WorldWideScience

Sample records for salt scaling resistance

  1. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  2. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Curtis, Andrew J.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides

  3. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  4. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-14

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  5. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, peak shaving, seasonal balancing, etc. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil fuels. This is one important reason why the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% related to natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind based electricity production this ''outsourcing'' of storage services to fossil fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage. The present discussion for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focuses primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) in addition to existing pumped hydro plants. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally not suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power or even seasonal fluctuations. Underground hydrogen storages, however, provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond - standard practice since many years. The first part of the article describes the present status and performance of grid scale energy storages in geological formations, mainly salt caverns. It is followed by a compilation of generally suitable locations in Europe and particularly Germany. The second part deals with first results of preliminary investigations in possibilities and limits of offshore CAES power stations. (orig.)

  6. Large-scale dynamic compaction of natural salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.; Ahrens, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration of natural salt was successfully completed. About 40 m 3 of salt were compacted in three, 2-m lifts by dropping a 9,000-kg weight from a height of 15 m in a systematic pattern to achieve desired compaction energy. To enhance compaction, 1 wt% water was added to the relatively dry mine-run salt. The average compacted mass fractional density was 0.90 of natural intact salt, and in situ nitrogen permeabilities averaged 9X10 -14 m 2 . This established viability of dynamic compacting for placing salt shaft seal components. The demonstration also provided compacted salt parameters needed for shaft seal system design and performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  7. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

  8. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Donadei, S.

    2011-05-15

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, cold winter supply, peak shaving, seasonal swing, load management and energy trading. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil and nuclear fuels. This is one important reason why e.g. the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% compared to 20% for natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind-and to a lesser extent PV-based electricity production this 'outsourcing' of storage services to fossil and nuclear fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage in geological formations. The present discussion, research projects and plans for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focus primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) if the capacity of existing pumped hydro plants cannot be expanded, e.g. because of environmental issues or lack of suitable topography. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally less suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power, wind flaws or even seasonal fluctuations. One important way out are large underground hydrogen storages which provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond. Underground hydrogen storage is state of the art since many years in Great Britain and in the USA for the (petro-) chemical industry. (Author)

  9. Coexpression of bile salt hydrolase gene and catalase gene remarkably improves oxidative stress and bile salt resistance in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohong; Yin, Sheng; An, Haoran; Chen, Shangwu; Hao, Yanling

    2011-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) encounter various types of stress during industrial processes and gastrointestinal transit. Catalase (CAT) and bile salt hydrolase (BSH) can protect bacteria from oxidative stress or damage caused by bile salts by decomposing hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or deconjugating the bile salts, respectively. Lactobacillus casei is a valuable probiotic strain and is often deficient in both CAT and BSH. In order to improve the resistance of L. casei to both oxidative and bile salts stress, the catalase gene katA from L. sakei and the bile salt hydrolase gene bsh1 from L. plantarum were coexpressed in L. casei HX01. The enzyme activities of CAT and BSH were 2.41 μmol H(2)O(2)/min/10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) and 2.11 μmol glycine/min/ml in the recombinant L. casei CB, respectively. After incubation with 8 mM H(2)O(2), survival ratio of L. casei CB was 40-fold higher than that of L. casei CK. Treatment of L. casei CB with various concentrations of sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDCA) showed that ~10(5) CFU/ml cells survived after incubation with 0.5% GDCA, whereas almost all the L. casei CK cells were killed when treaded with 0.4% GDCA. These results indicate that the coexpression of CAT and BSH confers high-level resistance to both oxidative and bile salts stress conditions in L. casei HX01.

  10. Penetration of chlorides in hardened concrete during frost salt scaling cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty samples from three concrete mixes (same components were prepared and subjected to frost salt scaling cycles. A set of 20 samples from the same mix was tested according to the French standard XP P18-420. Another set was exposed to different chloride concentrations. Different numbers of freeze/thaw cycles were applied to the last set. The mass of scaled-off particles follows a lognormal distribution. Despite high standard deviation, this scaling test enables to separate high resistant from very low resistant concrete. A combined analysis reveals that the scaling and the chloride penetration front are independent from a phenomenological point of view and that the chloride concentration on the exposed surface directly influences the amount of scaled mass according to the typical pessimum effect. These results raise two main questions: is the amount of chloride on the surface solution a direct or indirect parameter and what happens to this pessimum effect if we take into account the scaling test dispersion?

  11. Determination of resistance to salt crystallization on natural stone measured with ultrasonic wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, D.; Brix, S.; Kjærgaard, H. Howe

    2008-01-01

    and after salt exposure. Four different stones are investigated: the limestone Bateig Azul, the sandstone Oberkirchener, the limestone Perlatino, and the limestone Travertine. The procedure for the salt crystallization test is EN 12370 standard “Natural stone test methods – Determination of resistance...

  12. Exogenous ascorbic acid increases resistance to salt of Silybum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, ...

  13. Detection of Corrosion Resistance of Components in Cyclic Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Álló

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is, to investigate the influence of two types of cyclic salt spray tests on parts surface treated with galvanizing. On the selected components was performed the method Zn-Ni surface treating on the bath line. Subsequently were the components embedded in the corrosion chamber, where was performed two types of cyclic salt test. In the first test was performed 4 hour salt spray, 8 hours drying, 60 hours condensation and 24 hours drying. Once cycle lasted 96 hours, and it was repeated 4 times. During the second test was performed 2 hours salt spray, 2 hours condensation. The cycle was repeated 4 times, that means 96 hours. After the cycle was performed 72 hours free relaxation in the corrosion chamber, on 20–25 °C temperature. As the research showed, after the cyclic salt spray was no red corrosion on the selected components. The white corrosion appeared only slightly.

  14. Photobleachable Diazonium Salt-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Hashimoto, Michiaki

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a new negative two-layer photoresist system formed by a simple, successive spin-coating method. An aqueous acetic acid solution of diazonium salt and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) is deposited so as to contact a phenolic resin film spin-coated on a silicon wafer. The diazonium salt diffuses into the phenolic resin layer after standing for several minutes. The residual solution on the phenolic resin film doped with diazonium salt is spun to form the diazonium salt-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) top layer. This forms a uniform two-layer resist without phase separation or striation. Upon UV exposure, the diazonium salt in the top layer bleaches to act as a CEL dye, while the diazonium salt in the bottom layer decomposes to cause insolubilization. Half μm line-and-space patterns are obtained with an i-line stepper using 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride double salt as the diazonium salt and a cresol novolac resin for the bottom polymer layer. The resist formation processes, insolubilization mechanism, and the resolution capability of the new two-layer resist are discussed.

  15. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... prove its tolerance to salt stress, at the same time, signifi- cant increases in .... Reverse Transcription System Kit (Promega, USA) using oligo-dT-primers. ..... salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for.

  16. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results

  17. Zooming in and out: Scale dependence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting salt marsh erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; van der Wal, Daphne; Li, Xiangyu; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M. J.; Hu, Zhan; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-07-01

    Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that provide important ecosystem services. Given the global scale of marsh loss due to climate change and coastal squeeze, there is a pressing need to identify the critical extrinsic (wind exposure and foreshore morphology) and intrinsic factors (soil and vegetation properties) affecting the erosion of salt marsh edges. In this study, we quantified rates of cliff lateral retreat (i.e., the eroding edge of a salt marsh plateau) using a time series of aerial photographs taken over four salt marsh sites in the Westerschelde estuary, the Netherlands. In addition, we experimentally quantified the erodibility of sediment cores collected from the marsh edge of these four marshes using wave tanks. Our results revealed the following: (i) at the large scale, wind exposure and the presence of pioneer vegetation in front of the cliff were the key factors governing cliff retreat rates; (ii) at the intermediate scale, foreshore morphology was partially related to cliff retreat; (iii) at the local scale, the erodibility of the sediment itself at the marsh edge played a large role in determining the cliff retreat rate; and (iv) at the mesocosm scale, cliff erodibility was determined by soil properties and belowground root biomass. Thus, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determined the fate of the salt marsh but at different scales. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the scale dependence of the factors driving the evolution of salt marsh landscapes.

  18. Electrochemical removal of salts from masonry - Experiences from pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Villumsen, Arne

    2008-01-01

    A pilot experiment with newly developed electrodes was tested for removal of contaminating salts from brick masonry where plaster peeling was a problem. A high concentration of sulfate was found at the height where the paint peeling was most pronounced. The concentrations of chloride and nitrate ...

  19. Leach resistance properties and release processes for salt-occluded zeolite A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Laidler, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) results in a waste of LiCl-KCl-NaCl salt containing approximately 10 wt% fission products, primarily CsCl and SrCl 2 . For disposal, this waste must be immobilized in a form that it is leach resistant. A salt-occluded zeolite has been identified as a potential waste form for the salt. Its leach resistance properties were investigated using powdered samples. The results were that strontium was not released and cesium had a low release, 0.056 g/m 2 for the 56 day leach test. The initial release (within 7 days) of alkali metal cations was rapid and subsequent releases were much smaller. The releases of aluminum and silicon were 0.036 and 0.028 g/m 2 , respectively, and were constant. Neither alkali metal cation hydrolysis nor exchange between cations in the leachate and those in the zeolite was significant. Only sodium release followed t 0.5 kinetics. Selected dissolution of the occluded salt was the primary release process. These results confirm that salt-occluded zeolite has promise as the waste form for IFR pyroprocess salt

  20. Densification of salt-occluded zeolite a powders to a leach-resistant monolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Murhpy, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) yields a salt waste of LiCl-KCl that contains approximately 6 wt% fission products, primarily as CsCl and SrCl 2 . Past work has shown that zeolite A will preferentially sorb cesium and strontium and will encapsulate the salt waste in a leach-resistant, radiation-resistant aluminosilicate matrix. However, a method is sill needed to convert the salt-occluded zeolite powders into a form suitable for geologic disposal. We are thus investigating a method that forms bonded zeolite by hot pressing a mixture of glass frit and salt-occluded zeolite powders at 990 K (717 degree C) and 28 MPa. The leach resistance of the bonded zeolite was measured in static leach tests run for 28 days in 363 K (90 degree C) deionized water. Normalized release rates of all elements in the bonded zeolite were low, 2 d. Thus, the bonded zeolite may be a suitable waste form for IFR salt waste

  1. Endogenous cytokinin overproduction modulates ROS homeostasis and decreases salt stress resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping eWang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8 and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of CAT and SOD, which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis.

  2. SCALED-UP SYNTHESIS: SALTS OF CARFENTANIL AND REMIFENTANIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    nitrile into a methyl ester. Purification was affected by the precipitation of oxalate salt 3. No flash chromatography was performed over these three...precipitate was then filtered. The solids were washed with cold isopropanol followed by diethyl ether. The solids were air -dried to give 27.60 g of compound...brown oil. This crude material was used without further purification . Compound 4: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.39–7.34 (m, 3H), 7.28–7.25 (m, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H

  3. Consensus on Intermediate Scale Salt Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Mills, Melissa Marie; Matteo, Edward N

    2017-03-01

    This report summarizes the first stage in a collaborative effort by Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories to design a small-diameter borehole heater test in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE). The intention is to complete test design during the remainder of fiscal year 2017 (FY17), and the implementation of the test will begin in FY18. This document is the result of regular meetings between the three national labs and the DOE-NE, and is intended to represent a consensus of these meetings and discussions.

  4. Pilot-Scale Removal Of Fluoride From Legacy Plutonium Materials Using Vacuum Salt Distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000°C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition

  5. Scaling options for integral experiments for molten salt fluid mechanics and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe Bardet; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Molten fluoride salts have potentially large benefits for use in high-temperature heat transport in fission and fusion energy systems, due to their very very low vapor pressures at high temperatures. Molten salts have high volumetric heat capacity compared to high-pressure helium and liquid metals, and have desirable safety characteristics due to their chemical inertness and low pressure. Therefore molten salts have been studied extensively for use in fusion blankets, as an intermediate heat transfer fluid for thermochemical hydrogen production in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, as a primary coolant for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor, and as a solvent for fuel in the Molten Salt Reactor. This paper presents recent progress in the design and analysis of scaled thermal hydraulics experiments for molten salt systems. We have identified a category of light mineral oils that can be used for scaled experiments. By adjusting the length, velocity, average temperature, and temperature difference scales of the experiment, we show that it is possible to simultaneously match the Reynolds (Re), Froude (Fr), Prandtl (Pr) and Rayleigh (Ra) numbers in the scaled experiments. For example, the light mineral oil Penreco Drakesol 260 AT can be used to simulate the molten salt flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ). At 110 deg. C, the oil Pr matches 600 deg. C flibe, and at 165 deg. C, the oil Pr matches 900 deg. C flibe. Re, Fr, and Ra can then be matched at a length scale of Ls/Lp = 0.40, velocity scale of U s /U p = 0.63, and temperature difference scale of ΔT s /ΔT p = 0.29. The Weber number is then matched within a factor of two, We s /We p = 0.7. Mechanical pumping power scales as Qp s /Qp p = 0.016, while heat inputs scale as Qh s /Qh p = 0.010, showing that power inputs to scaled experiments are very small compared to the prototype system. The scaled system has accelerated time, t s /t p = 0.64. When Re, Fr, Pr and Ra are matched, geometrically scaled

  6. GhWRKY68 reduces resistance to salt and drought in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Jia

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors modulate numerous physiological processes, including plant growth, development and responses to various environmental stresses. Currently, our understanding of the functions of the majority of the WRKY family members and their possible roles in signalling crosstalk is limited. In particular, very few WRKYs have been identified and characterised from an economically important crop, cotton. In this study, we characterised a novel group IIc WRKY gene, GhWRKY68, which is induced by different abiotic stresses and multiple defence-related signalling molecules. The β-glucuronidase activity driven by the GhWRKY68 promoter was enhanced after exposure to drought, salt, abscisic acid (ABA and H2O2. The overexpression of GhWRKY68 in Nicotiana benthamiana reduced resistance to drought and salt and affected several physiological indices. GhWRKY68 may mediate salt and drought responses by modulating ABA content and enhancing the transcript levels of ABA-responsive genes. GhWRKY68-overexpressing plants exhibited reduced tolerance to oxidative stress after drought and salt stress treatments, which correlated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, reduced enzyme activities, elevated malondialdehyde (MDA content and altered ROS-related gene expression. These results indicate that GhWRKY68 is a transcription factor that responds to drought and salt stresses by regulating ABA signalling and modulating cellular ROS.

  7. Pore-scale dynamics of salt transport and distribution in drying porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, water quality, and mineral-fluid interactions. We applied synchrotron x-ray micro-tomography to investigate the pore-scale dynamics of dissolved salt distribution in a three dimensional drying saline porous media using a cylindrical plastic column (15 mm in height and 8 mm in diameter) packed with sand particles saturated with CaI 2 solution (5% concentration by mass) with a spatial and temporal resolution of 12 μm and 30 min, respectively. Every time the drying sand column was set to be imaged, two different images were recorded using distinct synchrotron x-rays energies immediately above and below the K-edge value of Iodine. Taking the difference between pixel gray values enabled us to delineate the spatial and temporal distribution of CaI 2 concentration at pore scale. Results indicate that during early stages of evaporation, air preferentially invades large pores at the surface while finer pores remain saturated and connected to the wet zone at bottom via capillary-induced liquid flow acting as evaporating spots. Consequently, the salt concentration increases preferentially in finer pores where evaporation occurs. Higher salt concentration was observed close to the evaporating surface indicating a convection-driven process. The obtained salt profiles were used to evaluate the numerical solution of the convection-diffusion equation (CDE). Results show that the macro-scale CDE could capture the overall trend of the measured salt profiles but fail to produce the exact slope of the profiles. Our results shed new insight on the physics of salt transport and its complex dynamics in drying porous media and establish synchrotron x-ray tomography as an effective tool to investigate the dynamics of salt transport in porous media at high spatial and temporal resolution

  8. Preliminary Study of Single-Phase Natural Circulation for Lab-scaled Molten Salt Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Kang, Sarah; Kim, In Guk; Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Advanced reactors such as MSR (FHR), VHTR and AHTR utilized molten salt as a coolant for efficiency and safety which has advantages in higher heat capacity, lower pumping power and scale compared to liquid metal. It becomes more necessary to study on the characteristics of molten salt. However, due to several characteristics such as high operating temperature, large-scale facility and preventing solidification, satisfying that condition for study has difficulties. Thus simulant fluid was used with scaling method for lab-scale experiment. Scaled experiment enables simulant fluid to simulate fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of molten salt on lower operating temperature and reduced scale. In this paper, as a proof test of the scaled experiment, simplified single-phase natural circulation loop was designed in a lab-scale and applied to the passive safety system in advanced reactor in which molten salt is considered as a major coolant of the system. For the application of the improved safety system, prototype was based on the primary loop of the test-scale DRACS, the main passive safety system in FHR, developed at the OSU. For preliminary experiment, single-phase natural circulation under low power was performed. DOWTHERM A and DOWTHERM RP were selected as simulant candidates. Then, study of feasibility with simulant was conducted based on the scaling law for heat transfer characteristics and geometric parameters. Additionally, simulation with MARS code and ANSYS-CFX with the same condition of natural circulation was carried out as verification. For the accurate code simulation, thermo-physical properties of DOWTHERM A and RP were developed and implemented into MARS code. In this study, single-phase natural circulation experiment was performed with simulant oil, DOWTHERM RP, based on the passive safety system of FHR. Feasibility of similarity experiment for molten salt with oil simulant was confirmed by scaling method. In addition, simulation with two

  9. Evaluation of resistance to low pH and bile salts of human Lactobacillus spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, Virginia; Petronio, Giulio Petronio; Lissandrello, Edmondo; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2015-09-01

    There are nearly 100 trillion bacteria in the intestine that together form the intestinal microbiota. They are 'good' bacteria because they help to maintain a physiological balance and are called probiotics. Probiotics must have some important characteristics: be safe for humans, be resistant to the low pH in the stomach, as well as bile salts and pancreatic juice. Indeed, their survival is the most important factor, so that they can arrive alive in the intestine and are able to form colonies, at least temporarily. The aim of our study was the evaluation of resistance of Lactobacillus isolates from fecal and oral swabs compared to that found in a commercial product. Seven strains were randomly chosen: L. jensenii, L. gasseri, L. salivarius, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. crispatus, and L. delbrueckii. We observed a large variability in the results: L. gasseri and L. fermentum were the most resistance to low pH, while only L. gasseri showed the best survival rate to bile salts. Interestingly, the commercial product did not show tolerance to both low pH and bile salts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Scaling up the production and distribution of double-fortified salt in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will take to scale the manufacture and distribution of a shelf-stable salt, ... Public and private sector models, based on consumer response and policy dialogue, will be ... This project is funded under the Canadian International Food Security ...

  11. Mechanical stratification of autochthonous salt: Implications from basin-scale numerical models of rifted margin salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in

  12. Length scale dependence of the dynamic properties of hyaluronic acid solutions in the presence of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-02

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D(NSE) measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D(DLS). This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D(DLS) approaches D(NSE), which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hückel length.

  13. Remote sensing of the biological dynamics of large-scale salt evaporation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Bachoon, Dave; Ingram-Willey, Vebbra; Chow, Colin C.; Weinstock, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Optical properties of salt evaporation ponds associated with Exportadora de Sal, a salt production company in Baja California Sur, Mexico, were analyzed using a combination of spectroradiometer and extracted pigment data, and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper imagery. The optical characteristics of each pond are determined by the biota, which consists of dense populations of algae and photosynthetic bacteria containing a wide variety of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Analysis has shown that spectral and image data can differentiate between taxonomic groups of the microbiota, detect changes in population distributions, and reveal large-scale seasonal dynamics.

  14. Nickel-plating for active metal dissolution resistance in molten fluoride salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Luke [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sridharan, Kumar, E-mail: kumar@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Ni electroplating of Incoloy-800H was investigated with the goal of mitigating Cr dissolution from this alloy into molten 46.5%LiF-11.5%NaF-42%KF eutectic salt, commonly referred to as FLiNaK. Tests were conducted in graphite crucibles at a molten salt temperature of 850 deg. C. The crucible material graphite accelerates the corrosion process due to the large activity difference between the graphite and the alloy. For the purposes of providing a baseline for this study, un-plated Incoloy-800H and a nearly pure Ni-alloy, Ni-201 were also tested. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Incoloy-800H in molten fluoride salts. Diffusion of Cr from the alloy through the Ni-plating does occur and if the Ni-plating is thin enough this Cr eventually dissolves into the molten salt. The post-corrosion test microstructure of the Ni-plating, particularly void formation was also observed to depend on the plating thickness. Diffusion anneals in a helium environment of Ni-plated Incoloy-800H and an Fe-Ni-Cr model alloy were also investigated to understand Cr diffusion through the Ni-plating. Further enhancements in the efficacy of the Ni-plating as a protective barrier against Cr dissolution from the alloy into molten fluoride salts can be achieved by thermally forming a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier film on the surface of the alloy prior to Ni electroplating.

  15. User's manual and guide to SALT3 and SALT4: two-dimensional computer codes for analysis of test-scale underground excavations for the disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.; St John, C.M.; Hart, R.D.

    1984-02-01

    SALT3 and SALT4 are two-dimensional analytical/displacement-discontinuity codes designed to evaluate temperatures, deformation, and stresses associated with underground disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt. These codes were developed by the University of Minnesota for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation in 1979. The present documentation describes the mathematical equations of the physical system being modeled, the numerical techniques utilized, and the organization of these computer codes. The SALT3 and SALT4 codes can simulate: (a) viscoelastic behavior in pillars adjacent to excavations; (b) transversely isotropic elastic moduli such as those exhibited by bedded or stratified rock; and (c) excavation sequence. Major advantages of these codes are: (a) computational efficiency; (b) the small amount of input data required; and (c) a creep law based on laboratory experimental data for salt. The main disadvantage is that some of the assumptions in the formulation of the codes, i.e., the homogeneous elastic half-space and temperature-independent material properties, render it unsuitable for canister-scale analysis or analysis of lateral deformation of the pillars. The SALT3 and SALT4 codes can be used for parameter sensitivity analyses of two-dimensional, repository-scale, thermomechanical response in bedded salt during the excavation, operational, and post-closure phases. It is especially useful in evaluating alternative patterns and sequences of excavation or waste canister placement. SALT3 is a refinement of an earlier code, SALT, and includes a fully anelastic creep model and thermal stress routine. SALT4 is a later version, and incorporates a revised creep model which is strain-hardening

  16. A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, W; Zhou, Y; Kerr, H W; Lawson, S

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW

  17. Chemical resistance of valve packing and sealing materials to molten nitrate salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between a number of compression packings and sealing materials and molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate was evaluated at temperatures of 288 0 C (550 0 F), 400 0 C (750 0 F), and 565 0 C (1050 0 F). The types of packing materials tested included graphite, asbestos, PTFE, aramid, glass and ceramic fibers; perfluoroelastomers, and boron nitride. Several materials were chemically resistant to the molten salt at 288 0 C, but the compatibility of packings at 400 0 C and 565 0 C was not adequate. The chemical and physical phenomena affecting compatibility are discussed and recommendations concerning materials selection are made

  18. Full-scale borehole sealing test in salt under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Licastro, P.H.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    Large-scale testing of the permeability by brine of a salt/grout sample designed to simulate a borehole plug was conducted. The results of these tests showed that a quantity of fluid equivalent to a permeability of 3 microdarcys was collected during the course of the test. This flow rate was used to estimate the smooth bore aperture. Details of this test ware presented in Volume 1 of this report. This report, Volume 2, covers post-test characterization including a detailed study of the salt/grout interface, as well as determination of the physical/mechanical properties of grout samples molded at Terra Tek, Inc. at the time of the large-scale test. Additional studies include heat of hydration, radial stress, and longitudinal volume changes for an equivalent grout mixture

  19. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMirete

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes involved in salt resistance from the microbial communities of brines and the rhizosphere from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain Escherichia coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. As a result, eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation as a glycerol and a proton pump, whereas others encoded for proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also exhibited salt resistance in this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species where these genes can operate. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment.

  20. Modeling and Investigation of the Wear Resistance of Salt Bath Nitrided Aisi 4140 via ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Şerafettin; Akdemir, Ahmet; Kahramanli, Humar

    2013-05-01

    Nitriding is usually used to improve the surface properties of steel materials. In this way, the wear resistance of steels is improved. We conducted a series of studies in order to investigate the microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of salt bath nitrided AISI 4140 steel. The present study has two parts. For the first phase, the tribological behavior of the AISI 4140 steel which was nitrided in sulfinuz salt bath (SBN) was compared to the behavior of the same steel which was untreated. After surface characterization using metallography, microhardness and sliding wear tests were performed on a block-on-cylinder machine in which carbonized AISI 52100 steel discs were used as the counter face. For the examined AISI 4140 steel samples with and without surface treatment, the evolution of both the friction coefficient and of the wear behavior were determined under various loads, at different sliding velocities and a total sliding distance of 1000 m. The test results showed that wear resistance increased with the nitriding process, friction coefficient decreased due to the sulfur in salt bath and friction coefficient depended systematically on surface hardness. For the second part of this study, four artificial neural network (ANN) models were designed to predict the weight loss and friction coefficient of the nitrided and unnitrided AISI 4140 steel. Load, velocity and sliding distance were used as input. Back-propagation algorithm was chosen for training the ANN. Statistical measurements of R2, MAE and RMSE were employed to evaluate the success of the systems. The results showed that all the systems produced successful results.

  1. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  2. Allelic variation of bile salt hydrolase genes in Lactobacillus salivarius does not determine bile resistance levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host.

  3. Development status and potential program for development of proliferation-resistant molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Preliminary studies of existing and conceptual molten-salt reactor (MSR) designs have led to the identification of conceptual systems that are technologically attractive when operated with denatured uranium as the principal fissile fuel. These denatured MSRs would also have favorable resource-utilization characteristics and substantial resistance to proliferation of weapons-usable nuclear materials. The report presents a summary of the current status of technology and a discussion of the major technical areas of a possible base program to develop commercial denatured MSRs. The general areas treated are (1) reactor design and development, (2) safety and safety related technology, (3) fuel-coolant behavior and fuel processing, and (4) reactor materials. A substantial development effort could lead to authorization for construction of a molten-salt test reactor about 5 years after the start of the program and operation of the unit about 10 years later. A prototype commercial denatured MSR could be expected to begin operating 25 years from the start of the program. The postulated base program would extend over 32 years and would cost about $700 million (1978 dollars, unescalated). Additional costs to construct the MSTR, $600 million, and the prototype commercial plant, $1470 million, would bring the total program cost to about $2.8 billion. Additional allowances probably should be made to cover contingencies and incidental technology areas not explicitly treated in this preliminary review

  4. Development status and potential program for development of proliferation-resistant molten-salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Preliminary studies of existing and conceptual molten-salt reactor (MSR) designs have led to the identification of conceptual systems that are technologically attractive when operated with denatured uranium as the principal fissile fuel. These denatured MSRs would also have favorable resource-utilization characteristics and substantial resistance to proliferation of weapons-usable nuclear materials. The report presents a summary of the current status of technology and a discussion of the major technical areas of a possible base program to develop commercial denatured MSRs. The general areas treated are (1) reactor design and development, (2) safety and safety related technology, (3) fuel-coolant behavior and fuel processing, and (4) reactor materials. A substantial development effort could lead to authorization for construction of a molten-salt test reactor about 5 years after the start of the program and operation of the unit about 10 years later. A prototype commercial denatured MSR could be expected to begin operating 25 years from the start of the program. The postulated base program would extend over 32 years and would cost about $700 million (1978 dollars, unescalated). Additional costs to construct the MSTR, $600 million, and the prototype commercial plant, $1470 million, would bring the total program cost to about $2.8 billion. Additional allowances probably should be made to cover contingencies and incidental technology areas not explicitly treated in this preliminary review.

  5. Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-08-28

    The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 degrees C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  6. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-07-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO{sub 3} solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  8. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO 3 solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Dietary Salt Reduction Self-Care Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikan, Pratsani; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2014-07-01

    Valid, reliable, and culturally-specific scales to measure salt reduction self-care behavior in older adults are needed. The purpose of this study was to develop the Dietary Salt Reduction Self-Care Behavior Scale (DSR-SCB) for use in hypertensive older adults with Orem's self-care deficit theory as a base. Exploratory factor analysis, Rasch modeling, and reliability were performed on data from 242 older Thai adults. Nine items loaded on one factor (factor loadings = 0.63 to 0.79) and accounted for 52.28% of the variance (Eigenvalue = 4.71). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin method of sampling adequacy was 0.89, and the Bartlett's test showed significance (χ 2 ( df =36 ) = 916.48, p < 0.0001). Infit and outfit mean squares ranged from 0.81 to 1.25, while infit and outfit standardized mean squares were located at ±2. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The 9-item DSR-SCB is a short and reliable scale. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Controls for multi-scale temporal variation in methane flux of a subtropical tidal salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal wetlands provide critical carbon sequestration benefits, yet the production of methane (CH4) from these ecosystems can vary by an order of magnitude based on environmental and biological factors. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements for methane flux (FCH4) were performed in a subtropical tidal salt marsh of eastern China over 20 months. Spectral analysis techniques including the continuous wavelet transform, the wavelet coherence, the partial wavelet coherence and the multiple wavelet coherence were employed to analyze the periodicities and the main regulating factors of FCH4 in the tidal salt marsh. The annual budget of methane was 17.8 g C-CH4 m-2 yr-1, which was relatively high compared to those of most reported from inland wetland sites. In non-growing season, release of ebullition was the dominant driving mechanism for variability of FCH4 from hourly to monthly scales. There was no single dominant factor at short-term scale (half-day to 1-day) in growing season. It is worthwhile to note that tide was one of the most important factors regulating FCH4 at short time scale (half-day to 1-day). In comparison, the contribution of temperature to FCH4 at a short time scale (half-day to 1-day) was small due to its narrow range. In addition, plant-modulated transport and gross primary production also contributed to FCH4 at multiple temporal scales in this densely vegetated marsh, especially at weekly to monthly scales. Due to the complex interactive influences of tidal dynamics, temperature fluctuation, plant productivity, plant-mediated transport and release of ebullition on FCH4 exhibited no clear pattern of diurnal variation, but instead was highly variable.

  11. Scaling theory of quantum resistance distributions in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayannavar, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The large scale distribution of quantum Ohmic resistance of a disorderd one-dimensional conductor is derived explicitly. It is shown that in the thermodynamic limit this distribution is characterized by two independent parameters for strong disorder, leading to a two-parameter scaling theory of localization. Only in the limit of weak disorder single parameter scaling consistent with existing theoretical treatments is recovered. (author). 33 refs., 4 figs

  12. Scaling theory of quantum resistance distributions in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayannavar, A.M.

    1990-05-01

    We have derived explicitly, the large scale distribution of quantum Ohmic resistance of a disordered one-dimensional conductor. We show that in the thermodynamic limit this distribution is characterized by two independent parameters for strong disorder, leading to a two-parameter scaling theory of localization. Only in the limit of weak disorder we recover single parameter scaling, consistent with existing theoretical treatments. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs

  13. Development and Validation of Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong Population (CHLSalt-HK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P H Chau

    Full Text Available Globally, sodium intake far exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Assessing health literacy related to salt consumption among older adults could guide the development of interventions that target their knowledge gaps, misconceptions, or poor dietary practices. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong population (CHLSalt-HK. Based on previous studies on salt intake and nutrition label reading in other countries, we developed similar questions that were appropriate for the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The questions covered the following eight broad areas: functional literacy (term recognition and nutrition label reading, knowledge of the salt content of foods, knowledge of the diseases related to high salt intake, knowledge of international standards, myths about salt intake, attitudes toward salt intake, salty food consumption practices, and nutrition label reading practices. Eight professionals, including doctors, nurses, and dietitians, provided feedback on the scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on data collected from a convenience sample of 603 Chinese elderly adults recruited from Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong. The 49-item CHLSalt-HK had a possible score range of 0 to 98, with a higher score indicating higher health literacy related to salt intake. The CHLSalt-HK had acceptable content validity; the item-level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.857 to 1.000, and the scale-level Content Validity Index was 0.994. Additionally, it had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.799 and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846. The mean CHLSalt-HK score among those who were aware of the public education slogan about nutrition labels and sodium intake was higher by 3.928 points (95% confidence interval: 1.742 to 6.115 than that among those who were not aware of the slogan

  14. Resistance Management for San Jose Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, K; Chorbadjian, R A; Nauen, R

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose scale Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is one of the most important pests of deciduous fruit trees. The major cause of recent outbreaks in apple orchards is thought to be the development of insecticide resistance, specifically organophosphates. The first report was given in North America, and now, in Chile. In the present study, San Jose scale populations collected from two central regions of Chile were checked for their susceptibility to different mode of action insecticides in order to establish alternatives to manage this pest. No evidence of cross resistance between organophosphates insecticides and acetamiprid, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, or thiacloprid was found. Baselines of LC50-LC95 for different life stages of San Jose scale are given, as reference to future studies of resistance monitoring. The systemic activity of acetamiprid, spirotetramat, and thiacloprid was higher than the contact residue effect of these compounds. For sulfoxaflor, both values were similar. Program treatments including one or more of these compounds are compared in efficacy and impact on resistance ratio values. In order to preserve new insecticides as an important tool to control San Jose scale, resistance management programs should be implemented, considering insecticide mode of action classes alternated or mixed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A new approach for modeling and analysis of molten salt reactors using SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. J.; Harrison, T. J.; Gehin, J. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is performing an evaluation and screening of potential fuel cycle options to provide information that can support future research and development decisions based on the more promising fuel cycle options. [1] A comprehensive set of fuel cycle options are put into evaluation groups based on physics and fuel cycle characteristics. Representative options for each group are then evaluated to provide the quantitative information needed to support the valuation of criteria and metrics used for the study. Included in this set of representative options are Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs), the analysis of which requires several capabilities that are not adequately supported by the current version of SCALE or other neutronics depletion software packages (e.g., continuous online feed and removal of materials). A new analysis approach was developed for MSR analysis using SCALE by taking user-specified MSR parameters and performing a series of SCALE/TRITON calculations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. This paper provides a detailed description of the new analysis approach, including the modeling equations and radiation transport models used. Results for an MSR fuel cycle option of interest are also provided to demonstrate the application to a relevant problem. The current implementation is through a utility code that uses the two-dimensional (2D) TRITON depletion sequence in SCALE 6.1 but could be readily adapted to three-dimensional (3D) TRITON depletion sequences or other versions of SCALE. (authors)

  16. A new approach for modeling and analysis of molten salt reactors using SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J. J.; Harrison, T. J.; Gehin, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is performing an evaluation and screening of potential fuel cycle options to provide information that can support future research and development decisions based on the more promising fuel cycle options. [1] A comprehensive set of fuel cycle options are put into evaluation groups based on physics and fuel cycle characteristics. Representative options for each group are then evaluated to provide the quantitative information needed to support the valuation of criteria and metrics used for the study. Included in this set of representative options are Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs), the analysis of which requires several capabilities that are not adequately supported by the current version of SCALE or other neutronics depletion software packages (e.g., continuous online feed and removal of materials). A new analysis approach was developed for MSR analysis using SCALE by taking user-specified MSR parameters and performing a series of SCALE/TRITON calculations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. This paper provides a detailed description of the new analysis approach, including the modeling equations and radiation transport models used. Results for an MSR fuel cycle option of interest are also provided to demonstrate the application to a relevant problem. The current implementation is through a utility code that uses the two-dimensional (2D) TRITON depletion sequence in SCALE 6.1 but could be readily adapted to three-dimensional (3D) TRITON depletion sequences or other versions of SCALE. (authors)

  17. Large-scale demonstration of disposal of decontaminated salt as saltstone. Part I. Construction, loading, and capping of lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H.C.

    1984-06-01

    The installation phase of a large-scale demonstration of the disposal concept for decontaminated, low-level radioactive salt waste at the Savannah River Plant was completed in December 1983 and January 1984. The installation entailed immobilizing 7500 gallons of decontaminated salt solution with a blended cement formulation and pouring the resulting grout, saltstone, into three specially designed lysimeters for extended in-field leaching tests under natural conditions. 4 references, 35 figures, 4 tables

  18. Electrolytic reduction runs of 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt using metal anode shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Heo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Kwon; Jeon, Min Ku; Hong, Sun Seok; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-06-01

    Ten electrolytic reduction or oxide reduction (OR) runs of a 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt at 650 °C were conducted using metal anode shrouds. During this procedure, an anode shroud surrounds a platinum anode and discharges hot oxygen gas from the salt to outside of the OR apparatus, thereby preventing corrosion of the apparatus. In this study, a number of anode shrouds made of various metals were tested. Each metallic anode shroud consisted of a lower porous shroud for the salt phase and an upper nonporous shroud for the gas phase. A stainless steel (STS) wire mesh with five-ply layer was a material commonly used for the lower porous shroud for the OR runs. The metals tested for the upper nonporous shroud in the different OR runs are STS, nickel, and platinum- or silver-lined nickel. The lower porous shroud showed no significant damage during two consecutive OR runs, but exhibited signs of damage from three or more runs due to thermal stress. The upper nonporous shrouds made up of either platinum- or silver-lined nickel showed excellent corrosion resistance to hot oxygen gas while STS or nickel without any platinum or silver lining exhibited poor corrosion resistance.

  19. One-step large-scale deposition of salt-free DNA origami nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Veikko; Shen, Boxuan; Tapio, Kosti; Toppari, J. Jussi; Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Tuukkanen, Sampo

    2015-01-01

    DNA origami nanostructures have tremendous potential to serve as versatile platforms in self-assembly -based nanofabrication and in highly parallel nanoscale patterning. However, uniform deposition and reliable anchoring of DNA nanostructures often requires specific conditions, such as pre-treatment of the chosen substrate or a fine-tuned salt concentration for the deposition buffer. In addition, currently available deposition techniques are suitable merely for small scales. In this article, we exploit a spray-coating technique in order to resolve the aforementioned issues in the deposition of different 2D and 3D DNA origami nanostructures. We show that purified DNA origamis can be controllably deposited on silicon and glass substrates by the proposed method. The results are verified using either atomic force microscopy or fluorescence microscopy depending on the shape of the DNA origami. DNA origamis are successfully deposited onto untreated substrates with surface coverage of about 4 objects/mm2. Further, the DNA nanostructures maintain their shape even if the salt residues are removed from the DNA origami fabrication buffer after the folding procedure. We believe that the presented one-step spray-coating method will find use in various fields of material sciences, especially in the development of DNA biochips and in the fabrication of metamaterials and plasmonic devices through DNA metallisation. PMID:26492833

  20. Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-01

    The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

  1. Corrosion resistant structural materials for use in lithium fluoride molten salts and thermonuclear device using it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Takagi, Ryuzo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To provide blanket materials for thermo nuclear devices and structural materials for containers with less MHD effect and good heat exchanging efficiency. Constitution: LiF-PbF 2 is used as the liquid blanket material for moderating the MHD effect. That is, the lithium compound, in the form of a fluoride, can be made easily liquefiable being and PbF 2 is added for lowering the melting point. The reason of using the fluoride is that fluorine material is less activated by the adsorption of neutrons. Copper, phosphor bronze, nickel or nickel-based alloy, e.g., Monel metal is used as corrosion resistant structural material to LiF-PbF 2 molten salts. Use of copper as the low activating structural material can provide an excellent effect also in view of the maintenance and, further, a series of processes for purifying, separating injecting and recoverying tritium can be conducted safely and stationarily without contaminating the circumferences. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

  3. Salt bridge interactions within the β2 integrin α7 helix mediate force-induced binding and shear resistance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Linda; Li, Ning; Shu, Xinyu; Zhou, Lüwen; Lü, Shouqin; Chen, Shenbao; Mao, Debin; Long, Mian

    2018-01-01

    The functional performance of the αI domain α 7 helix in β 2 integrin activation depends on the allostery of the α 7 helix, which axially slides down; therefore, it is critical to elucidate what factors regulate the allostery. In this study, we determined that there were two conservative salt bridge interaction pairs that constrain both the upper and bottom ends of the α 7 helix. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for three β 2 integrin members, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; α L β 2 ), macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1; α M β 2 ) and α x β 2 , indicated that the magnitude of the salt bridge interaction is related to the stability of the αI domain and the strength of the corresponding force-induced allostery. The disruption of the salt bridge interaction, especially with double mutations in both salt bridges, significantly reduced the force-induced allostery time for all three members. The effects of salt bridge interactions of the αI domain α 7 helix on β 2 integrin conformational stability and allostery were experimentally validated using Mac-1 constructs. The results demonstrated that salt bridge mutations did not alter the conformational state of Mac-1, but they did increase the force-induced ligand binding and shear resistance ability, which was consistent with MD simulations. This study offers new insight into the importance of salt bridge interaction constraints of the αI domain α 7 helix and external force for β 2 integrin function. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Time dependent enhanced resistance against antibiotics & metal salts by planktonic & biofilm form of Acinetobacter haemolyticus MMC 8 clinical isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvari Vijaykumar Gaidhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Available literature shows paucity of reports describing antibiotic and metal resistance profile of biofilm forming clinical isolates of Acinetobacter haemolyticus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antibiotic and metal resistance profile of Indian clinical isolate of A. haemolyticus MMC 8 isolated from human pus sample in planktonic and biofilm form. Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration were determined employing broth and agar dilution techniques. Biofilm formation was evaluated quantitatively by microtiter plate method and variation in complex architecture was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Minimum biofilm inhibiting concentration was checked by Calgary biofilm device. Results: Planktonic A. haemolyticus MMC 8 was sensitive to 14 antibiotics, AgNO 3 and HgC1 2 resistant to streptomycin and intermediately resistant to netilmycin and kanamycin. MMC 8 exhibited temporal variation in amount and structure of biofilm. There was 32 - 4000 and 4 - 256 fold increase in antibiotic and metal salt concentration, respectively to inhibit biofilm over a period of 72 h as against susceptible planktonic counterparts. Total viable count in the range of 10 5 -10 6 cfu / ml was observed on plating minimum biofilm inhibiting concentration on Muller-Hinton Agar plate without antimicrobial agents. Biofilm forming cells were several folds more resistant to antibiotics and metal salts in comparison to planktonic cells. Presence of unaffected residual cell population indicated presence of persister cells. Interpretation & conclusions: The results indicate that biofilm formation causes enhanced resistance against antibiotics and metal salts in otherwise susceptible planktonic A. haemolyticus MMC 8.

  5. An alternative hypothesis to the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Schmidlin, O.; Tanaka, M.; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2016), s. 965-973 ISSN 0085-2538 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * hypertension * kidney * salt * salt-resistance * salt-sensitivity * sodium * sodium chloride Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 8.395, year: 2016

  6. Small-scale electrical resistivity tomography of wet fractured rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, Douglas J; Sharpe, Roger; Wood, Thomas; Heath, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments that tested the ability of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method to locate correctly wet and dry fractures in a meso-scale model. The goal was to develop a method of monitoring the flow of water through a fractured rock matrix. The model was a four by six array of limestone blocks equipped with 28 stainless steel electrodes. Dry fractures were created by placing pieces of vinyl between one or more blocks. Wet fractures were created by injecting tap water into a joint between blocks. In electrical terms, the dry fractures are resistive and the wet fractures are conductive. The quantities measured by the ERT system are current and voltage around the outside edge of the model. The raw ERT data were translated to resistivity values inside the model using a three-dimensional Occam's inversion routine. This routine was one of the key components of ERT being tested. The model presented several challenges. First, the resistivity of both the blocks and the joints was highly variable. Second, the resistive targets introduced extreme changes the software could not precisely quantify. Third, the abrupt changes inherent in a fracture system were contrary to the smoothly varying changes expected by the Occam's inversion routine. Fourth, the response of the conductive fractures was small compared to the background variability. In general, ERT was able to locate correctly resistive fractures. Problems occurred, however, when the resistive fracture was near the edges of the model or when multiple fractures were close together. In particular, ERT tended to position the fracture closer to the model center than its true location. Conductive fractures yielded much smaller responses than the resistive case. A difference-inversion method was able to correctly locate these targets.

  7. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific ''problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Search and studying of salt resisting bacteria -destructors of organochlorine pesticides with help of tritium labeled PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Dadakhanov, J.A.; Djumaniyazova, G.I.; Yadgarov, Kh.T.; Zinovev, P.V.; Norbaeva, Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Salinization of soils is one of serious problems of agriculture of Uzbekistan. The problem is also aggravated as the salted soils are strongly contaminated with pesticides. We isolated aboriginal active strains of bacteria- destructors of organochlorine compounds from soils contaminated by pesticides (HCCH, DDT, PCBs). We investigated their cultural-morphological and physiological -biochemical properties and determined their taxonomic position. In laboratory experiments the effect of various concentrations of NaCl - 3%-5-7-10-20-30-40-50 % and reproduction of the active strains-destructors was investigated. It was found that the culture number 20 stands the NaCl concentration - up to 3 %, culture number 505 - up to 7 % salt in medium that specifies ability of this culture to survive in the middle salinated soils, cultures number 28 and 33 stand the NaCl concentration up to 30-40 % that characterize their survival rate in strongly salinated soils; the culture number 26 stood the NaCl concentration up to 50 % that characterizes its ability to survive and propagate in brackish soils. With the help of designed radiochemical methods we had been explored ability of the active salt resisting strains of bacteria to utilize and destroy the tritium labeled PCBs. The precise quantity and quality characteristics of the PCB-destructive activity of each investigated strain were received. The salt resisting strains of bacteria having high PCB-destructive activity were determined. At present, investigation on development of the new biological preparation designed for destruction of persistent organochlorine compounds in salted soils are carried out. (author)

  9. Remotely Sensed, catchment scale, estimations of flow resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P.; Dugdale, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Despite a decade of progress in the field of fluvial remote sensing, there are few published works using this new technology to advance and explore fundamental ideas and theories in fluvial geomorphology. This paper will apply remote sensing methods in order to re-visit a classic concept in fluvial geomorphology: flow resistance. Classic flow resistance equations such as those of Strickler and Keulegan typically use channel slope, channel depth or hydraulic radius and some measure channel roughness usually equated to the 50th or 84th percentile of the bed material size distribution. In this classic literature, empirical equations such as power laws are usually calibrated and validated with a maximum of a few hundred data points. In contrast, fluvial remote sensing methods are now capable of delivering millions of high resolution data points in continuous, catchment scale, surveys. On the river Tromie in Scotland, a full dataset or river characteristics is now available. Based on low altitude imagery and NextMap topographic data, this dataset has a continuous sampling of channel width at a resolution of 3cm, of depth and median grain size at a resolution of 1m, and of slope at a resolution of 5m. This entire data set is systematic and continuous for the entire 20km length of the river. When combined with discharge at the time of data acquisition, this new dataset offers the opportunity to re-examine flow resistance equations with a 2-4 orders of magnitude increase in calibration data. This paper will therefore re-examine the classic approaches of Strickler and Keulagan along with other more recent flow resistance equations. Ultimately, accurate predictions of flow resistance from remotely sensed parameters could lead to acceptable predictions of velocity. Such a usage of classic equations to predict velocity could allow lotic habitat models to account for microhabitat velocity at catchment scales without the recourse to advanced and computationally intensive

  10. Deicer scaling resistance of concrete mixtures containing slag cement. Phase 2 : evaluation of different laboratory scaling test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    With the use of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) in concrete mixtures, salt scaling tests such as ASTM C672 have been found to be overly aggressive and do correlate well with field scaling performance. The reasons for this are thought to be b...

  11. Successful full-scale deployments of advanced PGPR enhanced phytoremediation systems (PEPS) for decontamination of petroleum and salt impacted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.; Huang, X.D.; Gerhardt, K.; Yu, X.M.; Liddycoat, S.; Lu, X.; Nykamp, J.; McCallum, B.; MacNeill, G.; Mosley, P.; Gurska, J.; Knezevich, N.; Zhong, H.; Gerwing, P. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a phytoremediation system designed to remediate salt and petroleum contaminated sites. Phytoremediation techniques are cheaper than traditional methods of remediating soils. The phytoremediation process is comprised of volatilization, phytodegradation, and chelation processes. Plants uptake contaminants via a rhizodegradation process. The plants provide biomass for rapid remediation with a restoration time frame of between 2 to 3 years. PGPR enhanced phytoremediation systems (PEPS) have been studied over a 10 year period and successfully applied at polycyclic hydrocarbon (PHC) contaminated sites, gas stations, and salt-contaminated sites throughout Canada. Soils are tilled in order to expose contaminants to sunlight. hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are then applied, followed by the application of a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) phytoremediation system that is typically applied to grass species prior to planting. Case studies of full-scale sites used to prove the concept for both salt and hydrocarbon contaminated soils were presented. tabs., figs.

  12. Scaling law of resistance fluctuations in stationary random resistor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta; Trefan; Reggiani

    2000-12-11

    In a random resistor network we consider the simultaneous evolution of two competing random processes consisting in breaking and recovering the elementary resistors with probabilities W(D) and W(R). The condition W(R)>W(D)/(1+W(D)) leads to a stationary state, while in the opposite case, the broken resistor fraction reaches the percolation threshold p(c). We study the resistance noise of this system under stationary conditions by Monte Carlo simulations. The variance of resistance fluctuations is found to follow a scaling law |p-p(c)|(-kappa(0)) with kappa(0) = 5.5. The proposed model relates quantitatively the defectiveness of a disordered media with its electrical and excess-noise characteristics.

  13. Natural dissolved humic substances increase the lifespan and promote transgenerational resistance to salt stress in the cladoceran Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhett, Albert L; Steinberg, Christian E W; Santangelo, Jayme M; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Farjalla, Vinicius F

    2011-07-01

    Evidence has accumulated that humic substances (HS) are not inert biogeochemicals. Rather, they cause stress symptoms and may modulate the life history of aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, it is still not clear how HS interact with additional stressors and if their effects are transgenerational. We tested the interactive effects of HS and salt to cladocerans, discussing their consequences for the persistence in fluctuating environments, such as coastal lagoons. We used life-table experiments to test the effects of natural HS from a polyhumic coastal lagoon (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC) L(-1)) on the life-history of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. We further tested the effects of HS (10 mg DOC L(-1)), within and across generations, on the resistance of M. macrocopa to salt stress (5.5 g L(-1)). HS at 5-20 mg DOC L(-1) extended the mean lifespan of M. macrocopa by ~30%. HS also increased body length at maturity by ~4% at 5-50 mg DOC L(-1) and stimulated male offspring production at all tested concentrations. Exposure to HS (even maternal only) alleviated the salt-induced reduction of somatic growth. Co-exposure to HS increased body volume by 12-22% relative to salt-only treatments, while pre-exposure to HS increased body volume by 40-56% in treatments with salt presence, when compared to non-pre-exposed animals. HS at environmentally realistic concentrations, by acting as mild chemical stressors, modify crucial life-history traits of M. macrocopa, favoring its persistence in fluctuating environments. Some of the effects of HS are even transgenerational.

  14. Molten salt reactor technology for long-range and wide-scale nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Alexseev, P.; Menshikov, L.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotine, S.

    1997-01-01

    A possibility of creation of multi-component nuclear power system in which alongside with thermal and fast reactors, molten salt burner reactors, for incineration of weapon grade plutonium, some minor actinides and transmutation of some fission products will be presented. The purposes of this work are to review the present status of the molten salt reactor technology and innovative non-aqueous chemical processing methods, to indicate the importance of the uncertainties remaining, to identify the additional work needed, and to evaluate the probability of success in obtaining improved safety characteristics for new concept of molten salt - burner reactor with external neutron source. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Electrolytic reduction runs of 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li{sub 2}O-LiCl molten salt using metal anode shrouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Young, E-mail: eychoi@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedoek-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong; Heo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedoek-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Min Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedoek-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sun Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedoek-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedoek-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedoek-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Ten electrolytic reduction or oxide reduction (OR) runs of a 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li{sub 2}O-LiCl molten salt at 650 °C were conducted using metal anode shrouds. During this procedure, an anode shroud surrounds a platinum anode and discharges hot oxygen gas from the salt to outside of the OR apparatus, thereby preventing corrosion of the apparatus. In this study, a number of anode shrouds made of various metals were tested. Each metallic anode shroud consisted of a lower porous shroud for the salt phase and an upper nonporous shroud for the gas phase. A stainless steel (STS) wire mesh with five-ply layer was a material commonly used for the lower porous shroud for the OR runs. The metals tested for the upper nonporous shroud in the different OR runs are STS, nickel, and platinum- or silver-lined nickel. The lower porous shroud showed no significant damage during two consecutive OR runs, but exhibited signs of damage from three or more runs due to thermal stress. The upper nonporous shrouds made up of either platinum- or silver-lined nickel showed excellent corrosion resistance to hot oxygen gas while STS or nickel without any platinum or silver lining exhibited poor corrosion resistance. - Highlights: •Electrolytic reduction runs of a 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li{sub 2}O-LiCl molten salt at 650 °C were conducted using metal anode shrouds. •Each metallic anode shroud consisted of a lower porous shroud for the salt phase and an upper nonporous shroud for the gas phase. •The upper nonporous shrouds made up of noble metal-lined nickel showed excellent corrosion resistance to hot oxygen gas.

  16. Enhanced proline synthesis may determine resistance to salt stress in tomato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Khan, N.U.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses of tomato cultivars were studied at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during 2005-2006 for salt tolerance. Tomato cultivars were Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F., Chinese 87-5, Rio Grand and Super Blocky and subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Fresh weight, dry weight, and ions sodium and potassium accumulation, Na/sup +/K sup +/ ratio and proline content were determined after imposing the tomato cultivars to NaCl salt for 80 days. Salt stress significantly decreased the fresh and dry weight in Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F, Chinese 87-5 and Rio Grand, however, in Super Blocky the fresh and dry weight were enhanced under stress conditions. Salinity stress increased sodium uptake from 191.828 to 436.170 mu mg/sup -1/ D wt while potassium accumulation decreased from 1033.12 to 926.80 mu mg/sup -1/ D wt resulting in higher Na/sup +/ ratio in stressed (0.48 g) as compared to unstressed control (0.19). The mean proline contents also increased from 28.95 to 40.96 mu M Proline g/sup -1/ F. wt with the maximum increase (57.378%) in Super Blocky followed by Rio Grand (49.325%). (author)

  17. Increased water resistance of paper treated with amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and the HCl salts of hexadecylamine and octadecylamine. Solutions of the complexes were applied to paper at concentrations of 2-4%. After the treated papers were dried, sodium hydroxide solution was applied to convert the adsorb...

  18. TRANSGENIC PLANTS OF RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L. WITH GENE OSMYB4 HAVE INCREASED RESISTANCE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raldugina G.N.

    2012-08-01

    fact that at very high concentrations of salts non-transformed plants died after 12-13 days, whereas the transgenic oilseed rape remained alive long enough time. Thus, the incorporation of the plant gene transcription factor OSMYB4 increased the resistance of transgenic plants to the stress effect of HM.

  19. Linking the Salt Transcriptome with Physiological Responses of a Salt-Resistant Populus Species as a Strategy to Identify Genes Important for Stress Acclimation1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Monika; Brosché, Mikael; Vinocur, Basia; Abo-Ogiala, Atef; Fayyaz, Payam; Janz, Dennis; Ottow, Eric A.; Cullmann, Andreas D.; Saborowski, Joachim; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Altman, Arie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    To investigate early salt acclimation mechanisms in a salt-tolerant poplar species (Populus euphratica), the kinetics of molecular, metabolic, and physiological changes during a 24-h salt exposure were measured. Three distinct phases of salt stress were identified by analyses of the osmotic pressure and the shoot water potential: dehydration, salt accumulation, and osmotic restoration associated with ionic stress. The duration and intensity of these phases differed between leaves and roots. Transcriptome analysis using P. euphratica-specific microarrays revealed clusters of coexpressed genes in these phases, with only 3% overlapping salt-responsive genes in leaves and roots. Acclimation of cellular metabolism to high salt concentrations involved remodeling of amino acid and protein biosynthesis and increased expression of molecular chaperones (dehydrins, osmotin). Leaves suffered initially from dehydration, which resulted in changes in transcript levels of mitochondrial and photosynthetic genes, indicating adjustment of energy metabolism. Initially, decreases in stress-related genes were found, whereas increases occurred only when leaves had restored the osmotic balance by salt accumulation. Comparative in silico analysis of the poplar stress regulon with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) orthologs was used as a strategy to reduce the number of candidate genes for functional analysis. Analysis of Arabidopsis knockout lines identified a lipocalin-like gene (AtTIL) and a gene encoding a protein with previously unknown functions (AtSIS) to play roles in salt tolerance. In conclusion, by dissecting the stress transcriptome of tolerant species, novel genes important for salt endurance can be identified. PMID:20959419

  20. Linking the salt transcriptome with physiological responses of a salt-resistant Populus species as a strategy to identify genes important for stress acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Monika; Brosché, Mikael; Vinocur, Basia; Abo-Ogiala, Atef; Fayyaz, Payam; Janz, Dennis; Ottow, Eric A; Cullmann, Andreas D; Saborowski, Joachim; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Altman, Arie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-12-01

    To investigate early salt acclimation mechanisms in a salt-tolerant poplar species (Populus euphratica), the kinetics of molecular, metabolic, and physiological changes during a 24-h salt exposure were measured. Three distinct phases of salt stress were identified by analyses of the osmotic pressure and the shoot water potential: dehydration, salt accumulation, and osmotic restoration associated with ionic stress. The duration and intensity of these phases differed between leaves and roots. Transcriptome analysis using P. euphratica-specific microarrays revealed clusters of coexpressed genes in these phases, with only 3% overlapping salt-responsive genes in leaves and roots. Acclimation of cellular metabolism to high salt concentrations involved remodeling of amino acid and protein biosynthesis and increased expression of molecular chaperones (dehydrins, osmotin). Leaves suffered initially from dehydration, which resulted in changes in transcript levels of mitochondrial and photosynthetic genes, indicating adjustment of energy metabolism. Initially, decreases in stress-related genes were found, whereas increases occurred only when leaves had restored the osmotic balance by salt accumulation. Comparative in silico analysis of the poplar stress regulon with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) orthologs was used as a strategy to reduce the number of candidate genes for functional analysis. Analysis of Arabidopsis knockout lines identified a lipocalin-like gene (AtTIL) and a gene encoding a protein with previously unknown functions (AtSIS) to play roles in salt tolerance. In conclusion, by dissecting the stress transcriptome of tolerant species, novel genes important for salt endurance can be identified.

  1. Results from the large scale in situ drift sealing experiment in the salt mine Sondershausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitz, P.; Koch, G. [Freiberg Univ. of Mining an Technology, Institute of Mining Engineering (Germany); Gruner, M. [Wilsnack and Partners Freiberg / Saxony (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the research, which is supported by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung) and the state of Thuringia from 1997 to 2003, are long term stable drift sealing systems for underground waste disposals. As a result of the material selection for the sealing element bricks from a mixture of bentonite and quartz-sand were produced. The static abutment was built with natural salt bricks. A real drift sealing system was built in the former potash mine Sondershausen in a depth of 700 m and then tested under a fluid pressure up to 80 bar with saturated salt-brine. The functionality of the bentonite sealing element was proved successfully. Since 1998 some 500 t of such bentonite blocks with sand have been produced and built-in in underground sealing elements in salt mines. (authors)

  2. HKT transporters mediate salt stress resistance in plants: from structure and function to the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Shin; Horie, Tomoaki; Hauser, Felix; Deinlein, Ulrich; Schroeder, Julian I; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Plant cells are sensitive to salinity stress and do not require sodium as an essential element for their growth and development. Saline soils reduce crop yields and limit available land. Research shows that HKT transporters provide a potent mechanism for mediating salt tolerance in plants. Knowledge of the molecular ion transport and regulation mechanisms and the control of HKT gene expression are crucial for understanding the mechanisms by which HKT transporters enhance crop performance under salinity stress. This review focuses on HKT transporters in monocot plants and in Arabidopsis as a dicot plant, as a guide to efforts toward improving salt tolerance of plants for increasing the production of crops and bioenergy feedstocks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Allelic Variation of Bile Salt Hydrolase Genes in Lactobacillus salivarius Does Not Determine Bile Resistance Levels▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Li, Yin; Bumann, Mario; Raftis, Emma J.; Casey, Pat G.; Cooney, Jakki C.; Walsh, Martin A.; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host. PMID:19592587

  4. Effect of yttrium chromite doping on its resistance to high-temperature salt and gas corrosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oryshich, I.V.; Poryadchenko, N.E.; Rakitskij, A.N.; Bega, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    Effect of yttrium chromite doping with 2-4 group metal oxides on the corrosion resistance in the air at 1300 C during 5 hours and in sodium chloride and sulfate melts at 900 C during 20 hours is investigated. A notable increase of corrosion resistance is achieved under complex doping with zirconium and magnesium oxides in a quantity, close to solubility in yttrium oxide and solubility by aluminium oxide. Doping with calcium and strontium oxides in the quantities, dose to solubility in yttrium oxide does not produce any notable effect, and at higher concentrations it reduces the corrosion resistance in media indicated. Refs. 8, refs. 2, tabs. 1

  5. TaPP2C1, a Group F2 Protein Phosphatase 2C Gene, Confers Resistance to Salt Stress in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Group A protein phosphatases 2Cs (PP2Cs are essential components of abscisic acid (ABA signaling in Arabidopsis; however, the function of group F2 subfamily PP2Cs is currently less known. In this study, TaPP2C1 which belongs to group F2 was isolated and characterized from wheat. Expression of the TaPP2C1-GFP fusion protein suggested its ubiquitous localization within a cell. TaPP2C1 expression was downregulated by abscisic acid (ABA and NaCl treatments, but upregulated by H2O2 treatment. Overexpression of TaPP2C1 in tobacco resulted in reduced ABA sensitivity and increased salt resistance of transgenic seedlings. Additionally, physiological analyses showed that improved resistance to salt stress conferred by TaPP2C1 is due to the reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, the improved antioxidant system, and the increased transcription of genes in the ABA-independent pathway. Finally, transgenic tobacco showed increased resistance to oxidative stress by maintaining a more effective antioxidant system. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TaPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling, but positively regulates salt resistance. TaPP2C1 confers salt resistance through activating the antioxidant system and ABA-independent gene transcription process.

  6. Surface modified MXene Ti3C2 multilayers by aryl diazonium salts leading to large-scale delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Huajie; Li, Gaiye; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhuyin

    2016-10-01

    Herein we report a simple and facile method to delaminate MXene Ti3C2 multilayers by the assistance of surface modification using aryl diazonium salts. The basic strategy involved the preparation of layered MAX Ti3AlC2 and the exfoliation of Ti3AlC2 into Ti3C2 multilayers, followed by Na+ intercalation and surface modification using sulfanilic acid diazonium salts. The resulting chemically grafted Ti3C2 flakes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the presence of the surface organic species. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy revealed that surface-modified MXene Ti3C2 sheets disperse well in water and the solutions obey Lambert-Beer's law. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to demonstrate the morphology and structure of delaminating MXene Ti3C2 flakes. The results indicated that chemical modification for MXene multilayers by aryl diazonium salts induced swelling that conversely weakened the bonds between MX layers, hence leading to large-scale delamination of multilayered MXene Ti3C2via mild sonication. Advantages of the present approach rely not only on the simplicity and efficiency of the delamination procedure but also on the grafting of aryl groups to MXene surfaces, highly suitable for further applications of the newly discovered two-dimensional materials.

  7. A novel plasmid addiction system for large-scale production of cyanophycin in Escherichia coli using mineral salts medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jens; Klinter, Stefan; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    Hitherto the production of the biopolymer cyanophycin (CGP) using recombinant Escherichia coli strains and cheap mineral salts medium yielded only trace amounts of CGP (dapE disrupts the native succinylase pathway in E. coli and (2) the complementation by the plasmid-encoded artificial aminotransferase pathway mediated by the dapL gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6308, which allows the synthesis of the essential lysine precursor L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate. In addition, this plasmid also harbors cphAC595S, an engineered cyanophycin synthetase gene responsible for CGP production. Cultivation experiments in Erlenmeyer flask and also in bioreactors in mineral salts medium without antibiotics revealed an at least 4.5-fold enhanced production of CGP in comparison to control cultivations without PAS. Fermentation experiments with culture volume of up to 400 l yielded a maximum of 18% CGP (w/w) and a final cell density of 15.2 g CDM/l. Lactose was used constantly as an effective inducer and carbon source. Thus, we present a convenient option to produce CGP with E. coli at a technical scale without the need to add antibiotics or amino acids using the mineral salts medium designed in this study.

  8. A calculational procedure for neutronic and depletion analysis of Molten-Salt reactors based on SCALE6/TRITON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, R.J.; Chang, J.S.; Liu, Y.-W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Molten-Salt Reactors (MSRs) represent one of the selected categories in the GEN-IV program. This type of reactor is distinguished by the use of liquid fuel circulating in and out of the core, which makes it possible for online refueling and salt processing. However, this operation characteristic also complicates the modeling and simulation of reactor core behaviour using conventional neutronic codes. The TRITON sequence in the SCALE6 code system has been designed to provide the combined capabilities of problem-dependent cross-section processing, rigorous treatment of neutron transport, and coupled with the ORIGEN-S depletion calculations. In order to accommodate the simulation of dynamic refueling and processing scheme, an in-house program REFRESH together with a run script are developed for carrying out a series of stepwise TRITON calculations, that makes the work of analyzing the neutronic properties and performance of a MSR core design easier. As a demonstration and cross check, we have applied this method to reexamine the conceptual design of Molten Salt Actinide Recycler & Transmuter (MOSART). This paper summarizes the development of the method and preliminary results of its application on MOSART. (author)

  9. Study on salt dome scale models stability by means of a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelikson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This is the final report on the second part of the programme for centrifuge model simulation of long term instability of salt formations containing storage of radioactive waste. The materials used (clay, loaded clay, gelatine) were the same. The novelty was the introduction of tridimensional models for validation and of the same size of the bidimensional ones. A system for cutting the clay by electro-osmosis was elaborated for this purpose. The bidimensional tests were continued aiming to establish causes for instabilities, the propagation of which, and the roles of jets and fissures. The tridimensional tests validated the bidimensional ones results of trigger thresholds and diapir forms; the evolution rate was quicker. Among the triggering causes were surface relief, residual stresses, cavities in the salt. A stable creeping evolution would degenerate to a catastrophe marked by jets, fissures and rapid folding. A catastrophe is propagated horizontally or vertically for long distances from its source, even in relatively thin salt formations. Fissures, which are sometimes quite narrow, accompany the catastrophes and are propagated for long distances. However, fissure prepared in advance could stay stable and even disappear during the evolution. The safety factors for triggering were always high. 12 refs.; 37 figs

  10. Prokaryotic diversity and community composition in the Salar de Uyuni, a large scale, chaotropic salt flat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dC Rubin, Sergio S; Marín, Irma; Gómez, Manuel J; Morales, Eduardo A; Zekker, Ivar; San Martín-Uriz, Patxi; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Salar de Uyuni (SdU), with a geological history that reflects 50 000 years of climate change, is the largest hypersaline salt flat on Earth and is estimated to be the biggest lithium reservoir in the world. Its salinity reaches saturation levels for NaCl, a kosmotropic salt, and high concentrations of MgCL 2 and LiCl, both salts considered important chaotrophic stressors. In addition, extreme temperatures, anoxic conditions, high UV irradiance, high albedo and extremely low concentrations of phosphorous, make SdU a unique natural extreme environment in which to contrast hypotheses about limiting factors of life diversification. Geophysical studies of brines from different sampling stations show that water activity is rather constant along SdU. Geochemical measurements show significant differences in magnesium concentration, ranging from 0.2 to 2M. This work analyses the prokaryotic diversity and community structure at four SdU sampling stations, selected according to their location and ionic composition. Prokaryotic communities were composed of both Archaea (with members of the classes Halobacteria, Thermoplasmata and Nanohaloarchaea, from the Euryarchaeota and Nanohaloarcheota phyla respectively) and Bacteria (mainly belonging to Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla). The important differences in composition of microbial communities inversely correlate with Mg 2+ concentration, suggesting that prokaryotic diversity at SdU is chaotropic dependent. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Surface modified MXene Ti_3C_2 multilayers by aryl diazonium salts leading to large-scale delamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongbing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Huajie; Li, Gaiye; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhuyin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel and simple method to delaminate MXene Ti_3C_2 multilayers. • Surface modification using aryl diazonium salts induced swelling that conversely weakened the bonds between MXene layers. • The grafting of phenylsulfonic acid groups on MXene surfaces resulted in excellent water dispersibility. - Abstract: Herein we report a simple and facile method to delaminate MXene Ti_3C_2 multilayers by the assistance of surface modification using aryl diazonium salts. The basic strategy involved the preparation of layered MAX Ti_3AlC_2 and the exfoliation of Ti_3AlC_2 into Ti_3C_2 multilayers, followed by Na"+ intercalation and surface modification using sulfanilic acid diazonium salts. The resulting chemically grafted Ti_3C_2 flakes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the presence of the surface organic species. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy revealed that surface-modified MXene Ti_3C_2 sheets disperse well in water and the solutions obey Lambert–Beer’s law. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to demonstrate the morphology and structure of delaminating MXene Ti_3C_2 flakes. The results indicated that chemical modification for MXene multilayers by aryl diazonium salts induced swelling that conversely weakened the bonds between MX layers, hence leading to large-scale delamination of multilayered MXene Ti_3C_2via mild sonication. Advantages of the present approach rely not only on the simplicity and efficiency of the delamination procedure but also on the grafting of aryl groups to MXene surfaces, highly suitable for further applications of the newly discovered two-dimensional materials.

  12. High electrical resistivity Nd-Fe-B die-upset magnet doped with eutectic DyF3–LiF salt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nd-Fe-B-type die-upset magnet with high electrical resistivity was prepared by doping of eutectic DyF3–LiF salt mixture. Mixture of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B flakes (MQU-F: Nd13.6Fe73.6Co6.6Ga0.6B5.6 and eutectic binary (DyF3–LiF salt (25 mol% DyF3 – 75 mol% LiF was hot-pressed and then die-upset. By adding the eutectic salt mixture (> 4 wt%, electrical resistivity of the die-upset magnet was enhanced to over 400 μΩ.cm compared to 190 μΩ.cm of the un-doped magnet. Remarkable enhancement of the electrical resistivity was attributed to homogeneous and continuous coverage of the interface between flakes by the easily melted eutectic salt dielectric mixture. It was revealed that active substitution of the Nd atoms in neighboring flakes by the Dy atoms from the added (DyF3–LiF salt mixture had occurred during such a quick thermal processing of hot-pressing and die-upsetting. This Dy substitution led to coercivity enhancement in the die-upset magnet doped with the eutectic (DyF3–LiF salt mixture. Coercivity and remanence of the die-upset magnet doped with (DyF3–LiF salt mixture was as good as those of the DyF3-doped magnet.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of binder-free Cr3C2 coatings on nickel-based alloys for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brupbacher, Michael C.; Zhang, Dajie; Buchta, William M.; Graybeal, Mark L.; Rhim, Yo-Rhin; Nagle, Dennis C.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Under various conditions, chromium carbides appear to be relatively stable in the presence of molten fluoride salts and this suggests that their use in corrosion resistant coatings for fluoride salt environments could be beneficial. One method for producing these coatings is the carburization of sprayed Cr coatings using methane-containing gaseous precursors. This process has been investigated for the synthesis of binder-free chromium carbide coatings on nickel-based alloy substrates for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance. The effects of the carburization process on coating microstructure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both plasma-sprayed and cold-sprayed Cr coatings have been successfully converted to Cr 3 C 2 , with the mechanism of conversion being strongly influenced by the initial porosity in the as-deposited coatings

  14. The Vibrio cholerae Mrp system: cation/proton antiport properties and enhancement of bile salt resistance in a heterologous host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzioba-Winogrodzki, Judith; Winogrodzki, Olga; Krulwich, Terry A; Boin, Markus A; Häse, Claudia C; Dibrov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The mrp operon from Vibrio cholerae encoding a putative multisubunit Na(+)/H(+) antiporter was cloned and functionally expressed in the antiporter-deficient strain of Escherichia coli EP432. Cells of EP432 expressing Vc-Mrp exhibited resistance to Na(+) and Li(+) as well as to natural bile salts such as sodium cholate and taurocholate. When assayed in everted membrane vesicles of the E. coli EP432 host, Vc-Mrp had sufficiently high antiport activity to facilitate the first extensive analysis of Mrp system from a Gram-negative bacterium encoded by a group 2 mrp operon. Vc-Mrp was found to exchange protons for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) ions in pH-dependent manner with maximal activity at pH 9.0-9.5. Exchange was electrogenic (more than one H(+) translocated per cation moved in opposite direction). The apparent K(m) at pH 9.0 was 1.08, 1.30, and 68.5 mM for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+), respectively. Kinetic analyses suggested that Vc-Mrp operates in a binding exchange mode with all cations and protons competing for binding to the antiporter. The robust ion antiport activity of Vc-Mrp in sub-bacterial vesicles and its effect on bile resistance of the heterologous host make Vc-Mrp an attractive experimental model for the further studies of biochemistry and physiology of Mrp systems. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Influence of Salt Stress on Growth and Frost Resistance of Three Winter Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak-Slamani, Renata; Brzóstowicz, Aleksander

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents results of a study on the influence of 0-150 mmol NaCl dm-3 Hoagland solution on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and frost resistance of seedlings of three winter cereals: wheat - cv. Almari, rye - cv. Amilo, and triticale - cv. Tornado. Sodium chloride at 25 mmol dm-3 caused better growth of wheat shoots and roots, both of fresh and dry matter. Higher concentrations of NaCl in the medium decreased the biomass of the tested seedlings. The influence of NaCl on the chlorophyll content in the seedlings varied. The conductometry method showed that the resistance of the cell walls of wheat and rye to low temperature decreased in the presence of NaCl in the growth medium. Luminescence has shown that seedlings that grew in NaCl-containing medium indicated an impediment of electron flow at a lower temperature than the control plants.

  16. Electrical resistivities and solvation enthalpies for solutions of salts in liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubberstey, P.; Dadd, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    An empirical correlation is shown to exist between the resistivity coefficients drho/dc for solutes in liquid alkali metals and the corresponding solvation enthalpies Usub(solvn) of the neutral gaseous solute species. Qualitative arguments based on an electrostatic solvation model in which the negative solute atom is surrounded by a solvation sphere of positive solvent ion cores are used to show that both parameters are dependent on the charge density of the solute atom and hence on the extent of charge transfer from solvent to solute. Thus as the charge density of the solute increases, the solvation enthalpy increases regularly and the resistivity coefficients pass through a maximum to give the observed approximately parabolic drho/dc versus Usub(solvn) relationship. (Auth.)

  17. Biocorrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloy by microarc oxidation in electrolyte containing zirconium and calcium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; Guo, Jun-Wei; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan; Cao, Jian-Yun; Zhou, Yu; Jia, De-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The key to use magnesium alloys as suitable biodegradable implants is how to adjust their degradation rates. We report a strategy to prepare biocompatible ceramic coating with improved biocorrosion resistance property on AZ91D alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) in a silicate-K2ZrF6 solution with and without Ca(H2PO4)2 additives. The microstructure and biocorrosion of coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM, as well as electrochemical and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the coatings are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4, m-ZrO2 phases, further Ca containing compounds involve the coating by Ca(H2PO4)2 addition in the silicate-K2ZrF6 solution. The corrosion resistance of coated AZ91D alloy is significantly improved compared with the bare one. After immersing in SBF for 28 d, the Si-Zr5-Ca0 coating indicates a best corrosion resistance performance.

  18. Experimental Study of Drag Resistance using a Laboratory Scale Rotary Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Olsen, Kenneth N.; Christoffersen, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    This work covers an experimental study of the drag resistance of different painted surfaces and simulated large-scale irregularities, viz. dry spraying, weld seams, barnacle fouling and paint remains. A laboratory scale rotary set-up was used to determine the drag resistance, and the surface...

  19. Corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing atmosphere by using molten salt for spent nuclear oxide fuel. Corrosion research under chlorine gas condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masayuki; Hanada, Keiji; Koizumi, Tsutomu; Aose, Shinichi; Kato, Toshihiro

    2002-12-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing using molten salts (RIAR process) has been recently developed for spent nuclear oxide fuel and discussed in feasibility study. It is required to improve the corrosion resistance of equipments such as electrolyzer because the process is operated in severe corrosion environment. In this study, the corrosion resistance of ceramic materials was discussed through the thermodynamic calculation and corrosion test. The corrosion test was basically carried out in alkali molten salt under chlorine gas condition. And further consideration about the effects of oxygen, carbon and main fission product's chlorides were evaluated in molten salt. The result of thermodynamic calculation shows most of ceramic oxides have good chemical stability on chlorine, oxygen and uranyl chloride, however the standard Gibb's free energies with carbon have negative value. On the other hand, eleven kinds of ceramic materials were examined by corrosion test, then silicon nitride, mullite and cordierite have a good corrosion resistance less than 0.1 mm/y. Cracks were not observed on the materials and flexural strength did not reduce remarkably after 480 hours test in molten salt with Cl 2 -O 2 bubbling. In conclusion, these three ceramic materials are most applicable materials for the pyrochemical reprocessing process with chlorine gas condition. (author)

  20. A method of eliminating scale-forming salts in seawater desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genthner, K.; Stephan, K.; Kriegel, E.; Schreiber, H.

    1974-01-01

    Energy demand and mass flow in flash evaporators at higher temperatures. Scaling and descaling in conventional flash evaporators. Theoretical and experimental fundamentals of thermal descaling. Process control. Mathematical description and results. Efficiency. Uses. (orig./AK) [de

  1. Role and status of scaled experiments in the development of fluoride-salt-cooled, high-temperature reactors - 15185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibaum, N.; Huddar, L.; Laufer, M.R.; Peterson, P.F.; Hughes, J.T.; Blandford, E.D.; Scarlat, R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Development of fluoride-salt-cooled, high-temperature reactor (FHR) technology requires a better understanding of key hydrodynamic and heat transfer phenomena associated with this novel class of reactors. The use of simulant fluids that can match the most important non dimensional numbers between scaled experiments and prototypical FHR systems enables integral effects tests (IETs) to be performed at reduced cost and difficulty for FHR code validation. The University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) have built a number of IETs and separate effects tests to investigate pebble-bed FHR (PB-FHR) phenomenology using water or simulant oils such as Dowtherm A. PB-FHR pebble motion and porous media flow dynamics have been investigated with UCB's pebble recirculation experiments using water and plastic spheres. Transient flow of high-Prandtl-number fluids around hot spheres has also been investigated by UCB to measure Nusselt numbers in pebble-bed cores, using simulant oils and copper spheres. Finally, single-phase forced/natural circulation has been investigated using the scaled height, reduced flow area loops of the Compact Integral Effects Test facility at UCB and a multi-flow regime loop at UNM, using Dowtherm A oil. The scaling methodology and status of these ongoing experiments are described here

  2. Resistance switching at the nanometre scale in amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, Abu; Rossel, Christophe; Pozidis, Haralampos; Eleftheriou, Evangelos; Pauza, Andrew; Shelby, Robert M; RodrIguez, Arantxa Fraile

    2011-01-01

    The electrical transport and resistance switching mechanism in amorphous carbon (a-C) is investigated at the nanoscale. The electrical conduction in a-C thin films is shown to be captured well by a Poole-Frenkel transport model that involves nonisolated traps. Moreover, at high electric fields a field-induced threshold switching phenomenon is observed. The following resistance change is attributed to Joule heating and subsequent localized thermal annealing. We demonstrate that the mechanism is mostly due to clustering of the existing sp 2 sites within the sp 3 matrix. The electrical conduction behaviour, field-induced switching and Joule-heating-induced rearrangement of atomic order resulting in a resistance change are all reminiscent of conventional phase-change memory materials. This suggests the potential of a-C as a similar nonvolatile memory candidate material.

  3. A fresh look at road salt: aquatic toxicity and water-quality impacts on local, regional, and national scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Graczyk, David J; Geis, Steven W; Booth, Nathaniel L; Richards, Kevin D

    2010-10-01

    A new perspective on the severity of aquatic toxicity impact of road salt was gained by a focused research effort directed at winter runoff periods. Dramatic impacts were observed on local, regional, and national scales. Locally, samples from 7 of 13 Milwaukee, Wisconsin area streams exhibited toxicity in Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas bioassays during road-salt runoff. Another Milwaukee stream was sampled from 1996 to 2008 with 72% of 37 samples exhibiting toxicity in chronic bioassays and 43% in acute bioassays. The maximum chloride concentration was 7730 mg/L. Regionally, in southeast Wisconsin, continuous specific conductance was monitored as a chloride surrogate in 11 watersheds with urban land use from 6.0 to 100%. Elevated specific conductance was observed between November and April at all sites, with continuing effects between May and October at sites with the highest specific conductance. Specific conductance was measured as high as 30,800 μS/cm (Cl = 11,200 mg/L). Chloride concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) acute (860 mg/L) and chronic (230 mg/L) water-quality criteria at 55 and 100% of monitored sites, respectively. Nationally, U.S. Geological Survey historical data were examined for 13 northern and 4 southern metropolitan areas. Chloride concentrations exceeded USEPA water-quality criteria at 55% (chronic) and 25% (acute) of the 168 monitoring locations in northern metropolitan areas from November to April. Only 16% (chronic) and 1% (acute) of sites exceeded criteria from May to October. At southern sites, very few samples exceeded chronic water-quality criteria, and no samples exceeded acute criteria.

  4. Resistance scaling function for two-dimensional superconductors and Monte Carlo vortex-fluctuation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnhagen, P.; Weber, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the Ginsburg-Landau Coulomb-gas model for vortex fluctuations is described and compared to the measured resistance scaling function for two-dimensional superconductors. This constitutes a new, more direct way of confirming the vortex-fluctuation explanation for the resistive tail of high-sheet-resistance superconducting films. The Monte Carlo data obtained indicate a striking accordance between theory and experiments

  5. Fractal scale-free networks resistant to disease spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng; Zou, Tao; Chen, Guisheng

    2008-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that scale-free networks are prone to epidemic propagation; in the paper we demonstrate that, on the contrary, disease spreading is inhibited in fractal scale-free networks. We first propose a novel network model and show that it simultaneously has the following rich topological properties: scale-free degree distribution, tunable clustering coefficient, 'large-world' behavior, and fractal scaling. Existing network models do not display these characteristics. Then, we investigate the susceptible–infected–removed (SIR) model of the propagation of diseases in our fractal scale-free networks by mapping it to the bond percolation process. We establish the existence of non-zero tunable epidemic thresholds by making use of the renormalization group technique, which implies that power law degree distribution does not suffice to characterize the epidemic dynamics on top of scale-free networks. We argue that the epidemic dynamics are determined by the topological properties, especially the fractality and its accompanying 'large-world' behavior

  6. Corrosion resistance of a new AL 6013-20 SiC(P) in salt spray chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zaki; Aleem, B. J. Abdul

    2000-06-01

    Aluminum 6013 alloy (0.82Si, 0.95Mg, and 0.35Mn) is finding increasing usage in new aircraft designs, automotives, and structural applications due to its good stretch forming character in T4 temper (solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable conditions) compared to alloy 2024 (4.4Cu, 0.6Mn, 1.5Mg, and balance Al) and Al6061 (Si0.51 to 0.71, Fe0.35, Cu0.15, Mn0.85, Mg0.15, 0.25Cr, 0.15Zn, and balanced Al). The newly developed A1 6013 reinforced with 20 vol.% SiC(P) has a higher strength than its unreinforced counterpart. Whereas the corrosion behavior of A1 6013 has been reported in literature, there is no previous data on A1 6013 reinforced with SiC(P). A knowledge of the corrosion behavior of this alloy is crucial to its applications in aerospace, structural, and automotive industry. The first results of corrosion study of this alloy in 3.5 wt.% Na Cl in a salt spray chamber are presented. Three tempers F (as fabricated), O (annealed), and T4 (age hardened and stabilized at room temperature) of the alloy A1 6013-30 SiC(P) were exposed to environmental chamber in accordance with ASTM recommended practice. The corrosion rate of the alloy showed a decrease with increased exposure period and after 800 h of exposure no appreciable change in the rate of corrosion was observed. The lowest rate of corrosion (4.83 mdd) was shown by temper T4 followed by tempers F and O after 1200 h of exposure in the increasing order of corrosion rate. Fluctuations in the corrosion rate with time are related to the kinetics of growth and dissolution of Al(OH)3 film, which was detected by fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (FTIS). The film was composed of an inner compact layer and outer bulk layer dependent on the refreshment rate from the bulk solution. Micrograph examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the presence of pits covered by aluminum hydroxide gel, which isolates the pit from the bulk solution. The acidic conditions of

  7. Identification and characterization of two novel bla(KLUC resistance genes through large-scale resistance plasmids sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xu

    Full Text Available Plasmids are important antibiotic resistance determinant carriers that can disseminate various drug resistance genes among species or genera. By using a high throughput sequencing approach, two groups of plasmids of Escherichia coli (named E1 and E2, each consisting of 160 clinical E. coli strains isolated from different periods of time were sequenced and analyzed. A total of 20 million reads were obtained and mapped onto the known resistance gene sequences. As a result, a total of 9 classes, including 36 types of antibiotic resistant genes, were identified. Among these genes, 25 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs appeared, of which 9 and 12 SNPs are nonsynonymous substitutions in the E1 and E2 samples. It is interesting to find that a novel genotype of bla(KLUC, whose close relatives, bla(KLUC-1 and bla(KLUC-2, have been previously reported as carried on the Kluyvera cryocrescens chromosome and Enterobacter cloacae plasmid, was identified. It shares 99% and 98% amino acid identities with Kluc-1 and Kluc-2, respectively. Further PCR screening of 608 Enterobacteriaceae family isolates yielded a second variant (named bla(KLUC-4. It was interesting to find that Kluc-3 showed resistance to several cephalosporins including cefotaxime, whereas bla(KLUC-4 did not show any resistance to the antibiotics tested. This may be due to a positively charged residue, Arg, replaced by a neutral residue, Leu, at position 167, which is located within an omega-loop. This work represents large-scale studies on resistance gene distribution, diversification and genetic variation in pooled multi-drug resistance plasmids, and provides insight into the use of high throughput sequencing technology for microbial resistance gene detection.

  8. Scale effect in fatigue resistance under complex stressed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnovskij, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis the of the fatigue failure statistic theory obtained is the formula for calculated estimation of probabillity of failure under complex stressed state according to partial probabilities of failure under linear stressed state with provision for the scale effect. Also the formula for calculation of equivalent stress is obtained. The verification of both formulae using literary experimental data for plane stressed state torsion has shown that the error of estimations does not exceed 10% for materials with the ultimate strength changing from 61 to 124 kg/mm 2

  9. Strong Control of Salts on Near Surface Liquid Water Content in a High Polar Desert Indicated by Near Surface Resistivity Mapping with a Helicopter-Borne TEM Sensor, Lower Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Auken, E.; Mikucki, J.; Myers, K. F.; Dugan, H.; Doran, P. T.; Virginia, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Closed depressions in the Lower Taylor Valley (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica) have near surface (top 5m) electrical resistivity that is lower by about an order of magnitude than the resistivity of nearby slopes and ridges (100s of ohm-m vs. 1000s). We interpret this spatial pattern as being due to long term concentration of salts carried by liquid water and/or deliquescent vapor fronts. High concentration of salts in the top decimeters to meters beneath the surface may prolong the existence and abundance of liquid water in this otherwise very cold and dry high polar desert. Due to its connections with life and chemical transport, liquid water is a much studied feature in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. This setting can be used as an analogue for similar features on the surface of Mars, where liquid water tracks have been observed and are believed to be controlled by eutectic brines. Our study demonstrates the utility of mapping at a regional scale via helicopter-borne Transient EM. Airborne EM covers more ground and can measure deeper than surface-based measurements, at the expense of resolution. This allows creating valley-scale datasets which could not feasibly be collected on the ground. Our remote measurements complement physical samples that indicate that soluble salts concentrate in certain areas of surface soil where water moves ions and is later removed by evaporation or sublimation. In areas where we measured low resistivity, the integrated liquid water fraction in the top 5m may be a few to several percent by volume, equivalent to a few or several dozens of cm of water layer thickness. This estimate assumes that the interstitial waters have very low resistivity, comparable to seawater or hypersaline brines at freezing (0.2-0.35 ohm-m). If soil water was considerably fresher than this, liquid water content would have to reach dozens of percent throughout the top 5m for bulk resistivities to drop to 100s of ohm-m. We consider the latter case to be unlikely as

  10. Overexpression of ERF1-V from Haynaldia villosa Can Enhance the Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew and Increase the Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The APETALA 2/Ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family is widely involved in the biotic and abiotic stress regulation. Haynaldia villosa (VV, 2n = 14, a wild species of wheat, is a potential gene pool for wheat improvement. H. villosa confers high resistance to several wheat diseases and high tolerance to some abiotic stress. In this study, ERF1-V, an ethylene-responsive element-binding factor gene of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family from wild H. villosa, was cloned and characterized. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that ERF1-V is a deduced B2 type ERF gene. ERF1-V was first identified as a Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt up-regulated gene, and later found to be induced by drought, salt and cold stresses. In responses to hormones, ERF1-V was up-regulated by ethylene and abscisic acid, but down-regulated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Over expression of ERF1-V in wheat could improve resistance to powdery mildew, salt and drought stress. Chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity were significantly differences between the recipient Yangmai158 and the transgenic plants following salt treatment. Furthermore, the expression levels of some stress responsive genes were differences after drought or salt treatments. Although ERF1-V was activated by the constitutive promoter, the agronomic traits, including flowering time, plant height, effective tiller number, spikelet number per spike and grain size, did not changed significantly. ERF1-V is a valuable gene for wheat improvement by genetic engineering.

  11. Pore Scale Thermal Hydraulics Investigations of Molten Salt Cooled Pebble Bed High Temperature Reactor with BCC and FCC Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiong Song

    2014-01-01

    CFD results and empirical correlations’ predictions of pressure drop and local Nusselt numbers. Local pebble surface temperature distributions in several default conditions are investigated. Thermal removal capacities of molten salt are confirmed in the case of nominal condition; the pebble surface temperature under the condition of local power distortion shows the tolerance of pebble in extreme neutron dose exposure. The numerical experiments of local pebble insufficient cooling indicate that in the molten salt cooled pebble bed reactor, the pebble surface temperature is not very sensitive to loss of partial coolant. The methods and results of this paper would be useful for optimum designs and safety analysis of molten salt cooled pebble bed reactors.

  12. Scale-Dependent Assessment of Relative Disease Resistance to Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Skelsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping trials may not take into account sufficient spatial context to infer quantitative disease resistance of recommended varieties in commercial production settings. Recent ecological theory—the dispersal scaling hypothesis—provides evidence that host heterogeneity and scale of host heterogeneity interact in a predictable and straightforward manner to produce a unimodal (“humpbacked” distribution of epidemic outcomes. This suggests that the intrinsic artificiality (scale and design of experimental set-ups may lead to spurious conclusions regarding the resistance of selected elite cultivars, due to the failure of experimental efforts to accurately represent disease pressure in real agricultural situations. In this model-based study we investigate the interaction of host heterogeneity and scale as a confounding factor in the inference from ex-situ assessment of quantitative disease resistance to commercial production settings. We use standard modelling approaches in plant disease epidemiology and a number of different agronomic scenarios. Model results revealed that the interaction of heterogeneity and scale is a determinant of relative varietal performance under epidemic conditions. This is a previously unreported phenomenon that could provide a new basis for informing the design of future phenotyping platforms, and optimising the scale at which quantitative disease resistance is assessed.

  13. ROOT ANATOMICAL PLASTICITY IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS UNDER REAL AND FULL-SEASON FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETERMINATION OF NEW ANATOMIC SELECTION CHARACTERS FOR BREEDING SALT-RESISTANT RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  14. Resistance to Internal Damage and Scaling of Concrete Air Entrained By Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendowska, Agnieszka; Wawrzenczyk, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    This paper report the test results of high strength concrete produced with slag cement and air entrained with polymer microspheres in three diameters. The study focused on determining the effects of the microsphere size and quantity on the air void structure and resistance to internal cracking and scaling of the concrete. The resistance to internal cracking was determined in compliance with the requirements of the modified ASTM C666 A method on beam specimens. The scaling resistance in a 3% NaCl solution was determined using the slab test in accordance with PKN-CEN/TS 12390-9:2007. The air void structure parameters were determined to PN-EN 480-11:1998. The study results indicate that the use of microspheres is an effective air entrainment method providing very good air void structure parameters. The results show high freeze-thaw durability of polymer microsphere-based concrete in exposure class XF3. The scaling resistance test confirms that it is substantially more difficult to protect concrete against scaling in the presence of the 3% NaCl solution (exposure class XF4). Concrete scaling is a complex phenomenon controlled by a number of independent factors.

  15. High-Salt Intake Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance in WBN/Kob-Leprfa/fa Rats: A New Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiichi Takagi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-salt intake is a major risk factor for developing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its effects on glucose homeostasis are controversial. We previously found that high-salt intake induces severe hypertension in WBN/Kob diabetic fatty (WBKDF rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of a high-salt intake on glucose homeostasis in WBKDF rats. Male WBKDF rats and age-matched Wistar rats at 6 weeks of age were each divided into two groups and fed either a normal-sodium (NS, 0.26% diet or high-sodium (HS, 8% diet for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and urine volume were increased in WBKDF-HS and Wistar-HS. Body weight gain and food consumption were comparable between NS and HS in both strains. Plasma and urine glucose levels were significantly increased in WBKDF-NS but not in WBKDF-HS. HOMA-IR in WBKDF-HS was significantly lower compared with that in WBKDF-NS. The high plasma adiponectin level in WBKDF-NS compared with that in Wistar-NS was further enhanced in WBKDF-HS. Glycogen deposits and fat droplets in the livers of WBKDF-HS were reduced compared with those of WBKDF-NS. The present study demonstrated that HS intake ameliorated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in WBKDF rats, which may be due to increased plasma levels of adiponectin.

  16. Comparative analysis of Pu spread resistance of chemico-technological (out of pile) complexes of electronuclear molten salt and heavy water blanket facilities for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, V.I.; Vakhrushin, A.Yu.; Gorbunov, V.F.; Kushnikov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Technological processes used for radiochemical reprocessing of molten salt and heavy water blankets of an electronuclear facility for Pu transmutation and Pu distribution in those processes are characterized. Below the major parameters are given that affect the resistance of the technological to Pu proliferation. Types of Pu migration: process losses, accident related losses, theft. Factors affecting migration are total inventory of Pu in a reprocessing complex, purity of Pu and its compounds, chemical condition of Pu, the feasibility of equipping technological processes with instruments of control. The comparative analysis carried out taking into account the above parameters established that the technological processes related to heavy water blanket reprocessing, specifically a homogeneous (solution) option, are much more resistant to Pu proliferation, including both Pu migration to the environment and the unsanctioned withdrawal of Pu from the technological process. 5 refs., 4 figs

  17. Geographic scale matters in detecting the relationship between neighbourhood food environments and obesity risk: an analysis of driver license records in Salt Lake County, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jessie X; Hanson, Heidi A; Zick, Cathleen D; Brown, Barbara B; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2014-08-19

    Empirical studies of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk have found mixed results. One possible cause of these mixed findings is the variation in neighbourhood geographic scale used. The purpose of this paper was to examine how various neighbourhood geographic scales affected the estimated relationship between food environments and obesity risk. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Salt Lake County, Utah, USA. 403,305 Salt Lake County adults 25-64 in the Utah driver license database between 1995 and 2008. Utah driver license data were geo-linked to 2000 US Census data and Dun & Bradstreet business data. Food outlets were classified into the categories of large grocery stores, convenience stores, limited-service restaurants and full-service restaurants, and measured at four neighbourhood geographic scales: Census block group, Census tract, ZIP code and a 1 km buffer around the resident's house. These measures were regressed on individual obesity status using multilevel random intercept regressions. Obesity. Food environment was important for obesity but the scale of the relevant neighbourhood differs for different type of outlets: large grocery stores were not significant at all four geographic scales, limited-service restaurants at the medium-to-large scale (Census tract or larger) and convenience stores and full-service restaurants at the smallest scale (Census tract or smaller). The choice of neighbourhood geographic scale can affect the estimated significance of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk. However, variations in geographic scale alone do not explain the mixed findings in the literature. If researchers are constrained to use one geographic scale with multiple categories of food outlets, using Census tract or 1 km buffer as the neighbourhood geographic unit is likely to allow researchers to detect most significant relationships. Published by the BMJ

  18. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH Genes Enhanced Resistance to Herbicide and Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Hu, Xiaowen; Meng, Xuanchen; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars. PMID:26734025

  19. Assessment of beech scale resistance in full- and half-sibling American beech families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson

    2010-01-01

    A beech bark disease infested American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and two uninfested trees were selected in a mature natural stand in Michigan, USA, and mated to form two full-sib families for evaluating the inheritance of resistance to beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.), the insect element of beech bark disease....

  20. Fabrication and oxidation resistance of titanium carbide-coated carbon fibres by reacting titanium hydride with carbon fibres in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Z.J.; Li, X.K.; Yuan, G.M.; Cong, Y.; Li, N.; Jiang, Z.Y.; Hu, Z.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using carbon fibres and titanium hydride as a reactive carbon source and a metal source, respectively, a protective titanium carbide (TiC) coating was formed on carbon fibres in molten salts, composed of LiCl-KCl-KF, at 750-950 o C. The structure and morphology of the TiC coatings were characterised by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The oxidation resistance of the TiC-coated carbon fibres was measured by thermogravimetric analysis. The results reveal that control of the coating thickness is very important for improvement of the oxidation resistance of TiC-coated carbon fibres. The oxidative weight loss initiation temperature for the TiC-coated carbon fibres increases significantly when an appropriate coating thickness is used. However, thicker coatings lead to a decrease of the carbon fibres' weight loss initiation temperature due to the formation of cracks in the coating. The TiC coating thickness on carbon fibres can be controlled by adjusting the reaction temperature and time of the molten salt synthesis.

  1. Enzymatic methods for the determination of pollution in seawater using salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzorova, Natalie I.; Seitkalieva, Alexandra V.; Rasskazov, Valery A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin (StAP) proved to be active in seawater. • Activity of StAP is inhibited by very low concentrations of heavy metal. • A test to assess sea and fresh water quality has been developed basing on StAP. • For the first time a salt resistant alkaline phosphatase has been found in eukaryote. - Abstract: A new salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (StAP) has been shown to have a unique property to hydrolyze substrate in seawater without loss of enzymatic activity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 8.0–8.5. Model experiments showed various concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead added to seawater or a standard buffer mixture to inhibit completely the enzyme activity at the concentrations of 15–150 μg/l. StAP sensitivity to the presence in seawater of metals, pesticides, detergents and oil products appears to be considerably less. Samples of seawater taken from aquatic areas of the Troitsy Bay of the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea have been shown to inhibit the enzyme activity; the same was shown for the samples of fresh waters. The phosphatase inhibition assay developed proved to be highly sensitive, technically easy-to use allowing to test a great number of samples

  2. Atomic Scale Modulation of Self-Rectifying Resistive Switching by Interfacial Defects

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing; Yu, Kaihao; Cha, Dong Kyu; Bosman, Michel; Raghavan, Nagarajan; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Kun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Litao; Pey, Kinleong

    2018-01-01

    Higher memory density and faster computational performance of resistive switching cells require reliable array‐accessible architecture. However, selecting a designated cell within a crossbar array without interference from sneak path currents through neighboring cells is a general problem. Here, a highly doped n++ Si as the bottom electrode with Ni‐electrode/HfOx/SiO2 asymmetric self‐rectifying resistive switching device is fabricated. The interfacial defects in the HfOx/SiO2 junction and n++ Si substrate result in the reproducible rectifying behavior. In situ transmission electron microscopy is used to quantitatively study the properties of the morphology, chemistry, and dynamic nucleation–dissolution evolution of the chains of defects at the atomic scale. The spatial and temporal correlation between the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ni‐rich conductive filament modifies the resistive switching effect. This study has important implications at the array‐level performance of high density resistive switching memories.

  3. Atomic Scale Modulation of Self-Rectifying Resistive Switching by Interfacial Defects

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2018-04-14

    Higher memory density and faster computational performance of resistive switching cells require reliable array‐accessible architecture. However, selecting a designated cell within a crossbar array without interference from sneak path currents through neighboring cells is a general problem. Here, a highly doped n++ Si as the bottom electrode with Ni‐electrode/HfOx/SiO2 asymmetric self‐rectifying resistive switching device is fabricated. The interfacial defects in the HfOx/SiO2 junction and n++ Si substrate result in the reproducible rectifying behavior. In situ transmission electron microscopy is used to quantitatively study the properties of the morphology, chemistry, and dynamic nucleation–dissolution evolution of the chains of defects at the atomic scale. The spatial and temporal correlation between the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ni‐rich conductive filament modifies the resistive switching effect. This study has important implications at the array‐level performance of high density resistive switching memories.

  4. A scaled experimental study of control blade insertion dynamics in Pebble-Bed Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buster, Grant C., E-mail: grant.buster@gmail.com; Laufer, Michael R.; Peterson, Per F.

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A granular dynamics scaling methodology is discussed. • Control blade insertion in a representative pebble-bed core is experimentally studied. • Control blade insertion forces and pebble displacements are experimentally measured. • X-ray tomography techniques are used to observe pebble displacement distributions. - Abstract: Direct control element insertion into a pebble-bed reactor core is proposed as a viable control system in molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactors. Unlike helium-cooled pebble-bed reactors, this reactor type uses spherical fuel elements with near-neutral buoyancy in the molten-salt coolant, thus reducing contact forces on the fuel elements. This study uses the X-ray Pebble Bed Recirculation Experiment facility to measure the force required to insert a control element directly into a scaled pebble-bed. The required control element insertion force, and therefore the contact force on fuel elements, is measured to be well below recommended limits. Additionally, X-ray tomography is used to observe how the direct insertion of a control element physically displaces spherical fuel elements. The tomography results further support the viability of direct control element insertion into molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactor cores.

  5. Effect of La surface treatments on corrosion resistance of A3xx.x/SiCp composites in salt fog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Merino, M.C.; Arrabal, R.; Merino, S.; Viejo, F.; Coy, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the SiC p proportion and the matrix concentration of four aluminium metal matrix composites (A360/SiC/10p, A360/SiC/20p, A380/SiC/10p, A380/SiC/20p) modified by lanthanum-based conversion or electrolysis coating was evaluated in neutral salt fog according to ASTM B 117. Lanthanum-based conversion coatings were obtained by immersion in 50 deg. C solution of La(III) salt and lanthanum electrolysis treatments were performed in ethylene glycol mono-butyl ether solution. These treatments preferentially covered cathodic areas such as intermetallic compounds, Si eutectic and SiC p . The kinetic of the corrosion process was studied on the basis of gravimetric tests. Both coating microstructure and nature of corrosion products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) before and after accelerated testing to determine the influence of microstructural changes on corrosion behaviour during exposure to the corrosive environment. The corrosion process was more influenced by the concentration of alloy elements in the matrix than by the proportion of SiC p reinforcement. Both conversion and electrolysis surface treatments improved the behaviour to salt fog corrosion in comparison with original composites without treatment. Additionally, electrolysis provided a higher degree of protection than the conversion treatment because the coating was more extensive

  6. Millennial-scale Agulhas Current variability and its implications for salt-leakage through the Indian–Atlantic Ocean Gateway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, M.H.; Arthur, K.L.; Hall, I.R.; Peeters, F.J.C.; Loveday, B.R.; Barker, S.; Zahn, R.

    2013-01-01

    The inter-ocean exchange of warm and salt-enriched waters around South Africa (Agulhas leakage), may have played an important role in the mechanism of deglaciations. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from the Agulhas leakage corridor show that leakage maxima occurred during glacial terminations.

  7. Large-scale downy brome treatments alter plant-soil relationships and promote perennial grasses in salt desert shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interrelationship between invasive annual grass abundance and soil resource availability varies spatially and temporally within ecosystems and may be altered by land treatments. We evaluated these relationships in two salt desert landscapes where the local abundance of Bromus tectorum L. (downy...

  8. Atom-scale covalent electrochemical modification of single-layer graphene on SiC substrates by diaryliodonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearba, Raluca I.; Mueller, Kory M.; Veneman, Peter A.; Holliday, Bradley J.; Chan, Calvin K.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its high conductivity, graphene holds promise as an electrode for energy devices such as batteries and photovoltaics. However, to this end, the work function and doping levels in graphene need to be precisely tuned. One promising route for modifying graphene's electronic properties is via controlled covalent electrochemical grafting of molecules. We show that by employing diaryliodonium salts instead of the commonly used diazonium salts, spontaneous functionalization is avoided. This then allows for precise tuning of the grafting density. Moreover, by employing bis(4-nitrophenyl)iodonium(III) tetrafluoroborate (DNP) salt calibration curves, the surface functionalization density (coverage) of glassy carbon was controlled using cyclic voltammetry in varying salt concentrations. These electro-grafting conditions and calibration curves translated directly over to modifying single layer epitaxial graphene substrates (grown on insulating 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1)). In addition to quantifying the functionalization densities using electrochemical methods, samples with low grafting densities were characterized by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). We show that the use of buffer-layer free graphene substrates is required for clear observation of the nitrophenyl modifications. Furthermore, atomically-resolved STM images of single site modifications were obtained, showing no preferential grafting at defect sites or SiC step edges as supposed previously in the literature. Most of the grafts exhibit threefold symmetry, but occasional extended modifications (larger than 4 nm) were observed as well

  9. Delineating a road-salt plume in lakebed sediments using electrical resistivity, piezometers, and seepage meters at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura; Johnson, Melanie; Nyquist, Jonathan E.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical-resistivity surveys, seepage meter measurements, and drive-point piezometers have been used to characterize chloride-enriched groundwater in lakebed sediments of Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, U.S.A. A combination of bottom-cable and floating-cable electrical-resistivity surveys identified a conductive zone (ohm-m)">(ohm-m)(ohm-m) overlying resistive bedrock (ohm-m)">(ohm-m)(ohm-m)beneath the lake. Shallow pore-water samples from piezometers in lakebed sediments have chloride concentrations of 200–1800μeq/liter">200–1800μeq/liter200–1800μeq/liter, and lake water has a chloride concentration of 104μeq/liter">104μeq/liter104μeq/liter. The extent of the plume was estimated and mapped using resistivity and water-sample data. The plume (20×35m">20×35m20×35m wide and at least 3m">3m3m thick) extends nearly the full length and width of a small inlet, overlying the top of a basin formed by the bedrock. It would not have been possible to mapthe plume's shape without the resistivity surveys because wells provided only limited coverage. Seepage meters were installed approximately 40m">40m40m from the mouth of a small stream discharging at the head of the inlet in an area where the resistivity data indicated lake sediments are thin. These meters recorded in-seepage of chloride-enriched groundwater at rates similar to those observed closer to shore, which was unexpected because seepage usually declines away from shore. Although the concentration of road salt in the northeast inlet stream is declining, the plume map and seepage data indicate the groundwater contribution of road salt to the lake is not declining. The findings demonstrate the benefit of combining geophysical and hydrologic data to characterize discharge of a plume beneath Mirror Lake. The extent of the plume in groundwater beneath the lake and stream indicate there will likely be a long-term source of chloride to the lake from groundwater.

  10. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  11. Applications of electrical resistivity imaging for characterizing groundwater-surface water interactions from local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Befus, K. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Ong, J.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Cook, P. L.; Tait, D. R.; Erler, D.; Santos, I. R.; Siringan, F. P.

    2012-12-01

    Surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) interact across multiple spatial and temporal scales and their interaction is important for ecological and biogeochemical functions. The mixing of GW and SW has been challenging to simultaneously map with sufficient detail and coverage. Fortunately, ambient differences in salinity of waters occupying geologic formations and sediment are an ideal target for electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). We present examples of the application of ERI for mapping GW discharge and for understanding GW-SW interactions at: (1) a large regulated river, (2) neighboring lakes with differing salinity, (3) fringing coral reefs and lagoons, (4) beaches, and (5) estuaries. In all these cases, the ER tomograms were critical for improving conceptual understanding of GW-SW interactions. At the Lower Colorado River in Austin, Texas (USA), time-lapse ERI was conducted across a 12-hour dam-release cycle when the river stage varied by 0.7 m. Using temporal variability in electrical resistivity (ER) signatures, we identified a shallow well-flushed hyporheic zone, a transition zone where SW and GW mix, and a stable deep zone hosting only GW. In alkaline lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills (Nebraska, USA), ER surveys using boat-towed cables allowed for mapping the 3D electrical structure underneath the lake. The tomograms were used to distinguish flow-through lakes, which have decreasing subsurface ER from GW inflow to outflow area, from pure GW discharge lakes, which have uniformly stratified increasing-with-depth ER profiles. Moreover, GW plumes in both discharge and recharge zones were clearly outlined underneath the lake. More than 30 km of ER profiles collected via boat-towed surveys over a fringing coral reef in the Philippines identified areas of high ER within the reef that coincide with resistive zones in the seawater. Analysis of 222Rn of bottom waters and vertical conductivity-temperature-depth measurements show the persistence of fresh GW input into

  12. Large-scale synthesis of Pb1-xLa xTiO3 ceramic powders by molten salt method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zongying; Xing Xianran; Yu Ranbo; Liu Guirong; Xing Qifeng

    2006-01-01

    The ferroelectric perovskite type lanthanum doped lead titanate (PLT) ceramic powders were synthesized in one step with the starting materials of PbC 2 O 4 , La 2 O 3 and TiO 2 in NaCl-KCl molten salts in the temperature range of 700-950 deg. C. It was found that molten salt method was a large scale and easy preparation way to produce PLT powders with high dispersity. Tetragonal phase Pb 1-x La x TiO 3 ceramic powders were identified by XRD in the composition range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 and mono-dispersed particles with spheric shape and less than 100 nm size were observed by SEM. The grain sizes of Pb 1-x La x TiO 3 ceramic powders increased with the increase of La content and decreased with calcination temperature. The grain growth progress and the possible reaction mechanism in molten salts and its influencing factors were discussed in this work. The grain growth process was the main influencing factor of the grain size, which depended on the solubility in the flux

  13. Decadal-to-centennial-scale climate variability: Insights into the rise and fall of the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E.; Lall, Upmanu; Saltzman, Barry

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate connections between decadal and secular global climatic variations, and historical variations in the volume of the Great Salt Lake. The decadal variations correspond to a low-frequency shifting of storm tracks which influence winter precipitation and explain nearly 18% of the interannual and longer-term variance in the record of monthly volume change. The secular trend accounts for a more modest approximately 1.5% of the variance.

  14. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Combined with Moderate Heat to Inactivate Pressure-Resistant Bacteria in Water-Boiled Salted Duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Keping; Feng, Yulin; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure combined with moderate heat to inactivate pressure-resistant bacteria in water-boiled salted duck meat (WBSDM), and to establish suitable procedures to improve the quality of WBSDM. The conditions (300 MPa/60 °C, 400 MPa/60 °C, and 500 MPa/50 °C) effectively inactivated the pressure-resistant bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus warneri) in WBSDM. Although more pressure-resistant than S. warneri, the above treatment conditions inactivated B. cereus more than 10(7) CFU/mL in buffer, and more than 10(6) CFU/g in WBSDM, and did not cause any changes in color, texture, or moisture content of products. The interaction between pressure and temperature is a more significant factor than only pressure in inactivating both B. cereus and S. warneri, the treatment of WBSDM at 400 MPa/ 60 °C/ 10 min is the most practical condition for postprocess of WBSDM after cooking. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chehong; Shehata, Medhat H; Lotfy, Abdurrahmaan

    2016-10-28

    The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at -18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%-5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.

  16. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehong Tsang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at −18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%–5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.

  17. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chehong; Shehata, Medhat H.; Lotfy, Abdurrahmaan

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at −18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%–5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl2 and urea, followed by MgCl2, potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges. PMID:28773998

  18. Surface modified MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} multilayers by aryl diazonium salts leading to large-scale delamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongbing [College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210098 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 211167 (China); Zhang, Jianfeng, E-mail: jfzhang_sic@163.com [College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210098 (China); Wu, Yuping; Huang, Huajie; Li, Gaiye; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhuyin [College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210098 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • A novel and simple method to delaminate MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} multilayers. • Surface modification using aryl diazonium salts induced swelling that conversely weakened the bonds between MXene layers. • The grafting of phenylsulfonic acid groups on MXene surfaces resulted in excellent water dispersibility. - Abstract: Herein we report a simple and facile method to delaminate MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} multilayers by the assistance of surface modification using aryl diazonium salts. The basic strategy involved the preparation of layered MAX Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} and the exfoliation of Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} into Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} multilayers, followed by Na{sup +} intercalation and surface modification using sulfanilic acid diazonium salts. The resulting chemically grafted Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} flakes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the presence of the surface organic species. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy revealed that surface-modified MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} sheets disperse well in water and the solutions obey Lambert–Beer’s law. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to demonstrate the morphology and structure of delaminating MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2} flakes. The results indicated that chemical modification for MXene multilayers by aryl diazonium salts induced swelling that conversely weakened the bonds between MX layers, hence leading to large-scale delamination of multilayered MXene Ti{sub 3}C{sub 2}via mild sonication. Advantages of the present approach rely not only on the simplicity and efficiency of the delamination procedure but also on the grafting of aryl groups to MXene surfaces, highly suitable for further applications of the newly discovered two-dimensional materials.

  19. Small scale monitoring of a bioremediation barrier using miniature electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Philippe; Hogson, Tom; Keenan, Helen; Kulessa, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, in the laboratory, the efficiency of a barrier of oxygen release compound (ORC) to block and divert a diesel plume migration in a scaled aquifer model using miniature electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) as the monitoring system. Two plumes of contaminant (diesel) were injected in a soil model made of local sand and clay. The diesel plumes migration was imaged and monitored using a miniature resistivity array system that has proved to be accurate in soil resistivity variations in small-scaled models of soil. ERT results reflected the lateral spreading and diversion of the diesel plumes in the unsaturated zone. One of the contaminant plumes was partially blocked by the ORC barrier and a diversion and reorganisation of the diesel in the soil matrix was observed. The technique of time-lapse ERT imaging showed that a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminant like diesel can be monitored through a bioremediation barrier and the technique is well suited to monitor the efficiency of the barrier. Therefore, miniature ERT as a small-scale modelling tool could complement conventional techniques, which require more expensive and intrusive site investigation prior to remediation.

  20. Development and validity of a scale of perception of velocity in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Chirosa, Luis J; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM]) were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale) was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81) was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96). This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power. Key PointsMeasurement of perception of velocity can complement other scales of perception such as the 15 category Borg scale or the OMNI-RES.The results obtained in this study show that there was a positive correlation between the perceived velocity measured by the scale and actual velocityRegular use of the new scale of perceived velocity in external resistance training provides athletes with continuous feedback of execution velocity in each repetition and set, especially with high power loads.

  1. Impact of small-scale saline tracer heterogeneity on electrical resistivity monitoring in fully and partially saturated porous media: Insights from geoelectrical milli-fluidic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jougnot, Damien; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Legendre, Raphaël; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Méheust, Yves; Linde, Niklas

    2018-03-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a geophysical method widely used to remotely monitor the migration of electrically-conductive tracers and contaminant plumes in the subsurface. Interpretations of time-lapse ERT inversion results are generally based on the assumption of a homogeneous solute concentration below the resolution limits of the tomogram depicting inferred electrical conductivity variations. We suggest that ignoring small-scale solute concentration variability (i.e., at the sub-resolution scale) is a major reason for the often-observed apparent loss of solute mass in ERT tracer studies. To demonstrate this, we developed a geoelectrical milli-fluidic setup where the bulk electric conductivity of a 2D analogous porous medium, consisting of cylindrical grains positioned randomly inside a Hele-Shaw cell, is monitored continuously in time while saline tracer tests are performed through the medium under fully and partially saturated conditions. High resolution images of the porous medium are recorded with a camera at regular time intervals, and provide both the spatial distribution of the fluid phases (aqueous solution and air), and the saline solute concentration field (where the solute consists of a mixture of salt and fluorescein, the latter being used as a proxy for the salt concentration). Effective bulk electrical conductivities computed numerically from the measured solute concentration field and the spatial distributions of fluid phases agree well with the measured bulk conductivities. We find that the effective bulk electrical conductivity is highly influenced by the connectivity of high electrical conductivity regions. The spatial distribution of air, saline tracer fingering, and mixing phenomena drive temporal changes in the effective bulk electrical conductivity by creating preferential paths or barriers for electrical current at the pore-scale. The resulting heterogeneities in the solute concentrations lead to strong anisotropy

  2. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness

  3. Evaluation of differences between dual salt-pH gradient elution and mono gradient elution using a thermodynamic model: Simultaneous separation of six monoclonal antibody charge and size variants on preparative-scale ion exchange chromatographic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Feng; Jöhnck, Matthias; Frech, Christian

    2018-02-21

    The efficiencies of mono gradient elution and dual salt-pH gradient elution for separation of six mAb charge and size variants on a preparative-scale ion exchange chromatographic resin are compared in this study. Results showed that opposite dual salt-pH gradient elution with increasing pH gradient and simultaneously decreasing salt gradient is best suited for the separation of these mAb charge and size variants on Eshmuno ® CPX. Besides giving high binding capacity, this type of opposite dual salt-pH gradient also provides better resolved mAb variant peaks and lower conductivity in the elution pools compared to single pH or salt gradients. To have a mechanistic understanding of the differences in mAb variants retention behaviors of mono pH gradient, parallel dual salt-pH gradient, and opposite dual salt-pH gradient, a linear gradient elution model was used. After determining the model parameters using the linear gradient elution model, 2D plots were used to show the pH and salt dependencies of the reciprocals of distribution coefficient, equilibrium constant, and effective ionic capacity of the mAb variants in these gradient elution systems. Comparison of the 2D plots indicated that the advantage of opposite dual salt-pH gradient system with increasing pH gradient and simultaneously decreasing salt gradient is the noncontinuous increased acceleration of protein migration. Furthermore, the fitted model parameters can be used for the prediction and optimization of mAb variants separation in dual salt-pH gradient and step elution. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Long-time leaching and corrosion tests on full-scale cemented waste forms in the Asse salt mine. Sampling and analyses 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzler, B.; Schlieker, M.; Bauer, A.; Metz, V.; Meyer, H.

    2004-10-01

    The paper presents the follow-up of experimental findings from full-scale leach tests performed on simulated cemented waste forms for more than 20 years in salt brines and water. Measurements cover pH, density, and the composition of leachates as well as the release of radionuclides such as Cs, U and Np. Indicators for waste form corrosion and radionuclide release is Cs and NO 3 . Corrosion of cemented waste forms depends on the pore volume of the hardened cement which is correlated to the water/cement ratio. The release of radionuclides is evaluated and compared to small-scale laboratory tests. Excellent interpretation of observed concentrations is obtained for uranium and neptunium by comparison with model calculations. (orig.)

  5. Comparative Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Air-Plasma-Sprayed Ca2SiO4 and Al2O3 Coatings in Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ca2SiO4 coating was sprayed on stainless steel substrate and the corrosion resistance of the as-sprayed coating was studied in salt water. At the same time, Al2O3 coatings were produced by air-plasma-sprayed technology as comparison. Immersion test was carried out to evaluate the protection performance of coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS plots were also analyzed. The results indicated that Ca2SiO4 coatings showed a better protection performance than Al2O3 coatings. During the immersion, various calcium carbonate crystals appeared on the surface of Ca2SiO4 coatings. Ca(OH2 was released from Ca2SiO4 coatings into NaCl aqueous solution, increasing the alkalinity, which is in favor of the formation of passivation film, and thus improves the corrosion resistance. Ca2SiO4 coatings became denser after immersion due to the fact that the pores and micro cracks were filled with hydration products i.e., hydrated calcium silicate (C–S–H gel. On the contrary, the microstructure of Al2O3 coatings became loose and obvious rusty spots were observed on the surface after the immersion test.

  6. Blending Study For SRR Salt Disposition Integration: Tank 50H Scale-Modeling And Computer-Modeling For Blending Pump Design, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where

  7. BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-05-26

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where

  8. Gene manipulation for salt tolerance and blast resistance through in vitro techniques in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Rice calli generally lose regenerating ability in about 90 days. However, plant regeneration (60-70%) from 1500 day old embryo calli of 'Thellahamsa' cultivar has been established with 3% sorbitol/mannitol on LS media for efficient genetic manipulation at the cellular level. Matured embryo calli of four susceptible cultivars, 'Tellahamsa', 'Jaya', 'HR-2' and 'Zenith' were irradiated (0.1-0.5 kR) and challenged with Pyricularia oryzae spore suspensions (10 5 /ml) and with the major toxin d-picolinic acid (125-200 ppm). A total of 514 plants were regenerated from the resistant calli. The TC-2 plants exhibited varying degrees of resistance (66-78%). The genetic basis of resistance of regenerated plants and their progeny may help in understanding the mechanism. Rice embryo calli of nine scented and non-scented cultivars were challenged with NaCI (0.5-2%) and 25-50% sea water with or without proline. A total of 222 plants were regenerated. The progeny of TC-2 plants were evaluated with normal and saline soil (EC 13.5 ds/m) for yield parameters. These studies suggested that stable tolerant TC-2 plants under stress exhibited superior yield parameters and the salinity index ranged from 89.4-98.4. (author)

  9. Gene manipulation for salt tolerance and blast resistance through in vitro techniques in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, G M [Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Rice calli generally lose regenerating ability in about 90 days. However, plant regeneration (60-70%) from 1500 day old embryo calli of 'Thellahamsa' cultivar has been established with 3% sorbitol/mannitol on LS media for efficient genetic manipulation at the cellular level. Matured embryo calli of four susceptible cultivars, 'Tellahamsa', 'Jaya', 'HR-2' and 'Zenith' were irradiated (0.1-0.5 kR) and challenged with Pyricularia oryzae spore suspensions (10{sup 5}/ml) and with the major toxin d-picolinic acid (125-200 ppm). A total of 514 plants were regenerated from the resistant calli. The TC-2 plants exhibited varying degrees of resistance (66-78%). The genetic basis of resistance of regenerated plants and their progeny may help in understanding the mechanism. Rice embryo calli of nine scented and non-scented cultivars were challenged with NaCI (0.5-2%) and 25-50% sea water with or without proline. A total of 222 plants were regenerated. The progeny of TC-2 plants were evaluated with normal and saline soil (EC 13.5 ds/m) for yield parameters. These studies suggested that stable tolerant TC-2 plants under stress exhibited superior yield parameters and the salinity index ranged from 89.4-98.4. (author)

  10. Resistance of polyvinyl alcohol blends stabilized by sodium and ammonium salts of lignite humic acids against γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbora Bakajova; Jiri Kucerik; Michal Ilcin; Oga Hola

    2011-01-01

    The dried blends containing sodium and ammonium salts of lignite humic acids (humates, 0.5-10% w/w) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were exposed to high dosage of γ-irradiation in the range of doses 127-806 kGy. Resulted products were then tested for their stability using thermogravimetrical analysis. As a reference the non-treated blends were used since the pure PVA exposed to γ-irradiation very quickly lost its stability and resulting consistence did not allow the stability tests. Stabilities showed a strong concentration and counterion dependency. While sodium counterion caused mostly destabilization with increasing dose, the ammonium counterion acted in an opposite way. The tests carried out in a moisturizing container revealed the changes in water absorbing capacity of irradiated samples and allowed partial explanation of humate stabilizing effect. Generally, at lower concentration of a humate the increase was observed with an increase in the γ-irradiation dose and vice versa. The results confirmed the antioxidant and stabilizing effect of humic acids added to some synthetic polymers and their applicability in materials exposed to γ-irradiation. (author)

  11. Using an Autonomous Scale Ship Model for Resistance and Parametric Roll Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ PEŇA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the developing of a self-propelled scale ship model aimed to perform resistance and parametric roll tests in towing tanks. The main characteristic of the proposed system is that it doesn’t have any material link to a towing device to carry out the tests. This ship model has been fully instrumented in order to acquire all the significant raw data, process them onboard and communicate with an inshore station. This works presents a description of the proposed model as well as some results obtained by its use during a towing tank testing campaign.

  12. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  13. Evidence for a role in growth and salt resistance of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the root endodermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitart, V.; Baxter, I.; Doerner, P.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The plasma membrane of plant cells is energized by an electrochemical gradient produced by P-type H+-ATPases (proton pumps). These pumps are encoded by at least 12 genes in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that isoform AHA4 contributes to solute transport through the root endodermis. AHA4 is expressed most strongly in the root endodermis and flowers, as suggested by promoter-GUS reporter assays. A disruption of this pump (aha4-1) was identified as a T-DNA insertion in the middle of the gene (after VFP(574)). Truncated aha4-1 transcripts accumulate to approximately 50% of the level observed for AHA4 mRNA in wild-type plants. Plants homozygous for aha4-1 (-/-) show a subtle reduction in root and shoot growth compared with wild-type plants when grown under normal conditions. However, a mutant phenotype is very clear in plants grown under salt stress (e.g., 75 or 110 mM NaCl). In leaves of mutant plants subjected to Na stress, the ratio of Na to K increased 4-5-fold. Interestingly, the aha4-1 mutation appears to be semidominant and was only partially complemented by the introduction of additional wild-type copies of AHA4. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aha4-1 may produce a dominant negative protein or RNA that partially disrupts the activity of other pumps or functions in the root endodermal tissue, thereby compromising the function of this cell layer in controlling ion homeostasis and nutrient transport.

  14. Prospective Comparison of a New Chromogenic Medium, MRSASelect, to CHROMagar MRSA and Mannitol-Salt Medium Supplemented with Oxacillin or Cefoxitin for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakes, Luba; Reyes, Romina; Daniel, Janis; Lennox, Gwen; John, Michael A.; Lannigan, Robert; Hussain, Zafar

    2006-01-01

    MRSASelect agar was compared to CHROMagar, mannitol-salt agar with oxacillin, and mannitol-salt agar with cefoxitin (MSA-CFOX) for the isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The sensitivities and specificities were 97.3% and 99.8%, 82.9% and 99.1%, 80.2% and 79%, and 99.1% and 84.8%, respectively. MSA-CFOX and MRSASelect had a high sensitivity. MRSASelect, however, was more specific and proved to be a more reliable and rapid medium for the detection of MRSA. PMID:16455933

  15. Short, multiple-stranded β-hairpin peptides have antimicrobial potency with high selectivity and salt resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shuli; Shao, Changxuan; Wang, Jiajun; Shan, Anshan; Xu, Lin; Dong, Na; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    The β-hairpin structure has been proposed to exhibit potent antimicrobial properties with low cytotoxicity, thus, multiple β-hairpin structures have been proved to be highly stable in structures containing tightly packed hydrophobic cores. The aim of this study was to develop peptide-based synthetic strategies for generating short, but effective AMPs as inexpensive antimicrobial agents. Multiple-stranded β-hairpin peptides with the same β-hairpin unit, (WRXxRW)n where n=1, 2, 3, or 4 and Xx represent the turn sequence, were synthesized, and their potential as antimicrobial agents was evaluated. Owning to the tightly packed hydrophobic core and paired Trp of this multiple-stranded β-hairpin structure, all the 12-residues peptides exhibited high cell selectivity towards bacterial cells over human red blood cells (hRBCs), and the peptide W2 exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with the MIC values of 2-8μM against various tested bacteria. Not only that, but W2 also showed obvious synergy with streptomycin and chloramphenicol against Escherichia coli, and displayed synergy with ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus with the FICI values ⩽0.5. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy analyses indicated that W2 kills microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. Collectively, based on the multiple β-hairpin peptides, the ability to develop libraries of short and effective peptides will be a powerful approach to the discovery of novel antimicrobial agents. We successfully screened a peptide W2 ((WRPGRW)2) from a series of multiple-stranded β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides based on the "S-shaped" motif that induced the formation of a globular structure, and Trp zipper was used to replace the disulfide bonds to reduce the cost of production. This novel structure applied to AMPs improved cell selectivity and salt stability. The findings of this study will promote the development of peptide

  16. A multi-scale approach for high cycle anisotropic fatigue resistance: Application to forged components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milesi, M.; Chastel, Y.; Hachem, E.; Bernacki, M.; Loge, R.E.; Bouchard, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Forged components exhibit good mechanical strength, particularly in terms of high cycle fatigue properties. This is due to the specific microstructure resulting from large plastic deformation as in a forging process. The goal of this study is to account for critical phenomena such as the anisotropy of the fatigue resistance in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on industrial forged components. Standard high cycle fatigue criteria usually give good results for isotropic behaviors but are not suitable for components with anisotropic features. The aim is to represent explicitly this anisotropy at a lower scale compared to the process scale and determined local coefficients needed to simulate a real case. We developed a multi-scale approach by considering the statistical morphology and mechanical characteristics of the microstructure to represent explicitly each element. From stochastic experimental data, realistic microstructures were reconstructed in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on it with different orientations. The meshing was improved by a local refinement of each interface and simulations were performed on each representative elementary volume. The local mechanical anisotropy is taken into account through the distribution of particles. Fatigue parameters identified at the microscale can then be used at the macroscale on the forged component. The linkage of these data and the process scale is the fiber vector and the deformation state, used to calculate global mechanical anisotropy. Numerical results reveal an expected behavior compared to experimental tendencies. We proved numerically the dependence of the anisotropy direction and the deformation state on the endurance limit evolution.

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Resistiveness to Care Scale Among Cognitively Impaired Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Elizabeth; Resnick, Barbara; Vigne, Erin; Holmes, Sarah Dee; Nalls, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Resistiveness to care is behavior that prevents or interferes with caregivers' performing or assisting with activities of daily living and puts residents at risk for inappropriate use of antipsychotic drugs, other restraining interventions, social isolation, and physical abuse. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of a previously developed Resistiveness to Care measure. This was a descriptive study using baseline data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial testing a Function and Behavior Focused Care (FBFC) intervention. Residents were eligible to participate if they were 55 years of age or older, had a Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score of 15 or less, and were not enrolled in hospice or admitted for subacute care. Descriptive information included age, race, gender, cognitive status, and marital status. In addition to the Resistance to Care Scale, the Barthel Index, the Physical Activity Survey in Long Term Care (PAS-LTC), and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) were completed. Psychometric testing was done using Rasch analysis and the Winsteps statistical program. The participants were moderate to severely cognitively impaired (MMSE of 7.23), functionally dependent (Barthel Index 47.31, SD 27.59), and engaged in only 134.17 (SD = 207.32) minutes of physical activity daily. Reliability was supported based on a Cronbach alpha of 0.84 and the DIF analysis, as there was no difference in function of the items between male and female participants. Validity was supported as all items fit the measurement model based on INFIT and OUTFIT statistics. The findings support the reliability and validity of the Resistiveness to Care Scale for use with older adults with dementia in nursing home settings. Future work with the measure may benefit from the addition of items that are easier to endorse with regard to resistiveness to care (shutting eyes or spitting out food may be useful additions). Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The

  18. Use of small scale electrical resistivity tomography to identify soil-root interactions during deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, D.; Cassiani, G.; Busato, L.; Boaga, J.; Barbagallo, S.; Binley, A.; Consoli, S.

    2018-01-01

    Plant roots activity affect the exchanges of mass and energy between the soil and atmosphere. However, it is challenging to monitor the activity of the root-zone because roots are not visible from the soil surface, and root systems undergo spatial and temporal variations in response to internal and external conditions. Therefore, measurements of the activity of root systems are interesting to ecohydrologists in general, and are especially important for specific applications, such as irrigation water management. This study demonstrates the use of small scale three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to monitor the root-zone of orange trees irrigated by two different regimes: (i) full rate, in which 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is provided; and (ii) partial root-zone drying (PRD), in which 50% of ETc is supplied to alternate sides of the tree. We performed time-lapse 3-D ERT measurements on these trees from 5 June to 24 September 2015, and compared the long-term and short-term changes before, during, and after irrigation events. Given the small changes in soil temperature and pore water electrical conductivity, we interpreted changes of soil electrical resistivity from 3-D ERT data as proxies for changes in soil water content. The ERT results are consistent with measurements of transpiration flux and soil temperature. The changes in electrical resistivity obtained from ERT measurements in this case study indicate that root water uptake (RWU) processes occur at the 0.1 m scale, and highlight the impact of different irrigation schemes.

  19. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  20. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  1. Influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro ao estresse salino Influence of rootstocks on the resistance of cashew plantlets to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Ferreira-Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. à salinidade. As mudas foram obtidas pela enxertia do clone BRS 226 sobre os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226. Foram expostas a meio hidropônico sem NaCl (controle ou com NaCl 200 mM (tratamento salino, sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade, durante 12 dias. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (três combinações de enxerto/porta-enxerto e duas concentrações de NaCl, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados a concentração de Na+, Cl-, K+ e solutos orgânicos e os sintomas visuais de toxicidade nas folhas. Os conteúdos de Na+ e Cl-, a relação K+/Na+ e as concentrações de aminoácidos e de prolina livres nas folhas tiveram relação direta com os sintomas visuais de toxicidade. Os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226 foram classificados como sensível, intermediário e resistente à salinidade elevada, respectivamente. Essa variação foi decorrente da influência do porta-enxerto na partição do Na+ e do Cl-.The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. rootstocks on salt resistance in grafted plantlets. The plantlets were obtained by grafting the BRS 226 scion on CAPI 4, CCP 09 and BRS 226 rootstocks, and were exposed to nutrient solution without NaCl (control or with 200 mM NaCl (salt treatment in hydroponics under controlled temperature, humidity, and luminosity conditions during 12 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized in factorial arrangement 3x2 (three scion/rootstock combinations, two NaCl concentrations with four replicates. Na+, Cl-, K+ and organic solute concentrations and toxicity symptoms on leaves were determined. Na+ and Cl- contents, the K+/Na+ ratio and the free amino acid and proline concentrations in leaves were directly related to the visual

  2. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  3. Construct and Concurrent Validation of a New Resistance Intensity Scale for Exercise with Thera-Band® Elastic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Colado, Xavier Garcia-Masso, N. Travis Triplett, Joaquin Calatayud, Jorge Flandez, David Behm, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM and overall body (O ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB. Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise.

  4. Decadal-scale changes in dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater used for public supply, Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Spangler, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Basin-fill aquifers are a major source of good-quality water for public supply in many areas of the southwestern United States and have undergone increasing development as populations have grown over time. During 2005, the basin-fill aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, provided approximately 75,000 acre-feet, or about 29 percent of the total amount of water used by a population of 967,000. Groundwater in the unconsolidated basin-fill deposits that make up the aquifer occurs under unconfined and confined conditions. Water in the shallow unconfined part of the groundwater system is susceptible to near-surface contamination and generally is not used as a source of drinking water. Groundwater for public supply is withdrawn from the deeper unconfined and confined parts of the system, termed the principal aquifer, because yields generally are greater and water quality is better (including lower dissolved-solids concentrations) than in the shallower parts of the system. Much of the water in the principal aquifer is derived from recharge in the adjacent Wasatch Range (mountain-block recharge). In many areas, the principal aquifer is separated from the overlying shallow aquifer by confining layers of less permeable, fine-grained sediment that inhibit the downward movement of water and any potential contaminants from the surface. Nonetheless, under certain hydrologic conditions, human-related activities can increase dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer and result in groundwater becoming unsuitable for consumption without treatment or mixing with water having lower dissolved-solids concentrations. Dissolved-solids concentrations in areas of the principal aquifer used for public supply typically are less than 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) secondary (nonenforceable) drinking-water standard. However, substantial increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer have been documented in some

  5. Dynamics of epidemic spreading model with drug-resistant variation on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Zhang, Wu; Dong, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of the virus' drug-resistant variation, a novel SIVRS (susceptible-infected-variant-recovered-susceptible) epidemic spreading model with variation characteristic on scale-free networks is proposed in this paper. By using the mean-field theory, the spreading dynamics of the model is analyzed in detail. Then, the basic reproductive number R0 and equilibriums are derived. Studies show that the existence of disease-free equilibrium is determined by the basic reproductive number R0. The relationships between the basic reproductive number R0, the variation characteristic and the topology of the underlying networks are studied in detail. Furthermore, our studies prove the global stability of the disease-free equilibrium, the permanence of epidemic and the global attractivity of endemic equilibrium. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the analytical results.

  6. Non-Porod scattering and non-integer scaling of resistance in rough films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bupathy, Arunkumar; Verma, Rupesh; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-04-01

    In many physical systems, films are rough due to the stochastic behavior of depositing particles. They are characterized by non-Porod power law decays in the structure factor S (k) . Theoretical studies predict anomalous diffusion in such morphologies, with important implications for diffusivity, conductivity, etc. We use the non-Porod decay to accurately determine the fractal properties of two prototypical nanoparticle films: (i) Palladium (Pd) and (ii) Cu2O. Using scaling arguments, we find that the resistance of rough films of lateral size L obeys a non-integer power law R ∼L-ζ , in contrast to integer power laws for compact structures. The exponent ζ is anisotropic. We confirm our predictions by re-analyzing experimental data from Cu2O nano-particle films. Our results are valuable for understanding recent experiments that report anisotropic electrical properties in (rough) thin films.

  7. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli...

  8. Investigating the effects of ABC transporter-based acquired drug resistance mechanisms at the cellular and tissue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Krishnan, J; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we systematically investigate the effects of acquired drug resistance at the cellular and tissue scale, with a specific focus on ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-based mechanisms and contrast this with other representative intracellular resistance mechanisms. This is done by developing in silico models wherein the drug resistance mechanism is overlaid on a coarse-grained description of apoptosis; these cellular models are coupled with interstitial drug transport, allowing for a transparent examination of the effect of acquired drug resistances at the tissue level. While ABC transporter-mediated resistance mechanisms counteract drug effect at the cellular level, its tissue-level effect is more complicated, revealing unexpected trends in tissue response as drug stimuli are systematically varied. Qualitatively different behaviour is observed in other drug resistance mechanisms. Overall the paper (i) provides insight into the tissue level functioning of a particular resistance mechanism, (ii) shows that this is very different from other resistance mechanisms of an apparently similar type, and (iii) demonstrates a concrete instance of how the functioning of a negative feedback based cellular adaptive mechanism can have unexpected higher scale effects.

  9. A study on the corrosion test of equipment material handling hot molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Jeong, M.S.; Hong, S.S.; Cho, S.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Park, H.S.; Zhang, J.S.

    1999-02-01

    On this technical report, corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels of SUS 316L and SUS 304L in molten salt of LiCl-Li 2 O has been investigated in the temperature range of 650 - 850 dg C. Corrosion products of SUS 316L in molten salt consisted of two layers, an outer layer of LiCrO 2 and inner layer of Cr 2 O 3 .The corrosion layer was uniform in molten salt of LiCl, but the intergranular corrosion occurred in addition to the uniform corrosion in mixed molten salt of LiCl-Li 2 O. The corrosion rate increased slowly with the increase of temperature up to 750 dg C, but above 750 dg C rapid increase in corrosion rate observed. SUS 316L stainless steel showed slower corrosion rate and higher activation energy for corrosion than SUS 304L, exhibiting higher corrosion resistance in the molten salt. In heat-resistant alloy, dense protective oxide scale of LiCrO 2 was formed in molten salt of LiCl. Whereas in mixed molten salt of LiCl-Li 2 O, porous non-protective scale of Li(Cr, Ni, Fe)O 2 was formed. (Author). 44 refs., 4 tabs., 16 figs

  10. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates in salt solutions. Summary report; Langzeit-Wechselwirkungen von zementierten Abfallsimulaten im Originalmassstab mit Salzloesungen. Zusammenfassender Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Borkel, Christoph; Metz, Volker [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2015-12-04

    On March 13,.2013 the Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) published a note that the responsible group of the Helmholtz Zentrums Muenchen had finished the experiments in the socalled leaching test room at the 490 m level of the Asse II mine. In this room, the previous operator the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF) carried out leaching and corrosion experiments with cemented full-scale samples. These experiments were performed since 1979 requested by the licensing authorities. With respect to the safety case for the Asse salt mine it was a need to demonstrate the transferability of results obtained by laboratory samples to real waste forms and to investigate the effects of the industrial cementation process an the properties of the waste forms. A research program was initiated by the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe (today Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT) and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung m.b.H. (GSF). Since 1996 the scientific supervision of the experiments were dedicated to the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) of KIT. Until 2013, the corroding solutions were sampled several times. In 2006 four full-scale samples were retrieved and investigated with respect to variations of the solids. After termination of the experiments in January 2013, radioactively doped samples were transferred to KIT-INE for final evaluations. The present report summarizes the background and objectives of the experiments as well as the results of the solutions and solid state analyses.

  11. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Hieu Tran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs. The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement

  12. Large-scale survey for novel genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance gene pfcrt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Plasmodium falciparum, resistance to chloroquine (CQ is conferred by a K to T mutation at amino acid position 76 (K76T in the P. falciparum CQ transporter (PfCRT. To date, at least 15 pfcrt genotypes, which are represented by combinations of five amino acids at positions 72-76, have been described in field isolates from various endemic regions. To identify novel mutant pfcrt genotypes and to reveal the genetic relatedness of pfcrt genotypes, a large-scale survey over a wide geographic area was performed. Methods Sequences for exon 2 in pfcrt, including known polymorphic sites at amino acid positions 72, 74, 75 and 76, were obtained from 256 P. falciparum isolates collected from eight endemic countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., the Philippines and Thailand, Melanesia (Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu and Africa (Ghana. A haplotype network was constructed based on six microsatellite markers located -29 kb to 24 kb from pfcrt in order to examine the genetic relatedness among mutant pfcrt genotypes. Results In addition to wild type (CVMNK at positions 72-76, four mutant pfcrt were identified; CVIET, CVIDT, SVMNT and CVMNT (mutated amino acids underlined. Haplotype network revealed that there were only three mutant pfcrt lineages, originating in Indochina, Philippines and Melanesia. Importantly, the Indochina lineage contained two mutant pfcrt genotypes, CVIET (n = 95 and CVIDT (n = 14, indicating that CVIDT shares a common origin with CVIET. Similarly, one major haplotype in the Melanesian lineage contained two pfcrt genotypes; SVMNT (n = 71 and CVMNT (n = 3. In Africa, all mutant pfcrt genotypes were the CVIET of the Indochina lineage, probably resulting from the intercontinental migration of CQ resistance from Southeast Asia. Conclusions The number of CQ-mutant lineages observed in this study was identical to that found in previous studies. This supports the hypothesis that the emergence of novel CQ resistance

  13. Robust chemical and chemical-resistant material detection using hyper-spectral imager and a new bend interpolation and local scaling HSI sharpening method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Michael; Brickhouse, Mark

    2015-05-01

    We present new results from our ongoing research activity for chemical threat detection using hyper-spectral imager (HSI) detection techniques by detecting nontraditional threat spectral signatures of agent usage, such as protective equipment, coatings, paints, spills, and stains that are worn by human or on trucks or other objects. We have applied several current state-of-the-art HSI target detection methods such as Matched Filter (MF), Adaptive Coherence Estimator (ACE), Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM), and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). We are interested in detecting several chemical related materials: (a) Tyvek clothing is chemical resistance and Tyvek coveralls are one-piece garments for protecting human body from harmful chemicals, and (b) ammonium salts from background could be representative of spills from scrubbers or related to other chemical activities. The HSI dataset that we used for detection covers a chemical test field with more than 50 different kinds of chemicals, protective materials, coatings, and paints. Among them, there are four different kinds of Tyvek material, three types of ammonium salts, and one yellow jugs. The imagery cube data were collected by a HSI sensor with a spectral range of 400-2,500nm. Preliminary testing results are promising, and very high probability of detection (Pd) and low probability of false detection are achieved with the usage of full spectral range (400- 2,500nm). In the second part of this paper, we present our newly developed HSI sharpening technique. A new Band Interpolation and Local Scaling (BILS) method has been developed to improve HSI spatial resolution by 4-16 times with a low-cost high-resolution pen-chromatic camera and a RGB camera. Preliminary results indicate that this new technique is promising.

  14. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  15. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  16. A Study of Remitted and Treatment-Resistant Depression Using MMPI and Including Pessimism and Optimism Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. Methods We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. Results ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. Conclusions The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts. PMID:25279466

  17. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with {approximately} 1,142 Ci of {sup 137}Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO{sub 3} and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent.

  18. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for 137Cs and 90Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with ∼ 1,142 Ci of 137 Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO 3 and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent

  19. The Stigma Resistance Scale: A multi-sample validation of a new instrument to assess mental illness stigma resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; McGrew, John H; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Salyers, Michelle P

    2017-12-01

    Although associated with key recovery outcomes, stigma resistance remains under-studied largely due to limitations of existing measures. This study developed and validated a new measure of stigma resistance. Preliminary items, derived from qualitative interviews of people with lived experience, were pilot tested online with people self-reporting a mental illness diagnosis (n = 489). Best performing items were selected, and the refined measure was administered to an independent sample of people with mental illness at two state mental health consumer recovery conferences (n = 202). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) guided by theory were used to test item fit, correlations between the refined stigma resistance measure and theoretically relevant measures were examined for validity, and test-retest correlations of a subsample were examined for stability. CFA demonstrated strong fit for a 5-factor model. The final 20-item measure demonstrated good internal consistency for each of the 5 subscales, adequate test-retest reliability at 3 weeks, and strong construct validity (i.e., positive associations with quality of life, recovery, and self-efficacy, and negative associations with overall symptoms, defeatist beliefs, and self-stigma). The new measure offers a more reliable and nuanced assessment of stigma resistance. It may afford greater personalization of interventions targeting stigma resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Elementary student self efficacy scale development and validation focused on student learning, peer relations, and resisting drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertman, Carl I; Primack, Brian A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item self efficacy scale and social support and social skills instruments. The results provide evidence for a valid and reliable 3-factor self efficacy scale. Subscale internal consistency reliability was good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.75, 0.83, 0.91). Construct validity was supported by correlations between each subscale and social skills, social support, and demographic data. The scale has potential as a tool to measure self efficacy in children related to learning, peer interactions, and resisting peer pressure to use drugs and to help shape drug education programs.

  1. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  2. Studies on the Electrochemical Dissolution for the Treatment of 10 g-Scale Zircaloy-4 Cladding Hull Wastes in LiCl-KCl Molten Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, You Lee; Lee, Jang Hwa; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of 10 g-scale fresh and oxidized Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls were examined in 500 degree C LiCl-KCl molten salts to confirm the feasibility of the electrorefining process for the treatment of hull wastes. In the results of measuring the potential-current response using a stainless steel basket filled with oxidized Zircaloy-4 hull specimens, the oxidation peak of Zr appears to be at -0.7 to -0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl, which is similar to that of fresh Zircaloy-4 hulls, while the oxidation current is found to be much smaller than that of fresh Zircaloy-4 hulls. These results are congruent with the outcome of current-time curves at -0.78 V and of measuring the change in the average weight and thickness after the electrochemical dissolution process. Although the oxide layer on the surface affects the uniformity and rate of dissolution by decreasing the conductivity of Zircaloy-4 hulls, electrochemical dissolution is considered to occur owing to the defect of the surface and phase properties of the Zr oxide layer.

  3. Multifractal analysis of vertical profiles of soil penetration resistance at the field scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Siqueira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil penetration resistance (PR is widely used as an indirect indicator of soil strength. Soil PR is linked to basic soil properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, and as such it is extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent soil PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analysed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 60 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in northeastern Brazil. The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity, and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. The singularity and Rènyi spectra showed that the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to 1, ranging from 0.944 to 0.988, indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also, the Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV, skewness and maximum values of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean and maximum values of PR. Combination of spatial variability survey and multifractal analysis appear to be useful to manage soil compaction.

  4. Multifractal analysis of vertical profiles of soil penetration resistance at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2013-07-01

    Soil penetration resistance (PR) is widely used as an indirect indicator of soil strength. Soil PR is linked to basic soil properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, and as such it is extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent soil PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analysed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 60 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in northeastern Brazil. The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity, and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. The singularity and Rènyi spectra showed that the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to 1, ranging from 0.944 to 0.988, indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also, the Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV), skewness and maximum values of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean and maximum values of PR. Combination of spatial variability survey and multifractal analysis appear to be useful to manage soil compaction.

  5. Effect of yttrium on the oxide scale adherence of pre-oxidized silicon-containing heat-resistant alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jingbo; Gao Yimin; Shen Yudi; Yang Fang; Yi Dawei; Ye Zhaozhong; Liang Long; Du Yingqian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → AE experiment shows yttrium has a beneficial effect on the pre-oxidized HP40 alloy. → Yttrium facilitates the formation of internal oxide after 10 h of oxidation. → Internal oxide changes the rupture behaviour of the oxide scale. → Twins form in the internal oxide and improve the binding strength of the scale. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of the rare earth element yttrium on the rupture behaviour of the oxide scale on the silicon-containing heat-resistant alloy during cooling. After 10 h of oxidation, yttrium is found to facilitate the formation of internal oxides (silica) at the scale-matrix interface. Due to the twinning observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in silica, the critical strain value for the scale failure can be dramatically improved, and the formation of cracks at the scale-matrix interface is inhibited.

  6. Rock-avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek valley, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate E.; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    On 25 May 2014, a rain-on-snow–induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado (United States). The avalanche mobilized from a preexisting rock slide in the Green River Formation and traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing three people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous United States because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and high mobility (height/length = 0.14). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, unmanned aircraft system imagery as a base for field mapping, and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with an early morning landslide/debris flow that started ∼10 h before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted ∼3.5 min and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich core continued to move slowly. Since 25 May 2014, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls have created new structures and modified avalanche topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core was likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional strength. These results indicate that the West Salt Creek avalanche, and probably other long-traveled avalanches, could be modeled as two layers: a thin, liquefied

  7. Development of a Teacher Scale to Measure Presence and Frequency of Students' Resistance Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mediha

    2018-01-01

    Student resistance, which can briefly be defined as the tendency to resist teaching activities, is student's reacting to the teaching-learning activities, teachers, or administrators knowingly and wilfully, many times intentionally in various ways. Resistance behaviours, which could be considered as the outpouring of the anger created by the…

  8. Computational approach on PEB process in EUV resist: multi-scale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Muyoung; Moon, Junghwan; Choi, Joonmyung; Lee, Byunghoon; Jeong, Changyoung; Kim, Heebom; Cho, Maenghyo

    2017-03-01

    For decades, downsizing has been a key issue for high performance and low cost of semiconductor, and extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the promising candidates to achieve the goal. As a predominant process in extreme ultraviolet lithography on determining resolution and sensitivity, post exposure bake has been mainly studied by experimental groups, but development of its photoresist is at the breaking point because of the lack of unveiled mechanism during the process. Herein, we provide theoretical approach to investigate underlying mechanism on the post exposure bake process in chemically amplified resist, and it covers three important reactions during the process: acid generation by photo-acid generator dissociation, acid diffusion, and deprotection. Density functional theory calculation (quantum mechanical simulation) was conducted to quantitatively predict activation energy and probability of the chemical reactions, and they were applied to molecular dynamics simulation for constructing reliable computational model. Then, overall chemical reactions were simulated in the molecular dynamics unit cell, and final configuration of the photoresist was used to predict the line edge roughness. The presented multiscale model unifies the phenomena of both quantum and atomic scales during the post exposure bake process, and it will be helpful to understand critical factors affecting the performance of the resulting photoresist and design the next-generation material.

  9. Resistance and Contingent Contestations to Large-Scale Land Concessions in Southern Laos and Northeastern Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Baird

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there have been considerable concerns raised regarding the social and environmental impacts of large-scale land concessions for plantation development in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics, including in Laos and Cambodia. However, there is still much to learn about the various connections and interactions associated with reactions to what are often referred to as “land grabs”, and the ways they are associated or not associated with broader social movements and networks opposed to land grabbing. There is also the need to develop language for discussing these circumstances, something I aim to contribute to in this article. Here, I present four different cases of types of resistance, or what I refer to as contingent contestations, to land concessions in southern Laos and northeastern Cambodia (two from each country, focusing on the perspectives and associated strategies of smallholder farmers, but without ignoring broader issues. I consider the roles of locals in these contestations, through emphasizing the importance of histories, identities/ethnicities, politics, and geography in determining the types of responses to these land deals that emerge, and the strategies that are adopted for contesting these developments.

  10. A micro-scale model for predicting contact resistance between bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Lin, G.; Shih, A.J.; Hu, S.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Contact resistance between the bipolar plate (BPP) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell constitutes a significant portion of the overall fuel cell electrical resistance under the normal operation conditions. Most current methods for contact resistance estimation are experimental and there is a lack of well developed theoretical methods. A micro-scale numerical model is developed to predict the electrical contact resistance between BPP and GDL by simulating the BPP surface topology and GDL structure and numerically determining the status for each contact spot. The total resistance and pressure are obtained by considering all contact spots as resistances in parallel and summing the results together. This model shows good agreements with experimental results. Influences of BPP surface roughness parameters on contact resistance are also studied. This model is beneficial in understanding the contact behavior between BPP and GDL and can be integrated with other fuel cell simulations to predict the overall performance of PEM fuel cells. (author)

  11. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  12. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  13. Quantifying invertebrate resistance to floods: a global-scale meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Laura E; Lytle, David A

    2012-12-01

    Floods are a key component of the ecology and management of riverine ecosystems around the globe, but it is not clear whether floods have predictable effects on organisms that can allow us to generalize across regions and continents. To address this, we conducted a global-scale meta-analysis to investigate effects of natural and managed floods on invertebrate resistance, the ability of invertebrates to survive flood events. We considered 994 studies for inclusion in the analysis, and after evaluation based on a priori criteria, narrowed our analysis to 41 studies spanning six of the seven continents. We used the natural-log-ratio of invertebrate abundance before and within 10 days after flood events because this measure of effect size can be directly converted to estimates of percent survival. We conducted categorical and continuous analyses that examined the contribution of environmental and study design variables to effect size heterogeneity, and examined differences in effect size among taxonomic groups. We found that invertebrate abundance was lowered by at least one-half after flood events. While natural vs. managed floods were similar in their effect, effect size differed among habitat and substrate types, with pools, sand, and boulders experiencing the strongest effect. Although sample sizes were not sufficient to examine all taxonomic groups, floods had a significant, negative effect on densities of Coleoptera, Eumalacostraca, Annelida, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Results from this study provide guidance for river flow regime prescriptions that will be applicable across continents and climate types, as well as baseline expectations for future empirical studies of freshwater disturbance.

  14. Pilot-Scale Field Validation Of The Long Electrode Electrical Resistivity Tomography Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, D.R.; Rucker, D.F.; Crook, N.; Loke, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Field validation for the long electrode electrical resistivity tomography (LE-ERT) method was attempted in order to demonstrate the performance of the technique in imaging a simple buried target. The experiment was an approximately 1/17 scale mock-up of a region encompassing a buried nuclear waste tank on the Hanford site. The target of focus was constructed by manually forming a simulated plume within the vadose zone using a tank waste simulant. The LE-ERT results were compared to ERT using conventional point electrodes on the surface and buried within the survey domain. Using a pole-pole array, both point and long electrode imaging techniques identified the lateral extents of the pre-formed plume with reasonable fidelity, but the LE-ERT was handicapped in reconstructing the vertical boundaries. The pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays were also tested with the LE-ERT method and were shown to have the least favorable target properties, including the position of the reconstructed plume relative to the known plume and the intensity of false positive targets. The poor performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays was attributed to an inexhaustive and non-optimal coverage of data at key electrodes, as well as an increased noise for electrode combinations with high geometric factors. However, when comparing the model resolution matrix among the different acquisition strategies, the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays using long electrodes were shown to have significantly higher average and maximum values than any pole-pole array. The model resolution describes how well the inversion model resolves the subsurface. Given the model resolution performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays, it may be worth investing in tools to understand the optimum subset of randomly distributed electrode pairs to produce maximum performance from the inversion model.

  15. PILOT-SCALE FIELD VALIDATION OF THE LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GLASER DR; RUCKER DF; CROOK N; LOKE MH

    2011-07-14

    Field validation for the long electrode electrical resistivity tomography (LE-ERT) method was attempted in order to demonstrate the performance of the technique in imaging a simple buried target. The experiment was an approximately 1/17 scale mock-up of a region encompassing a buried nuclear waste tank on the Hanford site. The target of focus was constructed by manually forming a simulated plume within the vadose zone using a tank waste simulant. The LE-ERT results were compared to ERT using conventional point electrodes on the surface and buried within the survey domain. Using a pole-pole array, both point and long electrode imaging techniques identified the lateral extents of the pre-formed plume with reasonable fidelity, but the LE-ERT was handicapped in reconstructing the vertical boundaries. The pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays were also tested with the LE-ERT method and were shown to have the least favorable target properties, including the position of the reconstructed plume relative to the known plume and the intensity of false positive targets. The poor performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays was attributed to an inexhaustive and non-optimal coverage of data at key electrodes, as well as an increased noise for electrode combinations with high geometric factors. However, when comparing the model resolution matrix among the different acquisition strategies, the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays using long electrodes were shown to have significantly higher average and maximum values than any pole-pole array. The model resolution describes how well the inversion model resolves the subsurface. Given the model resolution performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays, it may be worth investing in tools to understand the optimum subset of randomly distributed electrode pairs to produce maximum performance from the inversion model.

  16. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set...... and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey...

  17. Salted, dried and smoked fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, E.; Riley, F.R.; Vermaak, K.; Venn, C.

    1986-01-01

    Heat resistance tests were carried out using a heat resistant strain of red halophiles isolated from a commercial salt and comparing this with three known species, i.e. Halobacterium halobium, H. salinarum and H. antirubrum. These four halophic strains were used to prepare artificially infected salts which were then subjected to three different forms of heat treatment: heat-treatment in oil bath, microwave heating and gamma radiation. The conclusion was made that gamma radiation appears to be less effective than microwave heating at the levels tested

  18. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Correlations with Microbial Community and Metal Resistance Genes in Full-Scale Biogas Reactors As Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Li, Bing; Li, Li-Guan

    2017-01-01

    resistance genes (MRGs). The total abundance of ARGs in all the samples varied from 7 × 10-3 to 1.08 × 10-1 copy of ARG/copy of 16S-rRNA gene, and the samples obtained from thermophilic biogas reactors had a lower total abundance of ARGs, indicating the superiority of thermophilic anaerobic digestion......Digested residues from biogas plants are often used as biofertilizers for agricultural crops cultivation. The antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in digested residues pose a high risk to public health due to their potential spread to the disease-causing microorganisms and thus reduce...... the susceptibility of disease-causing microorganisms to antibiotics in medical treatment. A high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based metagenomic approach was used in the present study to investigate the variations of ARGs in full-scale biogas reactors and the correlations of ARGs with microbial communities and metal...

  20. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braykov, Nikolay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Grossman, Marissa; Zhang, Lixin; Vasco, Karla; Cevallos, William; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo, Andrés; Moser, Kara A; Marrs, Carl F; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 "production birds" (commercially raised broiler chickens and laying hens) and 455 "household birds" (raised for domestic use) and household and coop environmental samples from 17 villages between 2010 and 2013. We analyzed data on zones of inhibition from Kirby-Bauer tests, rather than established clinical breakpoints for AR, to distinguish between populations of organisms. We saw significantly higher levels of AR in bacteria from production versus household birds; resistance to either amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalothin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin was found in 52.8% of production bird isolates and 16% of household ones. A strain jointly resistant to the 4 drugs was exclusive to a subset of isolates from production birds (7.6%) and coop surfaces (6.5%) and was associated with a particular purchase site. The prevalence of AR in production birds declined with bird age (P resistance (AR) in E. coli isolates from small-scale poultry production environments versus domestic environments in rural Ecuador, where such backyard poultry operations have become established over the past decade. Our previous research in the region suggests that introduction of AR bacteria through travel and commerce may be an important source of AR in villages of this region. This report extends the prior analysis by examining small-scale production chicken farming as a potential source of resistant strains. Our results suggest that AR strains associated with poultry production likely originate from sources outside the study

  1. On the value of electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring leachate injection in solid state anaerobic digestion plants at farm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueurce, Axelle; Clément, Rémi; Moreau, Sylvain; Peu, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural waste is a valuable resource for solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) thanks to its high solid content (>15%). Batch mode SSAD with leachate recirculation is particularly appropriate for such substrates. However, for successful degradation, the leachate must be evenly distributed through the substrate to improve its moisture content. To study the distribution of leachate in agricultural waste, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed. First, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to check the reliability of this method to monitor infiltration of the leachate throughout the solid. Two representative mixtures of agricultural wastes were prepared: a "winter" mixture, with cattle manure, and a "summer" mixture, with cattle manure, wheat straw and hay. The influence of density and water content on electrical resistivity variations was assessed in the two mixtures. An increase in density was found to lead to a decrease in electrical resistivity: at the initial water content, resistivity decreased from 109.7 to 19.5Ω·m in the summer mixture and from 9.8 to 2.7Ω·m in the "winter" mixture with a respective increased in density of 0.134-0.269, and 0.311-0.577. Similarly, resistivity decreased with an increase in water content: for low densities, resistivity dropped from 109.7 to 7.1Ω·m and 9.8 to 4.0Ω·m with an increase in water content from 64 to 90w% and 74 to 93w% for "summer" and "winter" mixtures respectively. Second, a time-lapse ERT was performed in a farm-scale SSAD plant to monitor leachate infiltration. Results revealed very heterogeneous distribution of the leachate in the waste, with two particularly moist areas around the leachate injection holes. However, ERT was successfully applied in the SSAD plant, and produced a reliable 3D map of leachate infiltration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduction of clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole-resistant Enterococcus by pilot-scale solar-driven Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaolia, Popi; Michael, Irene; García-Fernández, Irene; Agüera, Ana; Malato, Sixto; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2014-01-15

    The presence of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments has become a health threat in the last few years. Their presence has increased due to the presence of antibiotics in wastewater effluents, which are not efficiently removed by conventional wastewater treatments. As a result there is a need to study the possible ways of removal of the mixtures of antibiotics present in wastewater effluents and the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which may also spread the antibiotic resistance genes to other bacterial populations. In this study the degradation of a mixture of antibiotics i.e. sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin, the disinfection of total enterococci and the removal of those resistant to: a) sulfamethoxazole, b) clarithromycin and c) to both antibiotics have been examined, along with the toxicity of the whole effluent mixture after treatment to the luminescent aquatic bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Solar Fenton treatment (natural solar driven oxidation) using Fenton reagent doses of 50 mg L(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 5 mg L(-1) of Fe(3+) in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector plant was used to examine the disinfection and antibiotic resistance removal efficiency in different aqueous matrices, namely distilled water, simulated and real wastewater effluents. There was a faster complete removal of enterococci and of antibiotics in all aqueous matrices by applying solar Fenton when compared to photolytic treatment of the matrices. Sulfamethoxazole was more efficiently degraded than clarithromycin in all three aqueous matrices (95% removal of sulfamethoxazole and 70% removal of clarithromycin in real wastewater). The antibiotic resistance of enterococci towards both antibiotics exhibited a 5-log reduction with solar Fenton in real wastewater effluent. Also after solar Fenton treatment, there were 10 times more antibiotic-resistant enterococci in the presence of sulfamethoxazole than in the presence of clarithromycin. Finally, the toxicity

  3. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  4. Beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Jun; Ban Yong; Ye Yanlin; Cai Jianxin; Qian Sijin; Wang Quanjin; Liu Hongtao

    2005-01-01

    The authors reported the muon beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). The bakelite surface is treated using a special technology without oil to make it smooth enough. The full scale RE 1/2 RPC with honeycomb supporting frame is strong and thin enough to be fitted to the limited space of CMS design for the inner Forward RPC. The muon beam test was performed at CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The detection efficiency of this full scale RPC prototype is >95% even at very high irradiation background. The time resolution (less than 1.2 ns) and spatial resolution are satisfactory for the muon trigger device in future CMS experiments. The noise rate is also calculated and discussed

  5. A study on the effect of flat plate friction resistance on speed performance prediction of full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate friction lines hare been used in the process to estimate speed performance of full-scale ships in model tests. The results of the previous studies showed considerable differences in determining form factors depending on changes in plate friction lines and Reynolds numbers. These differences had a great influence on estimation of speed performance of full-scale ships. This study- was conducted in two parts. In the first part, the scale effect of the form factor depending on change in the Reynolds number was studied based on CFD, in connection with three kinds of friction resistance curves: the ITTC-1957, the curve proposed by Grigson (1993; 1996, and the curve developed by Katsui et al (2005. In the second part, change in the form factor by three kinds of

  6. Effect of La surface treatments on corrosion resistance of A3xx.x/SiC{sub p} composites in salt fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: anpardo@quim.ucm.es; Merino, M.C. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arrabal, R. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Merino, S. [Departamento de Tecnologia Industrial, Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Viejo, F. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Coy, A.E. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The influence of the SiC{sub p} proportion and the matrix concentration of four aluminium metal matrix composites (A360/SiC/10p, A360/SiC/20p, A380/SiC/10p, A380/SiC/20p) modified by lanthanum-based conversion or electrolysis coating was evaluated in neutral salt fog according to ASTM B 117. Lanthanum-based conversion coatings were obtained by immersion in 50 deg. C solution of La(III) salt and lanthanum electrolysis treatments were performed in ethylene glycol mono-butyl ether solution. These treatments preferentially covered cathodic areas such as intermetallic compounds, Si eutectic and SiC{sub p}. The kinetic of the corrosion process was studied on the basis of gravimetric tests. Both coating microstructure and nature of corrosion products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) before and after accelerated testing to determine the influence of microstructural changes on corrosion behaviour during exposure to the corrosive environment. The corrosion process was more influenced by the concentration of alloy elements in the matrix than by the proportion of SiC{sub p} reinforcement. Both conversion and electrolysis surface treatments improved the behaviour to salt fog corrosion in comparison with original composites without treatment. Additionally, electrolysis provided a higher degree of protection than the conversion treatment because the coating was more extensive.

  7. Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program: Full-scale testing and demonstration final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarles, Stephen, L.; Sindelar, Melissa

    2011-12-13

    The primary goal of the Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program was to develop a home evaluation tool that could assess the ignition potential of a structure subjected to wildfire exposures. This report describes the tests that were conducted, summarizes the results, and discusses the implications of these results with regard to the vulnerabilities to homes and buildings.

  8. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  9. Fire Resistance of Large-Scale Cross-Laminated Timber Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav; Novotný, Miloslav

    2017-12-01

    Wooden structures are increasingly being used in the construction of residential buildings. A common and often published reason to avoid wooden structures is their insufficient fire resistance, which reduces bearing capacity. For this reason, composite sandwich structures began to be designed to eliminate this drawback, as well as others. Recently, however, the trend is for a return to the original, wood-only variant and a search is underway for new technical means of improving the properties of such structures. Many timber structure technologies are known, but structures made from cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels have been used very often in recent years. CLT panels, also known as X-LAM, are currently gaining popularity in Europe. In the case of CLT panels composed of several layers of boards, they can be said to offer a certain advantage in that after the surface layer of a board has burnt and the subsurface layer has dried, oxygen is not drawn to the unburned wood for further combustion and thus the burning process ceases. CLT panels do not need to be specially modified or coated with fire resistant materials, although they are usually lined with gypsum-fibre fire resistant boards due to guidelines set out in the relevant standards. This paper presents a new method for the assessment of load-bearing perimeter walls fabricated from CLT panels without the use of an inner fire-retardant lining to ensure fire resistance at the level required by European standards (i.e. those harmonized for the Czech construction industry). The calculations were verified through laboratory tests which show that better parameters can be achieved during the classification of structures from the fire resistance point of view. The aim of the article is to utilize the results of assessment and testing by an accredited laboratory in order to demonstrate the possibilities of using CLT panels for the construction of multistorey as well as multi-purpose buildings in the Czech Republic.

  10. Determination of formation heterogeneity at a range of scales using novel multi-electrode resistivity scanning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.M.; Jackson, P.D.; Ward, R.S.; Sen, M.A.; Meldrum, P.; Lovell, M.

    1991-01-01

    The traditional method of measuring ground resistivity involves passing a current through two outer electrodes, measuring the potential developed across two electrodes in between, and applying Ohm's Law. In the RESCAN system developed by the British Geological Survey, each electrode can be electronically selected and controlled by software to either pass current or measure potential. Thousands of electrodes can be attached to the system either in 2-D surface arrays or along special plastic covered probes driven vertically into the ground or emplaced in boreholes. Under computer control, the resistivity distribution within the emplaced array can be determined automatically with unprecedented detail and speed, and may be displayed as an image. So far, the RESCAN system has been applied at the meso-scale in monitoring the radial migration of an electrolyte introduced into a recharge well in an unconsolidated aquifer; and CORSCAN at the micro-scale on drill cores to evaluate spatial variability in physical properties. The RESCAN technique has considerable potential for determining formation heterogeneity at different scales and provides a basis for developing stochastic models of groundwater and solute flow in heterogeneous systems. 13 figs.; 1 tab.; 12 refs

  11. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker J. Bautista

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This aims of this study were twofold; 1 to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2 to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM] were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81 was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96. This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power.

  12. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Iker J.; Chirosa, Ignacio J.; Chirosa, Luis J.; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light ...

  13. Waste treatment using molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Stewart, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    MSO technology can be characterized as a submerged oxidation process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The molten salt (usually sodium carbonate at 900-1000 C) provides four waste management functions: providing a heat transfer medium, catalyzing the oxidation reaction, preventing the formation of acid gases by forming stable salts, and efficiently capturing ash particles and radioactive materials by the combined effects of wetting, encapsulation and dissolution. The MSO process requires no wet scrubbing system for off-gas treatment. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous wastes). (author). 24 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  14. Scaling laws of resistive magnetohydrodynamic reconnection in the high-Lundquist-number, plasmoid-unstable regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yimin; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sweet-Parker layer in a system that exceeds a critical value of the Lundquist number (S) is unstable to the plasmoid instability. In this paper, a numerical scaling study has been done with an island coalescing system driven by a low level of random noise. In the early stage, a primary Sweet-Parker layer forms between the two coalescing islands. The primary Sweet-Parker layer breaks into multiple plasmoids and even thinner current sheets through multiple levels of cascading if the Lundquist number is greater than a critical value S c ≅4x10 4 . As a result of the plasmoid instability, the system realizes a fast nonlinear reconnection rate that is nearly independent of S, and is only weakly dependent on the level of noise. The number of plasmoids in the linear regime is found to scales as S 3/8 , as predicted by an earlier asymptotic analysis [N. F. Loureiro et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 100703 (2007)]. In the nonlinear regime, the number of plasmoids follows a steeper scaling, and is proportional to S. The thickness and length of current sheets are found to scale as S -1 , and the local current densities of current sheets scale as S -1 . Heuristic arguments are given in support of theses scaling relations.

  15. Laser Tailoring the Surface Chemistry and Morphology for Wear, Scale and Corrosion Resistant Superhydrophobic Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Kirill A; Domantovsky, Alexander G; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M

    2018-06-04

    A strategy, combining laser chemical modification with laser texturing, followed by chemisorption of the fluorinated hydrophobic agent was used to fabricate the series of superhydrophobic coatings on an aluminum alloy with varied chemical compositions and parameters of texture. It was shown that high content of aluminum oxynitride and aluminum oxide formed in the surface layer upon laser treatment allows solving the problem of enhancement of superhydrophobic coating resistance to abrasive loads. Besides, the multimodal structure of highly porous surface layer leads to self-healing ability of fabricated coatings. Long-term behavior of designed coatings in "hard" hot water with an essential content of calcium carbonate demonstrated high antiscaling resistance with self-cleaning potential against solid deposits onto the superhydrophobic surfaces. Study of corrosion protection properties and the behavior of coatings at long-term contact with 0.5 M NaCl solution indicated extremely high chemical stability and remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  16. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate grey scale electron beam lithography on functionalized SU-8 resist for fabrication of single mode solid state dye laser devices. The resist is doped with Rhodamine 6G perchlorate and the lasers are based on a first order Bragg grating distributed feedback resonator. The lasers...

  17. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the drift scale test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Eight boreholes, containing a total of 140 ERT electrodes, were drilled above and below the Heated Drift (HD) to form vertical planes parallel to the drift. In addition, 4 boreholes, containing 60 electrodes, drilled from the Access Observation Drift (AOD) form vertical planes at right angles to the HD. Four ERT surveys, three before and one after heating began, were conducted during the first quarter of FY 98. Tomographic images of absolute electrical resistivity have been calculated using these data and are presented in this report. The report also presents the coordinates of the electrodes used for the ERT surveys. Future reports will include images of electrical resistivity change calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes to be recovered will then be used in combination with temperature maps of the region to calculate maps of saturation change around the HD

  18. GhZFP1, a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein from cotton, enhances salt stress tolerance and fungal disease resistance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Hui; Yu, Yue-Ping; Wang, Dong; Wu, Chang-Ai; Yang, Guo-Dong; Huang, Jin-Guang; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2009-01-01

    * Zinc finger proteins are a superfamily involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, CCCH-type zinc finger proteins involved in plant stress tolerance are poorly understood. * A cDNA clone designated Gossypium hirsutum zinc finger protein 1 (GhZFP1), which encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, was isolated from a salt-induced cotton (G. hirsutum) cDNA library using differential hybridization screening and further studied in transgenic tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC89. Using yeast two-hybrid screening (Y2H), proteins GZIRD21A (GhZFP1 interacting and responsive to dehydration protein 21A) and GZIPR5 (GhZFP1 interacting and pathogenesis-related protein 5), which interacted with GhZFP1, were isolated. * GhZFP1 contains two typical zinc finger motifs (Cx8Cx5Cx3H and Cx5Cx4Cx3H), a putative nuclear export sequence (NES) and a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transient expression analysis using a GhZFP1::GFP fusion gene in onion epidermal cells indicated a nuclear localization for GhZFP1. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhZFP1 transcript was induced by salt (NaCl), drought and salicylic acid (SA). The regions in GhZFP1 that interact with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5 were identified using truncation mutations. * Overexpression of GhZFP1 in transgenic tobacco enhanced tolerance to salt stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore, it appears that GhZFP1 might be involved as an important regulator in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  19. Full scale model studies of nuclear power stations for earthquake resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.P.; Ambriashvili, Ju. K.; Kozlov, A.V.

    Behaviour of nuclear power plants and its equipments under seismic action is not well understood. In the absence of well established method for aseismic deisgn of nuclear power plants and its equipments, it is necessary to carry out experimental investigations on models, fragments and full scale structures. The present study includes experimental investigations of different scale models and on existing nuclear power stations under impulse and explosion effects simulating seismic loads. The experimental work was aimed to develop on model test procedure for nuclear power station and the evaluation of the possible range of dynamic stresses in structures and pipe lines. The results of full-scale investigations of the nuclear reactor show a good agreement of dynamic characteristics of the model and the prototype. The study confirms the feasibility of simulation of model for nuclear power plants. (auth.)

  20. Resistivity scaling due to electron surface scattering in thin metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianji; Gall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The effect of electron surface scattering on the thickness-dependent electrical resistivity ρ of thin metal layers is investigated using nonequilibrium Green's function density functional transport simulations. Cu(001) thin films with thickness d =1 -2 nm are used as a model system, employing a random one-monolayer-high surface roughness and frozen phonons to cause surface and bulk scattering, respectively. The zero-temperature resistivity increases from 9.7 ±1.0 μ Ω cm at d =1.99 nm to 18.7 ±2.6 μ Ω cm at d =0.9 0 nm, contradicting the asymptotic T =0 prediction from the classical Fuchs-Sondheimer model. At T =9 00 K, ρ =5.8 ±0.1 μ Ω cm for bulk Cu and ρ =13.4 ±1.1 and 22.5 ±2.4 μ Ω cm for layers with d =1.99 and 0.90 nm, respectively, indicating an approximately additive phonon contribution which, however, is smaller than for bulk Cu or atomically smooth layers. The overall data indicate that the resistivity contribution from surface scattering is temperature-independent and proportional to 1 /d , suggesting that it can be described using a surface-scattering mean-free path λs for 2D transport which is channel-independent and proportional to d . Data fitting indicates λs=4 ×d for the particular simulated Cu(001) surfaces with a one-monolayer-high surface roughness. The 1 /d dependence deviates considerably from previous 1 /d2 predictions from quantum models, indicating that the small-roughness approximation in these models is not applicable to very thin (<2 nm) layers, where the surface roughness is a considerable fraction of d .

  1. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  2. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Matsushika

    Full Text Available The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii, for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0. A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1, was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58-59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0 of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262 in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the

  3. Can Energy Cost During Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise be Predicted by the OMNI-RES Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Jefferson M.; Reis, Victor M.; Saavedra, Francisco; Damasceno, Vinicius; Silva, Sérgio G.; Goss, Fredric

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of the OMNI-RES scale to predict energy cost (EC) at low intensity in four resistance exercises (RE). 17 male recreational body builders (age = 26.6 ± 4.9 years; height = 177.7 ± 0.1 cm; body weight = 79.0 ± 11.1 kg and percent body fat = 10.5 ± 4.6%) served as subjects. Initially tests to determine 1RM for four resistance exercises (bench press, half squat, lat pull down and triceps extension) were administered. Subjects also performed resistance exercise at 12, 16, 20, and 24% of 1RM at a rate of 40 bpm until volitional exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) using the OMNI-RES were obtained during and after all RE. EC was calculated using VO2 and the caloric values of VO2 for non-protein RER. Regression analyses were performed for every RE, using EC as the dependent and RPE as the predictor variable. The triceps extension, lat pull down and bench press, RPE correlated strongly with EC (R > 0.97) and predicted EC with a error of less than 0.2 kcal.min−1. In conclusion, RPE using the OMNI-RES scale can be considered as an accurate indicator of EC in the bench press, lat pull down and triceps extension performed by recreational bodybuilders, provided lower intensities are used (up to 24% of 1-RM) and provided each set of exercise is performed for the maximal sustainable duration. It would be interesting in future studies to consider having the subjects exercise at low intensities for longer durations than those in the present study. PMID:23486188

  4. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  5. Re-irradiation associated to cetuximab and paclitaxel in the recurrences in irradiated field of upper aero-digestive ducts tumors resistant to platina salts; Re-irradiation associee au cetuximab et au paclitaxel dans les recidives en territoire irradie des tumeurs des voies aero-digestives superieures resistantes aux sels de platine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.M. [Centre Guillaume-Le-Conquerant, 76 - Le Havre (France); Moran, A.R.; Pavlovitch, J.M. [Clinique du Petit-Colmoulin, 76 - Harfleur (France); El Amarti, R. [Hopital Monod, 76 - Montivilliers (France); Damour, M. [CMC Ormeaux-Vauban, 76 - Le Havre (France)

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this study is to present the preliminary results of the toxicity and efficiency evaluation of the association 're-irradiation-cetuximab-paclitaxel' in the recurrences of upper aero-digestive ducts tumors in irradiated field resistant to platinum salts. (N.C.)

  6. Synergistic effect in carbon coated LiFePO4 for high yield spontaneous grafting of diazonium salt. Structural examination at the grain agglomerate scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Lénaïc; Robert, Donatien; Moreau, Philippe; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Guyomard, Dominique; Gaubicher, Joël

    2013-08-07

    Molecular grafting of p-nitrobenzene diazonium salt at the surface of (Li)FePO4-based materials was thoroughly investigated. The grafting yields obtained by FTIR, XPS, and elemental analysis for core shell LiFePO4-C are found to be much higher than the sum of those associated with either the LiFePO4 core or the carbon shell alone, thereby revealing a synergistic effect. Electrochemical, XRD, and EELS experiments demonstrate that this effect stems from the strong participation of the LiFePO4 core that delivers large amounts of electrons to the carbon substrate at a constant energy, above the Fermi level of the diazonium salt. Correspondingly large multilayer anisotropic structures that are associated with outstanding grafting yields could be observed from TEM experiments. Results therefore constitute strong evidence of a grafting mechanism where homolytic cleavage of the N2(+) species occurs together with the formation and grafting of radical nitro-aryl intermediates. Although the oxidation and concomitant Li deintercalation of LiFePO4 grains constitute the main driving force of the functionalization reaction, EFTEM EELS mapping shows a striking lack of spatial correlation between grafted grains and oxidized ones.

  7. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kayla G; Weedall, Gareth D; Ndula, Miranda; Irving, Helen; Mzihalowa, Themba; Hemingway, Janet; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised.

  8. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla G Barnes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised.

  9. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  10. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  11. Development of high temperature molten salt transport technology for pyrometallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Takatoshi; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2009-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology is currently being focused in many countries for closing actinide fuel cycle because of its favorable economic potential and an intrinsic proliferation-resistant feature due to the inherent difficulty of extracting weapons-usable plutonium. The feasibility of pyrometallurgical reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory scale experiments. Hence the development of the engineering technology necessary for pyrometallurgical reprocessing is a key issue for industrial realization. The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt and liquid cadmium is crucial for pyrometallurgical processing; however, there have been very few transport studies on high-temperature fluids. In this study, a salt transport test rig was installed in an argon glove box with the aim of developing technologies for transporting molten salt at approximately 773 K. The gravitation transport of the molten salt at approximately 773 K could be well controlled at a velocity from 0.1 to 1.2 m/s by adjusting the valve. Consequently, the flow in the molten salt can be controlled from laminar flow to turbulent flow. It was demonstrated that; using a centrifugal pump, molten salt at approximately 773 K could be transported at a controlled rate from 2.5 to 8 dm 3 /min against a 1 m head. (author)

  12. Identification of Heat Transfer Resistance of Scale Deposit on theEvaporator of Radioactive Waste Management Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus-Salimin

    2000-01-01

    Identification of heat transfer resistance of scale deposit from fixedhardness of liquid waste in the form of CaSO 4 and MgSO 4 ratio 2:1 has beendone on the evaporation system of Serpong Nuclear Facilities fordetermination of the quality of heat transfer obstruction from heating sourceto solution. Evaporation simulation of solution containing hardness withconcentration 0.5; 1; 2; and 2.5% mass were done on the stainless steelcontainer of 1 / volume with electrical heater in which a stainless-steeltube is put down on the base container. After 24, 168, 336, 504 and 672 hoursevaporation process it is obtained the thickness of scale deposit on thesurface of tube for determining the fouling factor. Heat transfer resistanceof scale deposit from 672 hours evaporation of solution 2.5% concentrationhampered heat transfer, the value of fouling factor be superior to limitsvalue of 0.000515 hours.m 2 . o C/kcal.The fouling factor from the evaporationof solution of 0.5; 1; and 2% concentration during 672 hours be inferior tolimits value. (author)

  13. Plasmonic nanoparticle lithography: Fast resist-free laser technique for large-scale sub-50 nm hole array fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenying; Yu, Ye Feng; Valuckas, Vytautas; Yap, Sherry L. K.; Vienne, Guillaume G.; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.

    2018-05-01

    Cheap large-scale fabrication of ordered nanostructures is important for multiple applications in photonics and biomedicine including optical filters, solar cells, plasmonic biosensors, and DNA sequencing. Existing methods are either expensive or have strict limitations on the feature size and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a laser-based technique, plasmonic nanoparticle lithography, which is capable of rapid fabrication of large-scale arrays of sub-50 nm holes on various substrates. It is based on near-field enhancement and melting induced under ordered arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles, which are brought into contact or in close proximity to a desired material and acting as optical near-field lenses. The nanoparticles are arranged in ordered patterns on a flexible substrate and can be attached and removed from the patterned sample surface. At optimized laser fluence, the nanohole patterning process does not create any observable changes to the nanoparticles and they have been applied multiple times as reusable near-field masks. This resist-free nanolithography technique provides a simple and cheap solution for large-scale nanofabrication.

  14. Scale Resistant Heat Exchanger for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Energent Corporation, Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Phase 1 of the investigation of improvements to low temperature geothermal power systems was completed. The improvements considered were reduction of scaling in heat exchangers and a hermetic turbine generator (eliminating seals, seal system, gearbox, and lube oil system). A scaling test system with several experiments was designed and operated at Coso geothermal resource with brine having a high scaling potential. Several methods were investigated at the brine temperature of 235 ºF. One method, circulation of abradable balls through the brine passages, was found to substantially reduce scale deposits. The test heat exchanger was operated with brine outlet temperatures as low as 125 ºF, which enables increased heat input available to power conversion systems. For advanced low temperature cycles, such as the Variable Phase Cycle (VPC) or Kalina Cycle, the lower brine temperature will result in a 20-30% increase in power production from low temperature resources. A preliminary design of an abradable ball system (ABS) was done for the heat exchanger of the 1 megawatt VPC system at Coso resource. The ABS will be installed and demonstrated in Phase 2 of this project, increasing the power production above that possible with the present 175 ºF brine outlet limit. A hermetic turbine generator (TGH) was designed and manufacturing drawings produced. This unit will use the working fluid (R134a) to lubricate the bearings and cool the generator. The 200 kW turbine directly drives the generator, eliminating a gearbox and lube oil system. Elimination of external seals eliminates the potential of leakage of the refrigerant or hydrocarbon working fluids, resulting in environmental improvement. A similar design has been demonstrated by Energent in an ORC waste heat recovery system. The existing VPC power plant at Coso was modified to enable the “piggyback” demonstration of the TGH. The existing heat exchanger, pumps, and condenser will be operated to provide the required

  15. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  16. High-quality forage production under salinity by using a salt-tolerant AtNXH1-expressing transgenic alfalfa combined with a natural stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzler, Margarita; Elba, Pagano; Berini, Carolina; Gomez, Cristina; Ayub, Nicolás; Soto, Gabriela

    2018-06-20

    Alfalfa, usually known as the "Queen of Forages", is the main source of vegetable protein to meat and milk production systems worldwide. This legume is extremely rich in proteins due to its highly efficient symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing strains. In the last years, alfalfa culture has been displaced to saline environments by other important crops, including major cereals, a fact that has reduced its biomass production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this short communication, we report the high forage production and nutrient quality of alfalfa under saline conditions by alfalfa transformation with the AtNHX1 Na + /H + antiporter and inoculation with the stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing strain Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. Therefore, the incorporation of transgenic traits into salt-sensitive legumes in association with the inoculation with natural stress-resistant isolates could be a robust approach to improve the productivity and quality of these important nitrogen-fixing crops. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. TA [B] Predicting Microstructure-Creep Resistance Correlation in High Temperature Alloys over Multiple Time Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-03-06

    DoE-NETL partnered with Purdue University to predict the creep and associated microstructure evolution of tungsten-based refractory alloys. Researchers use grain boundary (GB) diagrams, a new concept, to establish time-dependent creep resistance and associated microstructure evolution of grain boundaries/intergranular films GB/IGF controlled creep as a function of load, environment, and temperature. The goal was to conduct a systematic study that includes the development of a theoretical framework, multiscale modeling, and experimental validation using W-based body-centered-cubic alloys, doped/alloyed with one or two of the following elements: nickel, palladium, cobalt, iron, and copper—typical refractory alloys. Prior work has already established and validated a basic theory for W-based binary and ternary alloys; the study conducted under this project extended this proven work. Based on interface diagrams phase field models were developed to predict long term microstructural evolution. In order to validate the models nanoindentation creep data was used to elucidate the role played by the interface properties in predicting long term creep strength and microstructure evolution.

  18. Energy Scaling Advantages of Resistive Memory Crossbar Based Computation and its Application to Sparse Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapan eAgarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in data over the last decade presents a significant challenge to analytics efforts that seek to process and interpret such data for various applications. Neural-inspired computing approaches are being developed in order to leverage the computational advantages of the analog, low-power data processing observed in biological systems. Analog resistive memory crossbars can perform a parallel read or a vector-matrix multiplication as well as a parallel write or a rank-1 update with high computational efficiency. For an NxN crossbar, these two kernels are at a minimum O(N more energy efficient than a digital memory-based architecture. If the read operation is noise limited, the energy to read a column can be independent of the crossbar size (O(1. These two kernels form the basis of many neuromorphic algorithms such as image, text, and speech recognition. For instance, these kernels can be applied to a neural sparse coding algorithm to give an O(N reduction in energy for the entire algorithm. Sparse coding is a rich problem with a host of applications including computer vision, object tracking, and more generally unsupervised learning.

  19. Hot corrosion behaviour of austenitic steel-303 in molten chloride and carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Misbahul Amin; Shamsul Baharin Jamaludin; Che Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali; Khairel Rafezi Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The investigations are presented for the hot corrosion behaviors of Austenitic Steel-303, under influence of the molten chloride and carbonate salts viz KCl and K 2 CO 3 , oxidised at 1123 K for the period of 60 hour at atmospheric condition. The oxidation kinetic are effect of molten chloride and carbonate salts deposition on the oxidation rate were determined. The susceptibility to suffer a deleterious attack on the alloy by internal corrosion increases with increasing the time. In general, the corrosion resistance austenitic steel-303 in molten carbonate salts is much higher than chloride melt, being an active oxidizing agent providing oxygen during fluxing reaction. However, due to profuse evolution of CO/ CO 2 heavy mass losses are observed during corrosion and scales are porous. The test included mass change monitoring and surface layers were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. (author)

  20. Changes in the Sterol Composition of the Plasma Membrane Affect Membrane Potential, Salt Tolerance and the Activity of Multidrug Resistance Pumps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodedová, Marie; Sychrová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2015), e0139306 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * ergosterol synthesis * multidrug resistance * membrane potential * diS-C3(3) assay Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  1. Enhanced salt resistance in apple plants overexpressing a Malus vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene is associated with differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wei, Zhiwei; Liang, Dong; Zhou, Shasha; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    High salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits crop production. The dwarfing apple rootstock M.26 is sensitive to such stress. To obtain an apple that is adaptable to saline soils, we transformed this rootstock with a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, MdNHX1. Differences in salt tolerance between transgenic and wild-type (WT) rootstocks were examined under field conditions. We also compared differences when 'Naganofuji No. 2' apple was grafted onto these transgenic or WT rootstocks. Plants on the transgenic rootstocks grew well during 60 d of mild stress (100 mM NaCl) while the WT exhibited chlorosis, inhibited growth and even death. Compared with the untreated control, the stomatal density was greater in both non-grafted and grafted WT plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl. In contrast, that density was significantly decreased in leaves from grafted transgenic plants. At 200 mM NaCl, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll contents were markedly reduced in the WT, whereas the declines in those values were only minor in similarly stressed transgenic plants. Therefore, we conclude that overexpressing plants utilize a better protective mechanism for retaining higher photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, this contrast in tolerance and adaptability to stress is linked to differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthetic rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Grey relational and neural network approach for multi-objective optimization in small scale resistance spot welding of titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuanxun; Zhao, Dawei [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-06-15

    The prediction and optimization of weld quality characteristics in small scale resistance spot welding of TC2 titanium alloy were investigated. Grey relational analysis, neural network and genetic algorithm were applied separately. Quality characteristics were selected as nugget diameter, failure load, failure displacement and failure energy. Welding parameters to be optimized were set as electrode force, welding current and welding time. Grey relational analysis was conducted for a rough estimation of the optimum welding parameters. Results showed that welding current played a key role in weld quality improvement. Different back propagation neural network architectures were then arranged to predict multiple quality characteristics. Interaction effects of welding parameters were analyzed with the proposed neural network. Failure load was found more sensitive to the change of welding parameters than nugget diameter. Optimum welding parameters were determined by genetic algorithm. The predicted responses showed good agreement with confirmation experiments.

  3. Multi-scale model of drug induced adaptive resistance of Gram-negative bacteria to polymyxin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Krzyzanski

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to apply multi-scale modeling using the theory of physiologically structured populations (PSP to develop a mathematical model for antimicrobial resistance based on a heterogeneous distribution of receptors and affinities among bacterial cells. The theory has been tested on data obtained from an in vitro static time-kill infection model analyzing the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B against Gram-negative bacteria. The drug binding parameter KD (dissociation equilibrium constant is assumed to vary between the bacterial cells. The PSP model describes the time course of the density distribution of KD upon exposure to cytotoxic drug concentrations. The drug increases the hazard of cell death as a function of receptor occupancy. The initial distribution of KD is described by the Weibull function. Time-kill data were used for model qualification. In vitro static time-kill experiments to evaluate the rate and extent of killing due to polymyxin B against two Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates with differing susceptibilities to polymyxin B were performed over 48 h. The time-kill kinetics data of bacterial load cfu (colony forming units/mL was used for model qualification. The resistant bacterial population is determined by the balance between growth rate and hazard of cell death controlled by polymyxin B concentrations. There exists a critical KD value below which cells continue to grow. Estimates of shape parameters for distributions of KD yielded unimodal distributions with the modes at 0 nM and the right tails containing approximately 25% of the bacteria. Our findings support a hypothesis that resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to polymyxin B can be at least partially attributed to a drug-induced selection of a subpopulation due to heterogeneity of polymyxin B receptor binding in the bacterial population.

  4. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes from the fuel cycle of an integral fast reactor (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal fuel. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500 degrees C. This cell has a cadmium anode and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a low-melting mixture of alkaline and alkaline earth chlorides. This paper discusses one method being considered for immobilizing this treated salt, to disperse it in a portland cement-base motar, which would then be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canisters where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material

  5. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  6. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charo, L.; Habib, P.

    1987-01-01

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of their formation, and the associated parameters [fr

  7. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, G.

    1987-01-01

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of thei formation, and the associated parameters [fr

  8. Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) Infestations in Northwestern Nevada Mapped Using Landsat TM Imagery and GIS Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Geraci, C.; Kolkowitz, S.

    2004-12-01

    Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface water and precipitation. The salt cedar root systems have altered hydrological patterns by tapping into underlying aquifers. This has decreased water available for recreational use, regional ecology and plant diversity. Many states have implemented salt cedar monitoring programs at the local level, but the problem of large-scale mapping of this invasive species has continued to be a challenge to land management agencies. Furthermore, inaccessible and unexplored areas continue to be absent in the mapping process. In August 2004, using field data consisting of large areas as training sets for classification of Landsat TM imagery, the DEVELOP student research team at NASA Ames Research Center generated a preliminary map of areas that that were susceptible to salt cedar growth for a region in northwestern Nevada. In addition to the remote sensing-based classification of satellite imagery, the team used the variables of elevation and estimated distance to the water table in conjunction with collected field data and knowledge of salt cedar growth habits to further refine the map. The team has further extended the mapping of key environmental factors of water availability for salt cedar, soil types and species distribution in regions infested by salt cedar. The investigation was carried out by 1) improving an existing GIS layer for water access using a suitable interpolation method, 2) including a GIS layer for soils associated with salt cedar growth and 3) completing field work to evaluate species distribution and regions of presence or absence of salt cedar. The outcome of this project served to

  9. Salt fog corrosion behavior in a powder-processed icosahedral-phase-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, T.J.; Gordillo, M.A.; Ernst, A.T.; Bedard, B.A.; Aindow, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pitting corrosion resistance has been evaluated for an Al-Cr-Mn-Co-Zr alloy. • Pit densities and depths are far lower than for other high-strength Al alloys. • Corrosion proceeds by selective oxidation of the Al matrix around the other phases. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion resistance has been evaluated for a powder-processed Al-Cr-Mn-Co-Zr alloy which contains ≈35% by volume of an icosahedral quasi-crystalline phase and a little Al 9 Co 2 in an Al matrix. ASTM standard salt fog exposure tests show that the alloy exhibits far lower corrosion pit densities and depths than commercial high-strength aerospace Al alloys under the same conditions. Electron microscopy data show that the salt fog exposure leads to the selective oxidation of the face-centered cubic Al matrix around the other phases, and to the development of a porous outer oxide scale.

  10. Non-exponential resistive switching in Ag2S memristors: a key to nanometer-scale non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubicza, Agnes; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András; Mihály, György

    2015-03-14

    The dynamics of resistive switchings in nanometer-scale metallic junctions formed between an inert metallic tip and an Ag film covered by a thin Ag2S layer are investigated. Our thorough experimental analysis and numerical simulations revealed that the resistance change upon a switching bias voltage pulse exhibits a strongly non-exponential behaviour yielding markedly different response times at different bias levels. Our results demonstrate the merits of Ag2S nanojunctions as nanometer-scale non-volatile memory cells with stable switching ratios, high endurance as well as fast response to write/erase, and an outstanding stability against read operations at technologically optimal bias and current levels.

  11. Simulation of hydrodynamic effects of salt rejection due to permafrost. Hydrogeological numerical model of density-driven mixing, at a regional scale, due to a high salinity pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Svensson, Urban; Follin, Sven

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to support the safety assessment of the investigated candidate sites concerning hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical issues related to permafrost. However, a more specific objective of the study is to improve the assessment of processes in relation to permafrost scenarios. The model is based on a mathematical model that includes Darcy velocities, mass conservation, matrix diffusion, and salinity distribution. Gravitational effects are thus fully accounted for. A regional groundwater flow model (POM v1.1, Simpevarp) was used as basis for the simulations. The main results of the model include salinity distributions in time. The general conclusion is that density-driven mixing processes are contained within more permeable deformation zones and that these processes are fast as compared with preliminary permafrost growth rates. The results of the simulation suggest that a repository volume in the rock mass in-between the deterministic deformation zones, approximately 150 m below the permafrost will not experience a high salinity situation due to the salt rejection process

  12. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  13. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  14. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  15. Effects of bile salt deconjugation by probiotic strains on the survival of antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens under simulated gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinlong; Zou, Yunyun; Cho, Youngjae; Ahn, Juhee

    2012-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of bile acid deconjugation by probiotic strains on the antibiotic susceptibility of antibiotic-sensitive and multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Eight probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium longum B6, Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH, Lactobacillus brevis KACC 10553, Lactobacillus casei KACC 12413, Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 25598, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Leuconostoc mesenteroides KACC 12312, and Pediococcus acidilactici KACC 12307, were used to examine bile acid tolerance. The ability to deconjugate bile acids was evaluated using both thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out to determine the synergistic inhibitory activity of deconjugated bile acids. L. acidophilus, L. brevis, and P. acidilactici showed the most tolerance to the conjugated bile acids. P. acidilactici deconjugated glycocholic acid and glycodeoxycholate from 3.18 and 3.09 mM to the detection limits, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility of selected foodborne pathogens was increased by increasing the concentration of deconjugated bile acids. The study results are useful for understanding the relationship between bile acid deconjugation by probiotic strains and antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of deconjugated bile acids, and they may be useful for designing new probiotic-antibiotic combination therapy based on bile acid deconjugation.

  16. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  17. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  18. Hot corrosion behavior of plasma-sprayed partially stabilized zirconia coatings in a lithium molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seong; Park, Byung Heong; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Han Soo

    2008-01-01

    The electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel involves the liberation of oxygen in a molten LiCl electrolyte, which results in a chemically aggressive environment that is too corrosive for typical structural materials. It is essential to choose the optimum material for the process equipment handling molten salt. IN713LC is one of the candidate materials proposed for application in electrolytic reduction process. In this study, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) top coat was applied to a surface of IN713LC with an aluminized metallic bond coat by an optimized plasma spray process, and were investigated the corrosion behavior at 675 .deg. C for 216 hours in the molten salt LiCl-Li 2 O under an oxidizing atmosphere. The as-coated and tested specimens were examined by OM, SEM/EDS and XRD, respectively. The bare superalloy reveals obvious weight loss, and the corrosion layer formed on the surface of the bare superalloy was spalled due to the rapid scale growth and thermal stress. The top coatings showed a much better hot-corrosion resistance in the presence of LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt when compared to those of the uncoated superalloy and the aluminized bond coatings. These coatings have been found to be beneficial for increasing to the hot-corrosion resistance of the structural materials for handling high temperature lithium molten salts

  19. Improving the performance of fluorine-doped tin oxide by adding salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: Aguspur@uns.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Widiyandari, Hendri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Suryana, Risa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Jumari, Arif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2015-07-01

    High-performance fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated via a spray deposition technique with salt added to the precursor. The addition of NaCl in the precursor improved the conductivity of the FTO films. Increasing the NaCl concentration to its optimal concentration reduced the sheet resistance of the FTO film. The optimal values for the addition of a NaCl were 0.5, 0.5, 1.5, and 1.5 at.% for the FTO film prepared using NH{sub 4}F concentration of 4, 10, 16, and 22 at.%, respectively. The lowest sheet resistance of the salt-added FTO film was 4.8 Ω/□. The FTO film averaged a transmittance of more than 80% in the visible range region (λ = 400–800 nm). XRD diffractograms confirmed that the crystal structure of the as-grown FTO film was that of a tetragonal SnO{sub 2} and that the addition of salt improved its crystallinity. This film has the potential for use as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). - Highlights: • A method to improve FTO performance using the addition of salt • The FTO film exhibited high performance of conductivity and light transmittance. • This technique is low-cost, fast and scales-up easily using simple devices.

  20. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  1. Scaling-up the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in India: An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaparde, Sunil; Raizada, Neeraj; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Denkinger, Claudia; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu Nainarappan; Salhotra, Virender Singh; Vassall, Anna; van 't Hoog, Anja

    2017-01-01

    India is considering the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance. We conducted an economic analysis to estimate the costs of different strategies of Xpert implementation in India. Using a decision analytical model, we compared four diagnostic

  2. SALT4: a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity code for thermomechanical analysis in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    SALT4 is a two-dimensional analytical/displacement-discontinuity code designed to evaluate temperatures, deformation, and stresses associated with underground disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt. This code was developed by the University of Minnesota. This documentation describes the mathematical equations of the physical system being modeled, the numerical techniques utilized, and the organization of the computer code, SALT4. The SALT4 code takes into account: (1) viscoelastic behavior in the pillars adjacent to excavations; (2) transversely isotropic elastic moduli such as those exhibited by bedded or stratified rock; and (2) excavation sequence. Major advantages of the SALT4 code are: (1) computational efficiency; (2) the small amount of input data required; and (3) a creep law consistent with laboratory experimental data for salt. The main disadvantage is that some of the assumptions in the formulation of SALT4, i.e., temperature-independent material properties, render it unsuitable for canister-scale analysis or analysis of lateral deformation of the pillars. The SALT4 code can be used for parameter sensitivity analyses of two-dimensional, repository-scale, thermal and thermomechanical response in bedded salt during the excavation, operational, and post-closure phases. It is especially useful in evaluating alternative patterns and sequences of excavation or waste canister placement. SALT4 can also be used to verify fully numerical codes. This is similar to the use of analytic solutions for code verification. Although SALT4 was designed for analysis of bedded salt, it is also applicable to crystalline rock if the creep calculation is suppressed. In Section 1.5 of this document the code custodianship and control is described along with the status of verification, validation and peer review of this report

  3. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle; Stauffer, Philip H.; Weaver, Douglas James; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Otto, Shawn; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Jordan, Amy B.; Chu, Shaoping; Zyvoloski, George Anthony; Johnson, Peter Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  4. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  5. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  6. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  7. 新疆喀什地区抗旱耐盐碱紫花苜蓿新品种引种试验%Experiment on Introduction of New Varieties of Salt- and Drought-resistant Alfalfa in Kashi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏林; 郭鹏; 王燎原; 买买提亚森·赛丁

    2015-01-01

    新疆喀什地区属于干旱地区,土壤盐碱化严重,约占现有耕地面积的47%,且饲草料的短缺成为制约畜牧业发展的重要因素。近年来,喀什地区进一步加大了饲草料种植力度,特别是优质饲草紫花苜蓿的种植,每年约7790 hm2。因各品种适应性不同,产量差异较大,为了选出抗旱耐盐碱的优质高产紫花苜蓿品种,专门从国外引进了根蘖型、3010、阿尔冈金、金皇后、巨人和驯鹿六个抗旱耐盐碱的苜蓿品种,进行引种试验。通过两年的种植管理和观测记录分析,结果表明根蘖型、3010、阿尔冈金、金皇后苜蓿能够适合我区平原区pH值在6.5~9.0之间,可溶性盐分在0.6%以下(中度及以下)的土壤种植推广。%Kashi is an arid region, and the soil salinization is serious, which take up about 47% of the existing arable land, moreover,, the shortage of forage has become a key factor restricting the development of animal husbandry. In recent years, Kashi further increases the cultivation of forage, especially alfalfa with high quality that is cultivated about 7 790 hm2 per year. However, the yield of various varieties differs greatly due to their different adaptation. To identify the salt-and drought-resistant Alfalfa with high quality and high yield, we introduced six varieties from abroad to test, including Medicago Varia, 3010, Algonquin, Golden Queen, Giants and Reindeer. With the cultivation, observation, record and analysis for two years, it is indicated that Medicago Varia, 3010, Algonquin and Golden Queen could adapt to the soil in plain region in Kashi (the soil pH value is 6.5~9.0, and soluble salt is lower than 0.6%) .

  8. Fate and proliferation of typical antibiotic resistance genes in five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jilu; Mao, Daqing; Mu, Quanhua; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 10 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance and the class 1 integrase gene (intI1). In total, these genes were monitored in 24 samples across each stage of five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) using qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.08 ± 0.16) × 10 3 to (3.68 ± 0.27) × 10 6 copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.6%–59.8% of influents of the five PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (9.38 ± 0.73) × 10 7 to (4.30 ± 0.81) × 10 10 copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge was 7–308 folds higher than that in the raw influents and 16–638 folds higher than that in the final effluents. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in the biological treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge, cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and membrane bio-reactor (MBR), implying that significant replication of certain subtypes of ARGs may be attributable to microbial growth. High concentrations of antibiotic residues (ranging from 0.14 to 92.2 mg/L) were detected in the influents of selected wastewater treatment systems and they still remain high residues in the effluents. Partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the antibiotic concentrations and the associated relative abundance of ARG subtypes in the effluent. Although correlation does not prove causation, this study demonstrates that in addition to bacterial growth, the high antibiotic residues within the pharmaceutical WWTPs may influence the proliferation and fate of the associated ARG subtypes. - Highlights: • The ARGs in final discharges were 7–308 times higher than

  9. Fate and proliferation of typical antibiotic resistance genes in five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jilu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Mao, Daqing, E-mail: mao@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Mu, Quanhua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Luo, Yi, E-mail: luoy@nankai.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 10 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance and the class 1 integrase gene (intI1). In total, these genes were monitored in 24 samples across each stage of five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) using qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.08 ± 0.16) × 10{sup 3} to (3.68 ± 0.27) × 10{sup 6} copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.6%–59.8% of influents of the five PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (9.38 ± 0.73) × 10{sup 7} to (4.30 ± 0.81) × 10{sup 10} copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge was 7–308 folds higher than that in the raw influents and 16–638 folds higher than that in the final effluents. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in the biological treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge, cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and membrane bio-reactor (MBR), implying that significant replication of certain subtypes of ARGs may be attributable to microbial growth. High concentrations of antibiotic residues (ranging from 0.14 to 92.2 mg/L) were detected in the influents of selected wastewater treatment systems and they still remain high residues in the effluents. Partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the antibiotic concentrations and the associated relative abundance of ARG subtypes in the effluent. Although correlation does not prove causation, this study demonstrates that in addition to bacterial growth, the high antibiotic residues within the pharmaceutical WWTPs may influence the proliferation and fate of the associated ARG subtypes. - Highlights: • The ARGs in final discharges were 7

  10. Estimation of Concrete Corrosion Due to Attack of Chloride Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Babitski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides results of experimental concrete research under conditions of concentrated chloride salt solutions. General principles of forecasting concrete corrosion resistance under salt physical corrosion are given in the paper. Analytical dependences for quantitative estimation of corroded concrete have been obtained.

  11. Effect of Salt Forms of Chitosan on In Vitro Permeability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of chitosan (CS) salt forms and pH condition on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayer for enhanced permeability. Methods: Solutions (2 %w/v) of four different salt forms of CS-aspartate (CS-A), CS-ethylene diamine tetraacetate (CS-EDTA), ...

  12. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  13. Salt-Marsh Landscapes and the Signatures of Biogeomorphic Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Marani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are coastal ecosystems which play a large role in the bio-geomorphological evolution of intertidal areas. The dense stands of halophytic plants which populate salt-marsh systems largely contribute to govern their dynamics, influencing marsh hydrodynamics and sediment transport through enhanced flow resistance and settling, and direct particle capture by plant stems. In addition, plants are known to increase vertical accretion through direct organic accretion. Looking across the salt-marsh landscape can one see the signatures of feedbacks between landscape and biota? Field evidence and the results of biomorphodynamic models indeed show that the interplay between physical and biological processes generates some striking biological and morphological patterns at different scales. One such pattern, vegetation zonation, consists in a mosaic of vegetation patches, of approximately uniform composition, displaying sharp transitions in the presence of extremely small topographic gradients. Here we extend the model proposed by Marani et al. (2013) to a two-dimensional framework, furthermore including the effect of direct capture of sediment particles by plant stems. This allows us to account for the effect of the drainage density of tidal networks on the observed biogeomorphic patterns and to model the coupled evolution of marsh platforms and channel networks cutting through them. A number of different scenarios have been modelled to analyze the changes induced in bio-geomorphic patterns by plants with different characteristics, within marshes characterized by different drainage densities, or subjected to changing environmental forcing such as rates of relative sea level rise and sediment supply. Model results emphasize that zonation patterns are a signature of bio-geomorphic feedbacks with vegetation acting as a landscape constructor which feeds back on, directly alters, and contributes to shape tidal environments. In addition, model results show that

  14. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome

  15. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  16. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  17. Electrical resistivity tomography to quantify in situ liquid content in a full-scale dry anaerobic digestion reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Lamy, E; Lutz, P; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2016-02-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method is a non-intrusive method widely used in landfills to detect and locate liquid content. An experimental set-up was performed on a dry batch anaerobic digestion reactor to investigate liquid repartition in process and to map spatial distribution of inoculum. Two array electrodes were used: pole-dipole and gradient arrays. A technical adaptation of ERT method was necessary. Measured resistivity data were inverted and modeled by RES2DINV software to get resistivity sections. Continuous calibration along resistivity section was necessary to understand data involving sampling and physicochemical analysis. Samples were analyzed performing both biochemical methane potential and fiber quantification. Correlations were established between the protocol of reactor preparation, resistivity values, liquid content, methane potential and fiber content representing liquid repartition, high methane potential zones and degradations zones. ERT method showed a strong relevance to monitor and to optimize the dry batch anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in urban sewage: Role of full-scale wastewater treatment plants on environmental spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla, A; Cattaneo, M; Marazzi, F; Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M

    2018-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in wastewater was investigated and the role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in promoting or limiting antibiotic resistance was assessed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline was monitored in three WWTPs located in Milan urban area (Italy), differing among them for the operating parameters of biological process, for the disinfection processes (based on sodium hypochlorite, UV radiation, peracetic acid) and for the discharge limits to be met. Wastewater was collected from three sampling points along the treatment sequence (WWTP influent, effluent from sand filtration, WWTP effluent). Antibiotic resistance to ampicillin was observed both for E. coli and for THB. Ampicillin resistant bacteria in the WWTP influents were 20-47% of E. coli and 16-25% of THB counts. A limited resistance to chloramphenicol was observed only for E. coli, while neither for E. coli nor for THB tetracycline resistance was observed. The biological treatment and sand filtration led to a decrease in the maximum percentage of ampicillin-resistant bacteria (20-29% for E. coli, 11-21% for THB). However, the conventionally adopted parameters did not seem adequate to support an interpretation of WWTP role in ARB spread. Peracetic acid was effective in selectively acting on antibiotic resistant THB, unlike UV radiation and sodium hypochlorite. The low counts of E. coli in WWTP final effluents in case of agricultural reuse did not allow to compare the effect of the different disinfection processes on antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics analysis of salt vacuum distillation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Hyo Jik

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for pyroprocessing was designed by adding an oxide reduction process to the previous one. It is regarded as a promising process to treat and recycle oxide spent fuels owing to its enhanced nuclear proliferation resistance and the simplified process equipment and the low process costing. Spent oxide fuel is reduced into a metal by an electrochemical method while using a high-temperature molten salt as the reaction medium. After being subjected to electrorefining and electrowinning processes, the reduced metal fuel can be used in sodium-cooled fast reactors. The salt vacuum distillation process termed cathode processing follows the oxide reduction stage and has been developed to remove the residual salt, allowing for clear fuel metal to be supplied to the next step, which is electrorefining. KAERI has manufactured this apparatus in several sizes and has been able to achieve a fuel recovery rate of 95%. However it is very difficult to scale up the equipment. Because all transport phenomena, including heat transfer and fluid flow, depend on the size and structure of the apparatus used. The ideal method for overcoming this issue is nondimensionalization, which allows one to determine the characteristic properties of a system. A comparison of the dimensionless variables corresponding to the M-type and P-type apparatuses performed on the basis of phase-transition phenomena as well as the results of the above-mentioned analysis elucidated the differences between the two apparatuses. It also means that the structure of the nozzle throat can be the one of the several causes for the recovery performance. First, the standard model (i.e., the M-type apparatus) was analyzed using dimensionless parameters. The characteristics of this apparatus were the following: 1) the diameter of the outlet of the nozzle throat was twice that of the inlet, 2) the ratio of the length to the diameter (L/D) was 8, and 3) the modified heat-transfer factor was 220-270. It indicates

  20. Characteristics analysis of salt vacuum distillation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A new technique for pyroprocessing was designed by adding an oxide reduction process to the previous one. It is regarded as a promising process to treat and recycle oxide spent fuels owing to its enhanced nuclear proliferation resistance and the simplified process equipment and the low process costing. Spent oxide fuel is reduced into a metal by an electrochemical method while using a high-temperature molten salt as the reaction medium. After being subjected to electrorefining and electrowinning processes, the reduced metal fuel can be used in sodium-cooled fast reactors. The salt vacuum distillation process termed cathode processing follows the oxide reduction stage and has been developed to remove the residual salt, allowing for clear fuel metal to be supplied to the next step, which is electrorefining. KAERI has manufactured this apparatus in several sizes and has been able to achieve a fuel recovery rate of 95%. However it is very difficult to scale up the equipment. Because all transport phenomena, including heat transfer and fluid flow, depend on the size and structure of the apparatus used. The ideal method for overcoming this issue is nondimensionalization, which allows one to determine the characteristic properties of a system. A comparison of the dimensionless variables corresponding to the M-type and P-type apparatuses performed on the basis of phase-transition phenomena as well as the results of the above-mentioned analysis elucidated the differences between the two apparatuses. It also means that the structure of the nozzle throat can be the one of the several causes for the recovery performance. First, the standard model (i.e., the M-type apparatus) was analyzed using dimensionless parameters. The characteristics of this apparatus were the following: 1) the diameter of the outlet of the nozzle throat was twice that of the inlet, 2) the ratio of the length to the diameter (L/D) was 8, and 3) the modified heat-transfer factor was 220-270. It indicates

  1. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  2. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  3. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G.

    1990-05-01

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. To characterise the corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, further in-depth laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies have been performed in the present study. Besides the above-mentioned materials, also some in-situ investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. (orig.) [de

  4. The Diagnostic Apathia Scale predicts a dose-remission relationship of T-PEMF in treatment-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lunde, Marianne; Lauritzen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    . The remaining 31 patients received active T-PEMF twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks in both groups. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were used to measure remission. We also focused on the Diagnostic Apathia Scale, which is based on a mixture...

  5. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    -current resistivity distribution of the subsoil and the phase of the complex conductivity using a constant-phase angle model. The joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and induced-polarization models leads to a better understanding of complex three-dimensional subsoil geometries. The results have been......An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has......, there are northwest-trending Permian dolerite dykes that are less deformed. Four 2D direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization profiles of about 1-km length have been carefully pre-processed to retrieve time-domain induced polarization responses and inverted to obtain the direct...

  6. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  7. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  8. Efeitos da suplementação de potássio via sal de cozinha sobre a pressão arterial e a resistência à insulina em pacientes obesos hipertensos em uso de diuréticos Effects of potassium supplementation by salt on arterial blood pressure and insulin resistance in hypertensive obese patients on diuretic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Gouveia Pereira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de potássio, por intermédio do sal de cozinha contendo cloreto de potássio, associada à dieta hipocalórica e à atividade física aeróbica, sobre a pressão arterial e índices de resistência à insulina em pacientes hipertensos com obesidade abdominal. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo duplo-cego, randomizado, em 22 pacientes hipertensos com excesso de peso (índice de massa corporal >27kg/m² e controle insatisfatório da pressão arterial durante o uso de diuréticos pressão arterial sistólica >140 e 90 e OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of oral potassium supplementation, associated with a hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercises, on plasma potassium levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance, in centrally obese, not well controlled hypertensive patients on diuretic therapy; waist to hip ratio >0.85 in women, and >0.95 in men; systolic blood pressure >140mmHg and 90mmHg and <105mmHg. METHODS: This was a prospective double-blind randomized study including 22 patients divided in 2 groups: sodium chloride n=10, and potassium chloride n=12. For 12 weeks, each group received cooking salt containing, either 100% sodium chloride, or 50% sodium chloride and 50% potassium chloride. All patients were submitted to a hypocaloric diet and advised to increase their physical activity; a 40-minute walk three times a week. Before and after the study period, all patients were submitted to determinations of body mass index, body composition, waist circumference, sodium and potassium urinary excretions, sodium and potassium serum levels, 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, oral glucose tolerance test with serum insulin measurements at fasting and 120 minutes after glucose load, and serum lipid profile. RESULTS: In both groups, no changes were observed in serum sodium and potassium levels, in blood glucose and insulin levels, insulin resistance indexes and serum

  9. Removal of selected PPCPs, EDCs, and antibiotic resistance genes in landfill leachate by a full-scale constructed wetlands system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Tran, Ngoc Han; Yin, Tingru; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-09-15

    Landfill leachate could be a significant source of emerging contaminants (ECs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. This study provides the first information on the occurrence of selected ECs and ARGs in raw leachate from 16-year old closed landfill site in Singapore. Among the investigated ECs, acetaminophen (ACT), bisphenol A (BPA), clofibric acid (CA), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diclofenac (DCF), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil (GFZ), lincomycin (LIN), salicylic acid (SA), and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were the most frequently detected compounds in raw landfill leachate. The concentrations of detected ECs in raw landfill leachate varied significantly, from below quantification limit to 473,977 ng/L, depending on the compound. In this study, Class I integron (intl1) gene and ten ARGs were detected in raw landfill leachate. Sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2, and dfrA), aminoglycoside resistance (aac6), tetracycline resistance (tetO), quinolone resistance (qnrA), and intl1 were ubiquitously present in raw landfill leachate. Other resistance genes, such as beta-lactam resistance (blaNMD1, blaKPC, and blaCTX) and macrolide-lincosamide resistance (ermB) were also detected, detection frequency of 90%) in the investigated hybrid CW system. This hybrid CW system was also found to be effective in the reduction of several ARGs (intl1, sul1, sul2, and qnrA). Aeration lagoons and reed beds appeared to be the most important treatment units of the hybrid CW for removing the majority of ECs from the leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  11. Salt crystallization tests: Focus on their objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charola, A. Elena; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Chwast, Jacek

    Many factors influence the durability of a building material, such as its mechanical resistance, exposure conditions and the presence of soluble salts in it. Since the latter interact with each other, it is difficult to relate any of them to the specific damage observed. Lubelli et al. [1] have r...... compatibility of restoration mortars, and another where the efflorescence of gypsum for brick masonry is evaluated. These methods have proven their reliability and lead to the conclusion that salt tests should be designed for specific objectives....

  12. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  13. Salt Sensitivity: Challenging and Controversial Phenotype of Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrino, Rossella; Manunta, Paolo; Zagato, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Increases in life expectancy and cardiovascular adverse events in patients with hypertension highlight the need for new risk-reduction strategies to reduce the burden of degenerative diseases. Among the environmental factors, high salt consumption is currently considered the most important risk factor of hypertension. However, while high salt intake significantly raises blood pressure in some individuals, others do not show variation or even decrease their blood pressure. This heterogeneity is respectively classified as salt sensitivity and salt resistance. In this review, we propose salt sensitivity as a useful phenotype to unravel the mechanistic complexity of primary hypertension. The individual variability in blood pressure modification in response to salt intake changes derives from the combination of genetic and environmental determinants. This combination of random and non random determinants leads to the development of a personal index of sensitivity to salt. However, those genes involved in susceptibility to salt are still not completely identified, and the triggering mechanisms underlying the following development of hypertension still remain uncovered. One reason might be represented by the absence of a specific protocol, universally followed, for a standard definition of salt sensitivity. Another reason may be linked to the absence of common criteria for patient recruitment during clinical studies. Thus, the generation of a reliable approach for a proper recognition of this personal index of sensitivity to salt, and through it the identification of novel therapeutic targets for primary hypertension, should be one of the aspirations for the scientific community.

  14. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  15. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  16. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  17. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  18. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  19. LA PLANTA ÚNICA COMO TIPO RESISTENTE A LA ESCALA / the single plan as a type resistant to scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colmenares Vilata

    2014-05-01

    centre and the container with the periphery is still valid, because the necessary density of the first and the extensive occupation of the second mean that it is impossible to invert the terms. However, both represent the strictly pragmatic development of the principles of the “free plan” as a generic operating system, giving rise to large constructions that test the resistance to the scale of the type itself. Taking the characteristic neutrality of the “single plan” as a reference, the text analyses the behaviour with regard to the change of size of its two complementary configurations: the large hypostile hall and the clear-span pavillion.

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in Shell Eggs from Small-Scale Poultry Farms and Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Nahashon, S N; Godwin, S; Liu, S; Long, D

    2016-12-01

    Public health concerns over the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria have increased recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs purchased from small poultry farms and farmers' markets. A total of 504 eggs were pooled to make 252 composite samples, consisting of 2 eggs per composite. The microbial quality of shell eggs was determined by standard quantitative, biochemical, and PCR techniques. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, and results were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute values. Shell eggs and egg contents were positive for Escherichia coli (11.9 and 5.2%, respectively), Enterobacter (9.1 and 7.9%), and Serratia (11.5 and 4.8%). Salmonella was isolated from 3.6% of egg shells but not from egg contents. Mean (±SD) Enterobacteriaceae levels (4.4 ± 2.0 log CFU per eggshell) on shell eggs from poultry farms was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that on shell eggs from farmers' markets (2.1 ± 1.3 log CFU per eggshell). Of the 134 isolates recovered, resistance among isolates from farm and market shell eggs to erythromycin was most common (48.5 and 32.8%, respectively) followed by ampicillin (44.8 and 17.2%), and tetracycline (29.9 and 17.2%). The multiple antibiotic resistance index value for E. coli and Pantoea was 0.62, and that for Salmonella and Klebsiella terrigena was 0.08, indicating that Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs can be resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. These data reveal that shell eggs from small poultry farms and farmers' markets can harbor antimicrobial resistant pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Thus, failure to properly handle shell eggs poses a potential health hazard to consumers.

  1. Psychometric analysis of the Melancholia Scale in trials with non-pharmacological augmentation of patients with therapy-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lauritzen, Lise; Lunde, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    . Patients resistant to anti-depressant medication (therapy-resistant depression) have participated in our trials with non-pharmacological augmentation. On the basis of these trials, we have evaluated to what extent the neuropsychiatric subscale of the MES (concentration difficulties, fatigability, emotional...... of transferability, we have tested item ranks across the rating weeks. RESULTS: In the Mokken analysis, the coefficient of homogeneity was above 0.40 for both the HAM-D subscale and the apathia subscale at week 4. The numerical transferability across the weeks was statistically significant (p

  2. Molten salt reactors. The AMSTER concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lecarpentier, D.; Mouney, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the concept of actinide molten salt transmuter (AMSTER). This reactor is graphite-moderated and is dedicated to the burning of actinides. The main difference with a molten salt reactor is that its liquid fuel undergoes an on-line partial reprocessing in which fission products are extracted and heavy nuclei are reintroduced into the fuel. In order to maintain the reactivity regular injections of 235 U-salt are made. In classical reactors, fuel burn-up is limited by the swelling of the cladding and the radiation fuel pellets resistance, in AMSTER there is no limitation to the irradiation time of the fuel, so all the actinides can be burnt or transmuted. (A.C.)

  3. Abundance and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in a full-scale anaerobic-aerobic system alternately treating ribostamycin, spiramycin and paromomycin production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Dou, Xiaomin; Wang, Chunyan; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has been intensively investigated for wastewater treatment systems treating single class of antibiotic in recent years. However, the impacts of alternately occurring antibiotics in antibiotic production wastewater on the behavior of ARGs in biological treatment systems were not well understood yet. Herein, techniques including high-capacity quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to investigate the behavior of ARGs in an anaerobic-aerobic full-scale system. The system alternately treated three kinds of antibiotic production wastewater including ribostamycin, spiramycin and paromomycin, which referred to stages 1, 2 and 3. The aminoglycoside ARGs (52.1-79.3%) determined using high-capacity quantitative PCR were the most abundant species in all sludge samples of the three stages. The total relative abundances of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes and aminoglycoside resistance genes measured using qPCR were significantly higher (P  0.05) in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge samples. In aerobic sludge, one acetyltransferase gene (aacA4) and the other three nucleotidyltransferase genes (aadB, aadA and aadE) exhibited positive correlations with intI1 (r 2  = 0.83-0.94; P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation. These results and facts will be helpful to understand the abundance and distribution of ARGs from antibiotic production wastewater treatment systems.

  4. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  5. A process for the production of a scale-proof and corrosion-resistant coating on graphite and carbon bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for the production of a corrosion resistant coating on graphite and carbon bodies is described. The carbon or graphite body is coated or impregnated with titanium silicide under the addition of a metal containing wetting agent in a nitrogen free atmosphere, so that a tight coating is formed.

  6. Scaling up from greenhouse resistance to fitness in the field for a host of an emerging forest disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Hayden; Matteo Garbelotto; Richard Dodd; Jessica W. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Forest systems are increasingly threatened by emergent, exotic diseases, yet management strategies for forest trees may be hindered by long generation times and scant background knowledge. We tested whether nursery disease resistance and growth traits have predictive value for the conservation of Notholithocarpus densiflorus, the host most...

  7. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush, E-mail: Piyush.Sabharwall@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Hastelloy N and 242, shows corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures. • Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. • Thermal gradients and galvanic couples in the molten salts enhance corrosion rates. • Corrosion rates found were typically <10 mils per year. - Abstract: This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non-nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, that show good corrosion resistance in molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700 °C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in 58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF{sub 4} at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. Corrosion rates were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <100 μm per year after 1000 h of corrosion tests. No catastrophic corrosion was observed in the diffusion welded regions. For materials of construction, nickel-based alloys and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of the type of salt impurity and alloy composition, with respect to chromium and carbon, to better define the best conditions for corrosion resistance. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high-temperature components per American Society of Mechanical

  8. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  9. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  10. Corrosion characterization of in-situ titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloy by two methods: Salts spray fog and linear polarization resistance (LPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Talari, M. K.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.; Hanim, M. A. Azmah

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloys is the one of most Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have important high-strength Al alloys. The aluminium (Al) casting alloys, based on the Al-Cu system are widely used in light-weight constructions and transport applications requiring a combination of high strength and ductility. In this research, Al-Cu master alloy was reinforced with 3 and 6wt.% titanium diboride (TiB2) that obtained from salts route reactions. The salts used were were potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) and potassium tetrafluoroborate (KBF4). The salts route reaction process were done at 800 °C. The Al-Cu alloy then has characterized on the mechanical properties and microstructure characterization. Salts spray fog test and Gamry-electrode potentiometer instruments were used to determine the corrosion rate of this alloys. From results obtained, the increasement of 3wt.%TiB2 contents will decrease the value of the corrosion rate. In corrosion test that conducted both of salt spray fog and Gamry-electrode potentiometer, the addition of 3wt.%TiB2 gave the good properties in corrosion characterization compare to Al-Cu-6wt.%TiB2 and Al-Cu cast alloy itself. As a comparison, Al-Cu with 3wt.%TiB2 gave the lowest value of corrosion rate, which means alloy has good properties in corrosion characterization. The results obtained show that in-situ Al-Cu alloy composites containing the different weight of TiB2 phase were synthesized successfully by the salt-metal reaction method.

  11. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III profile in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease: performance in subtests sensitive to and resistant to normal decline with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Saito, Masahiko; Kato, Mayumi; Azami, Hiroki; Shido, Emi

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the significance of age-related subtest scores from the Japanese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects of this study included 58 elderly Japanese persons classified into two groups: AD group (n = 29) and control group (n = 29). These groups did not differ in age, years of education, gender ratio, Hasegawa's Dementia Scale-Revised score, or Full-Scale IQ score. No subject scored below the cut-off point on Hasegawa's Dementia Scale-Revised, a frequently used dementia screen test in Japan. At the index score level, General Ability Index scores were the only scores that differed significantly between the groups, with the AD group scoring significantly lower than the control group (P Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III profile of very early AD may be characterized by weak performance on subtests normally resistant to decline with ageing. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  12. Signatures of Biogeomorphic Feedbacks in Salt-Marsh Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpaos, Andrea; Marani, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Salt-marsh ecosystems which play a large role in the bio-geomorphological evolution of intertidal areas. Dense stands of halophytic vegetations which populate salt marshes largely control the dynamics of these ecosystems influencing marsh hydrodynamics and sediment transport through enhanced flow resistance and settling, and direct particle capture by plant stems. Moreover, plants are also known to increase vertical accretion through direct organic accretion. Field evidence and the results of biomorphodynamic models indeed show that the interplay between physical and biological processes generates some striking biological and morphological patterns at different scales. One such pattern, vegetation zonation, consists in a mosaic of vegetation patches, of approximately uniform composition, displaying sharp transitions in the presence of extremely small topographic gradients. Here we develop a two-dimensional model which describes the mutual interaction and adjustment between tidal flows, sediment transport and morphology mediated by vegetation influence. The model allows us describe the coupled evolution of marsh platforms and channel networks cutting through them. A number of different scenarios were modelled to analyze the changes induced in bio-geomorphic patterns by plants with different characteristics, within marshes characterized by different drainage densities, or subjected to changing environmental forcing such as rates of relative sea level rise and sediment supply. Model results emphasize that zonation patterns are a signature of bio-geomorphic feedbacks with vegetation acting as a landscape constructor which feeds back on, directly alters, and contributes to shape tidal environments. In addition, model results show that biogeomorphic feedbacks critically affect the response and the resilience of salt-marsh landscapes to changes in the environmental forcing.

  13. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  14. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  15. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  16. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  17. Antimicrobials in small-scale urban pig farming in a lower middle-income country - arbitrary use and high resistance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, G; Boqvist, S; Albihn, A; Fernström, L-L; Andersson Djurfeldt, A; Sokerya, S; Sothyra, T; Magnusson, U

    2018-01-01

    Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production. Commensal Escherichia coli was isolated from three healthy pigs from each farm ( n  = 261) and susceptibility testing was performed against 14 antimicrobials, using broth microdilution. Univariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate potential associations between farm characteristics, management factors and resistance to different types of antimicrobials. We found a widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials, often based on the farmer's own judgment. Around 66% of the farmers reported frequently self-adjusting treatment duration and dosage, and 45% had not heard about the term 'antimicrobial resistance'. The antimicrobials most commonly mentioned or kept by the farmers were amoxicillin, tylosin, gentamicin and colistin. Around 37% used a feed concentrate that contained antimicrobials, while antimicrobials for humans were used as a last-line treatment by 10% of the farmers. Commensal E. coli exhibited high prevalence of resistance to several antimicrobials considered to be of critical importance for human medicine, including ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and colistin, and multidrug-resistance was found in 79% of the samples. Higher prevalence of resistance was observed on farms that administered prophylactic antimicrobials and on farms that treated the entire group or herd in the event of disease. The widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials in pig farming in Cambodia is highly worrisome

  18. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  19. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, Raul B.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  20. [How does salt intake influence blood pressure? Associated aetiopathogenic mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llama, P; Calero, F

    2017-12-15

    Abundant evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has established a link between salt and blood pressure. However, there is heterogeneity in the blood pressure responses of humans to changes in sodium intake. Those individuals in whom a severe, abrupt change in salt intake causes the least change in arterial pressure and are termed salt-resistant, whereas in those in whom this leads to large changes in blood pressure, are called salt sensitive. Classically, Guyton's theory of the pressure-natriuresis phenomenon has been accepted to explain the pressor effect of salt, as well as the fundamental role played by the different protein sodium transporters of the renal tubules. In recent years, new theories have emerged pointing to the possible role of the immune system and the existence of a third sodium store in the body as aetiopathogenic factors. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  2. A higher score on the Aging Males' Symptoms scale is associated with insulin resistance in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanoue, Nobuya; Tanabe, Makito; Tanaka, Tomoko; Akehi, Yuko; Murakami, Junji; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2017-05-30

    An age-associated androgen decrease and its pathological conditions are defined as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Among the various symptoms associated with LOH, a visceral fat increase is strongly associated with relatively low levels of testosterone. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scores and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we aimed to clarify this relationship by investigating the relationship between AMS scores and various markers in blood. During routine health examinations in 241 middle-aged males (52.7±7.5 years of age, mean±SD), 150 males (62.2%) displayed higher AMS values than normal. No statistical association was observed between total AMS scores and any testosterone value. All mental, physical and sexual AMS subscales were significantly positively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Only sexual subscale scores were significantly inversely associated with free or bioavailable testosterone level. Males with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR≥2.5) demonstrated significantly higher AMS scores than those with normal insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IRinsulin and HOMA-IR values. Interestingly, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HOMA-IR≥2.5 was a significant predictor for detection of moderately severe AMS values (AMS≥37), whereas AMS≥37 was not a predictor of metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criterion. In conclusion, almost 60% of healthy male subjects displayed abnormal AMS scores. AMS values were not associated with testosterone values but rather were related to insulin resistance, particularly in subjects with moderately severe AMS values. Insulin resistance-related general unwellness might be reflected by AMS values.

  3. Metallic materials corrosion problems in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, G.; Dixmier, J.; Jarny, P.

    1977-01-01

    The USA forecastings concerning the molten salt reactors are reviewed (mixtures of fluorides containing the fuel, operating between 560 and 700 0 C). Corrosion problems are important in these reactors. The effects of certain characteristic factors on corrosion are analyzed: humidity and metallic impurities in the salts, temperature gradients, speed of circulation of salts, tellurium from fission products, coupling. In the molten fluorides and experimental conditions, the materials with high Ni content are particularly corrosion resistant alloys (hastelloy N). The corrosion of this material is about 2.6 mg.cm -2 at 700 0 C [fr

  4. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  5. The American Heart Association Scientific Statement on salt sensitivity of blood pressure: Prompting consideration of alternative conceptual frameworks for the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 11 (2017), s. 2214-2225 ISSN 0263-6352 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * hypertension * salt * salt resistence * salt sensitivity * sodium * sodium sensitivity Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2016

  6. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  7. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  8. Treatment of waste salt from the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (I): characterization of Zeolite A in Molten LiCl Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2004-01-01

    The oxide fuel reduction process based on the electrochemical method (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) and the long-lived radioactive nuclides partitioning process based on electro-refining process, which are being developed ay the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are to generate two types of molten salt wastes such as LiCl salt and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, respectively. These waste salts must meet some criteria for disposal. A conditioning process for LiCl salt waste from ACP has been developed using zeolite A. This treatment process of waste salt using zeolite A was first developed by US ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste from an electro-refining process of EBR (Experimental Breeder Reactor)-II spent fuel. This process has been developed recently, and a ceramic waste form (CWF) is produced in demonstration-scale V-mixer (50 kg/batch). However, ANL process is different from KAERI treatment process in waste salt, the former is LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the latter is LiCl salt. Because of melting point, the immobilization of eutectic salt is carried out at about 770 K, whereas LiCl salt at around 920 K. Such difference has an effect on properties of immobilization media, zeolite A. Here, zeolite A in high-temperature (923 K) molten LiCl salt was characterized by XRD, Ion-exchange, etc., and evaluated if a promising media or not

  9. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  11. Kinetics study of thermal decomposition of calcium carboxylate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoll, Michael P.; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The MixAlco™ process ferments lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts that are thermally decomposed into ketones, which are then chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. To perform these decompositions, suitable reaction models are necessary to properly design, scale, and optimize commercial reactors. For three salt types (calcium acetate, and two types of mixed calcium carboxylate salts), activation energy was determined using three isoconversional methods that employed TGA curves at different heating rates. For all three salt types, activation energy varied significantly with conversion. The average activation energy for calcium acetate was 556.75 kJ mol −1 , and the activation energies for the two mixed calcium carboxylate salts were 232.87, and 176.55 kJ mol −1 . In addition, three functions of conversion were employed to see which one best modeled the experimental data. The Sestak–Berggren model provides the best universal fit for all three salt types. -- Highlights: •Calcium carboxylate salts from fermentation broth thermally decompose to ketones. •Activation energy varies with conversion for all three salt types. •Sestak–Berggren model provides best fit overall for all three salt types

  12. Kinetics study of thermal decomposition of sodium carboxylate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoll, Michael P.; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    The MixAlco™ process ferments lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts that are thermally decomposed into ketones, which are then chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. To perform these decompositions, suitable reaction models are necessary to properly design, scale, and optimize commercial reactors. For three salt types (sodium acetate, and two types of mixed sodium carboxylate salts), activation energy was determined using three isoconversional methods that employed TGA curves at different heating rates. For all three salt types, activation energy varied significantly with conversion. The average activation energy for sodium acetate was 226.65 kJ/mol, and the activation energies for the two mixed sodium carboxylate salts were 195.61, and 218.18 kJ/mol. In addition, three functions of conversion were employed to see which one best modeled the experimental data. The Sestak-Berggren model fits all three salt types best. -- Highlights: ► Sodium carboxylate salts from fermentation broth thermally decompose to ketones. ► Activation energy varies with conversion for all three salt types. ► Sestak-Berggren model provides best fit for all three salt types.

  13. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  14. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Coloma, P.; Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J.B.; Cano, F.J.; Lapeña, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chromium-free conversion coatings for corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. • Salt spray and potentiodynamic sweep tests to study the corrosion behavior. • Local deposits on Cu-rich intermetallic particles enhanced corrosion resistance. • Surface characterization to relate bath's composition and corrosion resistance. • Best corrosion protection with conversion baths without titanium salts. - Abstract: Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an

  15. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Coloma, P., E-mail: patricia.santacoloma@tecnalia.com [TECNALIA Research & Innovation, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J.B.; Cano, F.J. [TECNALIA Research & Innovation, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Lapeña, N. [Boeing Research & Technology Europe, S.L.U., Avenida Sur del Aeropuerto de Barajas 38, Building 4 – 3rd Floor, E-28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Chromium-free conversion coatings for corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. • Salt spray and potentiodynamic sweep tests to study the corrosion behavior. • Local deposits on Cu-rich intermetallic particles enhanced corrosion resistance. • Surface characterization to relate bath's composition and corrosion resistance. • Best corrosion protection with conversion baths without titanium salts. - Abstract: Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an

  16. Investigation on impact resistance of steel plate reinforced concrete barriers against aircraft impact. Pt.3: Analyses of full-scale aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Mizuno; Norihide Koshika; Eiichi Tanaka; Atsushi Suzuki; Yoshinori Mihara; Isao Nishimura

    2005-01-01

    Steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) walls and slabs are structural members in which the rebars of reinforced concrete are replaced by steel plates. Steel plate reinforced concrete structures are more attractive structural design alternatives to reinforced concrete structures, especially with thick, heavily reinforced walls and slabs such as nuclear structures, because they enable a much shorter construction period, greater earthquake resistant and more cost effectiveness. Experimental and analytical studies performed by the authors have also shown that SC structures are much more effective in mitigating damage against scaled aircraft models , as described in Parts 1 and 2 of this study. The objective of Part 3 was to determine the protective capability of SC walls and roofs against a full-scale aircraft impact by conducting numerical experiments to investigate the fracture behaviors and limit thicknesses of SC panels and to examine the effectiveness of SC panels in detail under design conditions. Furthermore, a simplified method is proposed for evaluating the localized damage induced by a full-scale engine impact. (authors)

  17. Nickel based alloys for molten salt applications in pyrochemical reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningshen, S.; Ravi Shankar, A.; Rao, Ch. Jagadeeswara; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing route is one of the best option for reprocessing of spent metallic nuclear fuel from future fast breeder in many countries, especially in the US (Integral fast reactor, IFR), Russia (Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, RIAR), Japan, Korea and India. This technology with intrinsic nuclear proliferation resistance is regarded as one of the most promising nuclear fuel cycle technologies of the next-generation. However, the selection of materials of construction for pyrochemical reprocessing plants is challenging because of the extreme environments, i.e., high radiation, corrosive molten salt (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-KCl-CsCl, KCl-NaCl-MgCl 2 , etc.), reactive molten metals, and high temperature. Efforts have been made to develop compatible materials for various unit operations like salt preparation, electrorefining, cathode processing and alloy casting in pyrochemical reprocessing. Nickel and its alloy are the candidate materials for salt purification exposed to molten LiCl-KCl under Cl 2 bubbling, in air or ultra high purity argon environment. In the present study, the corrosion behavior of candidate materials like Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel 690 exposed to molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt environment at 500 to 600 °C have been carried out. The surface morphology of the exposed samples and scales were examined by SEM/EDX and XRD. The weight loss results indicated that Inconel 600 and Inconel 690 offer better corrosion resistance compared to Inconel 625 in air and chlorine environment. Higher corrosion of Inconel 625 is attributed to development of Mo rich salt layers. However, Ni base alloys exhibited a decreasing trend of weight loss with increasing time of exposure and weight gain was observed under UHP Ar environment. The mechanism of corrosion of Ni base alloys appeared to be due to formation of Cr rich and Ni rich layers of Cr 2 O 3 , NiO and spinel oxides at the surface and subsequent spallation. Based on the present studies, Inconel 690

  18. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography in dual salt system increases protein binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senczuk, Anna M; Klinke, Ralph; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Vedantham, Ganesh; Yigzaw, Yinges

    2009-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) uses weakly hydrophobic resins and requires a salting-out salt to promote protein-resin interaction. The salting-out effects increase with protein and salt concentration. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) is dependent on the binding constant, as well as on the flow characteristics during sample loading. DBC increases with the salt concentration but decreases with increasing flow rate. Dynamic and operational binding capacity have a major raw material cost/processing time impact on commercial scale production of monoclonal antibodies. In order to maximize DBC the highest salt concentration without causing precipitation is used. We report here a novel method to maintain protein solubility while increasing the DBC by using a combination of two salting-out salts (referred to as dual salt). In a series of experiments, we explored the dynamic capacity of a HIC resin (TosoBioscience Butyl 650M) with combinations of salts. Using a model antibody, we developed a system allowing us to increase the dynamic capacity up to twofold using the dual salt system over traditional, single salt system. We also investigated the application of this novel approach to several other proteins and salt combinations, and noted a similar protein solubility and DBC increase. The observed increase in DBC in the dual salt system was maintained at different linear flow rates and did not impact selectivity.

  19. Salt-induced root protein profile changes in seedlings of maize inbred lines with differing salt tolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the severest growth limited-factors to agriculture production. To gain in-depth knowledge of salt-stress response mechanisms, the proteomics analysis from two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. There were 57 salt-regulated proteins identified, 21 and 36 proteins were differentially regulated in inbred lines 'Nongda 1145' (salt-resistant and 'D340' (salt-sensitive, respectively. The identified proteins were distributed in 11 biological processes and seven molecular functions. Under salt stress, proteins related to antioxidation and lignin synthesis were increased in both inbred lines. The relative abundance of proteins involved in translation initiation, elongation, and protein proteolysis increased in 'Nongda 1145' and decreased in 'D340'. In addition, the abundance of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein refolding, ATP synthase and transcription differed between the two inbred lines. Our results suggest that the enhanced ability of salt-tolerant inbred line 'Nongda 1145' to combat salt stress occurs via regulation of transcription factors promoting increased antioxidation and lignin biosynthesis, enhanced energy production, and acceleration of protein translation and protein proteolysis.

  20. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  1. Electrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, Thibaut; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier; Lavigne, Benoît; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique.

  2. Electrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, Thibaut; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier; Lavigne, Benoît; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600ppm) in 3months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  4. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  5. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for the disposal of high-level waste forms in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1987-05-01

    Extensive laboratory-scale experiments to evaluate the long-term corrosion behaviour of selected materials in brines and first in situ experiments were performed. In the laboratory experiments the materials Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4 and hot-rolled low carbon steel as well cast steel, spheroidal cast iron, Si-cast iron and the Ni-Resists type D2 and D4 were investigated. The investigated parameters were: temperature, gamma-radiation and different compositions of salt brines. (orig./PW) [de

  6. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  7. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  8. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  9. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  10. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  11. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  12. Resistance and resilience of small-scale recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with or without algae to pH perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2018-01-01

    The experimental set-up of this study mimicked recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) where water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and turbidity were controlled and wastes produced by fish and feeding were converted to inorganic forms. A key process in the RAS was the conversion of ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate through nitrification. It was hypothesized that algae inclusion in RAS would improve the ammonia removal from the water; thereby improving RAS water quality and stability. To test this hypothesis, the stability of the microbiota community composition in a freshwater RAS with (RAS+A) or without algae (RAS-A) was challenged by introducing an acute pH drop (from pH 7 to 4 during three hours) to the system. Stigeoclonium nanum, a periphytic freshwater microalga was used in this study. No significant effect of the algae presence was found on the resistance to the acute pH drop on ammonia conversion to nitrite and nitrite conversion to nitrate. Also the resilience of the ammonia conversion to the pH drop disruption was not affected by the addition of algae. This could be due to the low biomass of algae achieved in the RAS. However, with regard to the conversion step of nitrite to nitrate, RAS+A was significantly more resilient than RAS-A. In terms of overall bacterial communities, the composition and predictive function of the bacterial communities was significantly different between RAS+A and RAS-A. PMID:29659617

  13. Options for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  14. Quantitative studies on impact resistance of reinforced concrete panels with steel liners under impact loading. Part 1: Scaled model impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Morikawa, H.; Uchida, T.; Ohno, T.; Kogure, K.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, extensive analytical and experimental studies have been carried out to establish a rational structural design method for nuclear power plants against local damage caused by various external missiles. Through these studies, several techniques for improving die impact resistance of reinforced concrete slabs have been proposed. Of these techniques, attaching a thin steel liner onto the impacted and/or rear face of the slab is considered to be one of the most effective methods. Muto et. al. carried out full-scale impact tests using actual aircraft engines and reported that a thin corrugated steel liner attached to the rear face of a concrete panel has a significant effect in preventing scattering of scabbed concrete debris from the rear face of the target. Based on many experimental and analytical studies, UKAEA reported that a steel liner attached to a reinforced concrete slab improves its perforation and scabbing resistance, and Walter et. al. proposed a formula for predicting the equivalent thickness of a slab with a steel liner attached. The object of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the effect of a steel liner attached to a reinforced concrete slab in preventing local damage caused by rigid missiles. To achieve the object, extensive impact tests were carried out. This paper summarizes the results of these tests

  15. Effect of red mud addition on tetracycline and copper resistance genes and microbial community during the full scale swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Wan, Hefeng; Tong, Juan; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2016-09-01

    Swine manure has been considered as the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Composting is one of the most suitable technologies for treating livestock manures, and red mud was proved to have a positive effect on nitrogen conservation during composting. This study investigated the abundance of eight tetracycline and three copper resistance genes, the bacterial community during the full scale swine manure composting with or without addition of red mud. The results showed that ARGs in swine manure could be effectively removed through composting (reduced by 2.4log copies/g TS), especially during the thermophilic phase (reduced by 1.5log copies/g TS), which the main contributor might be temperature. Additionally, evolution of bacterial community could also have a great influence on ARGs. Although addition of red mud could enhance nitrogen conservation, it obviously hindered removal of ARGs (reduced by 1.7log copies/g TS) and affected shaping of bacterial community during composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  17. Avaliação da resistência da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochrmis niloticus nos sentidos longitudinal, transversal e diagonal, depois de submetida ao curtimento com sais de cromo e recurtimento com diferentes agentes curtentes = Evaluation of resistance of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus skin in longitudinal, transversal and diagonal position after tanning with chromium salts and retanning with different tanning substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resistência da pele da Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus no sentido longitudinal, transversal e diagonal, depois de curtida com sais de cromo e recurtida por diferentes técnicas de recurtimento. As peles foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 3x3, sendo 3 técnicas de recurtimento (T1 = com 4% de sais de cromo; T2 = 6% com taninos vegetais e T3 = com 6% de taninos sintéticos e 3 posições de retirada dos corpos-de-prova (P1 = longitudinal; P2 = transversal e P3 = diagonal, com 6 repetições por tratamento, em triplicata. O couro foi considerado a unidade experimental. Para os testes dedeterminação da resistência à tração, ao alongamento e ao rasgamento progressivo, foi utilizado o dinamômetro EMIC. A espessura dos couros variou de 1,00 a 1,20 mm, não diferindo entre as técnicas de recurtimento. Não houve diferença significativa para tração quanto às técnicas de recurtimento, porém, quanto à posição de retirada dos corpos-de-prova, foi significativamente maior para transversal (11,92 N/mm2. A técnica de recurtimento e a posição não influenciaram norasgamento progressivo (variou de 24,47 a 29,12 N/mm. O couro na posição transversal apresentou maior alongamento independentemente da técnica aplicada, não diferindo apenas na técnica T2 para a posição longitudinal. A pele recurtida com sais de cromo e no sentido transversal apresentou maior resistência à tração e ao alongamento. O recurtimento e a posição não interferiram no rasgamento progressivo.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the resistance of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus skin in longitudinal, transversal and diagonal sections after tanning with chromium salts and re-tanning with different tanning substances. Skins were distributed in a totally randomized design, 3 by 3, with three re-tanning techniques (T1 = with 4% chromium salts; T2 = 6% vegetal

  18. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  19. Molten salt combustion of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.; Richards, W.L.; Oldenkamp, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible β-γ contaminated transuranic waste by utilizing air in a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. Typically, incomplete combustion products such as hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are below detection limits (i.e., 3 ) is directly related to the sodium chloride vapor pressure of the melt; >80% of the particulate is sodium chloride. Essentially all metal oxides (combustion ash) are retained in the melt, e.g., >99.9% of the plutonium, >99.6% of the europium, and >99.9% of the ruthenium are retained in the melt. Both bench-scale radioactive and pilot scale (50 kg/hr) nonradioactive combustion tests have been completed with essentially the same results. Design of three combustors for industrial applications are underway

  20. The effects of a nickel oxide precoat on the gas bubble structures and fish-scaling resistance in vitreous enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X.; Jha, A.; Brydson, R.; Cochrane, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a NiO precoat on the interfacial microchemistry and the structure of gas bubbles at the steel-enamel interface were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and image analysis techniques. The experimental evidence demonstrates that nickel oxide applied to the steel substrate as a precoat accelerates the diffusion of Fe from the steel into the enamel and promotes decarburisation of the steel substrate, this latter reaction generating CO and/or CO 2 as gases. The resulting increase in FeO concentration reduces the viscosity of enamel. The apparent decrease in the viscosity of liquid enamel, along with formation of substantial quantities of CO and/or CO 2 gases control the distribution of gas bubbles in the enamel layer. The investigation also explains the reason for the association of large gas bubbles with Fe-Ni metal-rich particles with a dendritic appearance (termed 'dendrites in the following text) at the enamel-steel interface. The role of these Fe-Ni metal-rich 'dendrites' in reducing the tendency for hydrogen flaking or cracking of the enamel layer, generally referred to as fish-scaling, is also elucidated

  1. A radioactive tracer dilution method to determine the mass of molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cao; Jarrell, Josh; Hardtmayer, D.E.; White, Susan; Herminghuysen, Kevin; Kauffman, Andrew; Sanders, Jeff; Li, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    A new technique for molten salt mass determination, termed radioactive tracer dilution, that uses 22 Na as a tracer was validated at bench scale. It has been a challenging problem to determine the mass of molten salt in irregularly shaped containers, where a highly radioactive, high-temperature molten salt was used to process nuclear spent/used fuel during electrochemical recycling (pyro-processing) or for coolant/fuel salt from molten salt reactors. A radioactive source with known activity is dissolved into the salt. After a complete mixture, a small amount of the salt is sampled and measured in terms of its mass and radioactivity. By finding the ratio of the mass to radioactivity, the unknown salt mass in the original container can be precisely determined. (author)

  2. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P; Donat-Torres, María P; Llinares, Josep V; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus-both halophytes-and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600-800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants.

  3. Salt Tolerance and Polyphyly in the Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis (Pleurocapsales)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbers, John Robert; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    Chroococcidiopsis Geitler (Geitler 1933) is a genus of cyanobacteria containing desiccation and radiation resistant species. Members of the genus live in habitats ranging from hot and cold deserts to fresh and saltwater environments. Morphology and cell division pattern have historically been used to define the genus. To better understand the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the genus, 15 species were selected that had been previously isolated from different locations, including salt and freshwater environments. Four markers were sequenced from these 15 species, the 16S rRNA, rbcL, desC1 and gltX genes. Phylogenetic trees were generated which identified two distinct clades, a salt-tolerant clade and a freshwater clade. This study demonstrates that the genus is polyphyletic based on saltwater and freshwater phenotypes. To understand the resistance to salt in more details, species were grown on a range of sea salt concentrations which demonstrated that the freshwater species were salt-intolerant whilst the saltwater species required salt for growth. This study shows an increased resolution of the phylogeny of Chroococcidiopsis and provides further evidence that the genus is polyphyletic and should be reclassified to improve clarity in the literature.

  4. Coupled modelling of convergence, steel corrosion, gas production and brine flow in a rock salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Hirsekorn, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster presents the global simulation of the behaviour of thick-walled steel containers piled up in a borehole in a rock salt repository. The simulation takes into account: the convergence by the creeping of rock salt, the backfill and waste compaction, the porosity dependent flow resistance, the anaerobic corrosion (iron to magnetite transformation, gas production, brine consumption, water consumption and salt precipitation) and pressure development. Mechanical influence of corrosion has not yet been taken into account in the integrated code LOPOS

  5. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  6. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  7. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.

    1999-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238 Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 and NaAsO 2 or Na 3 AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238 Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  8. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  9. Some metallic materials and fluoride salts for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Hron, M.; Matal, O.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a special Ni base alloy MONICR for high temperature applications in fluoride salt environments developed in the framework of the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic. Selected results of MONICR alloy tests and results of semi products fabrication from this alloy are discussed in the paper. The results of the structural materials tests are applied on semi-products and for the design of the testing devices as the autoclave in loop arrangement for high temperature fluoride salts applications. Material properties other Ni base alloys are compared to those of MONICR. Corrosion test results of the alloy A686 in the LiF - NaF - ZrF 4 molten salt are provided and compared to the measured values of the polarizing resistance. (author)

  10. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  11. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  12. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  13. Reconsolidation of salt as applied to permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.; Callahan, G.D.; Van Sembeek, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Reconsolidated salt is a fundamental component of the permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As regulations are currently understood and seal concepts envisioned, emplaced salt is the sole long-term seal component designed to prevent the shafts from becoming preferred pathways for rating gases or liquids. Studies under way in support of the sealing function of emplaced salt include laboratory testing of crushed salt small-scale in situ tests, constitutive modeling of crushed salt, calculations of the opening responses during operation and closure, and design practicalities including emplacement techniques. This paper briefly summarizes aspects of these efforts and key areas of future work

  14. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture, saltcrete, will be placed in a landfill on the plantsite such that all applicable federal and state disposal criteria are met. Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrate salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill will meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  15. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Salt removal from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), there are 23 waste storage tanks containing high-level radioactive wastes that are to be retired. These tanks contain about 23 million liters of salt and about 10 million liters of sludge, that are to be relocated to new Type III, fully stress-relieved tanks with complete secondary containment. About 19 million liters of salt cake are to be dissolved. Steam jet circulators were originally proposed for the salt dissolution program. However, use of steam jet circulators raised the temperature of the tank contents and caused operating problems. These included increased corrosion risk and required long cooldown periods prior to transfer. Alternative dissolution concepts were investigated. Examination of mechanisms affecting salt dissolution showed that the ability of fresh water to contact the cake surface was the most significant factor influencing dissolution rate. Density driven and mechanical agitation techniques were developed on a bench scale and then were demonstrated in an actual waste tank. Actual waste tank demonstrations were in good agreement with bench-scale experiments at 1/85 scale. The density driven method utilizes simple equipment, but leaves a cake heel in the tank and is hindered by the presence of sludge or Zeolite in the salt cake. Mechanical agitation overcomes the problems found with both steam jet circulators and the density driven technique and is the best method for future waste tank salt removal

  17. Metallic and superconducting salts based on an unsymmetrical π-donor dimethyl(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene (DMET-TSeF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Reizo; Aonuma, Shuji; Okano, Yoshinori; Sawa, Hiroshi; Tamura, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Minoru; Oshima, Kokichi; Kobayashi, Akiko; Bun, Kozo; Kobayashi, Hayao

    1993-01-01

    A series of radical cation salts (DMET-TSeF) 2 X (X=I 3 , AuI 2 , AuBr 2 , AuCl 2 , Au(CN) 2 ) crystallize in the triclinic P anti 1 group. The DMET-TSeF molecules form zigzag columnar stacks. Short intermolecular chalcogen..chalcogen contacts are observed within and between stacks. The AuI 2 salt exhibits a sample-dependent resistivity minimum around 25 K. The AuI 2 salt without the resistivity minimum shows superconductivity with Tc = 0.58 K at ambient pressure. The AuBr 2 salt exhibits a resistivity minimum around 35 K. Other salts remain metallic down to 4.2 K. These salts should be classified into a quasi one-dimensional system. (orig.)

  18. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  19. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  20. A linear relationship between wave power and erosion determines salt-marsh resilience to violent storms and hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Ganju, Neil K.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  1. A linear relationship between wave power and erosion determines salt-marsh resilience to violent storms and hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Ganju, Neil K; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-05

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  2. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment

  3. Solar photo-Fenton process on the abatement of antibiotics at a pilot scale: Degradation kinetics, ecotoxicity and phytotoxicity assessment and removal of antibiotic resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Varela, A R; Kyriakou, S; Manaia, C M; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2012-11-01

    This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar photo-Fenton), for the degradation of antibiotics at low concentration level (μg L(-1)) in secondary treated domestic effluents at a pilot-scale. The examined antibiotics were ofloxacin (OFX) and trimethoprim (TMP). A compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant was used for the photocatalytic experiments. The process was mainly evaluated by a fast and reliable analytical method based on a UPLC-MS/MS system. Solar photo-Fenton process using low iron and hydrogen peroxide doses ([Fe(2+)](0) = 5 mg L(-1); [H(2)O(2)](0) = 75 mg L(-1)) was proved to be an efficient method for the elimination of these compounds with relatively high degradation rates. The photocatalytic degradation of OFX and TMP with the solar photo-Fenton process followed apparent first-order kinetics. A modification of the first-order kinetic expression was proposed and has been successfully used to explain the degradation kinetics of the compounds during the solar photo-Fenton treatment. The results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial wastewater toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba) and the water flea Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of the treated samples, expressed as root growth inhibition, was higher compared to that observed on the inhibition of seed germination. Enterococci, including those resistant to OFX and TMP, were completely eliminated at the end of the treatment. The total cost of the full scale unit for the treatment of 150 m(3) day(-1) of secondary wastewater effluent was found to be 0.85 € m(-3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metallic conductivity in a disordered charge-transfer salt derived from cis-BET-TTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, C. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Tarres, J. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Ribera, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Veciana, J. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Canadell, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Molins, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Mas, M. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Laukhin, V. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain)]|[Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki; Doublet, M.L. [Lab. de Structure et Dynamique (CNRS), Univ. de Montpellier 2 (France); Cowan, D.O. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-02-28

    The first example of a metallic charge-transfer salt derived from cis-bis(ethylenethio)-tetrathiafulvalene (BET-TTF) is reported. (BET-TTF){sub 2}SCN and (BET-TTF)SCN salts were obtained by electrocrystallization starting from trans-BET-TTF. X-ray crystal structure of the mixed-valence salt revealed that trans-cis isomerization occurs upon one electron oxidation. In spite of the structural disorder in both BET-TTF and the counterion, 2:1 salt is metallic down to 60 K and then resistance increases slowly down to 4 K. (orig.)

  5. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  6. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  7. Large-scale performance studies of the Resistive Plate Chamber fast tracker for the ATLAS 1st-level muon trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Cattani, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    In the ATLAS experiment, Resistive Plate Chambers provide the first-level muon trigger and bunch crossing identification over large area of the barrel region, as well as being used as a very fast 2D tracker. To achieve these goals a system of about ~4000 gas gaps operating in avalanche mode was built (resulting in a total readout surface of about 16000 m2 segmented into 350000 strips) and is now fully operational in the ATLAS pit, where its functionality has been widely tested up to now using cosmic rays. Such a large scale system allows to study the performance of RPCs (both from the point of view of gas gaps and readout electronics) with unprecedented sensitivity to rare effects, as well as providing the means to correlate (in a statistically significant way) characteristics at production sites with performance during operation. Calibrating such a system means fine tuning thousands of parameters (involving both front-end electronics and gap voltage), as well as constantly monitoring performance and environm...

  8. ISDP salt batch #2 supernate qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2009-01-05

    This report covers the laboratory testing and analyses of the second Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) salt supernate samples, performed in support of initial radioactive operations of Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Major goals of this work include characterizing Tank 22H supernate, characterizing Tank 41H supernate, verifying actinide and strontium adsorption with a standard laboratory-scale test using monosodium titanate (MST) and filtration, and checking cesium mass transfer behavior for the MCU solvent performance when contacted with the liquid produced from MST contact. This study also includes characterization of a post-blend Tank 49H sample as part of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP). In addition, a sampling plan will be written to guide analytical future work. Safety and environmental aspects of the work were documented in a Hazard Assessment Package.

  9. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  10. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-01-01

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li 2 O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes

  11. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  12. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  13. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  14. Effects of salt-drought stress on growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  15. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  16. Transfer characteristics of a lithium chloride–potassium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Mullen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing is an alternative method of reprocessing spent fuel, usually involving the dissolving spent fuel in a molten salt media. The National Nuclear Laboratory designed, built, and commissioned a molten salt dynamics rig to investigate the transfer characteristics of molten lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic salt. The efficacy and flow characteristics of a high-temperature centrifugal pump and argon gas lift were obtained for pumping the molten salt at temperatures up to 500°C. The rig design proved suitable on an industrial scale and transfer methods appropriate for use in future molten salt systems. Corrosion within the rig was managed, and melting techniques were optimized to reduce stresses on the rig. The results obtained improve the understanding of molten salt transport dynamics, materials, and engineering design issues and support the industrialization of molten salts pyroprocessing.

  17. Development of electrowinner and salt regenerator for PRIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, S. W.; Lee, H. S.; Hur, J. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2011-11-15

    A scope of this study includes an manufacturing an electrowinning equipment of LCC(Liquid Cadmium Cathode) to recover actinides such as uranium and TRU(Np, Pu, Am, Cm) remained in the molten salt(LiCl-KCl) transferred after an electrorefining process which collects uranium of high purity and an salt regeneration equipment to remove RE(Rare Earth) from the remaining salt after electrowinning process by oxidation and precipitation. The design capacity to recover actinide metals for PRIDE electrowinner was determined to 1 kg/batch and the amount of cadmium and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were 10 kg and 50 kg, respectively. The equipment was designed based on the operation experiences of lab-scale LCC apparatus but the concepts of remote operation were introduced. PRIDE scale oxidative precipitation precipitation apparatus whose maximum batch size is 20kg-salt/batch was designed and installed. It consists of four parts: oxidation reactor, oxygen sparing unit, flange moving device and crucible unit. To avoid a severe corrosion problem due to a high temperature, oxygen and chloride salt atmosphere, the oxidation reaction is conducted in an 100% Ta crucible. A 3D test was conducted to review the possibility of the remote operation for the equipment and the test results were applied to the design improvement. The mock-up equipment were prepared on the basis of 3D test results and after the test of remote operation, the final equipment for PRIDE were manufactured.

  18. Discovery of novel histidine-derived lipo-amino acids: applied in the synthesis of ultra-short antimicrobial peptidomimetics having potent antimicrobial activity, salt resistance and protease stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mija; Murugan, Ravichandran N; Jacob, Binu; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Cheong, Chaejoon; Hwang, Eunha; Park, Hyo-Nam; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Srinivasrao, G; Lee, Kyung S; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu

    2013-10-01

    Here we report for the first time the synthesis of Histidine (His) derived lipo-amino acids having pendant lipid tails at N(τ)- and N(π)-positions on imidazole group of His and applied it into synthesis of lipo-peptides. The attachment of His-derived lipo-amino acid into the very short inactive cationic peptides endows potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without hemolytic activity. Furthermore, our designed His-derived lipo-peptidomimetics (HDLPs) consisting of two or three residues displayed strong anti-MRSA activity and protease stability as well as retained potent antimicrobial activity under high salt concentration. Our results demonstrate that the novel lipo-amino acid is highly flexible to synthesize and carry out the extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) on lipo-antimicrobial peptidomimetics and represents a unique amenable platform for modifying parameters important for antimicrobial activity. Through this study, we proved that the discovery of His-derived lipo-amino acid and the corresponding HDLPs are an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Urdaneta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections.

  20. Reduction reaction of chlorine gas in an Al-Cl2 chemical cell composed of molten chloride salts; Enkabutsu yoyuenkei Al-Cl2 kagaku denchi ni okeru enso gas no kangen hanno kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konda, S.; Sasaki, T.; Ishikawa, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-05

    The molten salt system electrochemical cycle was proposed to reproduce pure Al from scrap Al. The cycle is composed of production of rough AlCl3 by chlorination of scrap Al, refining of rough AlCl3 mainly by sublimation, and electrolytic reproduction of pure Al from refined AlCl3. In production of AlCl3, the Al-Cl2 molten salt system cell composed of anode dissolution reaction of Al and cathode reduction reaction of chlorine gas can generate electric power for the electrolytic reproduction. Chlorine gas can be recycled as anode product. Various experiments were carried out to improve molten salt system cells. In analysis of cell output, voltage drop from open circuit voltage was divided into that due to electrolytic bath resistance, and that due to reaction resistance. The electrolytic bath resistance could be determined from transient characteristics of voltage change just after cutoff of output current. The product of the obtained reaction resistance and a meniscus length was constant regardless of a meniscus length, and useful to predict scale-up cell performance. Output characteristics dependent on meniscus position were also obtained. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Development of High Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is one of the the most promising technologies for the advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. The electrorefining process, one of main processes which is composed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of the pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. High-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because a molten salt should be transported from the electrorefiner to electrowiner after the electrorefining process. Therefore, in pyrometallurgical processing, the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technologies is a crucial prerequisite. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. In this study, an apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high temperature transport technology for molten salt, and the performance test of the apparatus was performed. And also, predissolution test of the salt was carried out using the reactor with furnace in experimental apparatus

  2. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  3. Thermal energy storage using chloride salts and their eutectics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip D.; Goswami, D. Yogi

    2016-01-01

    Achieving the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot initiative requires (1) higher operating temperatures for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants to increase theoretical efficiency, and (2) effective thermal energy storage (TES) strategies to ensure dispatchability. Current inorganic salt-based TES systems in large-scale CSP plants generally employ molten nitrate salts for energy storage, but nitrate salts are limited in application to lower temperatures—generally, below 600 °C. These materials are sufficient for parabolic trough power plants, but they are inadequate for use at higher temperatures. At the higher operating temperatures achievable in solar power tower-type CSP plants, chloride salts are promising candidates for application as TES materials, owing to their thermal stability and generally lower cost compared to nitrate salts. In light of this, a recent study was conducted, which included a preliminary survey of chloride salts and binary eutectic systems that show promise as high temperature TES media. This study provided some basic information about the salts, including phase equilibria data and estimates of latent heat of fusion for some of the eutectics. Cost estimates were obtained through a review of bulk pricing for the pure salts among various vendors. This review paper updates that prior study, adding data for additional salt eutectic systems obtained from the literature. Where possible, data are obtained from the thermodynamic database software, FactSage. Radiative properties are presented, as well, since at higher temperatures, thermal radiation becomes a significant mode of heat transfer. Material compatibility for inorganic salts is another important consideration (e.g., with regard to piping and/or containment), so a summary of corrosion studies with various materials is also presented. Lastly, cost data for these systems are presented, allowing for meaningful comparison among these systems and other materials for TES

  4. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  5. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  6. Preliminary Study on the High Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is one of the the most promising technologies for the advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. The electrorefining process, one of main processes is compos- ed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of the pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. High-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because a molten salt should be transported from the electrorefiner to electrowiner after the electrorefining process. Therefore, in pyroprocessing technology, the development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a crucial prerequisite. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. In this study, an apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt

  7. Estimated impact on birth weight of scaling up intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa: A mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G T Walker

    2017-02-01

    estimates of resistance. Forty-four percent of these pregnancies (23% of all pregnancies were not receiving any IPTp-SP despite making ≥3 ANC visits, representing 160,000 (94,000-236,000 95% crI preventable low birthweight (LBW deliveries. Only 4% (1.4 million of pregnancies occurred in settings with >10% prevalence of the sextuple haplotype associated with compromised SP effectiveness. Forty-two percent of all pregnancies occurred in settings where the quintuple dhfr/dhps haplotype had become established but where in vivo efficacy data suggest SP maintains the majority of its effectiveness in clearing infections. Not accounting for protection from the use of ITNs during pregnancy, expanding IPTp-SP to all women with ≥3 ANC visits in Africa could prevent an additional 215,000 (128,000-318,000 95% crI LBW deliveries. In 26 countries with sufficient recent data to estimate ITN impact (population-based ITN usage data that can be stratified by gravidity, we estimate that, due primarily to low ITN use by primigravidae, only 16.5% of the potential LBW births prevented by scaling up IPTp-SP would in fact have already have been prevented through ITN use. Our analysis also highlights the difficulties associated with estimating the relationship between the effectiveness of interventions against parasitological endpoints such as placental infection at delivery and health outcomes including birthweight, which is also determined by a wide range of unrelated factors. We also did not capture other aspects of malaria burden such as clinical malaria, maternal and neonatal anaemia, and miscarriage, all of which increase the overall importance of effective preventative strategies but have their own relationship with transmission intensity, parity, and SP resistance.Despite recent declines in malaria transmission in Africa, the burden of MiP in the absence of adequate prevention remains substantial. Even accounting for SP resistance, extending IPTp-SP to all women attending ANC, as well as

  8. Compatibility tests between molten salts and metal materials (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    2003-08-01

    Latent heat storage technology using molten salts can reduce temperature fluctuations of heat transfer fluid by latent heat for middle and high temperature regions. This enables us to operate several heat utilization systems in cascade connected to High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) from high to low temperature range by setting the latent heat storage system after a heat utilization system to reduce thermal load after the heat utilization systems. This latent heat technology is expected to be used for effective use of heat such as equalization of electric load between night and daytime. In the application of the latent heat technology, compatibility between molten salts and metal materials is very important because molten salts are corrosive, and heat transfer pipes and vessels will contact with the molten salts. It will be necessary to prevail the latent heat storage technique that normal metal materials can be used for the pipes and vessels. However, a few studies have been reported of compatibility between molten salts and metals in middle and high temperature ranges. In this study, four molten salts, range of the melting temperature from 490degC to 800degC, are selected and five metals, high temperature and corrosion resistance steels of Alloy600, HastelloyB2, HastelloyC276, SUS310S and pure Nickel are selected for the test with the consideration of metal composition. Test was performed in an electric furnace by setting the molten salts and the metals in melting pots in an atmosphere of nitrogen. Results revealed excellent corrosion resistance of pure Nickel and comparatively low corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys such as Alloy600 and Hastelloys against Li 2 CO 3 . Corrosion resistance of SUS310S was about same as nickel based alloys. Therefore, if some amount of corrosion is permitted, SUS310S would be one of the candidate alloys for structure materials. These results will be used as reference data to select metals in latent heat technology

  9. Effects of Spray Drying on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Acid Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Heinämäki, Jyrki; de la Paz, Nilia; López, Orestes; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Virtanen, Tommi; Hatanpää, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Nogueira, Antonio; Fundora, Jorge; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    The effects of spray-drying process and acidic solvent system on physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated. Chitosan used in spray dryings was obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (Panulirus argus) origin. The chitosan acid salts were prepared in a laboratory-scale spray drier, and organic acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid were used as solvents in the process. The physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated by means of solid-state CP...

  10. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  12. Landslides Monitoring on Salt Deposits Using Geophysical Methods, Case study - Slanic Prahova, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu, Avram; Rusu, Emil; Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Ulmeanu, Antonio; Scutelnicu, Ioan; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Electrometry is most frequently applied geophysical method to examine dynamical phenomena related to the massive salt presence due to resistivity contrasts between salt, salt breccia and geological covering formations. On the vertical resistivity sections obtained with VES devices these three compartments are clearly differentiates by high resistivity for the massive salt, very low for salt breccia and variable for geological covering formations. When the land surface is inclined, shallow formations are moving gravitationally on the salt back, producing a landslide. Landslide monitoring involves repeated periodically measurements of geoelectrical profiles into a grid covering the slippery surface, in the same conditions (climate, electrodes position, instrument and measurement parameters). The purpose of monitoring landslides in Slanic Prahova area, was to detect the changes in resistivity distribution profiles to superior part of subsoil measured in 2014 and 2015. Measurement grid include several representative cross sections in susceptibility to landslides point of view. The results are graphically represented by changing the distribution of topography and resistivity differences between the two sets of geophysical measurements.

  13. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  14. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  15. RAS1, a quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Zhonghai

    2010-03-08

    Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for feeding the growing world population. We used natural genetic variation in salt tolerance among different Arabidopsis accessions to map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for salt tolerance and abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth. A recombinant inbred population derived from Landsberg erecta (Ler; salt and ABA sensitive) x Shakdara (Sha; salt and ABA resistant) was used for QTL mapping. High-resolution mapping and cloning of this QTL, Response to ABA and Salt 1 (RAS1), revealed that it is an ABA- and salt stress-inducible gene and encodes a previously undescribed plant-specific protein. A premature stop codon results in a truncated RAS1 protein in Sha. Reducing the expression of RAS1 by transfer-DNA insertion in Col or RNA interference in Ler leads to decreased salt and ABA sensitivity, whereas overexpression of the Ler allele but not the Sha allele causes increased salt and ABA sensitivity. Our results suggest that RAS1 functions as a negative regulator of salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth by enhancing ABA sensitivity and that its loss of function contributes to the increased salt tolerance of Sha.

  16. A new highly productive Propionibacterium acidipropionici FL-48 strain with increased resistance to propionic acid and the scaling up of its production for industrial bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kartashov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid bacteria, including Propionibacterium acidipropionici, are widely used in the chemical industry to produce propionic acid and also for food and feed preservation. However, the efficiency of the industrial production of these bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to high concentrations of propionic acid excreted into the cultivation medium. Therefore, the development of new biotechnological processes and strains able to overcome this limitation and to improve the profitability of the microbiological production remains  a relevant problem. A new P. acidipropionici FL-48 strain characterized by an increased resistance to 10 g/L of propionic acid (the number of viable cells after 24-h cultivation reached 1.05 × 106 was developed by a two-step induced mutagenesis using UV and diethyl sulphate from the P. acidipropionici VKPM B-5723 strain. The mutant strain exceeded the parental strain in the biomass accumulation rate and the amount of produced propionic and acetic acids by 35%, 20%, and 16%, respectively. The stability of such important characteristics as the biomass accumulation rate and the viability on media containing heightened concentrations of propionic acid was confirmed by three sequential monoclonal subculturings on a medium supplemented with 10 g/L of propionic acid. The optimization of the cultivation technology made it possible to determine the optimum seed inoculum dose (10% of the fermentation medium volume and the best pH level for the active growth stage (6.1 ± 0.1. The scaling up of the fermentation to a 100-L bioreactor under observance of optimum cultivation conditions demonstrated a high biomass growth rate with a sufficient reproducability; after 20 h of fermentation, the number of viable cells in the culture broth exceeded 1 × 1010 CFU/mL. The new strain could be interesting as the component of silage and haylage biopreservatives and also could be used as an efficient producer of propionic acid.

  17. A remote-control datalogger for large-scale resistivity surveys and robust processing of its signals using a software lock-in approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Frank; Günther, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    We present a new versatile datalogger that can be used for a wide range of possible applications in geosciences. It is adjustable in signal strength and sampling frequency, battery saving and can remotely be controlled over a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) connection so that it saves running costs, particularly in monitoring experiments. The internet connection allows for checking functionality, controlling schedules and optimizing pre-amplification. We mainly use it for large-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), where it independently registers voltage time series on three channels, while a square-wave current is injected. For the analysis of this time series we present a new approach that is based on the lock-in (LI) method, mainly known from electronic circuits. The method searches the working point (phase) using three different functions based on a mask signal, and determines the amplitude using a direct current (DC) correlation function. We use synthetic data with different types of noise to compare the new method with existing approaches, i.e. selective stacking and a modified fast Fourier transformation (FFT)-based approach that assumes a 1/f noise characteristics. All methods give comparable results, but the LI is better than the well-established stacking method. The FFT approach can be even better but only if the noise strictly follows the assumed characteristics. If overshoots are present in the data, which is typical in the field, FFT performs worse even with good data, which is why we conclude that the new LI approach is the most robust solution. This is also proved by a field data set from a long 2-D ERT profile.

  18. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  19. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  20. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  1. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  2. Comparative analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptomes reveals genotype-specific salt tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Xu, Yuxing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Lu, Chengkai; Shen, Guojing; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-02-15

    Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed 2237 and 1125 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ZM and XJ in the presence and absence of salt stress, among which many genes are involved in stress-related pathways. After salt treatment, compared with the controls, the number of DEGs in XJ (19373) was about four times of that in ZM (4833). We also detected specific differential gene expression patterns: In response to salt stress, compared with XJ, ZM maintained relatively more stable expression levels of genes related to the ROS and Ca 2+ pathways, phytohormone biosynthesis, and Na + /K + transport. Notably, several salt resistance-associated genes always showed greater levels of expression in ZM than in XJ, including a transcription factor. Consistent with the suppression of plant growth resulting from salt stress, the expression of numerous photosynthesis- and growth hormone-related genes decreased more dramatically in XJ than in ZM. By contrast, the expression levels of photosynthetic genes were lower in ZM under low-salt conditions. Compared with XJ, ZM is a salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar possessing specific regulatory mechanisms conferring exceptional salt tolerance, likely by maintaining high transcript levels of abiotic and biotic stress resistance-related genes. Our results suggest that maintaining this specific physiological status and/or plant adaptation to salt stress most likely arises by inhibition of plant growth in ZM through

  3. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  4. An analysis of SALT in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludolph Botha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of SALT/Suggestopedia for the teaching of beginners' German to students at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Two experimental groups and a control group are involved to determine, amongst others, whether SALT is viable in South African conditions and whether it really accelerates the learning of a foreign language. This study is approached pragmatically and on a relatively small scale to ensure a sound basis. A number of challenges have been encountered of which the most important are the rigid system at a university (for example the timetable and the difficulty of producing convincing, quantitative results. Qualitatively the students show an early competence and spontaneity not experienced before, in comparison with the control group. The most promising aspect is the fact that the lecturers of the experimental groups are convinced that Suggestopedia offers and satisfies the students as well as the lecturers much more than any other conventional method used by them. In hierdie artikel word die gebruik van SALT/Suggestopedagogiek vir die aanlecr van Duits op beginnersvlak geanaliseer, soos gei"mplementeer aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Twee eksperimentele groepe sowel as 'n kontrolegroep is betrek om ondcr meer te bepaal of SALT lewensvatbaar is in Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede en of dit werklik die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal versnel. Hierdie studie is pragmatics aangepak en op 'n relatiewe klein skaal om 'n gesonde basis te verseker. 'n Aantal struikelblokke moes oorkom word, soos die onbuigbare sisteem aan 'n Universiteit (die rooster en die probleem om oortuigende kwantitatiewe resultate te ewer. Kwalitatief gesproke, vertoon die studente 'n vroee bekwaamheid en 'n spontanei"teit wat nog nooit tevore ondervind is nie. Die belowendste aspek is egter dat die lektore van die eksperimentele groep oortuig is dat Suggestopedagogiek meer te bied het, en lektore sowel as stildente meer bevredig as enige

  5. Does vegetation prevent wave erosion of salt marsh edges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, R A; Lozada-Bernard, S M; Ravens, T M; Möller, I; Yeager, K M; Baird, A H

    2009-06-23

    This study challenges the paradigm that salt marsh plants prevent lateral wave-induced erosion along wetland edges by binding soil with live roots and clarifies the role of vegetation in protecting the coast. In both laboratory flume studies and controlled field experiments, we show that common salt marsh plants do not significantly mitigate the total amount of erosion along a wetland edge. We found that the soil type is the primary variable that influences the lateral erosion rate and although plants do not directly reduce wetland edge erosion, they may do so indirectly via modification of soil parameters. We conclude that coastal vegetation is best-suited to modify and control sedimentary dynamics in response to gradual phenomena like sea-level rise or tidal forces, but is less well-suited to resist punctuated disturbances at the seaward margin of salt marshes, specifically breaking waves.

  6. Electrokinetic removal of Ca(NO3)2 from bricks to avoid salt induced decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Salt-induced decay of masonry is a serious threat to our cultural heritage. In buildings near agricultural land or stables the masonry may suffer seriously from salt-induced decay from nitrates. It was investigated in laboratory scale with a single brick if Ca(NO$-3$/) $-2$/ could be removed by e...

  7. Influence of abiotic factors on spider and ground beetle communities in different salt-marsh systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petillon, Julien; Georges, Anita; Canard, Alain; Lefeuvre, Jean-Claude; Bakker, Jan P.; Ysnel, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    Salt marshes are interesting and endangered ecosystems in West-Europe. Nevertheless, their arthropod fauna remains largely unknown and the factors determining assemblages at micro-habitat scale are poorly understood. Few data are also available about the effects of management measures in salt

  8. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  9. Rehabilitation of saline ecosystems through cultivation of salt tolerant plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, R.; Mahmood, K.

    2012-01-01

    In Pakistan, salt-affected regions have been drastically disturbed by unchecked activities of local populations. Removal of deep-rooted perennials and overgrazing destroy the native vegetation leading to rapid desertification. Shallow-rooted agricultural crops are grown on marginal soils on limited area that is not enough with respect to the spread of salinity problem. Sustainable restoration of these ecosystems requires a large scale integration of perennial plants (trees, shrubs and herbs) back in to farming systems. However, selenization processes continue because the available options for cultivation of perennial plants prove less profitable than agricultural crops. This study relates to resort the salt-affected lands for plant production and develop a technology for sustainable saline ecosystem. Plants, having salt tolerance potential, have been identified and introduced on salt-affected wastelands to develop a sustainable ecosystem with increased productivity. The biomass so produced can be used directly as forage, fuel, and even as food or feed. In addition, fish aquaculture, and some value-added products make this ecosystem more sustainable. This technology is practically demonstrated at Biosaline Research Station of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Pakka Anna, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The marginally saline soils and wastelands ameliorated as a result of growing salt tolerant perennials can also be used for growing salt tolerant cultivars of conventional crops like wheat, barley and mustard. So, through proper management the saline ecosystem can become economical and profitable. (author)

  10. Impacts of using salt and salt brine for roadway deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) uses a variety of methods to help ensure safe travel on the state highway system : following winter storm events. These methods include plowing, use of sand to improve traction, and use of salt and chemical : com...

  11. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James

    1959-01-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  12. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and sage-grouse- A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Boyd, Chad S.; Campbell, Steve; Espinosa, Shawn; Havlina, Doug; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution, relative abundance, and persistence of sage-grouse populations to develop management strategies at both landscape and site scales. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with sage-grouse habitat requirements for landscape cover of sagebrush to help decision makers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at landscape scales. Focal areas for management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation (PACs), breeding bird densities, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of focal areas for treatment and the most appropriate management treatments.

  13. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a ±3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of ±15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism

  14. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  15. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the Cypress Creek salt core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Law Engineering Testing Company supervised the drilling of a corehole into the stock of Cypress Creek Dome, located in Perry County, Mississippi. A total of 170 ft of caprock and 501 ft of salt stock was recovered for physical examination and chemical analysis. This report describes the types of analyses performed and summarizes the data developed. The entire caprock and salt core were described and photographed prior to selection of samples for petrologic and geochemical analysis. Transmitted light techniques were used to determine gross structural and compositional variations in the core. The core lithologies are presented graphically, at a scale of 1 in. to 2 ft. In addition to the detailed field descriptions and photographs, petrologic studies performed on selected caprock and salt samples included: thin-section examination, scanning-electron microscope studies, energy-dispersion analysis, and x-ray-diffraction analysis. Geochemical analyses were performed to determine the average elemental composition of the salt core and amounts of methane and carbon dioxide gases contained within the salt grains. Except for two thin (3 and 6 ft thick) gypsum zones in the top 27 ft of the caprock, the core is predominantly anhydrite (generally 80%). Minor amounts of dolomite and calcite are also present. The salt core consists predominantly of crystalline halite, fine- to medium-grained (0.25 to 1 in.) with few megacrysts. Anhydrite occurs in the salt core as disseminated grains, ranging in length from <0.1 in. to 12 in. Discrete zones exist within the salt core, distinguished from one another primarily by the character of the anhydrite inclusions

  16. Spectral identification and quantification of salts in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Claire, M. W.

    2016-10-01

    Salt minerals are an important natural resource. The ability to quickly and remotely identify and quantify salt deposits and salt contaminated soils and sands is therefore a priority goal for the various industries and agencies that utilise salts. The advent of global hyperspectral imagery from instruments such as Hyperion on NASA's Earth-Observing 1 satellite has opened up a new source of data that can potentially be used for just this task. This study aims to assess the ability of Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify salt minerals through the use of spectral mixture analysis. The surface and near-surface soils of the Atacama Desert in Chile contain a variety of well-studied salts, which together with low cloud coverage, and high aridity, makes this region an ideal testbed for this technique. Two forms of spectral data ranging 0.35 - 2.5 μm were collected: laboratory spectra acquired using an ASD FieldSpec Pro instrument on samples from four locations in the Atacama desert known to have surface concentrations of sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and perchlorates; and images from the EO-1 satellite's Hyperion instrument taken over the same four locations. Mineral identifications and abundances were confirmed using quantitative XRD of the physical samples. Spectral endmembers were extracted from within the laboratory and Hyperion spectral datasets and together with additional spectral library endmembers fed into a linear mixture model. The resulting identification and abundances from both dataset types were verified against the sample XRD values. Issues of spectral scale, SNR and how different mineral spectra interact are considered, and the utility of VNIR spectroscopy and Hyperion in particular for mapping specific salt concentrations in desert environments is established. Overall, SMA was successful at estimating abundances of sulfate minerals, particularly calcium sulfate, from both hyperspectral image and laboratory sample spectra

  17. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables

  18. Thermal gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level nuclear wastes repositories, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In the present work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boudaries was observed

  19. Molten salt oxidation as a technique for decommissioning: selection of low melting point salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.; Garcia, Vitor F.; Benvegnu, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    During the 70 and 80 years, IPEN built several facilities in pilot scale, destined to the technological domain of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. In the nineties, radical changes in the Brazilian nuclear policy determined the interruption of the activities and the shut-down of pilot plants. Nowadays, IPEN has been facing the problem of the dismantling and decommissioning of its Nuclear Fuel Cycle old facilities. The facility CELESTE-I of the IPEN is a laboratory where reprocessing studies were accomplished during the decade of 80 and in the beginning of the 90s. The last operations occurred in 92-93. The research activities generated radioactive wastes in the form of organic and aqueous solutions of different compositions and concentrations. For the treatment of these liquid wastes it was proposed a study of waste thermal decomposition based on the molten salt oxidation process.Decomposition tests of different organic wastes have been performed in laboratory equipment developed at IPEN, in the range of temperatures of 900 to 1020 deg C, demonstrating the complete oxidation of the compounds. The reduction of the process temperatures would be of crucial importance. Besides this, the selection of lower melting point salt mixtures would have an important impact in the reduction of equipment costs. Several experiments were performed to determine the most suitable salt mixtures, optimizing costs and melting temperatures as low as possible. This paper describes the main characteristics of the molten salt oxidation process, besides the selection of salt mixtures of binary and ternary compositions, respectively Na 2 CO 3 - NaOH and Na 2 CO 3 - K 2 CO 3 -Li 2 CO 3 . (author)

  20. Molten salt based nanofluids based on solar salt and alumina nanoparticles: An industrial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Belén; Nieto-Maestre, Javier; Guerreiro, Luis; Julia, José Enrique; Collares-Pereira, Manuel; García-Romero, Ana

    2017-06-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and its associated dispatchability is extremely important in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants since it represents the main advantage of CSP technology in relation to other renewable energy sources like photovoltaic (PV). Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 600°C. Their main problems are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve the thermal properties of molten salts is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. Additionally, the use of molten salt based nanofluids as TES materials and Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) has been attracting great interest in recent years. The addition of tiny amounts of nanoparticles to the base salt can improve its specific heat as shown by different authors1-3. The application of these nano-enhanced materials can lead to important savings on the investment costs in new TES systems for CSP plants. However, there is still a long way to go in order to achieve a commercial product. In this sense, the improvement of the stability of the nanofluids is a key factor. The stability of nanofluids will depend on the nature and size of the nanoparticles, the base salt and the interactions between them. In this work, Solar Salt (SS) commonly used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3 wt.) was doped with alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) at a solid mass concentration of 1% wt. at laboratory scale. The tendency of nanoparticles to agglomeration and sedimentation is tested in the molten state by analyzing their size and concentration through the time. The specific heat of the nanofluid at 396 °C (molten state) is measured at different times (30 min, 1 h, 5 h). Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of agglomeration. A good understanding of the interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the ionic media would provide

  1. Resistance and Spray Characteristics of a 1/13-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane, TED No. NACA DE 338

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKann, Robert E.; Coffee, Claude W.; Arabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    A model of a Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 sea-plane:was tested in Langley tank no= 2. Resistance data, 'spray photographs, and underwater photographs,are given in this report without discussion.

  2. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  3. Evaluation and Exploration of Favorable QTL Alleles for Salt Stress Related Traits in Cotton Cultivars (G. hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Cai, Caiping; Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Fang; Hou, Sen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinization is one of the major problems in global agricultural production. Cotton is a pioneer crop with regard to salt stress tolerance, and can be used for saline-alkali land improvement. The large-scale detection of salt tolerance traits in cotton accessions, and the identification of elite quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes for salt-tolerance have been very important in salt tolerance breeding. Here, 43 advanced salt-tolerant and 31 highly salt-sensitive cultivars were detected by analyzing ten salt tolerance related traits in 304 upland cotton cultivars. Among them, 11 advanced salt-tolerance and eight highly salt-sensitive cultivars were consistent with previously reported results. Association analysis of ten salt-tolerance related traits and 145 SSRs was performed, and a total of 95 significant associations were detected; 17, 41, and 37 of which were associated with germinative index, seedling stage physiological index, and four seedling stage biochemical indexes, respectively. Of these associations, 20 SSR loci were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Furthermore, we detected 117 elite alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, 4 of which were reported previously. Among these loci, 44 (37.60%) were rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%, 6 only existed in advanced salt-tolerant cultivars, and 2 only in highly salt-sensitive cultivars. As a result, 13 advanced salt-tolerant cultivars were selected to assemble the optimal cross combinations by computer simulation for the development of salt-tolerant accessions. This study lays solid foundations for further improvements in cotton salt-tolerance by referencing elite germplasms, alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, and optimal crosses. PMID:26943816

  4. Enhanced salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by rstB gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Generating salt tolerance forage plant is essential for use of the land affected by high salinity. A salt tolerance gene rstB was used as a selectable marker gene in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco under a selective regime of 170mM NaCl. The transgenic plants showed clear improvement in salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rstB gene was introduced into alfalfa genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. No abnormal phenotype was observed among the transgenic plants when compared with wild type (wt) plants. Significant enhancement of resistance to salt-shock treatment was noted on the rstB transgenic (T0) plants. Transgenic second-generation (T1) seeds showed improved germination rate and seedling growth under salt-stress condition. Hindered Na(+) accumulation, but enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation was observed on the rstB T1 plants when subjected to salt-stresses. Enhanced calcium accumulation in transgenic plants was also verified by cytohistochemical localization of calcium. Under salt-stress of 50mM NaCl, about 15% of the transgenic plants finished their life-cycle but the wt plants had no flower formation. The results demonstrated that the expression of rstB gene improved salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  6. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yoshiki; Sawabe, Shogo; Kainuma, Kenta; Katsuhara, Maki; Shibasaka, Mineo; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Oguri, Suguru; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1) a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2) a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3) a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  7. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki eNakahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1 a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2 a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3 a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  8. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC ONIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  9. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  10. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung Soo; McKellar, Michael; Anderson, Nolan

    2011-01-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  11. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  12. Salt-saturated concrete strength and permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments applicable to the use of salt-saturated concrete as a seal material for a transuranic waste repository have been completed. Nitrogen gas permeability measurements were made using a flexible-wall permeameter, a confining pressure of 1 MPa, and gas pressure gradients ranging from 0.3 MPa to 0.75 MPa. Results show that salt-saturated concrete has very low intrinsic permeability with values ranging from 9.4 x 10 -22 m 2 to 9.7 x 10 -17 m 2 . Strength and deformation characteristics were investigated under conditions of triaxial compression with confining pressures ranging from 0 to 15 MPa using either axial strain-rate or axial stress-rate control and show that the failure strength of concrete increases with confining pressure which can be adequately described through pressure-sensitive failure criteria. Axial, radial, and volumetric strains were also measured during each test and these data were used to determine elastic properties. Experimental results are applicable in the design and analysis of scale-related functions and apply to other concrete structures subjected to compressive loadings such as dams and prestressed structural members

  13. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  14. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Arabidopsis ABF1/3/4 during det1 germination in salt and osmotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, V C Dilukshi; Al Khateeb, Wesam; Belmonte, Mark F; Schroeder, Dana F

    2018-05-01

    Arabidopsis det1 mutants exhibit salt and osmotic stress resistant germination. This phenotype requires HY5, ABF1, ABF3, and ABF4. While DE-ETIOLATED 1 (DET1) is well known as a negative regulator of light development, here we describe how det1 mutants also exhibit altered responses to salt and osmotic stress, specifically salt and mannitol resistant germination. LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) positively regulates both light and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling. We found that hy5 suppressed the det1 salt and mannitol resistant germination phenotype, thus, det1 stress resistant germination requires HY5. We then queried publically available microarray datasets to identify genes downstream of HY5 that were differentially expressed in det1 mutants. Our analysis revealed that ABA regulated genes, including ABA RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR 3 (ABF3), are downregulated in det1 seedlings. We found that ABF3 is induced by salt in wildtype seeds, while homologues ABF4 and ABF1 are repressed, and all three genes are underexpressed in det1 seeds. We then investigated the role of ABF3, ABF4, and ABF1 in det1 phenotypes. Double mutant analysis showed that abf3, abf4, and abf1 all suppress the det1 salt/osmotic stress resistant germination phenotype. In addition, abf1 suppressed det1 rapid water loss and open stomata phenotypes. Thus interactions between ABF genes contribute to det1 salt/osmotic stress response phenotypes.

  16. Uranium metal production by molten salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasawa, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a promising uranium enrichment technology in the next generation. Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides into uranium metal is proposed for the preparation of uranium metal as a feed material for AVLIS plant. Considering economical performance, continuos process concept and minimizing the amount of radioactive waste, an electrolytic process for producing uranium metal directly from uranium oxides will offer potential advantages over the existing commercial process. Studies of uranium metal by electrolysis in fluoride salts (BaF 2 -LiF-UF 4 (74-11-15 w/o) at 1150-1200degC, using both a laboratory scale apparatus and an engineering scale one, and continuous casting of uranium metal were carried out in order to decide the optimum operating conditions and the design of the industrial electrolytic cells. (author)

  17. Corrosion study in molten fluoride salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Rangarajan, S.; Gupta, V.K.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion behaviors of two alloys viz. Inconel 625 and Inconel 617 were tested in molten fluoride salts of lithium, sodium and potassium (FLiNaK) in the temperature range of 550-750 ℃ in a nickel lined Inconel vessel. Electrochemical polarization (Tafel plot) technique was used for this purpose. For both alloys, the corrosion rate was found to increase sharply beyond 650 ℃ . At 600 ℃ , Inconel 625 showed a decreasing trend in the corrosion rate over a period of 24 hours, probably due to changes in the surface conditions. After fifteen days, re-testing of Inconel 625 in the same melt showed an increase in the corrosion rate. Inconel 625 was found to be more corrosion resistant than Inconel 617. (author)

  18. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  19. Hemodynamic responses to mental stress during salt loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyal, Maria Gefke; Christensen, Niels Juel; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    ) during preparation for a medical exam (prolonged stress) and (ii) outside the exam period (low stress). All subjects consumed a controlled diet for 3 days with low- or high-salt content in randomized order. The subjective stress was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Scale, SCL......, CO as well as plasma levels of NE, E and PRA remained unchanged by changes in stress level. Day-night reduction in SAP was significantly larger during moderate stress and high-salt intake; however, no significant difference was observed during daytime and night-time. Individual increase in mental...

  20. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tadafumi.

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities

  1. The response of transgenic Brassica species to salt stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nadil; Anwar, Sumera; Xu, Jingjing; Hou, Zhaoke; Salah, Akram; Khan, Shahbaz; Gong, Jianfang; Shang, Zhengwei; Qian, Li; Zhang, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    Salt stress is considered one of the main abiotic factors to limit crop growth and productivity by affecting morpho-physiological and biochemical processes. Genetically, a number of salt tolerant Brassica varieties have been developed and introduced, but breeding of such varieties is time consuming. Therefore, current focus is on transgenic technology, which plays an important role in the development of salt tolerant varieties. Various salt tolerant genes have been characterized and incorporated into Brassica. Therefore, such genetic transformation of Brassica species is a significant step for improvement of crops, as well as conferring salt stress resistance qualities to Brassica species. Complete genome sequencing has made the task of genetically transforming Brassica species easier, by identifying desired candidate genes. The present review discusses relevant information about the principles which should be employed to develop transgenic Brassica species, and also will recommend tools for improved tolerance to salinity.

  2. Alteration of non-metallic barriers and evolution of solution chemistry in salt formations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, H.J.; Becker, D.; Hagemann, S.; Meyer, Th.; Noseck, U.; Rubel, A.; Mauke, R.; Wollrath, J.

    2005-01-01

    Different Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) materials considered in Germany for the sealing of repositories in salt formations are presented. Their long term behaviour in terms of interactions with salt solutions is discussed and evaluated. The discussed EBS materials are crushed salt, self sealing salt backfill, bentonite and salt concrete. Whereas the knowledge concerning the geochemical, geomechanical, hydrological and thermal behavior of crushed salt and salt concrete is well advanced further research is needed for other EBS materials. The self healing salt backfill has also been investigated in depth recently. In order to fully qualify this material large scale in situ experiments are still needed. The present knowledge on compacted bentonites in a salt environment is not yet sufficient for reliable predictions of the long-term performance in salt formations. The sealing concept of the low- and intermediate-level Radioactive Waste Repository Morsleben (ERAM) in a former rock salt and potash mine is presented. This concept is based on cementitious materials, i.e. salt concrete. The geochemical stability of different salt concretes in contact with brines expected in ERAM is addressed. It is shown how the results from leaching experiments and geochemical modelling are used in the safety analyses and how the chemical boundary conditions prevailing in the EBS influence the development of the permeability of the sealing system and thus control the radionuclide release. As a result of modelling the behaviour of the seals in the safety assessment it is shown, that the seals are corroded within a time span of about 20 000 years. The influence of the uncertainty in the model parameters on the safety of the repository was assessed by a variation of the initial permeability of the seal. The maximum dose rate resulting from the radionuclide release from ERAM is nearly independent of the variation of the initial permeability within four orders of magnitude. (authors)

  3. In situ corrosion studies on selected high level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to qualify corrosion resistant materials for high level waste (HLW) packagings acting as a long-term barrier in a rock salt repository, the corrosion behavior of preselected materials is being investigated in laboratory-scale and in-situ experiments. This work reports about in-situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as nodular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: (1) all materials investigated exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test; (2) all materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack; the gamma-radiation of 3 · 10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behavior of the materials

  4. Age-dependent salt hypertension in Dahl rats: fifty years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicha, J; Dobešová, Z; Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Hojná, S; Kadlecová, M; Behuliak, M; Vaněčková, I; Kuneš, J

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Lewis K. Dahl has presented a new model of salt hypertension - salt-sensitive and salt-resistant Dahl rats. Twenty years later, John P. Rapp has published the first and so far the only comprehensive review on this rat model covering numerous aspects of pathophysiology and genetics of salt hypertension. When we summarized 25 years of our own research on Dahl/Rapp rats, we have realized the need to outline principal abnormalities of this model, to show their interactions at different levels of the organism and to highlight the ontogenetic aspects of salt hypertension development. Our attention was focused on some cellular aspects (cell membrane function, ion transport, cell calcium handling), intra- and extrarenal factors affecting renal function and/or renal injury, local and systemic effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial and smooth muscle changes responsible for abnormal vascular contraction or relaxation, altered balance between various vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems in blood pressure maintenance as well as on the central nervous and peripheral mechanisms involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis. We also searched for the age-dependent impact of environmental and pharmacological interventions, which modify the development of high blood pressure and/or organ damage, if they influence the salt-sensitive organism in particular critical periods of development (developmental windows). Thus, severe self-sustaining salt hypertension in young Dahl rats is characterized by pronounced dysbalance between augmented sympathetic hyperactivity and relative nitric oxide deficiency, attenuated baroreflex as well as by a major increase of residual blood pressure indicating profound remodeling of resistance vessels. Salt hypertension development in young but not in adult Dahl rats can be attenuated by preventive increase of potassium or calcium intake. On the contrary, moderate salt hypertension in adult Dahl rats is

  5. Electrochemical energy: the green face of the salt-affected lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Mahmood, K.; Waheed, A.

    2013-01-01

    A high soluble salt content make the salt-stressed terrestrial and the aquatic habitats electrically more active than the normal ecosystems. The salt-tolerant plants and the microbial populations adapted to the salt-stressed environments have developed special mechanisms to resist the ionic and the osmotic stresses. The study evaluated the bioelectricity or electrochemical energy potential of soil and bio-resources of a salt-affected land. The electrical conductivity and the charge resistance ability exhibited the various categories of salt-tolerant plants suitable for a range of salt-stressed conditions and the root activities including extrusion of proton (H+) in the rooting media. The microbial biofilms formed with plant roots, soil particles and the solid surface by exo-polysaccharides producing biofilm bacteria could regulate and monitor ion flux across the bio-membranes and the electrode surfaces. The ionic gradients thus created by plants and the microbial processes could be a continuous and uninterrupted valuable source of bio-energy of the salt-stressed and contaminated soil and water habitats. The bio-energy can be harnessed and utilized by especially designed microbial biofuel cells (MBFC). The biofilms developed on anode or cathode of MBFC could act as half cells for source and sink of the electrons released during oxidation reduction processes carried by microbial consortia while the exo-polysaccharides, the microbial biopolymer could support transfer of charge to the electrodes. The salt-affected soil and the soil organic matter constituents, microbial biopolymers and the brackish water, as a mediators and the cathode passivation inhibitors, thus could help enhance and increase the output intensity of the electrochemical energy and efficiency of the biofuel cells. The study suggested an enormous potential of the salt-affected lands for non-conventional renewable bio-energy source useful in the remote areas and for the small power requiring electrical

  6. High temperature corrosion studies on friction welded low alloy steel and stainless steel in air and molten salt environment at 650 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arivazhagan, N.; Narayanan, S.; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya; Reddy, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis on friction welded AISI 304 with AISI 4140 exposed in air and molten salt environment. → Comparative study on friction welded AISI 4140 with AISI 304 exposed in air, Na 2 SO 4 -60%V 2 O 5 and NaCl-50%Na 2 SO 4 at 650 o C. → SEM/EDAX, XRD analysis on corroded dissimilar AISI 304 and AISI 4140 materials. -- Abstract: The investigation on high-temperature corrosion resistance of the weldments is necessary for prolonged service lifetime of the components used in corrosive environments. This paper reports on the performance of friction welded low alloy steel AISI 4140 and stainless steel AISI 304 in air as well as molten salt environment of Na 2 SO 4 -60%V 2 O 5 and NaCl-50%Na 2 SO 4 at 650 o C. This paper reports several studies carried out for characterizing the weldments corrosion behavior. Initially thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. For analyzing the corrosion products, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis and electron probe micro analysis techniques were used. From the results of the experiments, it is observed that the weldments suffered accelerated corrosion in NaCl-Na 2 SO 4 environment and showed spalling/sputtering of the oxide scale. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of weld interface was found to be lower than that of parent metals in molten salt environment. Weight gain kinetics in air oxidation studies reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law while the kinetics with salt deposits displays multi-stage growth rates. Moreover NaCl is the main corrosive species in high temperature corrosion, involving mixtures of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 which is responsible for formation of internal attack.

  7. Polymer electrolytes: an investigation of some poly (N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, K R; Golder, A J; Knight, J

    1984-04-01

    Poly (N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions were synthesized and their electrical conductivities were measured to assess their suitability as electrolytes in safe, leakproof, high energy-density lithium batteries operating at ambient temperature. The effects on conductivity of temperature, and the nature and concentration of the salt were studied. The salts markedly improve conductivity of the compositions over that of the undoped polymer but they are insufficiently conducting to be considered as battery electrolytes, due possibly to ion pairing. Their creep resistance is also low. Less fluid compositions containing higher molecular weight polymers better able to promote ion separation are more suitable. (ESA)

  8. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Williams, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNLs Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts

  9. Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R.; Ogata, T.

    1993-01-01

    One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500 degree C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel

  10. Mechanisms of Response to Salt Stress in Oleander (Nerium oleander L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating the mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in different species will help to develop more resistant plant varieties, contributing to improve agricultural production in a climate change scenario. Basic responses to salt stress, dependent on osmolyte accumulation and activation of antioxidant systems, have been studied in Nerium oleander, a xerophytic species widely used as ornamental. Salt strongly inhibited growth, but the plants survived one-month treatments with quite high NaCl concentrations, up to 800 mM, indicating the the species is relatively resistant to salt stress, in addition to drought. Levels of proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars increased only slightly in the presence of salt; however, soluble sugar absolute contents were much higher than those of the other osmolytes, suggesting a functional role of these compounds in osmotic adjustment, and the presence of constitutive mechanisms of response to salt stress. High salinity generated oxidative stress in the plants, as shown by the increase of malondialdehyde levels. Antioxidant systems, enzymatic and non-enzymatic, are generally activated in response to salt stress; in oleander, they do not seem to include total phenolics or flavonoids, antioxidant compounds which did not accumulate significantly in salt-trated plants

  11. Treatment of waste salt from the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (II) : optimum immobilization condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2004-01-01

    Since zeolite is known to be stable at a high temperature, it has been reported as a promising immobilization matrix for waste salt. The crystal structure of dehydrated zeolite A breaks down above 1060 K, resulting in the formation of an amorphous solid and re-crystallization to beta-Cristobalite. This structural degradation depends on the existence of chlorides. When contacted to HCl, zeolite 4A is not stable even at 473 K. The optimum consolidation condition for LiCl salt waste from the oxide fuel reduction process based on the electrochemical method (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) has been studied using zeolite A since 2001. Actually the constituents of waste salt are water-soluble. And, alkali halides are known to be readily radiolyzed to yield interstitial halogens and metal colloids. For disposal in a geological repository, the waste salt must meet the acceptance criteria. For a waste form containing chloride salt, two of the more important criteria are leach resistance and waste form durability. In this work, we prepared some samples with different mixing ratios of LiCl salt to zeolite A, and then compared some characteristics such as thermal stability, salt occlusion, free chloride content, leach resistance, mixing effect, etc

  12. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, Hossam E.; Bechtold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Introducing metal salt based UV-blocking properties into cotton fabric. • A quite simple technique used to produce wash resistant UV-absorbers using different Cu-, Zn- and Ti-salts. • Good UPF was obtained after treatment with Cu and Ti salts, and ranged between 11.6 and 14. • The efficiency of the deposited metal oxides is compared on molar basis. - Abstract: Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1–46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  13. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  14. Superhydrophobic copper surfaces fabricated by fatty acid soaps in aqueous solution for excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenlong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Bao, Wenda; Xie, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yiran; Song, Aixin, E-mail: songaixin@sdu.edu.cn; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol. • The fabrication process of superhydrophobic metal surfaces greatly increases the safety in industrial manufacture in commercial scale. • The superhydrophobic copper surfaces show excellent corrosion resistance. - Abstract: A simple and safe one-step immersion method was developed to obtain the stable superhydrophobic copper surfaces with excellent corrosion resistance ability using fatty acids in water-medium instead of ethanol. An organic alkali, N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), was chosen to solve the poor solubility of fatty acids in water and the high Krafft point of carboxylate salts with inorganic counterions. The superhydrophobic property can be realized in a much quicker process (7.5 min) in aqueous solution than in ethanol (more than 2 d), which is universally feasible for the fabrication of superhydrophobic metal surfaces in industry scale, thereby greatly increasing the safety in industrial manufacture.

  15. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  16. Investigation of resistance switching in SiO x RRAM cells using a 3D multi-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Toufik; Mehonic, Adnan; Montesi, Luca; Buckwell, Mark; Kenyon, Anthony; Asenov, Asen

    2018-02-01

    We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space. This work focuses on the promising yet less studied RRAM structures based on silicon-rich silica (SiO x ) RRAMs. We explain the intrinsic nature of resistance switching of the SiO x layer, analyze the effect of self-heating on device performance, highlight the role of the initial vacancy distributions acting as precursors for switching, and also stress the importance of using 3D physics-based models to capture accurately the switching processes. The simulation work is backed by experimental studies. The simulator is useful for improving our understanding of the little-known physics of SiO x resistive memory devices, as well as other oxide-based RRAM systems (e.g. transition metal oxide RRAMs), offering design and optimization capabilities with regard to the reliability and variability of memory cells.

  17. Investigation of resistance switching in SiO x RRAM cells using a 3D multi-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Toufik; Mehonic, Adnan; Montesi, Luca; Buckwell, Mark; Kenyon, Anthony; Asenov, Asen

    2018-02-28

    We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space. This work focuses on the promising yet less studied RRAM structures based on silicon-rich silica (SiO x ) RRAMs. We explain the intrinsic nature of resistance switching of the SiO x layer, analyze the effect of self-heating on device performance, highlight the role of the initial vacancy distributions acting as precursors for switching, and also stress the importance of using 3D physics-based models to capture accurately the switching processes. The simulation work is backed by experimental studies. The simulator is useful for improving our understanding of the little-known physics of SiO x resistive memory devices, as well as other oxide-based RRAM systems (e.g. transition metal oxide RRAMs), offering design and optimization capabilities with regard to the reliability and variability of memory cells.

  18. Removal of micropollutants, facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria in a full-scale retention soil filter receiving combined sewer overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Heß, Stefanie; Lüddeke, Frauke; Sacher, Frank; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined sewer systems collect surface runoff as well as wastewater of industrial and domestic origin. During periods of heavy rainfall the capacity of the sewer system is exceeded and the overflow is discharged into receiving waters without any treatment. Consequently, combined sewer overflow (CSO) is considered as a major source of water pollution. This study investigates the effectiveness of a retention soil filter (RSF) for the removal of micropollutants as well as facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria from CSO. The removal of organic group parameters like total organic carbon was excellent and the removal efficiency for micropollutants of the RSF and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats wastewater of the same origin during dry and normal weather conditions, was comparable. Compounds of high environmental concern like estrogens or certain pharmaceuticals, e.g. diclofenac, were completely eliminated or removed to a high degree during RSF passage. RSF treatment also reduced the number of E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci by 2.7, 2.2 and 2.4 log-units (median values), respectively. Obviously, some Staphylococcus species can better adapt to the conditions of the RSF than others as a shift of the abundance of the different species was observed when comparing the diversity of staphylococci obtained from the RSF influent and effluent. RSF treatment also decreased the absolute number of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci isolates also decreased during passage of the RSF, whereas the percentage of resistant enterococci did not change. For E. coli ampicillin and for enterococci and staphylococci erythromycin determined the antibiotic resistance level. The results demonstrate that RSFs can be considered as an adequate treatment option for CSO. The performance for the removal of micropollutants is comparable with a medium sized WWTP with conventional activated sludge

  19. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  20. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  1. The molten salt reactor adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF 4 -ThF 4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized

  2. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  3. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  4. Root-to-shoot signal transduction in rice under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of salt stress on changes in the level of Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins as signal molecules communicated through root-to-shoot in rice. The study focus to investigate the time related changes in the salt induced ABA and cytokinins accumulation concomitant with the changes in water potential and stomatal conductance of salt stressed plants. Seeds of 3 rice varieties were grown in plastic pots in phytotron. The changes in the level of abscisic acid (ABA), transzeatin riboside (t-zr) and 2-isopentyl adenine (2-ipa) were monitored in xylem sap and leaves of three rice varieties viz. BAS-385 (salt-sensitive), BG-402 (moderately tolerant) and NIAB-6 (tolerant). The salt solution (NaCl,1.2 dS m-1) was added to the rooting medium after transplanting when plants were 50 d old. There was delay in response of stomata to salt treatment in BAS-385 as opposed to earlier increase in leaf resistance in BG-402 and NIAB-6. The stem water potential increased sharply in all the varieties following salt treatment but the decrease in stomatal conductance of leaves preceded the decrease in stem water potential. The concentration of xylem ABA increased significantly greatly reaching a peak in BAS-385 much earlier (24 h of salt treatment) than that of other varieties. The ABA accumulation was delayed and the magnitude of ABA accumulation was greater in BG-402 and NIAB-6.The xylem flux of ABA followed a similar pattern. The concentration of xylem t-zr showed a short- term increase in all the varieties but the magnitude of increase was greater in BAS-385 at all the measurements till 96h of salt treatment .The concentration of xylem 2-ipa was higher in BAS-385 till 48 h of salt treatment . The flux of both the t-zr and 2ipa was greater in the tolerant variety 96h after salt treatment. The basal level of ABA and cytokinin appears to play important role in determining the response of a variety to salt stress. The xylem flux of ABA and cytokinin (2-ipa and t

  5. Influence of extrinsic operational parameters on salt diffusion during ultrasound assisted meat curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguglia, Elena S; Zhang, Zhihang; Burgess, Catherine; Kerry, Joseph P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of geometric parameters of the ultrasound instrument during meat salting in order to enhance salt diffusion and salt distribution in pork meat on a lab scale. The effects of probe size (∅2.5 and 1.3cm) and of different distances between the transducer and the meat sample (0.3, 0.5, and 0.8cm) on NaCl diffusion were investigated. Changes in the moisture content and NaCl gain were used to evaluate salt distribution and diffusion in the samples, parallel and perpendicular to ultrasound propagation direction. Results showed that 0.3cm was the most efficient distance between the probe and the sample to ensure a higher salt diffusion rate. A distance of 0.5cm was however considered as a trade-off distance to ensure salt diffusion and maintenance of meat quality parameters. The enhancement of salt diffusion by ultrasound was observed to decrease with increased horizontal distance from the probe. This study is of valuable importance for meat processing industries willing to apply new technologies on a larger scale and with defined operational standards. The data suggest that the geometric parameters of ultrasound systems can have strong influence on the efficiency of ultrasonic enhancement of NaCl uptake in meat and can be a crucial element in determining salt uptake during meat processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Salt separation of uranium deposits generated from electrorefining in pyro process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Electrorefining is a key step in a pyro processing. Electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps- deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode(electrorefining) and then the recovery of the remaining uranium and TRU(TransUranic) elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode(electrowinning). The uranium ingot is prepared from the deposits after the salt separation. In this study, the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation? distillation of the res