid ROS synthesis and/or elimination have been manipulated to improve stress tolerance. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a plastid-targeted cyanobacterial flavodoxin, a flavoprotein that prevents ROS accumulation specifically in chloroplasts, displayed increased tolerance to many environmental stresses, including drought, excess irradiation, extreme temperatures and iron starvation. Surprisingly, flavodoxin expression failed to protect transgenic plants against NaCl toxicity. However, when high salt was directly applied to leaf discs, flavodoxin did increase tolerance, as reflected by preservation of chlorophylls, carotenoids and photosynthetic activities. Flavodoxin decreased salt-dependent ROS accumulation in leaf tissue from discs and whole plants, but this decline did not improve tolerance at the whole plant level. NaCl accumulation in roots, as well as increased osmotic pressure and salt-induced root damage, were not prevented by flavodoxin expression. The results indicate that ROS formed in chloroplasts have a marginal effect on plant responses during salt stress, and that sensitive targets are present in roots which are not protected by flavodoxin.

  9. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  10. Overexpression of SbSI-1, A Nuclear Protein from Salicornia brachiata Confers Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance and Maintains Photosynthetic Efficiency in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Jyoti; Udawat, Pushpika; Dubey, Ashish K; Haque, Md Intesaful; Rathore, Mangal S; Jha, Bhavanath

    2017-01-01

    A novel Salicornia brachiata Salt Inducible (SbSI-1) gene was isolated and overexpressed in tobacco for in planta functional validation subjected to drought and salt stress. SbSI-1 is a nuclear protein. The transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene exhibited better seed germination, growth performances, pigment contents, cell viability, starch accumulation, and tolerance index under drought and salt stress. Overexpression of SbSI-1 gene alleviated the build-up of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages thus improved the physiological health of transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions. The higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, lower accumulation of ROS, higher membrane stability, relative water content, and polyphenol contents indicated the better survival of the transgenic tobacco than wild-type (WT) tobacco under stressed conditions. Transgenic tobacco had a higher net photosynthetic rate, PSII operating efficiency, and performance index under drought and salt stress. Higher accumulation of compatible solutes and K+/Na+ ratio in transgenic tobacco than WT showed the better osmotic and redox homeostasis under stressed conditions. The up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (NtSOD, NtAPX, and NtCAT) and transcription factors (NtDREB2 and NtAP2) in transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions showed the role of SbSI-1 in ROS alleviation and involvement of this gene in abiotic stress tolerance. Multivariate data analysis exhibited statistical distinction among growth responses, physiological health, osmotic adjustment, and photosynthetic responses of WT and transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions. The overexpression of SbSI-1 gene curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages and maintained the osmotic homeostasis under stress conditions thus improved physiological health and photosynthetic efficiencies of the transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene.

  11. Overexpression of SbSI-1, A Nuclear Protein from Salicornia brachiata Confers Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance and Maintains Photosynthetic Efficiency in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kumari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel SalicorniabrachiataSalt Inducible (SbSI-1 gene was isolated and overexpressed in tobacco for in planta functional validation subjected to drought and salt stress. SbSI-1 is a nuclear protein. The transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene exhibited better seed germination, growth performances, pigment contents, cell viability, starch accumulation, and tolerance index under drought and salt stress. Overexpression of SbSI-1 gene alleviated the build-up of reactive oxygen species (ROS and curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages thus improved the physiological health of transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions. The higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, lower accumulation of ROS, higher membrane stability, relative water content, and polyphenol contents indicated the better survival of the transgenic tobacco than wild-type (WT tobacco under stressed conditions. Transgenic tobacco had a higher net photosynthetic rate, PSII operating efficiency, and performance index under drought and salt stress. Higher accumulation of compatible solutes and K+/Na+ ratio in transgenic tobacco than WT showed the better osmotic and redox homeostasis under stressed conditions. The up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (NtSOD, NtAPX, and NtCAT and transcription factors (NtDREB2 and NtAP2 in transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions showed the role of SbSI-1 in ROS alleviation and involvement of this gene in abiotic stress tolerance. Multivariate data analysis exhibited statistical distinction among growth responses, physiological health, osmotic adjustment, and photosynthetic responses of WT and transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions. The overexpression of SbSI-1 gene curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages and maintained the osmotic homeostasis under stress conditions thus improved physiological health and photosynthetic efficiencies of the transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene.

  12. Protein pattern of canola (Brassica napus L. changes in response to salt and salicylic acid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavizadeh Roya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salicylic acid (SA on the salt (NaCl tolerance mechanism was studied in canola plants (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. by molecular and physiological experiments in plant tissue culture. Seeds of B. napus ‘Ocapy’ were germinated at 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels (0, 2, and 5 μM of SA for 4 weeks. Total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid content increased in response to interactive effects of SA and NaCl treatments at some concentrations. Proline content was increased under salt and SA treatments in shoot and root tissues. Salt alone and in combination with SA increased the total soluble protein content of shoots only, while the different concentrations of SA in the culture media affected variously the total soluble protein content. Protein patterns of shoots and roots showed some remarkable differences, based on gel electrophoresis and the consequent analysis of bands by ImageJ program. The relative expression of 15 and 12 protein bands in shoots and roots, respectively, differed under the applied treatments. In addition, the protein profile indicated that salinity and SA regulate the expression of salt-stress-inducible proteins as well as induced de novo synthesis of specific polypeptides. The findings may help to explain the salt tolerance mechanisms and to produce salt-tolerant canola plants.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; Paz, José Antonio; García-Mina, José María; Pozo, María José; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can alleviate salt stress in plants. However the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as the effect of salinity on the production of signalling molecules associated to the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of salinity on lettuce plant performance and production of strigolactones, and assessed its influence on mycorrhizal root colonization. Three different salt concentrations were applied to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, and their effects, over time, analyzed. Plant biomass, stomatal conductance, efficiency of photosystem II, as well as ABA content and strigolactone production were assessed. The expression of ABA biosynthesis genes was also analyzed. AM plants showed improved growth rates and a better performance of physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance and efficiency of photosystem II than non-mycorrhizal plants under salt stress since very early stages - 3 weeks - of plant colonization. Moreover, ABA levels were lower in those plants, suggesting that they were less stressed than non-colonized plants. On the other hand, we show that both AM symbiosis and salinity influence strigolactone production, although in a different way in AM and non-AM plants. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates salt stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. Moreover, a correlation between strigolactone production, ABA content, AM root colonization and salinity level is shown. We propose here that under these unfavourable conditions, plants increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with salt stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Effects of Salt Stress and Extreme pH Stress Combined on Glycinebetaine Accumulation, Photosynthetic Abilities and Growth Characters of Two Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycinebetaine (Glybet accumulation, photosynthetic efficiency and growth performance in indica rice cultivated under salt stress and extreme pH stress were investigated. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH activity and Glybet accumulation in the seedlings of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice varieties grown under saline and acidic conditions peaked after treatment for 72 h and 96 h, respectively, and were higher than those grown under neutral pH and alkaline salt stress. A positive correlation was found between BADH activity and Glybet content in both salt-tolerant (r2 = 0.71 and salt-sensitive (r2 = 0.86 genotypes. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids contents in the stressed seedlings significantly decreased under both acidic and alkaline stresses, especially in the salt-sensitive genotype. Similarly, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm, photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and net photosynthetic rate (Pn in the stressed seedlings were inhibited, leading to overall growth reduction. The positive correlations between chlorophyll a content and Fv/Fm, total chlorophyll content and ΦPSII, ΦPSII and Pn as well as Pn and leaf area in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes were found. Saline acidic and saline alkaline soils may play a key role affecting vegetative growth prior to the reproductive stage in rice plants.

  15. Salt stress in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. cell suspensions activates adaptive mechanisms similar to those observed in the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, R; Barkla, B J; Bohnert, H J; Pantoja, O

    1999-01-01

    A salt-tolerant stable cell-suspension culture from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. has been established from calli generated from leaves of 6-week-old well-watered plants. Optimal cell growth was observed in the presence of 200 mM NaCl, and within 7 d cells were able to concentrate Na+ to levels exceeding those in the growth medium. Accumulation of Na+ was paralled by increases in the compatible solute pinitol and myo-inositol methyl transferase (IMT), a key enzyme in pinitol biosynthesis. Increasing concentrations of NaCl stimulated the activities of tonoplast and plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPases. Immunodetection of the ATPases showed that the increased activity was not due to changes in protein amount that could be attributed to treatment conditions. A specific role for these mechanisms in salt-adaptation is supported by the inability of mannitol-induced water stress to elicit the same responses, and the absence of enzyme activity and protein expression associated with Crassulacean acid metabolism in the cells. Results demonstrate that these M. crystallinum cell suspensions show a halophytic growth response, comparable to that of the whole plant, and thus provide a valuable tool for studying signaling and biochemical pathways involved in salt recognition and response.

  16. Time course of physiological, biochemical, and gene expression changes under short-term salt stress in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity-imposed limitations on plant growth are manifested through osmotic and ionic imbalances. However, because salinity-induced responses vary considerably among crop plants, monitoring of such responses at an early stage has relevance. In this study, physiological (seed germination, seed vigor index, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and biochemical attributes (osmoprotectants, K+/Na+ ratio were analyzed for a time-course assessment of salt responses in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. with an emphasis on early monitoring. The results showed strong correlations for total soluble sugars at germination phase (24 h, proline content in the seedling establishment phase (48 h and various physiological parameters including seed vigor index (R2 = 0.901, shoot length (R2 = 0.982, and fresh weight (R2 = 0.980 at 72 h (adaptation under stress. In addition, transcriptional changes were observed under NaCl treatment for key genes belonging to the family of selective ion transporters (NHX, HKT and abscisic acid synthesis (AAO-3. The status of mitochondrial respiration was also examined as a probe for salinity tolerance at an early stage. The results suggested that although all the analyzed parameters showed correlations (negative or positive with salt stress magnitude, their critical response times differed, with most of the studied biochemical, physiological, or molecular markers providing valuable information only after radicle emergence, whereas mitochondrial respiration via alternative oxidase was useful for the early detection of salt responses.

  17. The BEACH Domain Protein SPIRRIG Is Essential for Arabidopsis Salt Stress Tolerance and Functions as a Regulator of Transcript Stabilization and Localization.

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    Alexandra Steffens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the highly conserved class of BEACH domain containing proteins (BDCPs have been established as broad facilitators of protein-protein interactions and membrane dynamics in the context of human diseases like albinism, bleeding diathesis, impaired cellular immunity, cancer predisposition, and neurological dysfunctions. Also, the Arabidopsis thaliana BDCP SPIRRIG (SPI is important for membrane integrity, as spi mutants exhibit split vacuoles. In this work, we report a novel molecular function of the BDCP SPI in ribonucleoprotein particle formation. We show that SPI interacts with the P-body core component DECAPPING PROTEIN 1 (DCP1, associates to mRNA processing bodies (P-bodies, and regulates their assembly upon salt stress. The finding that spi mutants exhibit salt hypersensitivity suggests that the local function of SPI at P-bodies is of biological relevance. Transcriptome-wide analysis revealed qualitative differences in the salt stress-regulated transcriptional response of Col-0 and spi. We show that SPI regulates the salt stress-dependent post-transcriptional stabilization, cytoplasmic agglomeration, and localization to P-bodies of a subset of salt stress-regulated mRNAs. Finally, we show that the PH-BEACH domains of SPI and its human homolog FAN (Factor Associated with Neutral sphingomyelinase activation interact with DCP1 isoforms from plants, mammals, and yeast, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of an association of BDCPs and P-bodies.

  18. The general stress response of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis responds to fluctuating conditions in its environment with a wide variety of stress responses. Apart from a series of specific responses and a series of large-scale developmental changes, B. subtilis also has a general stress response (GSR). The GSR is activated

  19. Evaluation of physiological and defense characteristics and ions contents of Red and Brooms cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum biolor under salt stress stress in vitro

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    Roya Razavizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate defense and physiological responses of some red and broomscultivars of Sorghum to salinity stress under in vitro culture. Seeds of Sorghum cultivars were cultured on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962 medium containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl under in vitro condition. After 2 weeks, the effect of salinity was studied on percentage of germination, growth parameters, photosynthetic capacity (total chlorophyll and carotenoids, total anthocyanin, total felavonoids, reducing sugars, proline, Na+/K+/Ca2+ ions, total soluble protein content, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in roots and shoots. According to percentage of seed germination and growth parameters, Red and brooms cultivars were selected as susceptible and resistant to salinity in the study, respectively. The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids and the anthocyanin content decreased by increasing salt levels in both cultivars, while flavonoids increased in three wavelengths 270, 300 and 330 nm. The results showed proline, suger and protein contents increased in roots and shoots of two cultivars by increasing salinity. The content of Na+ ion increased in the roots of red and brooms cultivars and shoot of Red cultivar. Ratio Na/K increased in roots of two cultivars and shoots of red by increasing salinity. Ratio Na/K in the shoots of brooms cultivar didn’t change significantly under salt stress. Generally in the presence of salt, potassium decreased in roots and shoots of two cultivars. Calcium ion amount in the roots of two cultivars didn’t change significantly under salt stress while it increased in shoots of two cultivars. The CAT activity increased in roots and shoots of two cultivars but APX activity increased in brooms cultivar and decreased significantly in red cultivar.

  20. Germination and growth of white oat genotypes seedlings submitted to salt stress

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    Fabiana Carrett Timm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The white oat is a winter crop used in succession to rice cultivation, subject to salt stress due to the accumulation of salts in the soil, especially in the southern Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed germination, initial growth of the nine genotypes seedling of white oat and to identify contrasting genotypes, well as to identify the genotypes contrasting to character for salt tolerance character. For this, the genotypes were submitted to different salt concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM de NaCl per liter of water, being analyzed the following variables: percentage of germination, first counting germination, index germination speed, length, shoots and roots dry mass of seedlings. The results may imply that seed germination that the percentage of germination was slightly decreased compared to the shoot growth and roots that have been greatly reduced with increasing salt concentrations. The root length and shoot length is in promising variables in the separation of genotypes in relation to different salt concentrations, allowing you to select two contrasting genotypes to salinity, the (URS 22 characterized as tolerant and (UPF 16 as sensitive.

  1. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  2. The short-term growth response to salt of the developing barley leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland; Akhiyarova, Gulya; Wei, Wenxue; Alexandersson, Erik; Miller, Anthony; Kjellbom, Per Ola; Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Schreiber, Lukas; Veselov, Dima; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Volkov, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Recent results concerning the short-term growth response to salinity of the developing barley leaf are reviewed. Plants were grown hydroponically and the growth response of leaf 3 was studied between 10 min and 5 d following addition of 100 mM NaCl to the root medium. The aim of the experiments was to relate changes in variables that are likely to affect cell elongation to changes in leaf growth. Changes in hormone content (ABA, cytokinins), water and solute relationships (osmolality, turgor, water potential, solute concentrations), gene expression (water channel), cuticle deposition, membrane potential, and transpiration were followed, while leaf elongation velocity was monitored. Leaf elongation decreased close to zero within seconds following addition of NaCl. Between 20 and 30 min after exposure to salt, elongation velocity recovered rather abruptly, to about 46% of the pre-stress level, and remained at the reduced rate for the following 5 d, when it reached about 70% of the level in non-stressed plants. Biophysical and physiological analyses led to three major conclusions. (i) The immediate reduction and sudden recovery in elongation velocity is due to changes in the water potential gradient between leaf xylem and peripheral elongating cells. Changes in transpiration, ABA and cytokinin content, water channel expression, and plasma membrane potential are involved in this response. (ii) Significant solute accumulation, which aids growth recovery, is detectable from 1 h onwards; growing and non-growing leaf regions and mesophyll and epidermis differ in their solute response. (iii) Cuticular wax density is not affected by short-term exposure to salt; transpirational changes are due to stomatal control.

  3. Molecular mechanisms in plant abiotic stress response

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    Poltronieri Palmiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved crop varieties are needed to sustain the food supply, to fight climate changes, water scarcity, temperature increase and a high variability of rainfalls. Variability of drought and increase in soil salinity have negative effects on plant growth and abiotic stresses seriously threaten sustainable agricultural production. To overcome the influence of abiotic stresses, new tolerant plant varieties and breeding techniques using assisted selection are sought. A deep understanding of the mechanisms that respond to stress and sustain stress resistance is required. Here is presented an overview of several mechanisms that interact in the stress response. Localised synthesis of plant hormones, second messengers and local effectors of abiotic stress response and survival, the signaling pathways regulated by plant hormones are today better understood. Metabolic networks in drought stress responses, long distance signaling, cross-talk between plant organs finalised to tissue-specific expression of abiotic stress relieving genes have been at the centre of most recent studies.

  4. Cold stress increases salt tolerance of the extremophytes Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) and Eutrema (Thellungiella) botschantzevii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamustakimova, A O; Leonova, Т G; Taranov, V V; de Boer, A H; Babakov, A V

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to analyze the effect of cold acclimation on improving the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana, Eutrema salsugineum and Eutrema botschantzevii plants to salt stress. Shoot FW, sodium and potassium accumulation, metabolite content, expression of proton pump genes VAB1, VAB2,VAB3, VP2, HA3 and genes encoding ion transporters SOS1, HKT1, NHX1, NHX2, NHX5 located in the plasma membrane or tonoplast were determined just after the cold treatment and the onset of the salt stress. In the same cold-acclimated E. botschantzevii plants, the Na(+) concentration after salt treatment was around 80% lower than in non-acclimated plants, whereas the K(+) concentration was higher. As a result of cold acclimation, the expression of, VAB3, NHX2, NHX5 genes and of SOS1, VP2, HA3 genes was strongly enhanced in E. botschantzevii and in E. salsugineum plants correspondently. None of the 10 genes analyzed showed any expression change in A. thaliana plants after cold acclimation. Altogether, the results indicate that cold-induced adaptation to subsequent salt stress exists in the extremophytes E. botschantzevii and to a lesser extend in E. salsugineum and is absent in Arabidopsis. This phenomenon may be attributed to the increased expression of ion transporter genes during cold acclimation in the Eutrema species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth and contents of organic and inorganic solutes in amaranth under salt stress

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    Renata Velasques Menezes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus L. is a forage species, with grains that exhibit excellent nutritional characteristics, being the 'BRS Alegria' the first cultivar recommended for cultivation in Brazil. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of salt stress on the growth and concentrations of organic and inorganic solutes in Amaranthus cruentus L. ('BRS Alegria' cultivar. Height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf, stem and root dry mass, leaf area, relative water content and membrane integrity percentage, as well as soluble carbohydrate, free amino acid, soluble protein, free proline, Na+, Cl- and K+ contents, were evaluated in different plant organs. Salinity significantly reduced the biomass yield and leaf area from the treatment with 25 mM of NaCl, indicating that the 'BRS Alegria' cultivar is sensitive to salt stress. Soluble carbohydrates in the leaves decreased by 59 %, while the other organic solutes showed no substantial increases. These results, coupled with the reduction in the relative water content and membrane integrity, suggest a low ability of this cultivar to adjust osmotically under salt stress. The K+/Na+ ratio abruptly decreased in 25 mM of NaCl, suggesting an ionic imbalance, which may partially explain the salt-induced growth reduction.

  6. Plant natriuretic peptides are apoplastic and paracrine stress response molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuhua

    2011-04-07

    Higher plants contain biologically active proteins that are recognized by antibodies against human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). We identified and isolated two Arabidopsis thaliana immunoreactive plant natriuretic peptide (PNP)-encoding genes, AtPNP-A and AtPNP-B, which are distantly related members of the expansin superfamily and have a role in the regulation of homeostasis in abiotic and biotic stresses, and have shown that AtPNP-A modulates the effects of ABA on stomata. Arabidopsis PNP (PNP-A) is mainly expressed in leaf mesophyll cells, and in protoplast assays we demonstrate that it is secreted using AtPNP-A:green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs and flow cytometry. Transient reporter assays provide evidence that AtPNP-A expression is enhanced by heat, osmotica and salt, and that AtPNP-A itself can enhance its own expression, thereby generating a response signature diagnostic for paracrine action and potentially also autocrine effects. Expression of native AtPNP-A is enhanced by osmotica and transiently by salt. Although AtPNP-A expression is induced by salt and osmotica, ABA does not significantly modulate AtPNP-A levels nor does recombinant AtPNP-A affect reporter expression of the ABA-responsive RD29A gene. Together, these results provide experimental evidence that AtPNP-A is stress responsive, secreted into the apoplastic space and can enhance its own expression. Furthermore, our findings support the idea that AtPNP-A, together with ABA, is an important component in complex plant stress responses and that, much like in animals, peptide signaling molecules can create diverse and modular signals essential for growth, development and defense under rapidly changing environmental conditions. © 2011 The Author.

  7. Physico-chemical changes in karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seedlings responding to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Abdelnasser

    2017-03-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors affecting series of morphological, physiological, metabolic and molecular changes in plant growth. The effect of different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM) of NaCl on the vegetative growth and some physiological parameters of karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa) seedling were investigated. NaCl affected the germination rate, delayed emergence and retarded vegetative growth of seedlings. The length of seedling as well as the leaf area was significantly reduced. The fresh weight remained lower in NaCl treated seedlings compared to control. NaCl at 100 and 150 mM concentrations had significant effect on the dry matter contents of the treated seedlings. The chloroplast pigments in the treated seedlings were affected, suggesting that the NaCl had a significant effect on the chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that the salt treatments induced an increase in proline concentration of the seedlings. The osmotic potential (ψs) of NaCl treated seedlings decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations. Salt treatments resulted in dramatic quantitative reduction in the total sterol percent compared with control ones. Salt stress resulted in increase and decrease of Na(+) and K(+) ions, respectively. NaCl salinity increased lipid peroxidation. SDS-PAGE was used to evaluate protein pattern after applying salt stress. High molecular weight proteins were intensified, while low molecular weight proteins were faint. NaCl at 100 and 150 mM concentration distinguished with new protein bands. Salt stress induced a new peroxidase bands and increased the band intensity, indicating the protective role of peroxidase enzyme.

  8. Developmental Control of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Inducibility by Salt Stress in the Common Ice Plant 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C.; Michalowski, Christine B.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1990-01-01

    Ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) is a facultative halophyte that responds to water stress in the form of drought or high salinity by switching from C3 photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a physiological adaptation that increases water conservation. Although CAM is clearly environmentally controlled, and reversible upon removal of water stress, the competence to switch is developmentally determined. We have demonstrated this by measuring three parameters in the expression of a gene encoding a stress-specific isoform of a key enzyme of CAM, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase, Ppc1): (a) protein accumulation; (b) steady-state amounts of mRNA; and (3) transcriptional activity in isolated nuclei. Young plants (3 weeks of age) show little induction of PEPCase protein, mRNA, or transcription when stressed. In contrast, salt stress elicits a strong induction at all three levels of expression at 6 weeks of age. By 9 weeks of age, plants have already accumulated PEPCase protein and mRNA without being stressed. More importantly, transcriptional activation of Ppc1 by salt stress in 9-week-old plants is no longer observed despite an increase of both Ppc1 mRNA and protein. From these results we suggest that a developmental program exists that regulates PEPCase transcription and mRNA stability. This program appears to be synchronized with the climatic conditions in the plant's native environment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16667808

  9. The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 Regulates Abiotic Stress-Responsive Gene Expression by Binding to Different cis-Acting Elements in Response to Different Stress Signals1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Chun; Liao, Po-Ming; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2013-01-01

    ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) is an upstream component in both jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling and is involved in pathogen resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that ERF1 might be related to the salt stress response through ethylene signaling. However, the specific role of ERF1 in abiotic stress and the molecular mechanism underlying the signaling cross talk still need to be elucidated. Here, we report that ERF1 was highly induced by high salinity and drought stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The salt stress induction required both JA and ET signaling but was inhibited by abscisic acid. ERF1-overexpressing lines (35S:ERF1) were more tolerant to drought and salt stress. They also displayed constitutively smaller stomatal aperture and less transpirational water loss. Surprisingly, 35S:ERF1 also showed enhanced heat tolerance and up-regulation of heat tolerance genes compared with the wild type. Several suites of genes activated by JA, drought, salt, and heat were found in microarray analysis of 35S:ERF1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays found that ERF1 up-regulates specific suites of genes in response to different abiotic stresses by stress-specific binding to GCC or DRE/CRT. In response to biotic stress, ERF1 bound to GCC boxes but not DRE elements; conversely, under abiotic stress, we observed specific binding of ERF1 to DRE elements. Furthermore, ERF1 bound preferentially to only one among several GCC box or DRE/CRT elements in the promoter region of its target genes. ERF1 plays a positive role in salt, drought, and heat stress tolerance by stress-specific gene regulation, which integrates JA, ET, and abscisic acid signals. PMID:23719892

  10. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Hagenaars, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a

  11. Proteomic analysis of halotolerant proteins under high and low salt stress in Dunaliella salina using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Long Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dunaliella salina, a single-celled marine alga with extreme salt tolerance, is an important model organism for studying fundamental extremophile survival mechanisms and their potential practical applications. In this study, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE was used to investigate the expression of halotolerant proteins under high (3 M NaCl and low (0.75 M NaCl salt concentrations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and bioinformatics were used to identify and characterize the differences among proteins. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed 141 protein spots that were significantly differentially expressed between the two salinities. Twenty-four differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, including proteins in the following important categories: molecular chaperones, proteins involved in photosynthesis, proteins involved in respiration and proteins involved in amino acid synthesis. Expression levels of these proteins changed in response to the stress conditions, which suggests that they may be involved in the maintenance of intracellular osmotic pressure, cellular stress responses, physiological changes in metabolism, continuation of photosynthetic activity and other aspects of salt stress. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of the function and mechanisms of various proteins in salt stress.

  12. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

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    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  13. Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Giancarlo; Vallone, Simona; Orsini, Francesco; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Maggio, Albino

    2012-11-15

    Increasing salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency in crop plants are two major challenges that agriculture must face in the next decades. Many physiological mechanisms and molecular components mediating crop response to environmental stresses have been identified. However, the functional inter-links between stress adaptation responses have not been completely understood. Using two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with contrasting ability to respond to salt stress, here we demonstrate that reduced stomatal density, high ascorbate level and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity coordinately contribute to improve basil adaptation and water use efficiency (WUE) in saline environment. The constitutively reduced stomatal density was associated with a "delayed" accumulation of stress molecules (and growth inhibiting signals) such as abscisic acid (ABA) and proline, in the more tolerant Genovese. Leaf volatile profiling also revealed cultivar-specific patterns, which may suggest a role for the volatile phenylpropanoid eugenol and monoterpenes in conferring stress tolerance via antioxidant and signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain mineralocorticoid receptor function in control of salt balance and stress-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Edo Ronald; Joëls, Marian

    2017-09-01

    We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and circumventricular organs express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward. MR expressed in abundance in this limbic-forebrain circuitry, is target of cortisol and corticosterone in modulation of appraisal processes, memory performance and selection of coping strategy. Complementary to this role of limbic MR is the action mediated by the lower affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GR), which promote subsequently memory storage of the experience and facilitate behavioral adaptation. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that an imbalance between MR- and GR-mediated actions compromises resilience and adaptation to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A synergistic interaction between salt-tolerant Pseudomonas and Mesorhizobium strains improves growth and symbiotic performance of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fish.) under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Li, Li; Lindström, Kristina; Räsänen, Leena A

    2016-03-01

    Chinese liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fish.) is a salt-tolerant medicinal legume that could be utilized for bioremediation of salt-affected soils. We studied whether co-inoculation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium sp. strain NWXJ19 or NWXJ31 with the plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 could restore growth, nodulation, and shoot/root nitrogen contents of salt-stressed G. uralensis, which was grown in potting soil and irrigated with 0, 50, and 75 mM NaCl solutions under greenhouse conditions. Irrigation with NaCl solutions clearly retarded the growth of uninoculated liquorice, and the higher the NaCl concentration (75 and 100 mM NaCl), the more adverse is the effect. The two Mesorhizobium strains, added either alone or in combination with P. extremorientalis TSAU20, responded differently to the salt levels used. The strain NWXJ19 was a good symbiont for plants irrigated with 50 mM NaCl, whereas the strain NWXJ31 was more efficient for plants irrigated with water or 75 mM NaCl solution. P. extremorientalis TSAU20 combined with single Mesorhizobium strains alleviated the salt stress of liquorice plants and improved yield and nodule numbers significantly in comparison with single-strain-inoculated liquorice. Both salt stress and inoculation raised the nitrogen content of shoots and roots. The nitrogen contents were at their highest, i.e., 30 and 35 % greater compared to non-stressed uninoculated plants, when plants were inoculated with P. extremorientalis TSAU20 and Mesorhizobium sp. NWXJ31 as well as irrigated with 75 mM NaCl solution. From this study, we conclude that dual inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria could be a new approach to improve the tolerance of G. uralensis to salt stress, thereby improving its suitability for the remediation of saline lands.

  16. Oxidative stress response in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias fun

  17. Evaluation and Exploration of Favorable QTL Alleles for Salt Stress Related Traits in Cotton Cultivars (G. hirsutum L..

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    Lei Du

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is one of the major problems in global agricultural production. Cotton is a pioneer crop with regard to salt stress tolerance, and can be used for saline-alkali land improvement. The large-scale detection of salt tolerance traits in cotton accessions, and the identification of elite quantitative trait loci (QTLs/genes for salt-tolerance have been very important in salt tolerance breeding. Here, 43 advanced salt-tolerant and 31 highly salt-sensitive cultivars were detected by analyzing ten salt tolerance related traits in 304 upland cotton cultivars. Among them, 11 advanced salt-tolerance and eight highly salt-sensitive cultivars were consistent with previously reported results. Association analysis of ten salt-tolerance related traits and 145 SSRs was performed, and a total of 95 significant associations were detected; 17, 41, and 37 of which were associated with germinative index, seedling stage physiological index, and four seedling stage biochemical indexes, respectively. Of these associations, 20 SSR loci were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Furthermore, we detected 117 elite alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, 4 of which were reported previously. Among these loci, 44 (37.60% were rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%, 6 only existed in advanced salt-tolerant cultivars, and 2 only in highly salt-sensitive cultivars. As a result, 13 advanced salt-tolerant cultivars were selected to assemble the optimal cross combinations by computer simulation for the development of salt-tolerant accessions. This study lays solid foundations for further improvements in cotton salt-tolerance by referencing elite germplasms, alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, and optimal crosses.

  18. Isolation and functional characterization of salt-stress induced RCI2-like genes from Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ruicai; Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhenyi; Li, Mingna; Cong, Lili; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qingchuan

    2015-07-01

    Salt stress is one of the most significant adverse abiotic factors, causing crop failure worldwide. So far, a number of salt stress-induced genes, and genes improving salt tolerance have been characterized in a range of plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a salt stress-induced Medicago sativa (alfalfa) gene (MsRCI2A), which showed a high similarity to the yeast plasma membrane protein 3 gene (PMP3) and Arabidopsis RCI2A. The sequence comparisons revealed that five genes of MtRCI2(A-E) showed a high similarity to MsRCI2A in the Medicago truncatula genome. MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-E) encode small, highly hydrophobic proteins containing two putative transmembrane domains, predominantly localized in the plasma membrane. The transcript analysis results suggest that MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-D) genes are highly induced by salt stress. The expression of MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-C) in yeast mutants lacking the PMP3 gene can functionally complement the salt sensitivity phenotype resulting from PMP3 deletion. Overexpression of MsRCI2A in Arabidopsis plants showed improved salt tolerance suggesting the important role of MsRCI2A in salt stress tolerance in alfalfa.

  19. Over-expression of the peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene cloned from halophyte Salicornia brachiata confers salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-06-01

    Salicornia brachiata Roxb., an extreme halophyte, is a naturally adapted higher plant model for additional gene resources to engineer salt tolerance in plants. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) plays a key role in protecting plants against oxidative stress and thus confers abiotic stress tolerance. A full-length SbpAPX cDNA, encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase, was cloned from S. brachiata. The open reading frame encodes for a polypeptide of 287 amino acid residues (31.3-kDa protein). The deduced amino acid sequence of the SbpAPX gene showed characteristic peroxisomal targeting sequences (RKRAI) and a C-terminal hydrophobic region of 39 amino acid residues containing a transmembrane domain (TMD) of 23 amino acid residues. Northern blot analysis showed elevated SbpAPX transcript in response to salt, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid stress treatments. The SbpAPX gene was transformed to tobacco for their functional validation under stresses. Transgenic plants over-expressing SbpAPX gene showed enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants showed enhanced vegetative growth and germination rate both under normal and stressed conditions. Present study revealed that the SbpAPX gene is a potential candidate, which not only confers abiotic stress tolerance to plants but also seems to be involved in plant growth.

  20. The Cotton WRKY Gene GhWRKY41 Positively Regulates Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Chu

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors constitute a very large family of proteins in plants and participate in modulating plant biological processes, such as growth, development and stress responses. However, the exact roles of WRKY proteins are unclear, particularly in non-model plants. In this study, Gossypium hirsutum WRKY41 (GhWRKY41 was isolated and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Our results showed that overexpression of GhWRKY41 enhanced the drought and salt stress tolerance of transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. The transgenic plants exhibited lower malondialdehyde content and higher antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated in transgenic plants exposed to osmotic stress. A β-glucuronidase (GUS staining assay showed that GhWRKY41 was highly expressed in the stomata when plants were exposed to osmotic stress, and plants overexpressing GhWRKY41 exhibited enhanced stomatal closure when they were exposed to osmotic stress. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GhWRKY41 may enhance plant tolerance to stress by functioning as a positive regulator of stoma closure and by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging and the expression of antioxidant genes.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of AP2/ERF Transcription Factors in Cauliflower and Expression Profiling of the ERF Family under Salt and Drought Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Li, Cong; Han, Zhanpin; Yuan, Jiye; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factors (TFs) comprise one of the largest gene superfamilies in plants. These TFs perform vital roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, 171 AP2/ERF TFs were identified in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis), one of the most important horticultural crops in Brassica. Among these TFs, 15, 9, and 1 TFs were classified into the AP2, RAV, and Soloist family, respectively. The other 146 TFs belong to ERF family, which were further divided into the ERF and DREB subfamilies. The ERF subfamily contained 91 TFs, while the DREB subfamily contained 55 TFs. Phylogenetic analysis results indicated that the AP2/ERF TFs can be classified into 13 groups, in which 25 conserved motifs were confirmed. Some motifs were group- or subgroup- specific, implying that they are significant to the functions of the AP2/ERF TFs of these clades. In addition, 35 AP2/ERF TFs from the 13 groups were selected randomly and then used for expression pattern analysis under salt and drought stresses. The majority of these AP2/ERF TFs exhibited positive responses to these stress conditions. In specific, Bra-botrytis-ERF054a, Bra-botrytis-ERF056, and Bra-botrytis-CRF2a demonstrated rapid responses. By contrast, six AP2/ERF TFs were showed to delay responses to both stresses. The AP2/ERF TFs exhibiting specific expression patterns under salt or drought stresses were also confirmed. Further functional analysis indicated that ectopic overexpression of Bra-botrytis-ERF056 could increase tolerance to both salt and drought treatments. These findings provide new insights into the AP2/ERF TFs present in cauliflower, and offer candidate AP2/ERF TFs for further studies on their roles in salt and drought stress tolerance.

  2. A Benzimidazole Proton Pump Inhibitor Increases Growth and Tolerance to Salt Stress in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Van Oosten

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment of tomato plants with micromolar concentrations of omeprazole (OP, a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor in mammalian systems, improves plant growth in terms of fresh weight of shoot and roots by 49 and 55% and dry weight by 54 and 105% under salt stress conditions (200 mM NaCl, respectively. Assessment of gas exchange, ion distribution, and gene expression profile in different organs strongly indicates that OP interferes with key components of the stress adaptation machinery, including hormonal control of root development (improving length and branching, protection of the photosynthetic system (improving quantum yield of photosystem II and regulation of ion homeostasis (improving the K+:Na+ ratio in leaves and roots. To our knowledge OP is one of the few known molecules that at micromolar concentrations manifests a dual function as growth enhancer and salt stress protectant. Therefore, OP can be used as new inducer of stress tolerance to better understand molecular and physiological stress adaptation paths in plants and to design new products to improve crop performance under suboptimal growth conditions.Highlight: Omeprazole enhances growth of tomato and increases tolerance to salinity stress through alterations of gene expression and ion uptake and transport.

  3. Identification and profiling of salinity stress-responsive proteins in Sorghum bicolor seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngara, Rudo; Ndimba, Roya; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    sorghum variety, MN1618, were planted and grown on solid MS growth medium with or without 100mM NaCl. Heat shock protein expression immunoblotting assays demonstrated that this salt treatment induced stress within natural physiological parameters for our experimental material. 2D PAGE in combination...... with MS/MS proteomics techniques were used to separate, visualise and identify salinity stress responsive proteins in young sorghum leaves. Out of 281 Coomassie stainable spots, 118 showed statistically significant responses (p...

  4. Sugar Accumulation and its Regulation by Jasmonic Acid in Brassica napus L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on sugar accumulation and protein content in 12-days old Brassica napus L. seedlings were studied. The seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of jasmonic acid were germinated in Petriplates supplied with various concentrations of salt stress (NaCl. The contents of total chlorophyll, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total carbohydrates and total protein content of 12-days old seedlings were analysed. It was observed that JA reduced the toxicity of salt stress on seedling growth by influencing the chlorophyll content and protein content. Pre-treatment of jasmonic acid was found to be significantly effective in increasing the contents of sugars.

  5. Modulation of ion uptake in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. plants with exogenous application of calcium under salt stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheda Parvin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity affects almost every aspect of the physiology and biochemistry of plants due to both osmotic stress and ionic toxicity. We studied the variation of ion uptake in tomato cv. BARI Tomato-5 under different levels of salinity (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1 and their mitigation by different concentration of Ca2+ (0, 5, 10 mM. The results showed that salt stress significantly affects the stomatal conductance of tomato. Salt treatment markedly increased the uptake of Na+ and decreased both K+ and Ca2+ uptake in the leaves of tomato. The uptake of Na+ decreased and uptake of Ca2+ and K+ increased in tomato when salt-stressed plants were treated with Ca2+. Our results revealed that Ca supplementation can effectively reduce the salt-induced ionic toxicity in tomato plants. Exogenous application of Ca2+ significantly mitigates the adverse effects of salt-induced ionic toxicity.

  6. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  7. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Naïla; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. PMID:26466739

  8. In vitro salt stress induced production of gymnemic acid in callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Addition of salt (NaCl) up to 150 mM, to MS + 0.5 - 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D led to antho- cyanin formation in the fragile brown callus (Table 1 and. Kumar et al. 4905. Plate 1). This is in contrast with the report on Vitis vinifera callus, where anthocyanin accumulation reduced callus growth under osmotic stress (Do and ...

  9. Sugar accumulation and its Regulation by jasmonic acid in Brassica napus L. under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Harpreet Kaur; Poonam Sharma; Geetika Sirhindi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on sugar accumulation and protein content in 12-days old Brassica napus L. seedlings were studied. The seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of jasmonic acid were germinated in Petriplates supplied with various concentrations of salt stress (NaCl). The contents of total chlorophyll, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total carbohydrates and total protein content of 12-days old seedlings were analysed. It was observed that JA reduce...

  10. Changes in biochemical characteristics and Na and K content of caper (Capparis spinosa L. seedlings under water and salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water and salt stress on caper (Capparis spinosa L. seedlings, a randomized complete block design with five replications was carried out in 2013 at Shiraz University, Iran. Water stress had three levels: 100 % (control, 75 %, and 5 % field capacity (FC, and five levels of salinity were applied: 0 (control, 4, 8, 12, and 18 dSm^(−1. The results indicated that salinity had a significantly negative effect on chlorophyll content of caper seedlings, while drought increased this content. The carotenoid content in caper seedlings under water and salinity stress was significantly increased. Proline and total protein content increased also under both salinity and water stress. Antioxidant enzyme activity; superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX also increased in response of salinity and drought. Salinity stress significantly increased the content of Na^+ in cells but decreased K^+ content. It seems that caper seedlings could tolerate a salinity level up to 4–8 dSm^(−1 as well as water stress of 75 % FC, no significant differences were observed between these two salinity levels, the water stress level and the control. The interaction effect of water stress and salinity had a significant effect on biochemical characteristics of caper. The highest content of carotenoid, proline and total protein content were obtained in 50 % FC and 18 dSm^(−1.The results of biochemical characteristics and leaf content of K+ and Na+ suggest that caper plant is a very tolerant species to salinity and drought stress which make it a suitable crop for most arid and semi-arid regions of Iran.

  11. Do brassinosteroids mediate the water stress response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Ross, John J; Reid, James B

    2008-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been suggested to increase the resistance of plants to a variety of stresses, including water stress. This is based on application studies, where exogenously applied bioactive BRs have been shown to improve various aspects of plant growth under water stress conditions. However, it is not known whether changes in endogenous BR levels are normally involved in mediating the plant's response to stress. We have utilized BR mutants in pea (Pisum sativum L.) to determine whether changes in endogenous BR levels are part of the plant's response to water stress and whether low endogenous BR levels alter the plant's ability to cope with water stress. In wild-type (WT) plants, we show that while water stress causes a significant increase in ABA levels, it does not result in altered BR levels in either apical, internode or leaf tissue. Furthermore, the plant's ability to increase ABA levels in response to water stress is not affected by BR deficiency, as there was no significant difference in ABA levels between WT, lkb (a BR-deficient mutant) and lka (a BR-perception mutant) plants before or 14 days after the cessation of watering. In addition, the effect of water stress on traits such as height, leaf size and water potential in lkb and lka was similar to that observed in WT plants. Therefore, it appears that, at least in pea, changes in endogenous BR levels are not normally part of the plant's response to water stress.

  12. ROS regulation during abiotic stress responses in crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eYou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide anions (O2•‾, hydroxyl radical (OH• and singlet oxygen (1O2 are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed.

  13. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killi, Dilek; Haworth, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water) supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution. PMID:29039809

  14. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress.