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Sample records for salt induced decay

  1. Electrokinetic removal of Ca(NO3)2 from bricks to avoid salt induced decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Salt-induced decay of masonry is a serious threat to our cultural heritage. In buildings near agricultural land or stables the masonry may suffer seriously from salt-induced decay from nitrates. It was investigated in laboratory scale with a single brick if Ca(NO$-3$/) $-2$/ could be removed by e...

  2. Salt Induced Decay of Masonry and Electrokinetic Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    in brick depending on its water content and salts may be precipitated on the outer wall or concentrated under paint layers covering the surface of the brick. Different types of damage may appear in masonry walls due to these concentrating phenomena. Bricks themselves can be destroyed and the mortar can...... of bricks without increased salt content is very low compared to soils in general. Furthermore in a masonry wall there are boundaries with different chemistry (e.g. pH) that the ions must pass, brick-mortar boundaries. From initial experiments with electrokinetic removal of Ca2+ ions from bricks good......Salt induced decay of bricks is caused when salts exert internal pressures, which exceed the strength of the stone. The presence of aqueous electrolyte solutions in the capillary pores of brick materials can under changing climate conditions cause deterioration of wall structures. Ions move...

  3. Induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain nuclear beta decay transitions normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations can be induced to occur by the application of an electromagnetic field. Such decays can be useful in the controlled production of power, and in fission waste disposal

  4. Guanidinium-Induced Denaturation by Breaking of Salt Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Panman, Matthijs R; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-12-07

    Despite its wide use as a denaturant, the mechanism by which guanidinium (Gdm(+) ) induces protein unfolding remains largely unclear. Herein, we show evidence that Gdm(+) can induce denaturation by disrupting salt bridges that stabilize the folded conformation. We study the Gdm(+) -induced denaturation of a series of peptides containing Arg/Glu and Lys/Glu salt bridges that either stabilize or destabilize the folded conformation. The peptides containing stabilizing salt bridges are found to be denatured much more efficiently by Gdm(+) than the peptides containing destabilizing salt bridges. Complementary 2D-infrared measurements suggest a denaturation mechanism in which Gdm(+) binds to side-chain carboxylate groups involved in salt bridges. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Method and apparatus for induced nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for inducing beta decay transition that are normally inhibited by angular momentum or parity considerations. According to one aspect of this invention a method of inducing nuclear beta decay transition comprises providing a medium which includes atomic nuclei that have forbidden beta decay transition in which the initial and final nuclear states do not have the same intrinsic parity or have total angular momenta which differ by more than one quantum unit of angular momentum, and applying to the medium an electromagnetic field which has an intensity sufficient to provide the angular momentum or intrinsic parity necessary to overcome the forbiddenness of the beta decay transition of the atomic nuclei, thereby to induce the beta decay transitions. According to another aspect of this invention an apparatus for inducing beta decay transition comprises a medium which includes atomic nuclei that have forbidden beta decay transitions in which the initial and final nuclear states do not have the same intrinsic parity or have total angular momenta which differ by more than one quantum unit of angular momentum, field producing means for producing an electromagnetic field in the medium and means for energising the field producing means to establish the field at an intensity sufficient to provide the angular momentum or intrinsic parity necessary to overcome the forbiddenness of the beta decay transitions of the atomic nuclei. The energy released in these induced nuclear transition is useful for the controlled production of power. The induced beta dacay transitions are also useful to reduce the halflives of long-lived fission product wastes from conventional nuclear fission power plants

  6. In-situ survey of decaying azulejos panels and the presence of salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurdes Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern or figurative azulejos are commonly found decorating the interior of churches, palaces and religious buildings in Portugal, representing local productions from the late 16th century onwards. But not every azulejo reached the present day in good condition.. The aim of this research was the survey of in situ forms of degradation, aimed at eventually establishing a relation between the occurrence of soluble salts and decay. Salt samples and small fragments collected in situ were analysed with a scanning electron microscope with microanalysis unit (SEM-EDS for the identification of saline specimens. NaCl was more abundantly found in near-shore properties, along with trona. Magnesium and calcium sulphate were more common in inland properties.

  7. Carbonic acid salts at 25 or 45 degrees C to control loquat decay under shelf life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Serusi, A; Venditti, T; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    Generally recognised as save compounds (G.R.A.S) are attractive substitutes to synthetic chemicals in postharvest control diseases. They meet safety requirements, are cheap and able to be integrated with other disease control technologies. Among G.R.A.S compounds, carbonic acid salts have been investigated on carrots, bell pepper, melons, sweet cherries and their efficacy was also evaluated when combined with biological control agents. Moreover, the possibility to use sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate to prevent P. digitatum an P. italicum spread on Citrus fruit was studied since the begin of the 20th century. We explored the possibility to extend the use of carbonate-bicarbonate salts on loquat fruit in order to control the pathogens and to extend postharvest life. Loquat is a very perishable fruit, susceptible to decay, mechanical damage, moisture and nutritional losses during its postharvest life. We tested the combined effect of temperature and sodium or potassium carbonate-bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate. The fruit was dipped in the salt solutions at variable concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2% w/v) at 25 or 45 degrees C for two minutes and than stored under shelf life conditions (25 degrees C and 70% RH). Decay, weight loss, pH, titrable acidity and sugar content were detected after twelve days. Preliminary data show that the combined treatments were effective in decay control depending on salts. Best results were obtained with 2% potassium and sodium carbonate solution at 25 degrees C. Weight losses were related to treatment temperature and salts concentrations whereas, no differences were detected in the chemical parameters compared to the control.

  8. Free radical scavenging reverses fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenner ZP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium–hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure. We found that both 20% fructose intake and a high-salt diet stimulated 8-isoprostane excretion. The superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic tempol significantly reduced this elevated excretion. Next, we placed rats on a high-salt diet (4% for 1 week in combination with normal rat chow or 20% fructose with or without chronic tempol administration. A fructose plus high-salt diet induced a rapid increase (15 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and reversed high salt suppression of plasma renin activity. Tempol treatment reversed the pressor response and restored high salt suppression of renin. We conclude that fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension is driven by increased renal reactive oxygen species formation associated with salt retention and an enhanced renin–angiotensin system. Keywords: reactive oxygen species, tempol, sodium, renin, oxidative stress

  9. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice ( Oryza sativa L. spp. indica ) roots under isoosmotic conditions. ... The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: ...

  10. High salt diet induces metabolic alterations in multiple biological processes of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines. In addition, HS enhanced glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) and amino acid metabolism and suppressed the TCA (citrate synthase and aconitase) cycle. Finally, HS intake caused up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase), the ratio of NADPH/NADP + , NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production, suggesting that increased oxidative stress was associated with an altered PPP pathway. The metabolic pathways identified may serve as potential targets for the treatment of renal damage. Our findings provide comprehensive biochemical details about the metabolic responses to a high salt diet, which may contribute to the understanding of renal disease and salt-induced hypertension in SS rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cytoprotection by fructose and other ketohexoses during bile salt-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeid, I M; Bronk, S F; Fesmier, P J; Gores, G J

    1997-01-01

    Toxic bile salts cause hepatocyte necrosis at high concentrations and apoptosis at lower concentrations. Although fructose prevents bile salt-induced necrosis, the effect of fructose on bile salt-induced apoptosis is unclear. Our aim was to determine if fructose also protects against bile salt-induced apoptosis. Fructose inhibited glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC)-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum inhibition of 72% +/- 10% at 10 mmol/L. First, we determined if fructose inhibited apoptosis by decreasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intracellular pH (pHi). Although fructose decreased ATP to effects, alterations in the expression of bcl-2, or metal chelation, we next determined if the poorly metabolized ketohexoses, tagatose and sorbose, also inhibited apoptosis; unexpectedly, both ketohexoses inhibited apoptosis. Because bile salt-induced apoptosis and necrosis are inhibited by fructose, these data suggest that similar processes initiate bile salt-induced hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis. In contrast, acidosis, which inhibits necrosis, potentiates apoptosis. Thus, ketohexose-sensitive pathways appear to initiate both bile salt-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis, whereas dissimilar, pH-sensitive, effector mechanisms execute these two different cell death processes.

  12. Physalis minima Leaves Extract Induces Re-Endothelialization in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Nugrahenny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The administration of deoxy-corticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt can induce oxidative stress leading to decrease the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO, increase senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, thus contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Physalis minima L. leaves extract on serum NO levels, circulating EPCs number, and histopathology of tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: rats without any treatment (normal, rats treated with DOCA (10 mg/kgBW s.c. twice weekly and given 0.9% NaCl to drink ad libitum for 6 weeks, and DOCA-salt-induced rats orally supplemented with P. minima leaves extract at doses of 500, 1500, or 2500 mg/kgBW for 4 weeks. Serum NO levels were measured by colorimetry. The number of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+ cells was determined by flow cytometry. The tail artery sections were histologically processed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. DOCA-salt-induced rats showed significantly (p<0.05 decrease in serum NO levels and circulating EPCs number compared to the normal. There was also more detached tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leaves extract at a dose of 500 mg/kgBW significantly (p<0.05 increased serum NO level and circulating EPCs number, and also induced an optimal re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leave extract dose-dependently increases NO bioavailability contributing to enhanced EPCs mobilization, thereby promoting re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats.

  13. In vitro selection of mutants: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicov, I.; Bastola, D.R.; Deutch, C.E.; Pethe, V.V.; Petrusa, L.

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of differentially expressed genes in plants may be involved in inducing tolerance to stress. Isogenic salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant alfalfa lines were investigated for molecular differences in their response to salt. The genes, which are differentially induced by salt in the salt-tolerant alfalfa cells and are also regulated by salt at the whole plant level, were cloned. Both transcriptional and post- transcriptional mechanisms influenced salt-induced product accumulation in the salt-tolerant alfalfa. The salt-tolerant plants doubled proline concentration rapidly in roots, while salt-sensitive plants showed a delayed response. To understand the regulatory system in the salt-tolerant alfalfa, two genes that are expressed in roots were studied. Alfin1 encodes a zinc-finger type putative DNA transcription factor conserved in alfalfa, rice and Arabidopsis, and MsPRP2 encodes a protein that serves as a cell wall- membrane linker in roots. Recombinant Alfin1 protein was selected, amplified, cloned and its consensus sequence was identified. The recombinant Alfin1 also bound specifically to fragments of the MsPRP2 promoter in vitro, containing the Alfin1 binding consensus sequence. The results show unambiguously binding specificity of Alfin1 DNA, supporting its role in gene regulation. Alfin1 function was tested in transformed alfalfa in vivo by over-expressing Alfin1 from 35S CaMV promoter. The transgenic plants appeared normal. However, plants harboring the anti-sense construct did not grow well in soil, indicating that Alfin1 expression was essential. Alfin1 over-expression in transgenic alfalfa led to enhanced levels of MsPRP2 transcript accumulation, demonstrating that Alfin1 functioned in vivo in gene regulation. Since MsPRP2 gene is also induced by salt, it is likely that Alfin1 is an important transcription factor for gene regulation in salt-tolerant alfalfa, and an excellent target for manipulation to improve salt tolerance. (author)

  14. Guanidinium-induced denaturation by breaking of salt bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuzelaar, H.; Panman, M.R.; Woutersen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its wide use as a denaturant, the mechanism by which guanidinium (Gdm+) induces protein unfolding remains largely unclear. Herein, we show evidence that Gdm+ can induce denaturation by disrupting salt bridges that stabilize the folded conformation. We study the Gdm+-​induced denaturation of

  15. GPER activation ameliorates aortic remodeling induced by salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Kashyap, Shreya; Murphy, Brennah; Hutson, Dillion D; Budish, Rebecca A; Trimmer, Emma H; Zimmerman, Margaret A; Trask, Aaron J; Miller, Kristin S; Chappell, Mark C; Lindsey, Sarah H

    2016-04-15

    The mRen2 female rat is an estrogen- and salt-sensitive model of hypertension that reflects the higher pressure and salt sensitivity associated with menopause. We previously showed that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates estrogenic effects in this model. The current study hypothesized that GPER protects against vascular injury during salt loading. Intact mRen2 female rats were fed a normal (NS; 0.5% Na(+)) or high-salt diet (HS; 4% Na(+)) for 10 wk, which significantly increased systolic blood pressure (149 ± 5 vs. 224 ± 8 mmHg;PTreatment with the selective GPER agonist G-1 for 2 wk did not alter salt-sensitive hypertension (216 ± 4 mmHg;P> 0.05) or ex vivo vascular responses to angiotensin II or phenylephrine (P> 0.05). However, G-1 significantly attenuated salt-induced aortic remodeling assessed by media-to-lumen ratio (NS: 0.43; HS+veh: 0.89; HS+G-1: 0.61;P< 0.05). Aortic thickening was not accompanied by changes in collagen, elastin, or medial proliferation. However, HS induced increases in medial layer glycosaminoglycans (0.07 vs. 0.42 mm(2);P< 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (0.11 vs. 0.51 mm(2);P< 0.01), both of which were reduced by G-1 (0.20 mm(2)and 0.23 mm(2); both P< 0.05). We conclude that GPER's beneficial actions in the aorta of salt-loaded mRen2 females occur independently of changes in blood pressure and vasoreactivity. GPER-induced attenuation of aortic remodeling was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Endogenous activation of GPER may protect females from salt- and pressure-induced vascular damage. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Salt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is dependent on elevated blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Liu, F.Q.; Ren, K.Y.; Xiao, H.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, Xi' an, China, Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an, China, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, Xi' an (China); Yang, Z. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Pathology, Xi' an, China, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Yuan, Z.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, Xi' an, China, Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an, China, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, Xi' an (China)

    2014-03-03

    Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13{sup BN} rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure.

  17. Salt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is dependent on elevated blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Liu, F.Q.; Ren, K.Y.; Xiao, H.Y.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13 BN rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure

  18. Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures

  19. Fluid and ionic transport properties of deformed salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.; Tankink, A.J.; Zwart, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    This is a final report on work done on the transport properties of salt during the period 1 January 1984 to 30 June 1985. This work was directed largely at the measurement of creep-induced permeability in salt rock, at determining the permeability persistence/decay characteristics of creep-dilated salt rock under hydrostatic conditions, and at ion migration/retention experiments on both deformed and undeformed material. The permeability work was carried out using both gas (argon) and brine, and involved the design and construction of corresponding permeametry systems for use in conjunction with dilatometric triaxial testing apparatus. Ion migration/retention studies involved the use of contaminant species such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ and TcO 4

  20. UCP3 Ablation Exacerbates High-Salt Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Cardiac Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Lang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excessive salt intake and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH are both critical for the development of hypertension and heart failure. The uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 plays a cardio-protective role in early heart failure development. However, the potential role for UCP3 in salt intake and LVH is unclear. Methods: UCP3-/- and C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal-salt (NS, 0.5% or a high-salt (HS, 8% diet for 24 weeks. The cardiac function, endurance capacity, energy expenditure, and mitochondrial functional capacity were measured in each group. Results: Elevated blood pressure was only observed in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. High salt induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction were observed in both C57BL/6 and UCP3-/- mice. However, the cardiac lesions were more profound in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. Furthermore, HS-fed UCP3-/-mice experienced more severe mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction compared with HS-fed C57BL/6 mice, represented by the decreased volume of oxygen consumption and heat production at the whole-body level. Conclusion: UCP3 protein was involved in the incidence of high-salt induced hypertension and the progression of cardiac dysfunction in the early stages of heart failure. UCP3 ablation exacerbated high-salt-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction.

  1. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Attenuates Salt-Induced Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Wollner, Clayton; Kurth, Theresa; Bukowy, John D; Cowley, Allen W

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the protective effects of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) inhibition by rapamycin on salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We have previously demonstrated that H 2 O 2 is elevated in the kidneys of SS rats. The present study showed a significant upregulation of renal mTORC1 activity in the SS rats fed a 4.0% NaCl for 3 days. In addition, renal interstitial infusion of H 2 O 2 into salt-resistant Sprague Dawley rats for 3 days was also found to stimulate mTORC1 activity independent of a rise of arterial blood pressure. Together, these data indicate that the salt-induced increases of renal H 2 O 2 in SS rats activated the mTORC1 pathway. Daily administration of rapamycin (IP, 1.5 mg/kg per day) for 21 days reduced salt-induced hypertension from 176.0±9.0 to 153.0±12.0 mm Hg in SS rats but had no effect on blood pressure salt sensitivity in Sprague Dawley treated rats. Compared with vehicle, rapamycin reduced albumin excretion rate in SS rats from 190.0±35.0 to 37.0±5.0 mg/d and reduced the renal infiltration of T lymphocytes (CD3 + ) and macrophages (ED1 + ) in the cortex and medulla. Renal hypertrophy and cell proliferation were also reduced in rapamycin-treated SS rats. We conclude that enhancement of intrarenal H 2 O 2 with a 4.0% NaCl diet stimulates the mTORC1 pathway that is necessary for the full development of the salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in the SS rat. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Angiotensin II protects primary rat hepatocytes against bile salt-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Karimian

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Angiotensin II (AT-II is a pro-fibrotic compound that acts via membrane-bound receptors (AT-1R/AT-2R and thereby activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. AT-II receptor blockers (ARBs are thus important candidates in the treatment of liver fibrosis. However, multiple case reports suggest that AT-1R blockers may induce hepatocyte injury. Therefore, we investigated the effect of AT-II and its receptor blockers on cytokine-, oxidative stress- and bile salt-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to TNF-α/Actinomycin D, the ROS-generating agent menadione or the bile salts: glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA and tauro-lithocholic acid-3 sulfate (TLCS, to induce apoptosis. AT-II (100 nmol/L was added 10 minutes prior to the cell death-inducing agent. AT-1R antagonists (Sartans and the AT-2R antagonist PD123319 were used at 1 µmol/L. Apoptosis (caspase-3 activity, acridine orange staining and necrosis (Sytox green staining were quantified. Expression of CHOP (marker for ER stress and AT-II receptor mRNAs were quantified by Q-PCR. AT-II dose-dependently reduced GCDCA-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes (-50%, p<0.05 without inducing necrosis. In addition, AT-II reduced TLCS-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes (-50%, p<0.05. However, AT-II did not suppress TNF/Act-D and menadione-induced apoptosis. Only the AT-1R antagonists abolished the protective effect of AT-II against GCDCA-induced apoptosis. AT-II increased phosphorylation of ERK and a significant reversal of the protective effect of AT-II was observed when signaling kinases, including ERK, were inhibited. Moreover, AT-II prevented the GCDCA-induced expression of CHOP (the marker of the ER-mediated apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin II protects hepatocytes from bile salt-induced apoptosis through a combined activation of PI3-kinase, MAPKs, PKC pathways and inhibition of bile salt-induced ER stress. Our results suggest a mechanism for the observed hepatocyte

  3. Experimental study of ion-induced nucleation by radon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, F.; Hopke, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    In the environment, the presence of ions from natural radioactivity may increase the rate of new particle formation through ion-induced nucleation. A thermal diffusion cloud chamber (TDCC) has been built to experimentally study ion-induced nucleation where the ions are produced by gaseous radioactive sources. The critical supersaturation values and nucleation rates for methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol vapors on ions produced within the volume of the chamber by alpha decay of 222 Rn have been measured quantitatively at various radioactivity concentrations and supersaturations. The presence of ion tracks and the effect of an external electric field were also investigated. The alpha tracks and ion-induced nucleation formed by 222 Rn decay become visible at the critical supersaturation that is below the value needed for homogeneous nucleation. At this supersaturation, the nucleation rates increase substantially with increasing 222 Rn at low activity concentrations, but attain limiting values at higher concentrations. The experimental results indicate that the ionization by radon decay will promote ion-cluster formation and lower the free energy barriers. The formation of visible droplets is strongly dependent on the supersaturation. This study also confirms that the external electric field has a significant effect on the observed rates of nucleation

  4. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  5. Interannual Variability of the Sea-Ice-Induced Salt Flux in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Coon, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Greenland Sea is one of the few places in the World Ocean where deep convection takes place. The convection process is initiated by a density increase originating from rapid cooling and/or a salt flux to the upper layer of the ocean due to brine rejection from ice formation (Rudels, 1990......; Visbeck and others, 1995). The predominant ice types in the Greenland Sea arc frazil/grease ice and pancake ice. A numerical model has been developed relating ice formation and decay of these ice types as observed by the SMMR and SSM/I microwave radiometers and evaluating their contribution to salt...... redistribution in the Greenland Sea. The model has been used to calculate spatial distribution of the annual integrated net salt flux to the Greenland Sea from ice production and advection for the period 1979-97....

  6. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ( 35 S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

  7. Measurement of Radon-Induced Backgrounds in the NEXT Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novella, P.; et al.

    2018-04-02

    The measurement of the internal 222Rn activity in the NEXT-White detector during the so-called Run-II period with 136Xe-depleted xenon is discussed in detail, together with its implications for double beta decay searches in NEXT. The activity is measured through the alpha production rate induced in the fiducial volume by 222Rn and its alpha-emitting progeny. The specific activity is measured to be $(37.5\\pm 2.3~\\mathrm{(stat.)}\\pm 5.9~\\mathrm{(syst.)})$~mBq/m$^3$. Radon-induced electrons have also been characterized from the decay of the 214Bi daughter ions plating out on the cathode of the time projection chamber. From our studies, we conclude that radon-induced backgrounds are sufficiently low to enable a successful NEXT-100 physics program, as the projected rate contribution should not exceed 0.2~counts/yr in the neutrinoless double beta decay sample.

  8. Maternal diet during gestation and lactation modifies the severity of salt-induced hypertension and renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Aron M; Mattson, David L; Liu, Pengyuan; Cabacungan, Erwin; Skelton, Meredith M; Kurth, Theresa M; Yang, Chun; Endres, Bradley T; Klotz, Jason; Liang, Mingyu; Cowley, Allen W

    2015-02-01

    Environmental exposure of parents or early in life may affect disease development in adults. We found that hypertension and renal injury induced by a high-salt diet were substantially attenuated in Dahl SS/JrHsdMcwiCrl (SS/Crl) rats that had been maintained for many generations on the grain-based 5L2F diet compared with SS/JrHsdMcwi rats (SS/Mcw) maintained on the casein-based AIN-76A diet (mean arterial pressure, 116±9 versus 154±25 mm Hg; urinary albumin excretion, 23±12 versus 170±80 mg/d). RNAseq analysis of the renal outer medulla identified 129 and 82 genes responding to a high-salt diet uniquely in SS/Mcw and SS/Crl rats, respectively, along with minor genetic differences between the SS substrains. The 129 genes responding to salt in the SS/Mcw strain included numerous genes with homologs associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or renal disease in human. To narrow the critical window of exposure, we performed embryo-transfer experiments in which single-cell embryos from 1 colony (SS/Mcw or SS/Crl) were transferred to surrogate mothers from the other colony, with parents and surrogate mothers maintained on their respective original diet. All offspring were fed the AIN-76A diet after weaning. Salt-induced hypertension and renal injury were substantially exacerbated in rats developed from SS/Crl embryos transferred to SS/Mcw surrogate mothers. Conversely, salt-induced hypertension and renal injury were significantly attenuated in rats developed from SS/Mcw embryos transferred to SS/Crl surrogate mothers. Together, the data suggest that maternal diet during the gestational-lactational period has substantial effects on the development of salt-induced hypertension and renal injury in adult SS rats. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Jasmonate mediates salt-induced nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate (JA, as an important signal, plays a key role in multiple processes of plant growth, development and stress response. Nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. are essential secondary metabolites. Whether environmental factors control nicotine biosynthesis and the underlying mechanism remains previously unreported. Here, we applied physiological and biochemical approaches to investigate how salt stress affects nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco. We found that salt stress induced the biosynthesis of JA, which subsequently triggered the activation of JA-responsive gene expression and, ultimately, nicotine synthesis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the existence of many NtMYC2a-recognized G-box motifs in the promoter regions of NtLOX, NtAOS, NtAOC and NtOPR genes. Applying exogenous JA increased nicotine content, while suppressing JA biosynthesis reduced nicotine biosynthesis. Salt treatment could not efficiently induce nicotine biosynthesis in transgenic anti-COI1 tobacco plants. These results demonstrate that JA acts as the essential signal which triggers nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco after salt stress.

  10. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winicov, I [Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Univ. of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. `Pokkali`. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with {+-} 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from `Pokkali` seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs.

  11. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicov, I.

    1997-01-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Neutrino induced decoherence and variation in nuclear decay rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, Douglas; Inan, Nader; Chiao, Raymond Y.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has proposed that the interaction between ordinary matter and a stochastic gravitational background can lead to the decoherence of large aggregates of ordinary matter. In this work we point out that these arguments can be carried over to a stochastic neutrino background but with the Planck scale of the gravitational decoherence replaced by the weak scale. This implies that it might be possible to observe such neutrino induced decoherence on a small, microscopic system rather than a macroscopic system as is the case for gravitationally induced decoherence. In particular we suggest that neutrino decoherence could be linked with observed variations in the decay rates of certain nuclei. Finally we point out that this proposed neutrino induced decoherence can be considered the complement of the Mikheev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. - Highlights: • Review of decoherence arguments for matter moving in a stochastic gravitational background. • Application of these decoherence arguments to neutrinos and the weak interaction scale. • Suggestions of a connection between neutrino decoherence and variable nuclear decay rates. • Connection of neutron decoherence as the inverse of the MSW effect

  13. Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in barley leaves using the annealingcontrol- primer-based GeneFishing technique. S Lee, K Lee, K Kim, GJ Choi, SH Yoon, HC Ji, S Seo, YC Lim, N Ahsan ...

  14. Penguin effects induced by the two-Higgs-doublet model and charmless B-meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.J.; Joshi, G.C.; Matsuda, M.

    1991-01-01

    Nonstandard physical effects through the penguin diagram induced by the charged Higgs scalar contribution in the two-Higgs-doublet model are analysed. Since non-leptonic B-decay processes to final states consisting of s+s+anti s are induced only through the penguin diagram they are important tests of such contributions. We compare these decays including the non-standard two-Higgs-doublet contribution with the standard model results, which arise from the magnetic gluon transistion term. The charged Higgs contribution can give a sizable enhancement to the branching fraction of B-meson charmless decay. (orig.)

  15. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... of equations and accounting for the chemical interactions between the species in the pore solution and the solid matrix. Due to their high abundance in the natural environment, chlorides, nitrates and sulfates are considered the main ions responsible to the salt decay processes in buildings materials...

  16. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed

  17. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  18. Japanese traditional miso soup attenuates salt-induced hypertension and its organ damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Mariko; Toda, Natsuko; Tamura, Yuki; Terakado, Shouko; Ueno, Mai; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effects of long-term miso soup drinking on salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Dahl S rats were divided into four groups that consumed 1) water, 2) a 0.9% NaCl solution, 3) a 1.3% sodium NaCl solution, or 4) miso soup containing 1.3% NaCl. They were followed for 8 wk. Systolic blood pressure and hypertensive organ damage were determined. Systolic blood pressure increased in an age- and dose-dependent manner in Dahl S rats drinking salt solutions. The systolic blood pressure increase was significantly less in the Dahl S rats that drank miso soup, although the ultimate cumulative salt loading was greater than that in the Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. This blood pressure decrease was associated with a morphologic attenuation of glomerular sclerosis in the kidney and collagen infiltration in the heart. Urinary protein excretions were less in the miso group than in the rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. The fractional excretion of sodium was increased and that of potassium was decreased in Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution, and these effects were reversed in rats given miso soup toward the values of the control. We found that long-term miso soup drinking attenuates the blood pressure increase in salt-induced hypertension with organ damage. This may be caused by a possible retardation of sodium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract or by the direct effects of nutrients in the miso soup from soybeans. The decrease was associated with decreases in cardiovascular and renal damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in a Novel Molten Salt Aerosol System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ammon N; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2017-04-01

    In the pyrochemical separation of used nuclear fuel (UNF), fission product, rare earth, and actinide chlorides accumulate in the molten salt electrolyte over time. Measuring this salt composition in near real-time is advantageous for operational efficiency, material accountability, and nuclear safeguards. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been proposed and demonstrated as a potential analytical approach for molten LiCl-KCl salts. However, all the studies conducted to date have used a static surface approach which can lead to issues with splashing, low repeatability, and poor sample homogeneity. In this initial study, a novel molten salt aerosol approach has been developed and explored to measure the composition of the salt via LIBS. The functionality of the system has been demonstrated as well as a basic optimization of the laser energy and nebulizer gas pressure used. Initial results have shown that this molten salt aerosol-LIBS system has a great potential as an analytical technique for measuring the molten salt electrolyte used in this UNF reprocessing technology.

  20. DNA-incorporated 125I induces more than one double-strand break per decay in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmroth, Kecke; Stenerlöw, Bo

    2005-04-01

    The Auger-electron emitter 125I releases cascades of 20 electrons per decay that deposit a great amount of local energy, and for DNA-incorporated 125I, approximately one DNA double-strand break (DSB) is produced close to the decay site. To investigate the potential of 125I to induce additional DSBs within adjacent chromatin structures in mammalian cells, we applied DNA fragment-size analysis based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of hamster V79-379A cells exposed to DNA-incorporated 125IdU. After accumulation of decays at -70 degrees C in the presence of 10% DMSO, there was a non-random distribution of DNA fragments with an excess of fragments even higher. In contrast, using a conventional low-resolution assay without measurement of smaller DNA fragments, the yield was close to one DSB/decay. We conclude that a large fraction of the DSBs induced by DNA-incorporated 125I are nonrandomly distributed and that significantly more than one DSB/decay is induced in an intact cell. Thus, in addition to DSBs produced close to the decay site, DSBs may also be induced within neighboring chromatin fibers, releasing smaller DNA fragments that are not detected by conventional DSB assays.

  1. Salt-Induced Physical Weathering of Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-12-01

    Salt weathering is recognized as an important mechanism that contributes to the modeling and shaping of the earth’s surface, in a range of environments spanning from the Sahara desert to Antarctica. It also contributes to the degradation and loss of cultural heritage, particularly carved stone and historic buildings. Soluble salts have recently been suggested to contribute to the shaping of rock outcrops on Mars and are being identified in other planetary bodies such as the moons of Jupiter (Europa and IO)1. Soluble salts such as sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and carbonates of alkali and alkali earth metals can crystallize within the porous system of rocks and building stones, exerting sufficient pressure against the pore walls to fracture the substrate. This physical damage results in increased porosity, thus providing a higher surface area for salt-enhanced chemical weathering. To better understand how salt-induced physical weathering occurs, we have studied the crystallization of the particularly damaging salt, sodium sulfate2, in a model system (a sintered porous glass of controlled porosity and pore size). For this elusive task of studying sub-surface crystallization in pores, we combined a variety of instruments to identify which phases crystallized during evaporation and calculated the supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure that caused damage. The heat of crystallization was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), providing the timing of crystallization events and phase transitions3, while the evaporation rate was recorded using thermal gravimetry (TG). These methods enabled calculation of the sodium sulfate concentration in solution at every point during evaporation. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) performs synchrotron-like experiments in a normal lab by using a Molybdenum X-ray source (more than 5 times more penetrative than conventional Copper source). Using this method, we determined that the first phase to

  2. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pöyry, Sanja; Róg, Tomasz; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl(2)) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering......, and membrane electrostatic potential. The changes induced by salt are more prominent in dynamical properties related to ion binding and formation of ion-lipid complexes and lipid aggregates, as rotational diffusion of lipids is slowed down by ions, especially in the case of CaCl(2). In the same spirit, lateral...... diffusion of lipids is slowed down rather considerably for increasing concentration of CaCl(2). Both findings for dynamic properties can be traced to the binding of ions with lipid head groups and the related changes in interaction patterns in the headgroup region, where the binding of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions...

  3. Induced singularities of mass distributions of unstable particles connected with cascade decay and the CP-problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalfin, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of the strong energy-momentum conservation law, the induced singularities of mass distributions of unstable particles connected with cascade decay are investigated. The possible solution of the CP-problem in the decay of Kaon neutral - Antikaon neutral mesons based on the mechanism of the induced singularities is proposed

  4. Analysis of decay of radicals induced in irradiated foods during long storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishita, Keigo; Kawamura, Shoei; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    By electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed free radicals in γ-ray irradiated foods ; black pepper, green coffee bean, cereal flour and ginseng. We also analyzed the decay behavior of radiation induced free radicals during long storage. The ESR spectrum of experimental irradiated foods consists of a sextet signal centered at g=2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position and a singlet signal at g=4.0. The ESR spectrum of the cereal flour sample showed only singlet signal at g=2.0. The singlet signal at g=2.0 is originated from organic free radicals and its peak intensity showed the dependence of γ-ray radiation dose levels. But the signal intensity was decreased during storage. Only after 3 hours of radiation treatment the peak intensity was decreased fast and after that the intensity was decreased slowly. The analysis of radical decay process using the simulation methods based on the theory of reaction speed, the three decay behavior was showed. It is considered that at least three or more kinds of radicals were induced in irradiated foods and in decay during long time storage. (author)

  5. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  6. The relative importance of relativistic induced interactions in the beta decay of 170Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, D.; Cristu, M.I.; Holan, S.; Faessler, A.

    1982-09-01

    The log ft-values, the spectrum shape functions, and the beta-gamma angular correlation coefficients of the 170 Tm beta decay are computed in the framework of relativistic formfactor formalism using asymmetric rotor model wavefunctions. Main vector and axial vector hadron currents being strongly hindered, the relative importance of induced interaction matrix elements is accurately estimated. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the beta decay observables when the main induced interaction terms were taken into account. The contribution of the pseudoscalar term was found insignificant. (authors)

  7. Electro-desalination of sulfate contaminated carbonaceous sandstone – risk for salt induced decay during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-sulphate is known to cause severe stone damage. This paper is focused on removal of this salt from carbonaceous sandstone by electro-desalination (ED). The research questions are related to possible stone damage during ED and subsequently suction cycles are made in distilled water before......, during and after ED. During suction in water the salts are concentrated in the upper part of the sandstone. After 2 days of treatment the average water soluble SO42- concentration was half the initial and for this sample corners were damaged as was the case for the reference stone. After 4 days of ED...... in the poultice with carbonate. The acid would be highly damaging to the carbonaceous sandstone as the binder-CaCO3 is soluble in acid. From pH measurements of the poultice it seems as if the acid is buffered well, as pH is still slightly alkaline after ED, but this is a measurement of the average pH and thus...

  8. Inactivation of Ca2+-induced ciliary reversal by high-salt extraction in the cilia of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutomi, Osamu; Seki, Makoto; Nakamura, Shogo; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Munenori

    2013-10-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) induces ciliary reversal and backward swimming in Paramecium. However, it is not known how the Ca(2+) signal controls the motor machinery to induce ciliary reversal. We found that demembranated cilia on the ciliated cortical sheets from Paramecium caudatum lost the ability to undergo ciliary reversal after brief extraction with a solution containing 0.5 M KCl. KNO(3), which is similar to KCl with respect to chaotropic effect; it had the same effect as that of KCl on ciliary response. Cyclic AMP antagonizes Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal. Limited trypsin digestion prevents endogenous A-kinase and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of an outer arm dynein light chain and induces ciliary reversal. However, the trypsin digestion prior to the high-salt extraction did not affect the inhibition of Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal caused by the high-salt extraction. Furthermore, during the course of the high-salt extraction, some axonemal proteins were extracted from ciliary axonemes, suggesting that they may be responsible for Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal.

  9. Polymer- and salt-induced toroids of hexagonal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink, J; Odijk, T

    1995-01-01

    A model is proposed for polymer- and salt-induced toroidal condensates of DNA, based on a recent theory of the undulation enhancement of the electrostatic interaction in the bulk hexagonal phase of semiflexible polyions. In a continuum approximation, the thermodynamic potential of a monomolecular toroid may be split up in bulk, surface, and curvature contributions. With the help of an approximate analytical minimization procedure, the optimal torus dimensions are calculated as a function of t...

  10. Characterization of the effects of continuous salt processing on the performance of molten salt fusion breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.

    1984-05-01

    Several continuous salt processing options are available for use in molten salt fusion breeder blanket designs. The effects of processing on blanket performance have been assessed for three levels of processing and various equilibrium uranium concentrations in the salt. A one-dimensional model of the blanket was used in the neutronics analysis which incorporated transport calculations with time-dependent isotope generation and depletion calculations. The level of salt processing was found to have little effect on the behavior of the blanket during reactor operation; however, significant effects were observed during the decay period after reactor shutdown

  11. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were ...

  12. Phonon-mediated decay of an atom in a surface-induced potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kien, Fam Le; Hakuta, K.; Dutta Gupta, S.

    2007-01-01

    We study phonon-mediated transitions between translational levels of an atom in a surface-induced potential. We present a general master equation governing the dynamics of the translational states of the atom. In the framework of the Debye model, we derive compact expressions for the rates for both upward and downward transitions. Numerical calculations for the transition rates are performed for a deep silica-induced potential allowing for a large number of bound levels as well as free states of a cesium atom. The total absorption rate is shown to be determined mainly by the bound-to-bound transitions for deep bound levels and by bound-to-free transitions for shallow bound levels. Moreover, the phonon emission and absorption processes can be orders of magnitude larger for deep bound levels as compared to the shallow bound ones. We also study various types of transitions from free states. We show that, for thermal atomic cesium with a temperature in the range from 100 μK to 400 μK in the vicinity of a silica surface with a temperature of 300 K, the adsorption (free-to-bound decay) rate is about two times larger than the heating (free-to-free upward decay) rate, while the cooling (free-to-free downward decay) rate is negligible

  13. Salt-induced changes in cardiac phosphoproteome in a rat model of chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiu Su

    Full Text Available Heart damage is widely present in patients with chronic kidney disease. Salt diet is the most important environmental factor affecting development of chronic renal failure and cardiovascular diseases. The proteins involved in chronic kidney disease -induced heart damage, especially their posttranslational modifications, remain largely unknown to date. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (chronic renal failure model or sham operation were treated for 2 weeks with a normal-(0.4% NaCl, or high-salt (4% NaCl diet. We employed TiO2 enrichment, iTRAQ labeling and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy for phosphoproteomic profiling of left ventricular free walls in these animals. A total of 1724 unique phosphopeptides representing 2551 non-redundant phosphorylation sites corresponding to 763 phosphoproteins were identified. During normal salt feeding, 89 (54% phosphopeptides upregulated and 76 (46% phosphopeptides downregulated in chronic renal failure rats relative to sham rats. In chronic renal failure rats, high salt intake induced upregulation of 84 (49% phosphopeptides and downregulation of 88 (51% phosphopeptides. Database searches revealed that most of the identified phospholproteins were important signaling molecules such as protein kinases, receptors and phosphatases. These phospholproteins were involved in energy metabolism, cell communication, cell differentiation, cell death and other biological processes. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes analysis revealed functional links among 15 significantly regulated phosphoproteins in chronic renal failure rats compared to sham group, and 23 altered phosphoproteins induced by high salt intake. The altered phosphorylation levels of two proteins involved in heart damage, lamin A and phospholamban were validated. Expression of the downstream genes of these two proteins, desmin and SERCA2a, were also analyzed.

  14. Role of abscisic acid in strigolactone-induced salt stress tolerance in arbuscular mycorrhizal Sesbania cannabina seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cheng-Gang; Kong, Cun-Cui; Xie, Zhi-Hong

    2018-05-03

    Strigolactones (SLs) are considered to be a novel class of phytohormone involved in plant defense responses. Currently, their relationships with other plant hormones, such as abscisic acid (ABA), during responses to salinity stress are largely unknown. In this study, the relationship between SL and ABA during the induction of H 2 O 2 - mediated tolerance to salt stress were studied in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) Sesbania cannabina seedlings. The SL levels increased after ABA treatments and decreased when ABA biosynthesis was inhibited in AM plants. Additionally, the expression levels of SL-biosynthesis genes in AM plants increased following treatments with exogenous ABA and H 2 O 2 . Furthermore, ABA-induced SL production was blocked by a pre-treatment with dimethylthiourea, which scavenges H 2 O 2 . In contrast, ABA production was unaffected by dimethylthiourea. Abscisic acid induced only partial and transient increases in the salt tolerance of TIS108 (a SL synthesis inhibitor) treated AM plants, whereas SL induced considerable and prolonged increases in salt tolerance after a pre-treatment with tungstate. These results strongly suggest that ABA is regulating the induction of salt tolerance by SL in AM S. cannabina seedlings.

  15. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance

  16. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance.

  17. Code ACTIVE for calculation of the transmutation, induced activity and decay heat in neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, Kimihiro; Harada, Yuhei; Asami, Naoto.

    1976-03-01

    The computer code ACTIVE has been prepared for calculation of the transmutation rate, induced activity and decay heat. Calculations are carried out with activation chain and spatial distribution of neutron energy spectrum. The spatial distribution of secondary gamma-ray source due to the unstable nuclides is also obtainable. Special attension is paid to the short life decays. (auth.)

  18. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Miso (Japanese soybean paste) soup attenuates salt-induced sympathoexcitation and left ventricular dysfunction in mice with chronic pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koji; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamic mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway is activated in mice with chronic pressure overload (CPO). When this activation is combined with high salt intake, it leads to sympathoexcitation, hypertension, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Salt intake is thus an important factor that contributes to heart failure. Miso, a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans, rice, wheat, or oats, can attenuate salt-induced hypertension in rats. However, its effects on CPO mice with salt-induced sympathoexcitation and LV dysfunction are unclear. Here, we investigated whether miso has protective effects in these mice. We also evaluated mechanisms associated with the hypothalamic MR-AT1R pathway. Aortic banding was used to produce CPO, and a sham operation was performed for controls. At 2 weeks after surgery, the mice were given water containing high NaCl levels (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) for 4 weeks. The high salt loading in CPO mice increased excretion of urinary norepinephrine (uNE), a marker of sympathetic activity, in an NaCl concentration-dependent manner; however, this was not observed in Sham mice. Subsequently, CPO mice were administered 1.0% NaCl water (CPO-H) or miso soup (1.0% NaCl equivalent, CPO-miso). The expression of hypothalamic MR, serum glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (SGK-1), and AT1R was higher in the CPO-H mice than in the Sham mice; however, the expression of these proteins was attenuated in the CPO-miso group. Although the CPO-miso mice had higher sodium intake, salt-induced sympathoexcitation was lower in these mice than in the CPO-H group. Our findings indicate that regular intake of miso soup attenuates salt-induced sympathoexcitation in CPO mice via inhibition of the hypothalamic MR-AT1R pathway.

  20. Rapid insight into heating-induced phase transformations in the solid state of the calcium salt of atorvastatin using multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Kwok, Kaho

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin.......To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin....

  1. The decay of hot nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, B.; Mignerey, A.C.; Madani, H.; Marchetti, A.A.; Colonna, M.; DiToro, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decay of hot nuclei formed in lanthanum-induced reactions utilizing inverse kinematics has been studied from E/A = 35 to 55 MeV. At each bombarding energy studied, the probability for the multiple emission of complex fragments has been found to be independent of target. Global features (total charge, source velocity) of the reaction La + Al at E/A = 45 MeV have been reproduced by coupling a dynamical model to study the collision stage of the reaction to a statistical model of nuclear decay

  2. Bile salt-induced increases in duodenal brush-border membrane proton permeability, fluidity, and fragility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.L.; Hirst, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    Rabbit duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles were treated in vitro with deoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate, or taurodeoxycholate. Intravesicular [14C]glucose space at equilibrium, 0.54 microliters/mg protein, was reduced by exposure to the three bile salts in a concentration (0.1-5.0 mM)-dependent manner, equatable with increased membrane fragility. Net proton permeability (Pnet), determined by acridine orange fluorescence quenching, was increased from 6.3 x 10(-4) cm/sec in untreated vesicles, by approximately 120, 150, and 170%, by treatment with bile salts at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The three bile salts were equipotent. The increases in membrane fragility and Pnet were not accompanied by significant increases in membrane fluidity, as assessed from steady-state and time-resolved diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy. The data demonstrate direct effects of bile salts on duodenal apical membrane fragility and proton permeability that are likely to be early events in bile salt-induced mucosal damage

  3. Penguin effects induced by the two-Higgs-doublet model and charmless B-meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.J.; Joshi, G.C.; Matsuda, M.

    1991-03-01

    Nonstandard physical effects through the penguin diagram induced by the charged Higgs scalar contribution in the two-Higgs-doublet model are analysed. The non-leptonic β-decay processes including the non-standard two-Higgs-doublet contribution are compared with the standard model results, which arise from the magnetic gluon transition term. The charged Higgs contribution gives a sizable enhancement to the branching fractions of β-meson charmless decay. 13 refs., 4 figs

  4. Feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for classification of sea salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Man Minh; Cui, Sheng; Yoo, Jonghyun; Han, Song-Hee; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Nam, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yonghoon

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a fast, reliable classification tool for sea salts. For 11 kinds of sea salts, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and aluminum (Al), concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the LIBS spectra were recorded in the narrow wavelength region between 760 and 800 nm where K (I), Mg (I), Ca (II), Al (I), and cyanide (CN) band emissions are observed. The ICP-AES measurements revealed that the K, Mg, Ca, and Al concentrations varied significantly with the provenance of each salt. The relative intensities of the K (I), Mg (I), Ca (II), and Al (I) peaks observed in the LIBS spectra are consistent with the results using ICP-AES. The principal component analysis of the LIBS spectra provided the score plot with quite a high degree of clustering. This indicates that classification of sea salts by chemometric analysis of LIBS spectra is very promising. Classification models were developed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and evaluated. In addition, the Al (I) peaks enabled us to discriminate between different production methods of the salts. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  5. Grazing management can counteract the impacts of climate change-induced sea level rise on salt marsh-dependent waterbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Stjernholm, Michael; Clausen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    with these changes. In addition, we quantify the areal extent of inadequate salt marsh management in four EU Special Protection Areas for Birds, and demonstrate concurrent population dynamics in four species relying on managed habitats. We conclude by investigating potential compensation for climate change......1) Climate change–induced rises in sea level threaten to drastically reduce the areal extent of important salt marsh habitats for large numbers of waterfowl and waders. Furthermore, recent changes in management practice have rendered existent salt marshes unfavourable to many birds, as lack...... (around 1 cow per hectare) is an important initiative to counteract the accelerating climate change–induced habitat loss in near-coastal areas across the globe, and to secure priority salt marsh habitats that support internationally important populations of breeding, wintering and staging waterfowl...

  6. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamines participate in silicon-induced salt tolerance in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lina; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Fujihara, Shinsuke; Itai, Akihiro; Den, Xiping; Zhang, Suiqi

    2016-02-01

    Silicon (Si) is generally considered a beneficial element for the growth of higher plants, especially under stress conditions, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Si improves salt tolerance through mediating important metabolism processes rather than acting as a mere mechanical barrier. Seedlings of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing in hydroponic culture were treated with NaCl (100 mm) combined with or without Si (0.83 mm). The result showed that supplemental Si enhanced sorghum salt tolerance by decreasing Na(+) accumulation. Simultaneously, polyamine (PA) levels were increased and ethylene precursor (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid: ACC) concentrations were decreased. Several key PA synthesis genes were up-regulated by Si under salt stress. To further confirm the role of PA in Si-mediated salt tolerance, seedlings were exposed to spermidine (Spd) or a PA synthesis inhibitor (dicyclohexylammonium sulphate, DCHA) combined with salt and Si. Exogenous Spd showed similar effects as Si under salt stress whereas exogenous DCHA eliminated Si-enhanced salt tolerance and the beneficial effect of Si in decreasing Na(+) accumulation. These results indicate that PAs and ACC are involved in Si-induced salt tolerance in sorghum and provide evidence that Si plays an active role in mediating salt tolerance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rare decays and CP asymmetries in charged B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of loop induced rare decays and the rate asymmetry due to CP violation in charged B Decays in reviewed. After considering b → sγ and b → se + e - decays, the asymmetries for pure penguin process are estimated first. A larger asymmetry can result in those modes where a tree diagram and a penguin diagram interfere, however these estimates are necessarily model dependent. Estimates of Cabbibo suppressed penguins are also considered

  8. Salt bridge interactions within the β2 integrin α7 helix mediate force-induced binding and shear resistance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Linda; Li, Ning; Shu, Xinyu; Zhou, Lüwen; Lü, Shouqin; Chen, Shenbao; Mao, Debin; Long, Mian

    2018-01-01

    The functional performance of the αI domain α 7 helix in β 2 integrin activation depends on the allostery of the α 7 helix, which axially slides down; therefore, it is critical to elucidate what factors regulate the allostery. In this study, we determined that there were two conservative salt bridge interaction pairs that constrain both the upper and bottom ends of the α 7 helix. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for three β 2 integrin members, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; α L β 2 ), macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1; α M β 2 ) and α x β 2 , indicated that the magnitude of the salt bridge interaction is related to the stability of the αI domain and the strength of the corresponding force-induced allostery. The disruption of the salt bridge interaction, especially with double mutations in both salt bridges, significantly reduced the force-induced allostery time for all three members. The effects of salt bridge interactions of the αI domain α 7 helix on β 2 integrin conformational stability and allostery were experimentally validated using Mac-1 constructs. The results demonstrated that salt bridge mutations did not alter the conformational state of Mac-1, but they did increase the force-induced ligand binding and shear resistance ability, which was consistent with MD simulations. This study offers new insight into the importance of salt bridge interaction constraints of the αI domain α 7 helix and external force for β 2 integrin function. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Influence of the external conditions on salt retention and pressure-induced electrical potential measured across a composite membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence on these paramet......Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence......, r = 1, 0.5 and 0.1), respectively. Results show that J(v), S and Delta E values slightly increase when the velocity of the feed solution increases, but the mixed electrolytes strongly affect both salt rejection and pressure-induced electrical potential. A change in the sign of both parameters...... with respect to the value determined with single electrolytes at the same concentration was obtained, which is attributed to a strong coupling among the fluxes of individual ions and their distribution in the membrane when transport of mixed salt is studied. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Salt-induced stabilization of EIN3/EIL1 confers salinity tolerance by deterring ROS accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Peng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene has been regarded as a stress hormone to regulate myriad stress responses. Salinity stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and development. But how ethylene signaling is involved in plant response to salt stress is poorly understood. Here we showed that Arabidopsis plants pretreated with ethylene exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt stress. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that EIN3 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 and EIL1 (EIN3-LIKE 1, two ethylene-activated transcription factors, are necessary and sufficient for the enhanced salt tolerance. High salinity induced the accumulation of EIN3/EIL1 proteins by promoting the proteasomal degradation of two EIN3/EIL1-targeting F-box proteins, EBF1 and EBF2, in an EIN2-independent manner. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis identified a list of SIED (Salt-Induced and EIN3/EIL1-Dependent genes that participate in salt stress responses, including several genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers. We performed a genetic screen for ein3 eil1-like salt-hypersensitive mutants and identified 5 EIN3 direct target genes including a previously unknown gene, SIED1 (At5g22270, which encodes a 93-amino acid polypeptide involved in ROS dismissal. We also found that activation of EIN3 increased peroxidase (POD activity through the direct transcriptional regulation of PODs expression. Accordingly, ethylene pretreatment or EIN3 activation was able to preclude excess ROS accumulation and increased tolerance to salt stress. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the molecular action of ethylene signaling to enhance plant salt tolerance, and elucidates the transcriptional network of EIN3 in salt stress response.

  11. Protective role of AgRP neuron's PDK1 against salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Nakata, Masanori; Lu, Ming; Nakae, Jun; Okada, Takashi; Ogawa, Wataru; Yada, Toshihiko

    2018-06-12

    In the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) in AgRP neurons serves as a major signaling molecule for leptin and insulin, the hormones regulating feeding behavior, energy homeostasis and circulation. However, it is unclear whether PDK1 in AGRP neurons is also involved in regulation of blood pressure. This study explored it by generating and analyzing AgRP neuron-specific PDK1 knockout (Agrp-Pdk1 flox/flox ) mice and effect of high salt diet on blood pressure in KO and WT mice was analyzed. Under high salt diet feeding, systolic blood pressure (SBP) of Agrp-Pdk1 flox/flox mice was significantly elevated compared to Agrp-Cre mice. When the high salt diet was switched to control low salt diet, SBP of Agrp-Pdk1 flox/flox mice returned to the basal level observed in Agrp-Cre mice within 1 week. In Agrp-Pdk1 flox/flox mice, urinary noradrenalin excretion and NUCB2 mRNA expression in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were markedly upregulated. Moreover, silencing of NUCB2 in the PVN counteracted the rises in urinary noradrenalin excretions and SBP. These results demonstrate a novel role of PDK1 in AgRP neurons to counteract the high salt diet-induced hypertension by preventing hyperactivation of PVN nesfatin-1 neurons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rock-Salt Growth-Induced (003) Cracking in a Layered Positive Electrode for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hanlei [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast; Omenya, Fredrick [NorthEast; Yan, Pengfei [Environmental; Luo, Langli [Environmental; Whittingham, M. Stanley [NorthEast; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental; Zhou, Guangwen [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast

    2017-10-20

    For the first time, the (003) cracking is observed and determined to be the major cracking mechanism for the primary particles of Ni-rich layered dioxides as the positive electrode for Li-ion batteries. Using transmission electron microscopy techniques, here we show that the propagation and fracturing of platelet-like rock-salt phase along the (003) plane of the layered oxide are the leading cause for the cracking of primary particles. The fracturing of the rock-salt platelet is induced by the stress discontinuity between the parent layered oxide and the rock-salt phase. The high nickel content is considered to be the key factor for the formation of the rock-salt platelet and thus the (003) cracking. The (003)-type cracking can be a major factor for the structural degradation and associated capacity fade of the layered positive electrode.

  13. Neutronic design of a Liquid Salt-cooled Pebble Bed Reactor (LSPBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zwaan, S. J.; Boer, B.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    A renewed interest has been raised for liquid salt cooled nuclear reactors. The excellent heat transfer properties of liquid salt coolants provide several benefits, like lower fuel temperatures, higher coolant outlet temperatures, increased core power density and better decay heat removal. In order to benefit from the online refueling capability of a pebble bed reactor, the Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactor (LSPBR) is proposed. This is a high temperature pebble-bed reactor with a fuel design similar to existing HTRs, but using a liquid salt as a coolant. In this paper, the selection criteria for the liquid salt coolant are described. Based on its neutronic properties, LiF-BeF 2 (FLIBE) was selected for the LSPBR. Two designs of the LSPBR were considered: a cylindrical core and an annular core with a graphite inner reflector. Coupled neutronic-thermal hydraulic calculations were performed to obtain the steady state power distribution and the corresponding fuel temperatures. Finally, calculations were performed to investigate the decay heat removal capability in a protected loss-of-forced cooling accident. The maximum allowable power that can be produced with the LSPBR is hereby determined. (authors)

  14. Enhanced salt-induced antioxidative responses involve a contribution of polyamine biosynthesis in grapevine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikbal, Fatima Ezzohra; Hernández, José Antonio; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Koussa, Tayeb; Aziz, Aziz; Faize, Mohamed; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2014-06-15

    The possible involvement of polyamines in the salt stress adaptation was investigated in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) plantlets focusing on photosynthesis and oxidative metabolism. Salt stress resulted in the deterioration of plant growth and photosynthesis, and treatment of plantlets with methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), a S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) inhibitor, enhanced the salt stress effect. A decrease in PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective PSII quantum yield (Y(II)) and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) as well as increases in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and its coefficient (qN) was observed by these treatments. Salt and/or MGBG treatments also triggered an increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) activities, but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Salt stress also resulted in an accumulation of oxidized ascorbate (DHA) and a decrease in reduced glutathione. MGBG alone or in combination with salt stress increased monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), SOD and POX activities and surprisingly no accumulation of DHA was noticed following treatment with MGBG. These salt-induced responses correlated with the maintaining of high level of free and conjugated spermidine and spermine, whereas a reduction of agmatine and putrescine levels was observed, which seemed to be amplified by the MGBG treatment. These results suggest that maintaining polyamine biosynthesis through the enhanced SAMDC activity in grapevine leaf tissues under salt stress conditions could contribute to the enhanced ROS scavenging activity and a protection of photosynthetic apparatus from oxidative damages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Caleosin from Chlorella vulgaris TISTR 8580 is salt-induced and heme-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuchinda, Pairpilin; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Yamada, Daisuke; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and functional properties of lipid droplet-associated proteins in algae remain scarce. We report here the caleosin gene from Chlorella vulgaris encodes a protein of 279 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence alignment showed high similarity to the putative caleosins from fungi, but less to plant caleosins. When the C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 cells were treated with salt stress (0.3 M NaCl), the level of triacylglycerol increased significantly. The mRNA contents for caleosin in Chlorella cells significantly increased under salt stress condition. Caleosin gene was expressed in E. coli. Crude extract of E. coli cells exhibited the cumene hydroperoxide-dependent oxidation of aniline. Absorption spectroscopy showed a peak around 415 nm which was decreased upon addition of cumene hydroperoxide. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests caleosin existed as the oligomer. These data indicate that a fresh water C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 contains a salt-induced heme-protein caleosin.

  16. Korean Solar Salt Ameliorates Colon Carcinogenesis in an AOM/DSS-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Yeung-Ju; Park, Eui Seong; Park, Kun-Young

    2017-06-01

    The effects of Korean solar salt on an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer C57BL/6 mouse model were studied. Korean solar salt samples (SS-S, solar salt from S salt field; SS-Yb, solar salt from Yb salt field), nine-time-baked bamboo salt (BS-9x, made from SS-Yb), purified salt (PS), and SS-G (solar salt from Guérande, France) were orally administered at a concentration of 1% during AOM/DSS colon cancer induction, and compared for their protective effects during colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. SS-S and SS-Yb suppressed colon length shortening and tumor counts in mouse colons. Histological evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining also revealed suppression of tumorigenesis by SS-S. Conversely, PS and SS-G did not show a similar suppressive efficacy as Korean solar salt. SS-S and SS-Yb promoted colon mRNA expression of an apoptosis-related factor and cell-cycle-related gene and suppressed pro-inflammatory factor. SS-Yb baked into BS-9x further promoted these anti-carcinogenic efficacies. Taken together, the results indicate that Korean solar salt, especially SS-S and SS-Yb, exhibited anti-cancer activity by modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related gene expression during colon carcinogenesis in mice, and bamboo salt baked from SS-Yb showed enhanced anti-cancer functionality.

  17. On a possible method of experimental investigation of proton decay modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulkanyan, H.R.; Pogosov, V.S.; Tamanyan, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A detector for experimental investigation of proton decay modes is described. The detector represents a multiwire high pressure gas chamber, located in an underground cavity in a rock salt layer, analogous to known underground artificial depositories of fuel gas. It allows to identify decay particles and reaction kinematics at the amount of working gas of several dozens of kilotons and more required for the proton decay detection at the half-lifetime tau > 10 33 years and investigation of decay modes at tau 33 years. The detector also permits to investigate other exotic events such as a search for fractional charge particles, neutrino oscillations

  18. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  19. Salt-tolerance mechanisms induced in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: Effects on mineral nutrition, antioxidative metabolism and steviol glycoside content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantabella, Daniel; Piqueras, Abel; Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Hernández, José A; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    In order to cope with challenges linked to climate change such as salinity, plants must develop a wide spectrum of physiological and molecular mechanisms to rapidly adapt. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants are a case in point. According to our findings, salt stress has no significant effect on plant growth in these plants, which accumulate sodium (Na + ) in their roots, thus avoiding excessive Na + accumulation in leaves. Furthermore, salt stress (NaCl stress) increases the potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), chloride ion (Cl - ) and proline concentrations in Stevia leaves, which could contribute to osmotic adjustment. We also found that long-term NaCl stress does not produce changes in chlorophyll concentrations in Stevia leaves, reflecting a mechanism to protect the photosynthesis process. Interestingly, an increase in chlorophyll b (Chlb) content occured in the oldest plants studied. In addition, we found that NaCl induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Stevia leaves and that this accumulation was more evident in the presence of 5 g/L NaCl, the highest concentration used in the study. Nevertheless, Stevia plants are able to induce (16 d) or maintain (25 d) antioxidant enzymes to cope with NaCl-induced oxidative stress. Low salt levels did not affect steviolbioside and rebaudioside A contents. Our results suggest that Stevia plants induce tolerance mechanisms in order to minimize the deleterious effects of salt stress. We can thus conclude that saline waters can be used to grow Stevia plants and for Steviol glycosides (SGs) production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Rare Decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Rare loop-induced decays are sensitive to New Physics in many Standard Model extensions. In this paper we discuss the reconstruction of the radiative penguin decays $B^0_d \\to K^{*0} \\gamma, B^0_s \\to \\phi \\gamma , B^0_d \\to \\omega \\gamma, \\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda \\gamma$, the electroweak penguin decays $B^0_d \\to K^{*0} \\mu^+ \\mu^-, B^+_u \\to K^+ \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, the gluonic penguin decays $B^0_d \\to \\phi K^0_S, B^0_s \\to \\phi \\phi$, and the decay $B^0_s \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ at LHCb. The selection criteria, evaluated efficiencies, expected annual yields and $B/S$ estimates are presented.

  1. Evaluation of induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distribution after shutdown in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Koichi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Satoh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Koubun; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1997-03-01

    Induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distributions after shutdown were estimated for 1MWa/m{sup 2} operation in ITER. The activity in the inboard blanket one day after shutdown is 1.5x10{sup 11}Bq/cm{sup 3}, and the average decay heating rate 0.01w/cm{sup 3}. The dose rate outside the 120cm thick concrete biological shield is two order higher than the design criterion of 5{mu}Sv/h. This indicates that the biological shield thickness should be enhanced by 50cm in concrete, that is, total thickness 170cm for workers to enter the reactor room and to perform maintenance. (author)

  2. Polyurethane scaffold formation via a combination of salt leaching and thermally induced phase separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijkants, R. G. J. C.; van Calck, R. V.; van Tienen, T. G.; de Groot, J. H.; Pennings, A. J.; Buma, P.; Veth, R. P. H.; Schouten, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Porous scaffolds have been made from two polyurethanes based on thermally induced phase separation of polymer dissolved in a DMSO/water mixture in combination with salt leaching. It is possible to obtain very porous foams with a very high interconnectivity. A major advantage of this method is that

  3. Decondensation behavior of DNA chains induced by multivalent cations at high salt concentrations: Molecular dynamics simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yang-Wei; Zhang Lin-Xi; Ran Shi-Yong; He Lin-Li; Wang Xiang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we study the decondensation process of DNA chains induced by multivalent cations at high salt concentrations in the presence of short cationic chains in solutions. The typical simulation conformations of DNA chains with varying salt concentrations for multivalent cations imply that the concentration of salt cations and the valence of multivalent cations have a strong influence on the process of DNA decondensation. The DNA chains are condensed in the absence of salt or at low salt concentrations, and the compacted conformations of DNA chains become loose when a number of cations and anions are added into the solution. It is explicitly demonstrated that cations can overcompensate the bare charge of the DNA chains and weaken the attraction interactions between the DNA chains and short cationic chains at high salt concentrations. The condensation-decondensation transitions of DNA are also experimentally observed in mixing spermidine with λ-phage DNA at different concentrations of NaCl/MgCl 2 solutions. (paper)

  4. Salt-Induced Hypertension in a Mouse Model of Liddle's Syndrome is Mediated by Epithelial Sodium Channels in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huysse, James W.; Amin, Md. Shahrier; Yang, Baoli; Leenen, Frans H. H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural precursor cell expressed and developmentally downregulated 4-2 protein (Nedd4-2) facilitates the endocytosis of epithelial Na channels (ENaC). Both mice and humans with a loss of regulation of ENaC by Nedd4-2 have salt-induced hypertension. ENaC is also expressed in the brain, where it is critical for hypertension on high salt diet in salt-sensitive rats. In the present studies we assessed whether Nedd4-2 knockout (−/−) mice have: 1) increased brain ENaC; 2) elevated CSF sodium on high salt diet; and 3) enhanced pressor responses to CSF sodium and hypertension on high salt diet, both mediated by brain ENaC. Prominent choroid plexus and neuronal ENaC staining was present in −/− but not in wild-type (W/T) mice. In chronically instrumented mice, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of Na-rich aCSF increased MAP 3-fold higher in −/− than W/T. Icv infusion of the ENaC blocker benzamil abolished this enhancement. In telemetered −/− mice on high salt diet (8% NaCl), CSF [Na+], MAP and HR increased significantly, MAP by 30-35 mmHg. These MAP and HR responses were largely prevented by icv benzamil, but only to a minor extent by sc benzamil at the icv rate. We conclude that increased ENaC expression in the brain of Nedd 4-2 −/− mice mediates their hypertensive response to high salt diet, by causing increased sodium levels in the CSF as well as hyper-responsiveness to CSF sodium. These findings highlight the possible causative contribution of CNS ENaC in the etiology of salt-induced hypertension. PMID:22802227

  5. Salt-induced root protein profile changes in seedlings of maize inbred lines with differing salt tolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the severest growth limited-factors to agriculture production. To gain in-depth knowledge of salt-stress response mechanisms, the proteomics analysis from two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. There were 57 salt-regulated proteins identified, 21 and 36 proteins were differentially regulated in inbred lines 'Nongda 1145' (salt-resistant and 'D340' (salt-sensitive, respectively. The identified proteins were distributed in 11 biological processes and seven molecular functions. Under salt stress, proteins related to antioxidation and lignin synthesis were increased in both inbred lines. The relative abundance of proteins involved in translation initiation, elongation, and protein proteolysis increased in 'Nongda 1145' and decreased in 'D340'. In addition, the abundance of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein refolding, ATP synthase and transcription differed between the two inbred lines. Our results suggest that the enhanced ability of salt-tolerant inbred line 'Nongda 1145' to combat salt stress occurs via regulation of transcription factors promoting increased antioxidation and lignin biosynthesis, enhanced energy production, and acceleration of protein translation and protein proteolysis.

  6. Mechanism of salt-induced activity enhancement of a marine-derived laccase, Lac15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xie, Yanan; Wang, Rui; Fang, Zemin; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xuecheng; Xiao, Yazhong

    2018-04-01

    Laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC1.10.3.2) is a multi-copper oxidase capable of oxidizing a variety of phenolic and other aromatic organic compounds. The catalytic power of laccase makes it an attractive candidate for potential applications in many areas of industry including biodegradation of organic pollutants and synthesis of novel drugs. Most laccases are vulnerable to high salt and have limited applications. However, some laccases are not only tolerant to but also activated by certain concentrations of salt and thus have great application potential. The mechanisms of salt-induced activity enhancement of laccases are unclear as yet. In this study, we used dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, intrinsic fluorescence emission, circular dichroism, ultraviolet-visible light absorption, and an enzymatic assay to investigate the potential correlation between the structure and activity of the marine-derived laccase, Lac15, whose activity is promoted by low concentrations of NaCl. The results showed that low concentrations of NaCl exert little influence on the protein structure, which was partially folded in the absence of the salt; moreover, the partially folded rather than the fully folded state seemed to be favorable for enzyme activity, and this partially folded state was distinctive from the so-called 'molten globule' occasionally observed in active enzymes. More data indicated that salt might promote laccase activity through mechanisms involving perturbation of specific local sites rather than a change in global structure. Potential binding sites for chloride ions and their roles in enzyme activity promotion are proposed.

  7. Depressor effect of the young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. in high-salt induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Sankar; Yahiro, Eiji; Uehara, Yoshinari; Kuroda, Rieko; Hirano, Yoshio; Nagata, Kaori; Miura, Shinichiro; Saku, Keijiro; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-06-01

    A novel chymase inhibitor has been reported to have depressor effect in salt-induced hypertension. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that chymase inhibitory dried young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper (PPH) or young leaves extract of Polygonum hydropiper (PHE) could reduce salt-induced hypertension. In this study, 8-wk old wild-type mice were allocated into three experiments and experiment I included groups, I- normal water drinking, II- high salt (2% NaCl) water (HSW) drinking, and III- HSW plus PPH (500 mg kg -1 , orally) for 12-wk. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline and weekly up to wk-12. In experiment II, mice were given HSW for 12-wk followed by 8-wk treatment with PPH plus HSW (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg kg -1 for groups I, II, III and IV, respectively). BP and HR were measured at baseline and monthly until wk-12, following weekly for 8-wk. Experiment III comprised of four groups of mice for 12-wk HSW and 8-wk treatment with PHE plus HSW (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg -1 for groups I-IV, respectively). BP and HR were measured at baseline and monthly up to wk-12, following weekly for 8-wk. Significant reduction in BP and HR were observed in mice treated with PPH (500 mg kg -1 ) compared to HSW control. PPH reduced BP and HR dose dependently in hypertensive mice and the higher dose showed maximum reduction. PHE at its maximum dose (20 mg kg -1 ) significantly suppressed BP and HR. Over all, we found that the young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper suppressed salt-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF 2 , ZrF 4 , and UF 4 , and operated at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt

  9. Determination of the deliquesce point in double salts and in in-situ multicomponent salts with DVS equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated salt induced deterioration occurs by frequently changes across the deliquescence point. Therefore does the actual deliquescence point of the present salts have a major impact on preventive conservation being able to ensure a relative humidity not causing salt phase transition and to i...

  10. Initial decay process of radicals induced in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kameya, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine radial decay behaviors of γ-irradiated food, we analyzed radicals in the food using ESR. We detected the ESR signal of specimens just several minutes after irradiation. The singlet signal intensity at g=2.0, originated from organic free radicals was increased as followed by the increasing radiation dose. Singlet signal intensity that increased by γ-irradiation was decreased with time. The phenomena of decay of the ESR singlet signal showed two phase that are rapid decay and slow decay. It was suggested that those two phase decay is due to at least the two radical species. Also we concluded that after three hours of radiation treatment long life radical as ESR signal intensity was detected in irradiated specimen; black pepper, green coffee bean and ginseng, showed the same decay phenomena. But the signal intensity of irradiated black pepper was three times larger than that of irradiated green coffee bean and irradiated ginseng. (author)

  11. High salt intake enhances swim stress-induced PVN vasopressin cell activation and active stress coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N C; Gilman, T L; Daws, L C; Toney, G M

    2018-07-01

    Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS). Further, we evaluated the contribution of the osmo-regulatory stress-related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (VP) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), one of only a few brain regions that synthesize VP. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high dietary salt intake on responsivity to heterotypic stress and the potential contribution of VPergic-mediated neuronal activity on high salt-induced stress modulation, thereby providing insight into how dietary (homeostatic) and environmental (psychogenic) stressors might interact to facilitate psychiatric disorder vulnerability. Salt loading (SL) with 4% saline for 7 days was used to dehydrate and osmotically stress mice prior to exposure to an acute SS. Fluid intake and hematological measurements were taken to quantify osmotic dehydration, and serum corticosterone levels were measured to index stress axis activation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to stain for the immediate early gene product c-Fos to quantify effects of SL on SS-induced activation of neurons in the PVN and extended amygdala - brain regions that are synaptically connected and implicated in responding to osmotic stress and in modulation of SS behavior, respectively. Lastly, the role of VPergic PVN neurons and VP type 1 receptor (V1R) activity in the amygdala in mediating effects of SL on SS behavior was evaluated by quantifying c-Fos activation of VPergic PVN neurons and, in functional experiments, by nano-injecting the V1R selective

  12. Eplerenone prevents salt-induced vascular stiffness in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunner Sabine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldosterone levels are elevated in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Zucker Diabetic fatty rat (ZDF. Moreover blood pressure in ZDF rats is salt-sensitive. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone on structural and mechanical properties of resistance arteries of ZDF-rats on normal and high-salt diet. Methods After the development of diabetes, ZDF animals were fed either a normal salt diet (0.28% or a high-salt diet (5.5% starting at an age of 15 weeks. ZDF rats on high-salt diet were randomly assigned to eplerenone (100 mg/kg per day, in food (ZDF+S+E, hydralazine (25 mg/kg per day (ZDF+S+H, or no treatment (ZDF+S. Rats on normal salt-diet were assigned to eplerenone (ZDF+E or no treatment (ZDF. Normoglycemic Zucker lean rats were also divided into two groups receiving normal (ZL or high-salt diet (ZL+S serving as controls. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. The experiment was terminated at an age of 25 weeks. Mesenteric resistance arteries were studied on a pressurized myograph. Specifically, vascular hypertrophy (media-to-lumen ratio and vascular stiffness (strain and stress were analyzed. After pressurized fixation histological analysis of collagen and elastin content was performed. Results Blood pressure was significantly higher in salt-loaded ZDF compared to ZDF. Eplerenone and hydralazine prevented this rise similarily, however, significance niveau was missed. Media-to-lumen ratio of mesenteric resistance arteries was significantly increased in ZDF+S when compared to ZDF and ZL. Both, eplerenone and hydralazine prevented salt-induced vascular hypertrophy. The strain curve of arteries of salt-loaded ZDF rats was significantly lower when compared to ZL and when compared to ZDF+S+E, but was not different compared to ZDF+S+H. Eplerenone, but not hydralazine shifted the strain-stress curve to the right indicating a vascular wall composition

  13. Salicornia Extract Ameliorates Salt-Induced Aggravation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Suk, Sujin; Jang, Woo Jung; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-07-01

    High-fat and high-salt intakes are among the major risks of chronic diseases including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Salicornia is a halophytic plant known to exert antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic effects, and Salicornia-extracted salt (SS) has been used as a salt substitute. In this study, the effects of SS and purified salt (PS) on the aggravation of NAFLD/NASH were compared. C57BL/6J male mice (8-wk-old) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo and divided into 3 dietary groups, which were additionally fed HFD, HFD + SS, and HFD + PS for 13 wk. PS induced aggravation of NAFLD/NASH in HFD-fed mice. Although the actual salt intake was same between the PS and SS groups as 1% of the diet (extrapolated from the World Health Organization [WHO] guideline), SS induced less liver injury and hepatic steatosis compared to PS. The hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis marker were significantly lower in the SS group than the PS group. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Results of the component analysis showed that the major polyphenols that exhibited antioxidant activity in the Salicornia water extract were ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and isorhamnetin. These results suggest that even the level of salt intake recommended by WHO can accelerate the progression of liver disease in obese individuals consuming HFD. It is proposed that SS can be a salt substitute for obese individuals who consume HFD. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. CP violation induced by the double resonance for pure annihilation decay process in perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Gang; Li, Sheng-Tao; Wang, Yu-Ting [Henan University of Technology, College of Science, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, Ye [Guangxi Normal University, Department of Physics, Guilin (China)

    2017-08-15

    In a perturbative QCD approach we study the direct CP violation in the pure annihilation decay process of anti B{sup 0}{sub s} → π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup +}π{sup -} induced by the ρ and ω double resonance effect. Generally, the CP violation is small in the pure annihilation type decay process. However, we find that the CP violation can be enhanced by double ρ-ω interference when the invariant masses of the π{sup +}π{sup -} pairs are in the vicinity of the ω resonance. For the decay process of anti B{sup 0}{sub s} → π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup +}π{sup -}, the CP violation can reach A{sub CP}(anti B{sup 0}{sub s} → π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup +}π{sup -}) = 27.20{sup +0.05+0.28+7.13}{sub -0.15-0.31-6.11}%. (orig.)

  15. Creatine phosphate disodium salt protects against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by increasing calumenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Ying; Guo, Xin; Fu, Yao; Long, Jie; Wei, Cheng-Xi; Zhao, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis may be a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Creatine phosphate disodium salt (CP) has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effect, but its effects on ERS are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism by which CP exerts its cardioprotection in doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiomyocytes injury. In our study, neonatal rats cardiomyocytes (NRC) was randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group. The cell viability and apoptosis were detected. grp78, grp94, and calumenin of the each group were monitored. To investigate the role of calumenin, Dox-induced ERS was compared in control and down-regulated calumenin cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that CP decreased Dox-induced apoptosis and relieved ERS. We found calumenin increased in Dox-induced apoptosis with CP. ERS effector C/EBP homologous protein was down-regulated by CP and it was influenced by calumenin. CP could protect NRC by inhibiting ERS, this mechanisms may be associated with its increasing of calumenin.

  16. Response of Tomato Genotypes to Induced Salt Stress | Agong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) genotypes were subjected to salt treatment under hydroponics and their responses monitored in a set of two experiments with the objective of advancing them as potential salt tolerant tomato scion and/or rootstocks. Salt applications ranged from 0 to 2% NaCl, with the resultant ...

  17. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A. Nikam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt (NaCl tolerance were investigated in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated (10 to 80 Gy and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol L− 1. Increasing NaCl concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, and Na+ and K+ concentration. Higher accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was observed in NaCl stressed callus irradiated at 20 Gy. Na+ concentration increased and K+ concentration decreased with increasing salt level. Irradiated callus showed 50–60% regeneration under NaCl stress, and in vitro-regenerated plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse, with 80–85% survival. A total of 138 irradiated and salt-selected selections were grown to maturity and their agronomic performance was evaluated under normal and saline conditions. Of these, 18 mutant clones were characterized for different agro-morphological characters and some of the mutant clones exhibited improved sugar yield with increased Brix%, number of millable canes, and yield. The result suggest that radiation-induced mutagenesis offers an effective way to enhance genetic variation in sugarcane.

  18. Using the thermal diffusion cloud chamber to study the ion-induced nucleation by radon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yefei.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal diffusion cloud chamber is steady-state device and has been extensively used for nucleation research. In order to study the ion-induced nucleation by radon decay, a new chamber was designed with improved both upper and bottom plates, the system of circulating fluid, the gasketting, the temperature measurement and the insulation. An alternative method of using oxygen as carrier gas was examined. Therefore, the heavy carrier gas including nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and air can be used to study radon radiolysis-induced nucleation for the water or organic compounds in the TDCC. The effects of the pressure and temperature ranges on the density, supersaturation, temperature and partial pressure profile for the water-oxygen-helium in the TDCC have been examined. Based on the classical theory, the rate profile of ion-induced nucleation by radon decays was calculated and compared with the homogeneous nucleation. From measured indoor concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), thermodynamic theory models were used to assess the possibility that these compounds will form ultrafine particles in indoor air by ion-induced nucleation. The energy, number of molecules and equilibrium radius of clusters have been calculated based on Such and Thomson theories. These two sets of values have been compared. Ion cluster radii corresponding to 1--3 VOC molecules are in range of 3--5 x 10 -8 cm. 43 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Decay Accelerating Factor (CD55) Protects Neuronal Cells from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Pavlakovic G, Isom GE: Dopaminergic neurotoxicity of cyanide: neurochemical, histological and behavioral characterization. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol...provided the original work is properly cited. ResearchDecay accelerating factor (CD55) protects neuronal cells from chemical hypoxia-induced injury...deposition of C3a/C5a and membrane attack complex (MAC or C5b-9) production. The present study investigates the ability of DAF to protect primary cultured

  20. Gypsum-induced decay in granite monuments in Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales. Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the salt causes this type of decay was suggested. In the present study, various hypotheses as regards the origin of the gypsum found in granite monuments are proposed. The study involved analysis of the contents of ions soluble in water, the results of X-ray diffraction analyses and the ratios of CaO/SO3 in samples of stone, mortar and deposits collected from different monuments. It was concluded that in most cases the gypsum originated from old paintworks or/and from the joint mortars, although inputs from other sources cannot be discounted, as discussed

    Una de las formas de deterioro más frecuente en los monumentos graníticos es la separación de la capa superficial de la piedra (placas, plaquetas y escamas. En trabajos anteriores centrados en monumentos del noroeste de la Península Ibérica, se constató la relación directa entre esta forma de alteración y la presencia de sulfato de calcio y se propuso el mecanismo a través del cual esta sal provoca este tipo de deterioro. En este trabajo se plantean varias hipótesis acerca del origen del yeso encontrado en monumentos graníticos. Para ello se comparan los contenidos de iones solubilizados en agua, los resultados de difracción de rayos X y las relaciones OCa/SO3 de muestras de piedra, morteros y depósitos recogidas en diferentes monumentos. Se llega a la conclusión de que en la mayor parte de los casos el yeso procede de antiguas pinturas o de revestimientos superficiales y de los morteros de juntas entre sillares, pero no se puede descartar la contribución de otros aportes, los cuales se discuten también en este artículo.

  1. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Cisplatin-Induced Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: A Challenging Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Gerard; Hansford, Jordan R; Duke, Trevor

    2016-05-01

    We describe a 2-year-old female with a suprasellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central diabetes insipidus (DI) who developed polyuria with natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremia 36 hr after cisplatin administration. The marked urinary losses of sodium in combination with a negative sodium balance led to the diagnosis of cisplatin-induced renal salt wasting syndrome (RSWS). The subsequent clinical management is very challenging. Four weeks later she was discharged from ICU without neurological sequela. The combination of cisplatin-induced RSWS with DI can be confusing and needs careful clinical assessment as inaccurate diagnosis and management can result in increased neurological injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Salt stress-induced changes in antioxidative defense system and proteome profiles of salt-tolerant and sensitive Frankia strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amrita; Singh, Anumeha; Singh, Satya S; Mishra, Arun K

    2017-04-16

    An appreciation of comparative microbial survival is most easily done while evaluating their adaptive strategies during stress. In the present experiment, antioxidative and whole cell proteome variations based on spectrophotometric analysis and SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis have been analysed among salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive Frankia strains. This is the first report of proteomic basis underlying salt tolerance in these newly isolated Frankia strains from Hippophae salicifolia D. Don. Salt-tolerant strain HsIi10 shows higher increment in the contents of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase as compared to salt-sensitive strain HsIi8. Differential 2-DGE profile has revealed differential profiles for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive strains. Proteomic confirmation of salt tolerance in the strains with inbuilt efficiency of thriving in nitrogen-deficient locales is a definite advantage for these microbes. This would be equally beneficial for improvement of soil nitrogen status. Efficient protein regulation in HsIi10 suggests further exploration for its potential use as biofertilizer in saline soils.

  3. Development of Monte Carlo decay gamma-ray transport calculation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Kawasaki, Nobuo [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    In the DT fusion reactor, it is critical concern to evaluate the decay gamma-ray biological dose rates after the reactor shutdown exactly. In order to evaluate the decay gamma-ray biological dose rates exactly, three dimensional Monte Carlo decay gamma-ray transport calculation system have been developed by connecting the three dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code and the induced activity calculation code. The developed calculation system consists of the following four functions. (1) The operational neutron flux distribution is calculated by the three dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code. (2) The induced activities are calculated by the induced activity calculation code. (3) The decay gamma-ray source distribution is obtained from the induced activities. (4) The decay gamma-rays are generated by using the decay gamma-ray source distribution, and the decay gamma-ray transport calculation is conducted by the three dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code. In order to reduce the calculation time drastically, a biasing system for the decay gamma-ray source distribution has been developed, and the function is also included in the present system. In this paper, the outline and the detail of the system, and the execution example are reported. The evaluation for the effect of the biasing system is also reported. (author)

  4. Loop induced single top partner production and decay at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Han; Lewis, Ian M.

    2018-05-01

    Most searches for top partners, T , are concerned with top partner pair production. However, as these bounds become increasingly stringent, the LHC energy will saturate and single top partner production will become more important. In this paper we study the novel signature of the top partner produced in association with the SM top, pp\\to T\\overline{t}+t\\overline{T} , in a model where the Standard Model (SM) is extended by a vector-like SU(2) L singlet fermion top partner and a real, SM gauge singlet scalar, S. In this model, pp\\to T\\overline{t}+t\\overline{T} production is possible through loops mediated by the scalar singlet. We find that, with reasonable coupling strengths, the production rate of this channel can dominate top partner pair production at top partner masses of m T ≳ 1 .5 TeV. In addition, this model allows for the exotic decay modes T → tg, T → tγ, and T → tS. In much of the parameter space the loop induced decay T → tg dominates and the top partner is quite long lived. New search strategies are necessary to cover these decay modes. We project the the sensitivity of the high luminosity LHC to pp\\to T\\overline{t}+t\\overline{T} via a realistic collider study. We find with 3 ab-1, the LHC is sensitive to this process for masses m T ≲ 2 TeV. In addition, we provide appendices detailing the renormalization of this model.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel salt-inducible gene encoding an acidic isoform of PR-5 protein in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, M; Tachi, H; Kojima, T; Shiraiwa, M; Takahara, H

    2006-10-01

    We identified a novel salt-inducible soybean gene encoding an acidic-isoform of pathogenesis-related protein group 5 (PR-5 protein). The soybean PR-5-homologous gene, designated as Glycine max osmotin-like protein, acidic isoform (GmOLPa)), encodes a putative polypeptide having an N-terminal signal peptide. The mature GmOLPa protein without the signal peptide has a calculated molecular mass of 21.5 kDa and a pI value of 4.4, and was distinguishable from a known PR-5-homologous gene of soybean (namely P21 protein) through examination of the structural features. A comparison with two intracellular salt-inducible PR-5 proteins, tobacco osmotin and tomato NP24, revealed that GmOLPa did not have a C-terminal extension sequence functioning as a vacuole-targeting motif. The GmOLPa gene was transcribed constitutively in the soybean root and was induced almost exclusively in the root during 24 h of high-salt stress (300 mM NaCl). Interestingly, GmOLPa gene expression in the stem and leaf, not observed until 24 h, was markedly induced at 48 and 72 h after commencement of the high-salt stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) and dehydration also induced expression of the GmOLPa gene in the root; additionally, dehydration slightly induced expression in the stem and leaf. In fact, the 5'-upstream sequence of the GmOLPa gene contained several putative cis-elements known to be involved in responsiveness to ABA and dehydration, e.g. ABA-responsive element (ABRE), MYB/MYC, and low temperature-responsive element (LTRE). These results suggested that GmOLPa may function as a protective PR-5 protein in the extracellular space of the soybean root in response to high-salt stress and dehydration.

  6. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10-Fermented Soymilk on Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Hypertension and Associated Dementia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Hua Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species is the major mediator of neuronal cell degeneration observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Additionally, hypertension has been shown to be a positive risk factor for VaD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum strain TWK10 (TWK10-fermented soymilk on the protection of PC-12 cells in H2O2-, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD- and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt-induced rat models of VaD. Notably, the viabilities of H2O2-treated PC-12 cells and OGD model were significantly increased by treatment with TWK10-fermented soymilk ethanol extract (p < 0.05. In addition, oral administration of TWK10-fermented soymilk extract in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure (p < 0.05, which was regulated by inhibiting ACE activity and promoting NO production, in addition to decreased escape latency and increased target crossing (p < 0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that TWK10-fermented soymilk extract could improve learning and memory in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats by acting as a blood pressure-lowering and neuroprotective agent.

  7. Stress inducible overexpression of AtHDG11 leads to improved drought and salt stress tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavath, Jayanna N.; Chakradhar, Thammineni; Pandit, Varakumar; Konduru, Sravani; Guduru, Krishna K.; Akila, Chandra S.; Podha, Sudhakar; Puli, Chandra O. R.

    2018-03-01

    Peanut is an important oilseed and food legume cultivated as a rain-fed crop in semi-arid tropics. Drought and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses limiting the peanut productivity in this region. Development of drought and salt tolerant peanut varieties with improved yield potential using biotechnological approach is highly desirable to improve the peanut productivity in marginal geographies. As abiotic stress tolerance and yield represent complex traits, engineering of regulatory genes to produce abiotic stress-resilient transgenic crops appears to be a viable approach. In the present study, we developed transgenic peanut plants expressing an Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor (AtHDG11) under stress inducible rd29Apromoter. A stress-inducible expression of AtHDG11 in three independent homozygous transgenic peanut lines resulted in improved drought and salt tolerance through up-regulation of known stress responsive genes(LEA, HSP70, Cu/Zn SOD, APX, P5CS, NCED1, RRS5, ERF1, NAC4, MIPS, Aquaporin, TIP, ELIP ) in the stress gene network , antioxidative enzymes, free proline along with improved water use efficiency traits such as longer root system, reduced stomatal density, higher chlorophyll content, increased specific leaf area, improved photosynthetic rates and increased intrinsic instantaneous WUE. Transgenic peanut plants displayed high yield compared to non-transgenic plants under both drought and salt stress conditions. Holistically, our study demonstrates the potentiality of stress-induced expression of AtHDG11 to improve the drought, salt tolerance in peanut.

  8. Light meson decays from photon-induced reactions with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, Michael C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: CLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Photo-production experiments with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory produce data sets with unprecedented statistics of light mesons. With these data sets, measurements of transition form factors for η, ω, and η' via conversion decays are performed using a line shape analysis on the invariant mass of the final state dileptons. Tests of fundamental symmetries and information on the light quark mass difference are performed using a Dalitz plot analysis of the meson decay. In addition, the data allows for a search for dark matter, such as the heavy photon via conversion decays of light mesons and physics beyond the Standard Model is searched for via invisible decays of η mesons. An overview of the first results and future prospects is given.

  9. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Juan Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF, and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.

  10. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huai-Juan; Yin, Yan-Xu; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper. PMID:24823878

  11. Analysing monthly sectorial water use and its influence on salt intrusion induced water shortage in urbanized deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Mingtian; Yan, Dan; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, Heqing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanizing delta regions face seasonal water shortages induced by rising salt intrusion. Decreasing river discharge is readily listed as the major cause of water shortage events. Yet, observations of river discharge often fail to support this attribution. Evidence of the association between

  12. Effect of salt-inducible kinase 2 on checkpoint in response to γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jiaojiao; Zhou Lijun; Wang Yu; Liu Xiaodan; Gu Yongqing; Zhou Pingkun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of salt-induced kinase 2 (SIK2) in the G_2/M checkpoint in response to ionizing radiation and the possible mechanism. Methods: HeLa cells were irradiated with "6"0Co γ-rays. The cell model of knockdown SIK2 expression was constrcuted by transfecting HeLa cells with a pSicoR-based lentivirus vector of expressing SIK2 shRNA by lipofectamin 2000. Western blot and flow cytometry were performed to measure the changes of SIK2 protein level and cell cycle distribution. The phosphorylated histone protein H3 on Ser 10 was used as a molecular marker of mitotic cells for detecting the function of G2/M checkpoint. Results: The expression level of SIK2 protein increased in HeLa cells after "6"0Co γ-ray irradiation. A cell model of knockdown SIK2 expression was successfully generated by transfecting the specific shRNA against SIK2. Depression of SIK2 significantly increased the cellular sensitivity at 1, 2, 4, 6 Gy post-irradiation (t = -3.445, -2.581, -3.251, -2.553, P < 0.05), and led cells to release earlier from the G_2/M boundary arrest compared to control cells at 5, 6 h post-irradiation(t = 4.341, 6.500, P < 0.05). Western blot analysis indicated that the irradiation-induced phosphorylated CHK2/T68 in SIK2 knock-down cells was earlier than that in control cells. Conclusions: salt-induced kinase 2 (SIK2) participates in the regulation of G_2/M checkpoint induced by ionizing radiation and affects cellular radiosensitivity. (authors)

  13. Assessment of rock mass decay in artificial slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the decay of rock masses underlying slopes, and seeks to quantify the relations of such decay with time and geotechnical parameters of the slope and rock mass. Decay can greatly affect the geotechnical properties of rocks within engineering timescales, and may induce a

  14. Downregulation of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Pathway Is Involved in Mitochondrion-Related Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Induced by High Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Zong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to investigate whether endogenous H2S pathway was involved in high-salt-stimulated mitochondria-related vascular endothelial cell (VEC apoptosis. Methods. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were used in the study. H2S content in the supernatant was detected. Western blot was used to detect expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE, cleaved-caspase-3, and mitochondrial and cytosolic cytochrome c (cytc. Fluorescent probes were used to quantitatively detect superoxide anion generation and measure the in situ superoxide anion generation in HUVEC. Mitochondrial membrane pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-9 activities were measured. The cell apoptosis was detected by cell death ELISA and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL methods. Results. High-salt treatment downregulated the endogenous VEC H2S/CSE pathway, in association with increased generation of oxygen free radicals, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore and leakage of mitochondrial cytc, activated cytoplasmic caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequently induced VEC apoptosis. However, supplementation of H2S donor markedly inhibited VEC oxidative stress and mitochondria-related VEC apoptosis induced by high salt. Conclusion. H2S/CSE pathway is an important endogenous defensive system in endothelial cells antagonizing high-salt insult. The protective mechanisms for VEC damage might involve inhibiting oxidative stress and protecting mitochondrial injury.

  15. The IMB proton decay detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, R.C.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Smith, D.W.; Sobel, H.; Wuest, C.; Bionta, R.M.; Cortez, B.G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Greenberg, J.; Park, H.S.; Shumard, E.; Sinclair, D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Velde, J.C. van der; Goldhaber, M.; Blewitt, G.; Lehmann, E.; LoSecco, J.M.; Bratton, C.B.; Learned, J.; Svoboda, R.; Jones, T.W.; Ramana Murthy, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven proton decay detector which is nearing completion in a salt mine in Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. The detector is a water Cerenkov one with a fiducial volume of 4,000 tons and a threshold of 24 MeV. Initial results indicate that the detector is working according to specification and has a high potential for deep underground cosmic ray applications. I will give a brief account of the IMB detector construction and operation and also its present status and possible cosmic ray applications. (orig.)

  16. Mechanism of Salt-Induced Self-Compatibility Dissected by Comparative Proteomic Analysis in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Liu, Zhiquan; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Guilong; Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Bing; Dou, Shengwei; Liang, Xiaomei; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Yi, Bin; Fu, Tingdong; Dai, Cheng; Ma, Chaozhi

    2018-06-03

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in plants genetically prevents self-fertilization to promote outcrossing and genetic diversity. Its hybrids in Brassica have been widely cultivated due to the propagation of SI lines by spraying a salt solution. We demonstrated that suppression of Brassica napus SI from edible salt solution treatment was ascribed to sodium chloride and independent of S haplotypes, but it did not obviously change the expression of SI - related genes. Using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique, we identified 885 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in Brassica napus stigmas of un-pollinated (UP), pollinated with compatible pollen (PC), pollinated with incompatible pollen (PI), and pollinated with incompatible pollen after edible salt solution treatment (NA). Of the 307 DAPs in NA/UP, 134 were unique and 94 were shared only with PC/UP. In PC and NA, some salt stress protein species, such as glyoxalase I , were induced, and these protein species were likely to participate in the self-compatibility (SC) pathway. Most of the identified protein species were related to metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, ribosome, and so on. A systematic analysis implied that salt treatment-overcoming SI in B. napus was likely conferred by at least five different physiological mechanisms: (i) the use of Ca 2+ as signal molecule; (ii) loosening of the cell wall to allow pollen tube penetration; (iii) synthesis of compatibility factor protein species for pollen tube growth; (iv) depolymerization of microtubule networks to facilitate pollen tube movement; and (v) inhibition of protein degradation pathways to restrain the SI response.

  17. Salt-induced aggregation of stiff polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazli, Hossein; Mohammadinejad, Sarah; Golestanian, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are used to study the process of aggregation of highly charged stiff polyelectrolytes due to the presence of multivalent salt. The dominant kinetic mode of aggregation is found to be the case of one end of one polyelectrolyte meeting others at right angles, and the kinetic pathway to bundle formation is found to be similar to that of flocculation dynamics of colloids as described by Smoluchowski. The aggregation process is found to favor the formation of finite bundles of 10-11 filaments at long times. Comparing the distribution of the cluster sizes with the Smoluchowski formula suggests that the energy barrier for the aggregation process is negligible. Also, the formation of long-lived metastable structures with similarities to the raft-like structures of actin filaments is observed within a range of salt concentration.

  18. GmWRKY53, a water- and salt-inducible soybean gene for rapid dissection of regulatory elements in BY-2 cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C.; Lin, Jun; Rushton, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Drought is the major cause of crop losses worldwide. Water stress-inducible promoters are important for understanding the mechanisms of water stress responses in crop plants. Here we utilized tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell system in presence of polyethylene glycol, salt and phytohormones. Extension of the system to 85 mM NaCl led to inducibility of up to 10-fold with the water stress and salt responsive soybean GmWRKY53 promoter. Upon ABA and JA treatment fold inducibility was up to 5-fold and 14-fold, respectively. Thus, we hypothesize that GmWRKY53 could be used as potential model candidate for dissecting drought regulatory elements as well as understanding crosstalk utilizing a rapid heterologous system of BY-2 culture. PMID:23511199

  19. Magnetically induced vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shesheng

    2003-01-01

    We study the fermionic vacuum energy of vacua with and without application of an external magnetic field. The energetic difference of two vacua leads to the vacuum decaying and the vacuum energy being released. In the context of quantum field theories, we discuss why and how the vacuum energy can be released by spontaneous photon emission and/or paramagnetically screening the external magnetic field. In addition, we quantitatively compute the vacuum energy released, the paramagnetic screening effect, and the rate and spectrum of spontaneous photon emission. The possibilities of experimentally detecting such an effect of vacuum-energy release and that this effect accounts for the anomalous x-ray pulsar are discussed

  20. Histone acetylation associated up-regulation of the cell wall related genes is involved in salt stress induced maize root swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Yan, Shihan; Zhao, Lin; Tan, Junjun; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Fei; Wang, Pu; Hou, Haoli; Li, Lijia

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress usually causes crop growth inhibition and yield decrease. Epigenetic regulation is involved in plant responses to environmental stimuli. The epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related genes associated with the salt-induced cellular response is still little known. This study aimed to analyze cell morphological alterations in maize roots as a consequence of excess salinity in relation to the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related protein ge...

  1. Higgs-boson and Z-boson flavor-changing neutral-current decays correlated with B-meson decays in the littlest Higgs model with T parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiaofang; Wang Lei; Yang Jinmin

    2008-01-01

    In the littlest Higgs model with T-parity new flavor-changing interactions between mirror fermions and the standard model (SM) fermions can induce various flavor-changing neutral-current decays for B-mesons, the Z-boson, and the Higgs boson. Since all these decays induced in the littlest Higgs with T-parity model are correlated, in this work we perform a collective study for these decays, namely, the Z-boson decay Z→bs, the Higgs-boson decay h→bs, and the B-meson decays B→X s γ, B s →μ + μ - , and B→X s μ + μ - . We find that under the current experimental constraints from the B-decays, the branching ratios of both Z→bs and h→bs can still deviate from the SM predictions significantly. In the parameter space allowed by the B-decays, the branching ratio of Z→bs can be enhanced up to 10 -7 (about one order above the SM prediction) while h→bs can be much suppressed relative to the SM prediction (about one order below the SM prediction).

  2. Salt-induced effects on some key morpho-physiological attributes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. at various growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Lubna Shaheen and Muhammad Shahbaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a multidimensional stress affecting crop yield and productivity at various levels of plant organization. To assess salt induced adverse effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., ten cultivars were grown in sand culture supplemented with full strength Hoagland’s nutrients solutions and different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Salt stress markedly reduced growth attributes, relative water contents, efficiency of photosystem II, net CO2 assimilation rate (A, transpiration rate (E and stomatal conductance in all cultivars. Reduction was maximum at the highest level of salt stress i.e. 200 mM. However, response of cotton cultivars was variable to various levels of salinity and even at various developmental stages. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 were ranked as relatively salt tolerant on the basis of their better growth performance and net CO2 assimilation rate whereas cvs. CIM-496, CIM-473 and FH-901 were relatively salt sensitive. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 exhibited high shoot fresh and dry weights, photosynthetic rate (A, and Photosystem II (Fv/Fm efficiency at both seedling and maturity growth stages. Results suggest that selection of plants having high photosynthetic rate and biomass at seedling stage may be a good source of high yield at mature stage of growth.

  3. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: Changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöyry, S.; Róg, T.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Vattulainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl2) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering, and

  4. Nuclear beta decay induced by intense electromagnetic fields: Forbidden transition examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    A formalism developed earlier for the effect on nuclear beta decay of an intense plane-wave electromagnetic field is applied to three examples of forbidden beta transitions. The examples represent cases where the nuclear ''fragment'' contains one, two, and three nucleons; where the nuclear fragment is defined to be that smallest sub-unit of the nucleus containing the nucleon which undergoes beta decay plus any other nucleons directly angular-momentum coupled to it in initial or final states. The single-nucleon-fragment example is 113 Cd, which has a fourth-forbidden transition. The two-nucleon-fragment example is 90 Sr, which is first-forbidden. The three-nucleon-fragment example is 87 Rb, which is third-forbidden. An algebraic closed-form transition probability is found in each case. At low external-field intensity, the transition probability is proportional to z/sup L/, where z is the field intensity parameter and L is the degree of forbiddenness. At intermediate intensities, the transition probability behaves as z/sup L/-(1/2). At higher intensities, the transition probability contains the z/sup L/-(1/2) factor, a declining exponential factor, and an alternating polynomial in z. This high-intensity transition probability possesses a maximum value, which is found for each of the examples. A general rule, z = q 2 (2L-1), where q is the number of particles in the fragment, is found for giving an upper limit on the intensity at which the maximum transition probability occurs. Field-induced beta decay half-lives for all the examples are dramatically reduced from natural half-lives when evaluated at the optimum field intensity. Relative half-life reduction is greater the higher the degree of forbiddenness

  5. Salt Induces Features of a Dormancy-Like State in Seeds of Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum, a Halophytic Relative of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Kazachkova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The salinization of land is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide. Halophytes adapted to high levels of salinity are likely to possess useful genes for improving crop tolerance to salt stress, as well as providing a food source on marginal lands. However, despite being salt-tolerant plants, the seeds of many halophytes will not germinate on saline soils, yet little is understood regarding biochemical and gene expression changes underlying salt-mediated inhibition of halophyte seed germination. We have used the halophytic Arabidopsis relative model system, Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum to explore salt-mediated inhibition of germination. We show that E. salsugineum seed germination is inhibited by salt to a far greater extent than in Arabidopsis, and that this inhibition is in response to the osmotic component of salt exposure. E. salsugineum seeds remain viable even when germination is completely inhibited, and germination resumes once seeds are transferred to non-saline conditions. Moreover, removal of the seed coat from salt-treated seeds allows embryos to germinate on salt-containing medium. Mobilization of seed storage reserves is restricted in salt-treated seeds, while many germination-associated metabolic changes are arrested or progress to a lower extent. Salt-exposed seeds are further characterized by a reduced GA/ABA ratio and increased expression of the germination repressor genes, RGL2, ABI5 and DOG1. Furthermore, a salt-mediated increase in expression of a LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT gene and accretion of metabolites involved in osmoprotection indicates induction of processes associated with stress tolerance, and accumulation of easily mobilized carbon reserves. Overall, our results suggest that salt inhibits E. salsugineum seed germination by inducing a seed state with molecular features of dormancy while a physical constraint to radicle emergence is provided by the seed coat layers. This seed state could facilitate

  6. Nutrient enrichment induces dormancy and decreases diversity of active bacteria in salt marsh sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Patrick J.; Angell, John H.; Howard, Evan M.; Deegan, Linda A.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Bowen, Jennifer L.

    2016-09-01

    Microorganisms control key biogeochemical pathways, thus changes in microbial diversity, community structure and activity can affect ecosystem response to environmental drivers. Understanding factors that control the proportion of active microbes in the environment and how they vary when perturbed is critical to anticipating ecosystem response to global change. Increasing supplies of anthropogenic nitrogen to ecosystems globally makes it imperative that we understand how nutrient supply alters active microbial communities. Here we show that nitrogen additions to salt marshes cause a shift in the active microbial community despite no change in the total community. The active community shift causes the proportion of dormant microbial taxa to double, from 45 to 90%, and induces diversity loss in the active portion of the community. Our results suggest that perturbations to salt marshes can drastically alter active microbial communities, however these communities may remain resilient by protecting total diversity through increased dormancy.

  7. Effects of Clofibrate on Salt Loading-Induced Hypertension in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Pérez-Abud, Rocío; Vargas, Miguel Ángel; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Quesada, Andrés; Osuna, Antonio; Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The effects of clofibrate on the hemodynamic and renal manifestations of increased saline intake were analyzed. Four groups of male Wistar rats were treated for five weeks: control, clofibrate (240 mg/kg/day), salt (2% via drinking water), and salt + clofibrate. Body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, SBP, HR, and morphologic, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured. Salt increased SBP, HR, urinary isoprostanes, NOx, ET, vasopressin and proteinuria and reduced plasma free T4 (FT4) and tissue FT4 and FT3 versus control rats. Clofibrate prevented the increase in SBP produced by salt administration, reduced the sodium balance, and further reduced plasma and tissue thyroid hormone levels. However, clofibrate did not modify the relative cardiac mass, NOx, urinary ET, and vasopressin of saline-loaded rats. In conclusion, chronic clofibrate administration prevented the blood pressure elevation of salt-loaded rats by decreasing sodium balance and reducing thyroid hormone levels. PMID:20981147

  8. Saltwater Upconing and Decay Beneath a Well Pumping Above an Interface Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Bear, Jacob; Bensabat, Jacob

    2004-04-20

    Saltwater, or brine, underlies fresh water in many aquifers, with a transition zone separating them. Pumping fresh water by wells located above the transition zone produces upconing of the latter, eventually salinizing the pumped water, forcing shut-off. The salinity of the pumped water depends on the pumping rate, on the location of the well's screen, on the fresh water flow regime, and on the difference in density between fresh and salt water, expressed as a dimensionless factor called density difference factor (DDF). Following the well's shut-off, the upconed saltwater mound undergoes decay, tending to return to the pre-pumping regime. In this paper, the upconing-decay processes in an axially symmetrical system are investigated to discover how they are affected by the DDF and by the dispersivities. The code FEAS-Brine, developed for the simulation of coupled density-dependent flow and salt transport, is used. In this code, the flow equation is solved by the Galer:wqkin finite element method (FEM), while the advective-dispersive salt transport equation is solved in the Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. This code does not suffer from the instability constraint on the Peclet number in the vicinity of the pumping well, where advection dominates the salt transport. Simulation results show that upconing is very sensitive to the DDF, which, in our work, is in the range from 0 (for ideal tracer) to 0.2 (for brine). It is shown that for the DDF of 0.025 (for seawater), local upconing occurs only for low iso-salinity surfaces, while those of high salt concentration, practically, do not shift toward the pumping well. For an ideal tracer, all iso-salinity surfaces rise toward the pumping well. For brine, however, only iso-salinity surfaces of very low salinity upcone towards the pumping well. The decay process is lengthy; it takes a long time for the upconed saltwater to migrate back to the original horizontal transition zone prior to pumping. However, the wider

  9. Salt-induced variation in some potential physiochemical attributes of two genetically diverse spring wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in salt tolerance potential of two contrasting wheat cultivars (salt tolerant S-24 and moderately salt sensitive MH-97) at different growth stages was observed when these wheat cultivars were exposed to salinity stress in hydroponic culture. Salinity caused a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigments, transpiration and photos synthetic rates, and stomatal conductance at early growth stages in both wheat cultivars, being more prominent in cv. MH-97. In addition, a marked salt-induced alteration was observed in different attributes of chlorophyll fluorescence. On the basis of physiological characterization of these two wheat cultivars at different growth stages, it was inferred that cv. S-24 exhibited higher salinity tolerance at all growth stages in terms of less salinity-induced degradation of photosynthetic pigments, higher photosynthetic rates, maintenance of photosystem II under salinity stress as compared to that in cv. MH-97. In view of the results presented here, it is evident that wheat plants were prone to adverse effects of salinity at early growth stages as compared to later growth stages. (author)

  10. Failure Analysis of a Nickel-Plated Electronic Connector Due to Salt-Induced Corrosion (ENGE 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Ri; Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2015-10-01

    When electronic connectors in mobile devices are miniaturized, the thickness of plating decreases. However, this thin plating is expected to decrease the life of the connector due to problems with corrosion. In this study, salt spray aging tests were performed on miniaturized nickel-plated stainless steel electronic connectors to observe failure mechanisms in realistic environments. The tests were performed three times using a 5% NaCl solution in an atmosphere of 45 °C; each test included several cycles where one cycle was one 24-h period consisting of 8 h of salt spray and 16 h without salt spray. The nickel-plating layers were periodically observed by electron probe X-ray micro-analyzer, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy to analyze and identify the corrosion mechanism. We found that the primary failure mode of the nickel plating is blistering and delamination. The corrosion mechanism is typically a chain reaction of several corrosion mechanisms: pitting corrosion --> stress corrosion cracking --> hydrogen-induced cracking --> blistering and delamination. Finally, we discuss countermeasures to prevent corrosion of the nickel layer based on the corrosion mechanisms identified in this study.

  11. Pressure-induced brine migration in consolidated salt in a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes a mathematical model for brine migration through intact salt near a radioactive waste package emplaced in salt. Solutions indicate limited movement following ten years emplacement

  12. Biliary albumin excretion induced by bile salts in rats is a pathological phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, M.; Kitani, K.; Kanai, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bile to plasma 125I-albumin concentration ratio (B/P ratio) was examined before and during various bile salt infusions in male Wistar rats that had previously received iv injection of 125I-albumin. Endogenous rat albumin and IgG concentrations in the bile were also determined by a single radial immunodiffusion method. Taurocholate (TC) infusion (1.0 mumol/min/100 g body wt) significantly increased the bile flow rate in the first hr but the flow began to decline in the second hr. The B/P ratio as well as rat albumin (and IgG) excretion into the bile significantly increased as early as 15 min after the start of TC infusion, and the increase became more pronounced in the second hr, when the bile flow began to decrease. Infusion of taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC, 0.4 mumol/min/100 g) caused a reduction in bile flow 15 min after the start of infusion but the B/P ratio increased 40 times at its peak compared with the basal value before the bile salt infusion. Simultaneous infusion of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC, 0.6 mumol/min/100 g) and TCDC not only abolished the cholestasis induced by TCDC but maintained stable choleresis as long as for 2 hr. During this choleretic period, the B/P ration never exceeded the basal value. The choleresis induced by either taurodehydrocholate (TDHC) or bucolome was not accompanied by enhanced albumin excretion. In rats given TDHC infusion, albumin excretion started to increase only after the bile flow began to decline following the initial choleretic period. The enhanced excretion of albumin induced by TC and TCDC is therefore suggested to be caused not by the choleresis per se but by a possible concomitant increase in the communication between sinusoids and bile canaliculi, which eventually leads to cholestasis

  13. Pre-Conceptual Design of a Fluoride-Salt-Cooled Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Cisneros, Anselmo T [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 2010 to explore the feasibility of small modular fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs). A preliminary reactor system concept, SmATHR (for Small modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor) is described, along with an integrated high-temperature thermal energy storage or salt vault system. The SmAHTR is a 125 MWt, integral primary, liquid salt cooled, coated particle-graphite fueled, low-pressure system operating at 700 C. The system employs passive decay heat removal and two-out-of-three , 50% capacity, subsystem redundancy for critical functions. The reactor vessel is sufficiently small to be transportable on standard commercial tractor-trailer transport vehicles. Initial transient analyses indicated the transition from normal reactor operations to passive decay heat removal is accomplished in a manner that preserves robust safety margins at all times during the transient. Numerous trade studies and trade-space considerations are discussed, along with the resultant initial system concept. The current concept is not optimized. Work remains to more completely define the overall system with particular emphasis on refining the final fuel/core configuration, salt vault configuration, and integrated system dynamics and safety behavior.

  14. Dynamic behaviour and neutron noise in molten salt reactors with circulating perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, I.; Dykin, V. [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Nuclear Engineering, Goteborg (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This paper concerns the calculation of the neutron noise induced in Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) by the random fluctuations in space and time of the molten fuel cross sections which travel together with the fuel and pass the core region. The effect of such fluctuations was already discussed in several publications. The novelty of the present paper is that it takes into account that in addition to the delayed neutron precursors, also the cross section perturbations themselves, whose passing through the core induces the in-core neutron noise, return to the core inlet via the external loop from the core exit. The corresponding theory is developed, and some quantitative investigations are made of the characteristics of the noise, which can be attributed to the recirculation of the perturbation to the core. It is shown that the effect of the returning of the perturbations, even though it is also associated with a temporal decay, has a much stronger effect on the neutron noise spectra than that of the recirculation of the delayed neutron precursors. (author)

  15. Dynamic behaviour and neutron noise in molten salt reactors with circulating perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, I.; Dykin, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the calculation of the neutron noise induced in Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) by the random fluctuations in space and time of the molten fuel cross sections which travel together with the fuel and pass the core region. The effect of such fluctuations was already discussed in several publications. The novelty of the present paper is that it takes into account that in addition to the delayed neutron precursors, also the cross section perturbations themselves, whose passing through the core induces the in-core neutron noise, return to the core inlet via the external loop from the core exit. The corresponding theory is developed, and some quantitative investigations are made of the characteristics of the noise, which can be attributed to the recirculation of the perturbation to the core. It is shown that the effect of the returning of the perturbations, even though it is also associated with a temporal decay, has a much stronger effect on the neutron noise spectra than that of the recirculation of the delayed neutron precursors. (author)

  16. Genetic effects of decay of tritium incorporated into cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 5. Lethal and mutagenic effects and the nature of mutations induced by /sup 3/H decay in the 6-th position of thymine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E.L.; Korolev, V.G. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-03-01

    Lethal and mutagenous effects as well as nature of mutations induced with /sup 3/H decay in the sixth position of thymine (6-/sup 3/H-T) have been studied. Inactivation probability of haploid yeasts constituted ..cap alpha..=(6.1+-1.0)x10/sup -3/ decay/sup -1/ or ..cap alpha..=(7.6+-1.3)x10/sup -5/ rad/sup -1/, and probability of mutation appearance in genes ade 1, ade -K is (2.8+-1.7)x10/sup -8/ decay/sup -1/ or K=(3.5+-2.1)x10/sup -10/ rad/sup -1/. Lethal and mutageneous effects of 6-/sup 3/H-T don't differ considerably from those for /sup 3/H decay in the fifth position of thymine (5-/sup 3/H-T). From the point of view of frequency of transversions and mutations of read-out frame shift type induced in ade 2 gene, 6-/sup 3/H-T doesn't differ from 5-/sup 3/H-T. However, in comparison with the latter 6-/sup 3/H-T causes appearance of a larger amount of AT ..-->.. GTs transitions. A scheme, according to which 5 methyl barbituric acid (5MBK) is a finite product of /sup 3/H decay in the sixth position of thymine, is suggested. The results obtained point to that fact that 5MBK represents weak mutageneous damage of thymine causing the exchange of AT pair.

  17. Agmatine induced NO dependent rat mesenteric artery relaxation and its impairment in salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Tushar V; Cortes, Natalie; Madrasi, Kumpal; Tsoukias, Nikolaos M; Joshi, Mahesh S

    2013-11-30

    l-Arginine and its decarboxylated product, agmatine are important mediators of NO production and vascular relaxation. However, the underlying mechanisms of their action are not understood. We have investigated the role of arginine and agmatine in resistance vessel relaxation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Second or 3rd-order mesenteric arterioles were cannulated in an organ chamber, pressurized and equilibrated before perfusing intraluminally with agonists. The vessel diameters were measured after mounting on the stage of a microscope fitted with a video camera. The gene expression in Dahl rat vessel homogenates was ascertained by real-time PCR. l-Arginine initiated relaxations (EC50, 5.8±0.7mM; n=9) were inhibited by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor, difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) (EC50, 18.3±1.3mM; n=5) suggesting that arginine-induced vessel relaxation was mediated by agmatine formation. Agmatine relaxed the SD rat vessels at significantly lower concentrations (EC50, 138.7±12.1μM; n=22), which was compromised by l-NAME (l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, an eNOS inhibitor), RX821002 (α-2 AR antagonist) and pertussis toxin (G-protein inhibitor). The agmatine-mediated vessel relaxation from high salt Dahl rats was abolished as compared to that from normal salt rats (EC50, 143.9±23.4μM; n=5). The α-2A AR, α-2B AR and eNOS mRNA expression was downregulated in mesenteric arterioles of high-salt treated Dahl hypertensive rats. These findings demonstrate that agmatine facilitated the relaxation via activation of α-2 adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor and NO synthesis, and this pathway is compromised in salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Flow induced on a salt waterbody due to the impingement of a freshwater drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouaguef, Islam; Amah, Edison; Musunuri, Naga; Blackmore, Denis; Fischer, Ian; Singh, Pushpendra

    2017-11-01

    The particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques are used to study the flow induced on the surface of a salt waterbody when a drop impinges on the surface. The measurements show that the impingement of a fresh water drop causes a strong axisymmetric solutocapillary flow about the vertical line passing through the center of impact. The fluid directly below the center of impact rises upward, and near the surface it moves away from the center of impact. The flow, which develops within a fraction of second after the impact, persists for several seconds and the volume of water circulated is two orders of magnitude larger than the volume circulated when a freshwater drop falls on a freshwater body.

  19. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  20. Konjac flour improved textural and water retention properties of transglutaminase-mediated, heat-induced porcine myofibrillar protein gel: Effect of salt level and transglutaminase incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Koo B; Go, Mi Y; Xiong, Youling L

    2009-03-01

    Functional properties of heat-induced gels prepared from microbial transglutaminase (TG)-treated porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) containing sodium caseinate with or without konjac flour (KF) under various salt concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6MNaCl) were evaluated. The mixed MP gels with KF exhibited improved cooking yields at all salt concentrations. TG treatment greatly enhanced gel strength and elasticity (storage modulus, G') at 0.6M NaCl, but not at lower salt concentrations. The combination of KF and TG improved the gel strength at 0.1 and 0.3M NaCl and G' at all salt concentrations, when compared with non-TG controls. Incubation of MP suspensions (sols) with TG promoted the disappearance of myosin heavy chain and the production of polymers. The TG-treated MP mixed gels had a compact structure, compared to those without TG, and the KF incorporation modified the gel matrix and increased its water-holding capacity. Results from differential scanning calorimetry suggested possible interactions of MP with KF, which may explain the changes in the microstructure of the heat-induced gels.

  1. Radiation induced color center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Klaffky, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    F-center and colloid particle formation has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals with apparatus for making optical absorption measurements during irradiation. F-center and colloid formation are functions of temperature, dose, dose rate, strain applied prior to irradiation and numerous other factors. Many of the observed properties are in accord with the Jain-Lidiard theory for radiation induced F-center and colloid growth above room temperature

  2. Direct and mixing-induced CP violation in charmless two-body B decays.

    CERN Document Server

    Derkach, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The recent analyses performed by the LHCb collaboration in the sector of the charmless two-body B-decays. The following analyses are included: time-integrated CP asymmetry measurement of Bd ! Kp and Bs ! pK decays, time-dependent measurements of Bd ! pp and Bs ! KK decays, effective lifetime measurements of Bs ! KK decays, and triple asymmetries of Bs ! f f.

  3. Inclusive spectra of hadrons in B-meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovol'skaya, A.V.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.A.; Zoller, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The inclusive spectra of hadrons (mainly pions) produced in the semileptonic and nonleptonic decays of B-mesons are calculated. Parameters of spectra for different types of hard qq-bar-strings, appearing in the B-meson decays, are determined using the data on e+e-annihilation. Numerical results for B-meson decay induced by both b→b and b→u transitions are presented. 10 refs.; 5 figs

  4. Uric acid does not affect the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aorta from normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Watts, Stephanie W

    2010-06-01

    Uric acid (UA) results from xanthine oxidase (XO) catabolism of xanthine and is the final product of purine catabolism in humans. In this species, hyperuricemia is associated with gout, nephropathy, and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of hyperuricemia in vascular biology are overall controversial, UA has been described as an antioxidant and as potentially improving endothelial function. Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that UA improves the endothelial function of aorta from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. UA (100 microM) in the presence of the uricase inhibitor oxonic acid (10 microM) did not modify relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) (1 nM-10 microM) in the aorta from nontreated, sham normotensive, and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats [response to 10 microM ACh for UA versus vehicle, respectively: nontreated = 37 +/- 7 versus 48 +/- 7%, sham = 53 +/- 15 versus 57 +/- 20%, DOCA = 81 +/- 4 versus 85 +/- 2% from 20 microM prostaglandin 2alpha (PGF(2alpha))-induced contraction]. Allopurinol (100 microM), a XO inhibitor, did not significantly alter the ACh-induced relaxation of sham and DOCA aortic rings (response to 10 microM ACh for allopurinol versus vehicle, respectively: sham = 61 +/- 5 versus 68 +/- 9%, DOCA = 87 +/- 6 versus 88 +/- 3% from 20 microM PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction). Uricemia, ranging from unmeasurable to 547 microM in sham and to 506 microM in DOCA rats, was not significantly different between these two groups. The expression and activity of XO, as well as the expression of uricase, were not different between sham and DOCA rat aorta. We conclude that, at least in vitro, UA does not affect the ACh-induced relaxation of normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

  5. Salt geologic evaluation of the impact of cryogenic fissures and halokinetic deformation processes on the integrity of the geological barrier of the salt dome Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Joerg; Fleig, Stephanie; Mingerzahn, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    In several salt domes of the area close to Hannover fissures were observed that might be caused by thermally induced fissure formation due to cold periods (cryogenic fissures). Comprehensive substantial-structural analyses are performed as an example for the salt dome Bokeloh with respect to genesis and transferability to the salt dome Gorleben. Based on recent structure-geological, mineralogical-geochemical and micro-paleontological studies and thermo-mechanical modeling a solely thermally induced fissure formation due to cold periods is unlikely for the salt dome Bokeloh. There is a direct relation between the genesis of the salt dome Bokeloh, its regional tectonic site and the fissure formation. Due to the completely different genesis and another regional-tectonic situation the existence of cryogenic fissures is excluded for the salt dome Gorleben. The salt-geologic and experimental studies on the deformation of anhydrite layers in salt domes are summarized and evaluated with respect to the long-term consequences for a potential final repository for high-level heat-generating radioactive waste in the salt dome Gorleben. The studies confirm the older BGR studies that anhydrite layers do not represent hydraulic potential ling-distance liquid paths.

  6. Safety consequences of the release of radiation induced stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1994-08-01

    Due to the disposal of HLW in a salt formation gamma energy will be deposited in the rock salt. Most of this energy will be converted into heat, whilst a small part will create defects in the salt crystals. Energy is stored in the damaged crystals. Due to uncertainties in the models and differences in the disposal concepts the estimated values for the stored energy range from 10 to 1000 J/g in the most heavily damaged crystals close to the waste containers. The amount of radiation damage decays exponentially with increasing distance from the containers and at distances larger than 0.2 m the stored energy can be neglected. Given the uncertainties in the model predictions and in the possible release mechanism an instantaneous release of stored energy cannot be excluded completely. Therefore the thermo-mechanical consequences of a postulated instantaneous release of an extremely high amount of radiation induced stored energy have been estimated. These estimations are based on the quasi-static solutions for line and point sources. To account for the dynamic effects and the occurrence of fractures an amplification factor has been derived from mining experience with explosives. A validation of this amplification factor has been given using post experimental observations of two nuclear explosions in a salt formation. For some typical disposal concepts in rock salt the extent of the fractured zone has been estimated. It appeared that the radial extent of the fractured zone is limited to 5 m. Given the much larger distance between the individual boreholes and the distance between the boreholes and the boundary of the salt formation (more than 100 m), the probability of a release of radiation induced stored energy creating a pathway for the nuclides from the containers to the groundwater, is extremely low. The radiological consequences of a groundwater intrusion scenario induced by this very unprobable pathway are bounded by the 'standard' groundwater intrusion

  7. Identification of salt-induced genes from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte through expressed sequence tags analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bhavanath; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Lal, Sanjay; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2009-04-01

    Salinity severely affects plant growth and development causing crop loss worldwide. We have isolated a large number of salt-induced genes as well as unknown and hypothetical genes from Salicornia brachiata Roxb. (Amaranthaceae). This is the first description of identification of genes in response to salinity stress in this extreme halophyte plant. Salicornia accumulates salt in its pith and survives even at 2 M NaCl under field conditions. For isolating salt responsive genes, cDNA subtractive hybridization was performed between control and 500 mM NaCl treated plants. Out of the 1200 recombinant clones, 930 sequences were submitted to the NCBI database (GenBank accession: EB484528 to EB485289 and EC906125 to EC906292). 789 ESTs showed matching with different genes in NCBI database. 4.8% ESTs belonged to stress-tolerant gene category and approximately 29% ESTs showed no homology with known functional gene sequences, thus classified as unknown or hypothetical. The detection of a large number of ESTs with unknown putative function in this species makes it an interesting contribution. The 90 unknown and hypothetical genes were selected to study their differential regulation by reverse Northern analysis for identifying their role in salinity tolerance. Interestingly, both up and down regulation at 500 mM NaCl were observed (21 and 10 genes, respectively). Northern analysis of two important salt tolerant genes, ASR1 (Abscisic acid stress ripening gene) and plasma membrane H+ATPase, showed the basal level of transcripts in control condition and an increase with NaCl treatment. ASR1 gene is made full length using 5' RACE and its potential role in imparting salt tolerance is being studied.

  8. Wheat TaSP gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Cui, Weina; Liang, Wenji; Huang, Zhanjing

    2015-12-01

    A novel salt-induced gene with unknown functions was cloned through analysis of gene expression profile of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 under salt stress. The gene was named Triticum aestivum salt-related protein (TaSP) and deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KF307326). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that TaSP expression was induced under salt, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSP was mainly localized in cell membrane. Overexpression of TaSP in Arabidopsis could improve salt tolerance of 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis lines after salt stress presented better physiological indexes than the control group. In the non-invasive micro-test (NMT), an evident Na(+) excretion was observed at the root tip of salt-stressed 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. TaSP promoter was cloned, and its beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities before and after ABA, salt, cold, heat, and salicylic acid (SA) stresses were determined. Full-length TaSP promoter contained ABA and salt response elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical implications of heat and radiation damage to rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.

    1984-11-01

    Chemical changes induced in Palo Duro and Paradox Basin natural rock salts and in synthetic NaCl by heat and gamma radiation were investigated. Heating of unirradiated natural rock salts to 300 0 C resulted in HCl (most prevalent), SO 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S evolution, and increased the base content of the remaining salt by not more than 10 microequivalents per gram; whereas, heating of synthetic NaCl gave no product. Gamma irradiation produced sodium colloids and neutral chlorine in amounts similar to the results of Levy and coworkers. When the irradiated salts were heated, three reactions were apparent: (1) radiation-induced defects recombined; (2) neutral chlorine was evolved; and (3) HCl, SO 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S were evolved, similar to results for unirradiated salts. Because reaction (1) appeared to dominate over reaction (2), it is expected that the influence of radiation damage to salt on the near-field chemical environment will be minor. 4 figures, 1 table

  10. A cold-induced pectin methyl-esterase inhibitor gene contributes negatively to freezing tolerance but positively to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Xuehui; Zhang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yidan; Ou, Xiangli; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan; Zhao, Zhiguang

    2018-03-01

    Plant pectin methyl-esterase (PME) and PME inhibitor (PMEI) belong to large gene families whose members are proposed to be widely involved in growth, development, and stress responses; however, the biological functions of most PMEs and PMEIs have not been characterized. In this study, we studied the roles of CbPMEI1, a cold-induced pectin methyl-esterase inhibitor (PMEI) gene from Chorispora bungeana, under freezing and salt stress. The putative CbPMEI1 peptide shares highest similarity (83%) with AT5G62360 (PMEI13) of Arabidopsis. Overexpression of either CbPMEI1 or PMEI13 in Arabidopsis decreased tissue PME activity and enhanced the degree of methoxylation of cell wall pectins, indicating that both genes encode functional PMEIs. CbPMEI1 and PMEI13 were induced by cold but repressed by salt stress and abscisic acid, suggesting distinct roles of the genes in freezing and salt stress tolerance. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CbPMEI1 or PMEI13 showed decreased freezing tolerance, as indicated by survival and electrolyte leakage assays. On the other hand, the salt tolerance of transgenic plants was increased, showing higher rates of germination, root growth, and survival under salinity conditions as compared with non-transgenic wild-type plants. Although the transgenic plants were freezing-sensitive, they showed longer roots than wild-type plants under cold conditions, suggesting a role of PMEs in balancing the trade-off between freezing tolerance and growth. Thus, our study indicates that CbPMEI1 and PMEI13 are involved in root growth regulation under cold and salt stresses, and suggests that PMEIs may be potential targets for genetic engineering aimed to improve fitness of plants under stress conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the effects of continuous salt processing on the performance of molten salt fusion breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Klein, D.E.; Lee, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Several continuous salt processing options are available for use in molten salt fusion breeder blanket designs: fluorination only, fluorination plus reductive extraction, and fluorination, plus reductive extraction, plus metal transfer. The effects of processing on blanket performance have been assessed for these three levels of processing and various equilibrium uranium concentrations in the salt. A one-dimensional model of the blanket was used in the neutronics analysis, which incorporated transport calculations with time-dependent isotope generation and depletion calculations. The method of salt processing was found to have little affect on the level of radioactivity, toxicity, or the thermal behavior of the salt during operation of the reactor. The processing rates necessary to maintain the desired uranium concentrations in the suppressed-fission environment were quite low, which permitted only long-lived species to be removed from the salt. The effects of the processing therefore became apparent only after the radioactivity due to the short-lived species diminished. The effect of the additional processing (reductive extraction and metal transfer) could be seen after approximately 1 year of decay, but were not significant at times closer to shutdown. The reduced radioactivity and corresponding heat deposition were thus of no consequence in accident or maintenance situations. Net fissile production in the Be/MS blanket concept at a fusion power level of 3000 MW at 70% capacity ranged from 5100 kg/year to 5170 kg/year for uranium concentrations of 0.11% and 1.0% 233 U in thorium, respectively, with fluorination-only processing. The addition of processing by reductive extraction resulted in 5125 kg/year for the 0.11% 233 U case and 5225 kg/year for the 1.0% 233 U case

  12. Measurement of CP violation in Bs0 →φφ decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, P.R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M-O.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.D.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; Van Den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, S.; Cheung, S-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, C.R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N Y; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J. M.; Paula, L.E.; da-Silva, W.S.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T. M.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R. F.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, Mark; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Carvalho-Gaspar, M.; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T. J.; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.Q.; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.M.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.M.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Di Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, S.C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli-Boneschi, F.; Martinez-Santos, D.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; Mcnab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B. T.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, Karl; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, R.P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, D.A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, M. E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, C.A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, Y.W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, Jennifer S; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, L.E.T.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, van Hapere; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, R. H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; de Souza, D.K.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M. N.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, N.T.M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, M.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; De Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, James F; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.J.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the decay time-dependent CP-violating asymmetry in Bs0→φφ decays is presented, along with measurements of the T-odd triple-product asymmetries. In this decay channel, the CP-violating weak phase arises from the interference between Bs0-B¯s0 mixing and the loop-induced decay

  13. Rheological stratification of the Hormuz Salt Formation in Iran - microstructural study of the dirty and pure rock salts from the Kuh-e-Namak (Dashti) salt diapir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závada, Prokop; Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos; Schulmann, Karel; Rahmati, Mahmoud; Lexa, Ondrej; Wollenberg, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Significant viscosity contrasts displayed in flow structures of a mountain namakier (Kuh-e-Namak - Dashti), between 'weak' terrestrial debris bearing rock salt types and 'strong' pure rock salt types are questioned for deformation mechanisms using detailed quantitative microstructural study including crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) mapping of halite grains. While the solid impurity rich ("dirty") rock salts contain disaggregated siltstone and dolomite interlayers, "clean" salts (debris free) reveal microscopic hematite and remnants of abundant fluid inclusions in non-recrystallized cores of porphyroclasts. Although flow in both, the recrystallized dirty and clean salt types is accommodated by combined mechanisms of pressure-solution creep (PS), grain boundary sliding (GBS) and dislocation creep accommodated grain boundary migration (GBM), their viscosity contrasts are explained by significantly slower rates of intergranular diffusion and piling up of dislocations at hematite inclusions in clean salt types. Porphyroclasts of clean salts deform by semi-brittle and plastic mechanisms with intra-crystalline damage being induced also by fluid inclusions that explode in the crystals at high fluid pressures. Boudins of clean salt types with coarse grained and original sedimentary microstructure suggest that clean rock salts are associated with dislocation creep dominated power law flow in the source layer and the diapiric stem. Rheological contrasts between both rock salt classes apply in general for the variegated and terrestrial debris rich ("dirty") Lower Hormuz and the "clean" rock salt forming the Upper Hormuz, respectively, and suggest that large strain rate gradients likely exist along horizons of mobilized salt types of different composition and microstructure.

  14. Time-Resolved Fluorescence of Water-Soluble Pyridinium Salt: Sensitive Detection of the Conformational Changes of Bovine Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yi, Hua; Jia, Menghui; Chang, Mengfang; Zhou, Zhongneng; Zhang, Sanjun; Pan, Haifeng; Chen, Yan; Chen, Jinquan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-06-20

    In this paper, we report a pyridinium salt "turn-on" fluorescent probe, 4-[2-(4-Dimethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (p-DASPMI), and applied its time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) to monitor the protein conformational changes. Both the fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield (QY) of p-DASPMI were increased about two orders of magnitude after binding to the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). The free p-DASPMI in solution presents an ultrashort fluorescence lifetime (12.4 ps), thus it does not interfere the detection of bound p-DASPMI which has nanosecond fluorescence lifetime. Decay-associated spectra (DAS) show that p-DASPMI molecules bind to subdomains IIA and IIIA of BSA. The TRF decay profiles of p-DASPMI can be described by multi-exponential decay function ([Formula: see text]), and the obtained parameters, such as lifetimes ([Formula: see text]), fractional amplitudes ([Formula: see text]), and fractional intensities ([Formula: see text]), may be used to deduce the conformational changes of BSA. The pH and Cu 2+ induced conformational changes of BSA were investigated through the TRF of p-DASPMI. The results show that the p-DASPMI is a candidate fluorescent probe in studying the conformational changes of proteins through TRF spectroscopy and microscopy in the visible range. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Transient Analyses for a Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor Using the Extended SIMMER-III Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shisheng; Rineiski, Andrei; Maschek, Werner; Ignatiev, Victor

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments extending the capabilities of the SIMMER-III code for the dealing with transient and accidents in Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) are presented. These extensions refer to the movable precursor modeling within the space-time dependent neutronics framework of SIMMER-III, to the molten salt flow modeling, and to new equations of state for various salts. An important new SIMMER-III feature is that the space-time distribution of the various precursor families with different decay constants can be computed and took into account in neutron/reactivity balance calculations and, if necessary, visualized. The system is coded and tested for a molten salt transmuter. This new feature is also of interest in core disruptive accidents of fast reactors when the core melts and the molten fuel is redistributed. (authors)

  16. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, A. Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O.; Alreweli, Ali

    2014-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of osmotic backwash induced by high salt (NaCl) concentration solution on feed side of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, online and offline, in controlling membrane fouling and therefore minimizing/eliminating the need for chemical cleaning. SWRO membranes were deliberately fouled by feeding seawater from an open intake located on the Arabian Gulf Coast without dosing chemicals. The fouled membranes were subjected to offline cleaning with the salt solution of up to 25 % concentration. Despite the partial removal of foulants from the membrane surface, SWRO membrane performance could not be restored, indicating the ineffectiveness of osmotic backwash in aiding offline salt cleaning. Similarly, online osmotic backwash was found to be not only ineffective in removing foulants from membrane surfaces but actually increased the fouling rate, as indicated by faster fouling rates compared to other cases. Although the driving force required for the osmotic backwash existed, the generated back flow proved to be insufficient to detach foulants from membrane surfaces. During the study period, the average SWRO membrane flux was maintained between 19 and 23 LMH, whereas the average generated back flow flux by high salt concentration solution was only 11 LMH, which was not adequate to remove foulants from membrane surfaces. Moreover, it seems that the membrane configuration as well as inherent microstructure of SWRO membrane places certain constraints on the osmotic backwash process and renders osmotic backwash ineffective in tackling SWRO membrane fouling. Hence, chemical cleaning is essential to restore SWRO membrane performance whenever fouling occurs, and the use of highly concentrated salt solution does not have any significant benefit. Membrane autopsy revealed only an insignificant accumulation of biofouling layer despite the absence of disinfection. However, it was shown that culturable biofilm bacteria species

  17. Preliminary model validation for integral stability behavior in molten salt natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chuangxiong; He Zhaozhong; Chen Kun

    2017-01-01

    Passive safety system is an important characteristic of Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR). In order to remove the decay heat, a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) which uses the passive safety technology is proposed to the FHR as the ultimate heat sink. The DRACS is relying on the natural circulation, so the study of molten salt natural circulation plays an important role at TMSR. A high-temperature molten salt natural circulation test loop has been designed and constructed at the TMSR center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) to understand the characteristics of the natural circulation and verify the design model. It adopts nitrate salt as the working fluid to simulate fluoride salts, and uses air as the ultimate heat sink. The test shows the operation very well and has a very nice performance, the Heat transfer coefficients (salt-salt or salt-air), power of the loop, heat loss of molten salt pool (or molten salt pipe or air cooling tower), starting time of the loop, flow rate that can be verified in this loop. A series of experiments have been done and the results show that the experimental data are well matched with the design data. This paper aims at analyzing the molten salt circulation model, studying the characteristics of the natural circulation, and verifying the Integral stability behavior by three different natural circulation experiments. Also, the experiment is going on, and more experiments will been carry out to study the molten salt natural circulation for optimizing the design. (author)

  18. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  19. In-trap decay spectroscopy for ββ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in ββ decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from β decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and β detection with almost no β-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in ββ decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in ββ decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10 -5 and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating β background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge detectors, for the detection of X-rays, were

  20. Search for charmless decays of B hadrons in hadronic and radiative (b --> s gamma) decay modes using the DELPHI detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liko, Dietrich

    1995-01-01

    Charmless decays of B hadrons have been of considerable interest during the last years. Decays in hadronic modes proceed either trough tree level b � u transitions or loop diagrams involving so-called "hadronic" penguins. Tree level dominated decays confirm the non zero value of JVubl in the CKM mixing matrix while those induced by penguin processes provide tests of the loop structure of the Standard Model. Decays in the radiative modes b -+ s-y are forbidden at tree level and proceed only trough loop diagrams. Possible contributions to the decay rate due to new physics provide a test of the Standard Model. During the last years various measurements of decay rates have been performed at colliders at the bb-threshold. Experiments at the LEP collider have already collected sufficient data to study these decays in a different experimental environment. Results of searches at the DELPHI experiment are presented.

  1. Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyščák, Ondřej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action...... in the stones, i.e. the present investigation faces more challenges relevant to a real desalination action. Experiments were conducted with two Obernkirchen sandstones from the same warehouse, but with different levels of salt concentrations and porosity. The investigation includes removal of the most common...... salts: chlorides, nitrates, sulphates. In the experimental setup the electrodes were placed in a clay poultice: a mixture of kaolinite, calcite and distilled water. An electric direct current (DC) field was applied to the sandstone.By applying 2mA for 5–11days it was possible to reduce the chloride...

  2. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  3. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  4. Suppression of PCD-related genes affects salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahieldin, Ahmed; Alqarni, Dhafer A M; Atef, Ahmed; Gadalla, Nour O; Al-matary, Mohammed; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Makki, Rania M; Al-Doss, Abdullah A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Mutwakil, Mohammed H Z; El-Domyati, Fotouh M

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at examining a natural exciting phenomenon suggesting that suppression of genes inducing programmed cell death (PCD) might confer tolerance against abiotic stresses in plants. PCD-related genes were induced in tobacco under oxalic acid (OA) treatment (20 mM), and plant cells were characterized to confirm the incidence of PCD. The results indicated that PCD was triggered 24 h after the exposure to OA. Then, RNAs were extracted from tobacco cells 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after treatment for deep sequencing. RNA-Seq analyses were done with a special emphasis to clusters whose PCD-related genes were upregulated after 2 h of OA exposure. Accordingly, 23 tobacco PCD-related genes were knocked down via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), whereas our results indicated the influence of five of them on inducing or suppressing PCD. Knockout T-DNA insertion mutants of these five genes in Arabidopsis were tested under salt stress (0, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl), and the results indicated that a mutant of an antiapoptotic gene, namely Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1), whose VIGS induced PCD in tobacco, was salt sensitive, while a mutant of an apoptotic gene, namely mildew resistance locus O (Mlo), whose VIGS suppressed PCD, was salt tolerant as compared to the WT (Col) control. These data support our hypothesis that retarding PCD-inducing genes can result in higher levels of salt tolerance, while retarding PCD-suppressing genes can result in lower levels of salt tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Salt stress induces changes in the proteomic profile of micropropagated sugarcane shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; Rangel, Patricia L.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Grativol, Clícia; Veiga, Carlos F. M.; Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A.

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the most common stresses in agricultural regions worldwide. In particular, sugarcane is affected by salt stress conditions, and no sugarcane cultivar presently show high productivity accompanied by a tolerance to salt stress. Proteomic analysis allows elucidation of the important pathways involved in responses to various abiotic stresses at the biochemical and molecular levels. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the proteomic effects of salt stress in micropropagated shoots of two sugarcane cultivars (CB38-22 and RB855536) using a label-free proteomic approach. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006075. The RB855536 cultivar is more tolerant to salt stress than CB38-22. A quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis identified 1172 non-redundant proteins, and 1160 of these were observed in both cultivars in the presence or absence of NaCl. Compared with CB38-22, the RB855536 cultivar showed a greater abundance of proteins involved in non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms, ion transport, and photosynthesis. Some proteins, such as calcium-dependent protein kinase, photosystem I, phospholipase D, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were more abundant in the RB855536 cultivar under salt stress. Our results provide new insights into the response of sugarcane to salt stress, and the changes in the abundance of these proteins might be important for the acquisition of ionic and osmotic homeostasis during exposure to salt stress. PMID:28419154

  6. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuated Maternal High-Fructose Combined with Post-Weaning High-Salt Diets-Induced Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of food high in fructose and salt is associated with the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can originate from early life. Melatonin, a pleiotropic hormone, regulates blood pressure. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose combined with post-weaning high-salt diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND or a 60% fructose diet (HF during pregnancy and the lactation period. Male offspring were on either the ND or a high-salt diet (HS, 1% NaCl from weaning to 12 weeks of age and were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HF/ND, ND/HS, HF/HS, and HF/HS+melatonin. Melatonin (0.01% in drinking water was administered during pregnancy and lactation. We observed that maternal HF combined with post-weaning HS diets induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which was attenuated by maternal melatonin therapy. The beneficial effects of maternal melatonin therapy on HF/HS-induced hypertension related to regulating several nutrient-sensing signals, including Sirt1, Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkab2, Pparg, and Ppargc1a. Additionally, melatonin increased protein levels of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR, decreased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine levels, and increased the l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. The reprogramming effects by which maternal melatonin therapy protects against hypertension of developmental origin awaits further elucidation.

  7. Transient response of small molten salt reactor at duct blockage accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; Mitachi, Koshi; Ikeuchi, Koji; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    This paper performed transient core analysis of a small Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) at the time of a duct blockage accident. The numerical model employed in this study consists of continuity and momentum conservation equations for fuel salt flow, two group diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors and energy conservation equations for fuel salt and graphite moderator. The analysis shows that (1) the effective multiplication factor and reactor power after the blockage accident hardly change because of the self-control performance of the MSR, (2) fuel salt and graphite moderator temperatures rise at the blockage point and its vicinity, drastically but locally, (3) the highest temperature after the blockage accident is 1 363 K, very lower than the boiling point of fuel salt and melt point of reactor vessel, (4) fast and thermal neutron fluxes distributions after the blockage accident hardly change, and (5) delayed neutron precursors accumulate at the blockage point, especially 1st delayed neutron precursor due to is large decay constant. These results lead that the safety of MSR is assured in the blockage accident. (author)

  8. Vortex Diode Analysis and Testing for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, Graydon L. Jr.; Elkassabgi, Yousri M.; De Leon, Gerardo I.; Fetterly, Caitlin N.; Ramos, Jorge A.; Cunningham, Richard Burns

    2012-01-01

    Fluidic diodes are presently being considered for use in several fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor designs. A fluidic diode is a passive device that acts as a leaky check valve. These devices are installed in emergency heat removal systems that are designed to passively remove reactor decay heat using natural circulation. The direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) uses DRACS salt-to-salt heat exchangers (DHXs) that operate in a path parallel to the core flow. Because of this geometry, under normal operating conditions some flow bypasses the core and flows through the DHX. A flow diode, operating in reverse direction, is-used to minimize this flow when the primary coolant pumps are in operation, while allowing forward flow through the DHX under natural circulation conditions. The DRACSs reject the core decay heat to the environment under loss-of-flow accident conditions and as such are a reactor safety feature. Fluidic diodes have not previously been used in an operating reactor system, and therefore their characteristics must be quantified to ensure successful operation. This report parametrically examines multiple design parameters of a vortex-type fluidic diode to determine the size of diode needed to reject a particular amount of decay heat. Additional calculations were performed to size a scaled diode that could be tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Salt Flow Loop. These parametric studies have shown that a 152.4 mm diode could be used as a test article in that facility. A design for this diode is developed, and changes to the loop that will be necessary to test the diode are discussed. Initial testing of a scaled flow diode has been carried out in a water loop. The 150 mm diode design discussed above was modified to improve performance, and the final design tested was a 171.45 mm diameter vortex diode. The results of this testing indicate that diodicities of about 20 can be obtained for diodes of this size. Experimental

  9. Ionomic and metabolic responses to neutral salt or alkaline salt stresses in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Shi, LianXuan; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Gu, FengXue; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru

    2017-02-10

    Soil salinity and alkalinity present a serious threat to global agriculture. However, most of the studies have focused on neutral salt stress, and the information on the metabolic responses of plants to alkaline salt stress is limited. This investigation aimed at determining the influence of neutral salt and alkaline salt stresses on the content of metal elements and metabolites in maize plant tissues, by using mixtures of various proportions of NaCl, NaHCO 3 , Na 2 SO 4 , and Na 2 CO 3 . We found that alkaline salt stress suppressed more pronouncedly the photosynthesis and growth of maize plants than salinity stress. Under alkaline salt stress conditions, metal ions formed massive precipitates, which ultimately reduced plant nutrient availability. On the other hand, high neutral salt stress induced metabolic changes in the direction of gluconeogenesis leading to the enhanced formation of sugars as a reaction contributing to the mitigation of osmotic stress. Thus, the active synthesis of sugars in shoots was essential to the development of salt tolerance. However, the alkaline salt stress conditions characterized by elevated pH values suppressed substantially the levels of photosynthesis, N metabolism, glycolysis, and the production of sugars and amino acids. These results indicate the presence of different defensive mechanisms responsible for the plant responses to neutral salt and alkaline salt stresses. In addition, the increased concentration of organic acids and enhanced metabolic energy might be potential major factors that can contribute to the maintenance intracellular ion balance in maize plants and counteract the negative effects of high pH under alkaline salt stress.

  10. Seed priming with hormones does not alleviate induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Falleiros Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming with hormones has been an efficient method for increasing seed vigor as well as seedling growth under stressful conditions. These responses have in the past been attributed to the activation of antioxidant systems in a range of crops. The results described in this work show that hormonal priming with methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid or CEPA (chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene (ET releaser, does not induce the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase or glutathione reductase in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress. The enhanced biomass of maize seedlings under salt stress that was observed only from ET priming indicates that the stress tolerance in maize from ethylene priming is a fundamental process for stress tolerance acquisition, which is explained, however, by other biochemical mechanisms but not by changes in the antioxidant system.

  11. Salt damage and RH changes: The case of the Waag Building in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van; Lubelli, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the air MM can cause damage to building materials contaminated with hygroscopic saus, even in the absence of any other moishwe source. This phenomenon has been observed in the case of the iflag build ing in Amsterdam, affècted by severe salt decay. The investigation, canied out by means

  12. Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system. Performance evaluation of zeolite column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hidenori; Uozumi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    At electrorefining process, fission products(FPs) accumulate in molten salt. To avoid influence on heating control by decay heat and enlargement of FP amount in the recovered fuel, FP elements must be removed from the spent salt of the electrorefining process. For the removal of the FPs from the spent salt, we are investigating the availability of zeolite column system. For obtaining the basic data of the column system, such as flow property and ion-exchange performance while high temperature molten salt is passing through the column, and experimental apparatus equipped with fraction collector was developed. By using this apparatus, following results were obtained. 1) We cleared up the flow parameter of column system with zeolite powder, such as flow rate control by argon pressure. 2) Zeolite 4A in the column can absorb cesium that is one of the FP elements in molten salt. From these results, we got perspective on availability of the zeolite column system. (author)

  13. Cost effective purification of intein based syntetic cationic antimicrobial peptide expressed in cold shock expression system using salt inducible E. coli GJ1158

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetha Ram Kotra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide (SC-AMP is an important and upcoming therapeutic molecule against onventional antibiotics. In this study, an attempt was made to purify the SC-AMP without the enzymatic cleavage of the affinity tag, by using an intein-based system. Methods:The intein sequence was amplified from pTYB11 vector using PCR methodologies and the N-terminal of intein was ligated with SC-AMP. The designed construct, intein-SC-AMP was cloned into MCS region of cold shock expression vector, pCOLDI and the recombinant peptide was purified on a chitin affinity column by cleaving intein with 50 mM DTT without applying enzymatic cleavage. Later the peptide was quantified and its antibacterial activity of the purified peptide was studied using well diffusion method. Results: Initially, intein-SC-AMP was expressed as a fusion protein in both IPTG inducible E. coli BL21(DE3 and salt inducible E. coli GJ1158. Single step purification using CBD (chitin binding domain - intein tag in salt inducible E. coli GJ1158, yields the SC-AMP in the soluble form at a oncentration of 208 mg/L. The antibacterial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the purified SC-AMP was studied against both Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms. Conclusion: For the first time, single step purification of soluble SC-AMP was carried out using chitin-binding domain affinity tag in salt inducible E. coli GJ1158 without an application of enzymatic cleavage. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1:13-19

  14. Self-Healing Characteristics of Damaged Rock Salt under Different Healing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt deposits are commonly regarded as ideal hosts for geologic energy reservoirs. Underground cavern construction-induced damage in salt is reduced by self-healing. Thus, studying the influencing factors on such healing processes is important. This research uses ultrasonic technology to monitor the longitudinal wave velocity variations of stress-damaged rock salts during self-recovery experiments under different recovery conditions. The influences of stress-induced initial damage, temperature, humidity, and oil on the self-recovery of damaged rock salts are analyzed. The wave velocity values of the damaged rock salts increase rapidly during the first 200 h of recovery, and the values gradually increase toward stabilization after 600 h. The recovery of damaged rock salts is subjected to higher initial damage stress. Water is important in damage recovery. The increase in temperature improves damage recovery when water is abundant, but hinders recovery when water evaporates. The presence of residual hydraulic oil blocks the inter-granular role of water and restrains the recovery under triaxial compression. The results indicate that rock salt damage recovery is related to the damage degree, pore pressure, temperature, humidity, and presence of oil due to the sealing integrity of the jacket material.

  15. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of bamboo salt soy sauce against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Hee; Noh, Min-Young; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Haiwon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) and soy sauce (SS) are traditional foods in Asia, which contain antioxidants that have cytoprotective effects on the body. The majority of SS products contain high levels of common salt, consumption of which has been associated with numerous detrimental effects on the body. However, BS may be considered a healthier substitute to common salt. The present study hypothesized that SS made from BS, known as bamboo salt soy sauce (BSSS), may possess enhanced cytoprotective properties; this was evaluated using a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced neuronal cell death rat model. Rat neuronal cells were pretreated with various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) of BSSS, traditional soy sauce (TRSS) and brewed soy sauce (BRSS), and were subsequently exposed to H 2 O 2 (100 µM). The viability of neuronal cells, and the occurrence of DNA fragmentation, was subsequently examined. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with TRSS and BRSS reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas neuronal cells pretreated with BSSS exhibited increased cell viability, as compared with non-treated neuronal cells. Furthermore, neuronal cells pretreated with 0.01% BSSS exhibited the greatest increase in viability. Exposure of neuronal cells to H 2 O 2 significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, poly (ADP-ribose), cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cytochrome c , apoptosis-inducing factor, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3, in all cases. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with BSSS significantly reduced the levels of ROS generated by H 2 O 2 , and increased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Furthermore, the observed effects of BSSS could be blocked by administration of 10 µM LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. The results of the present study suggested that BSSS may exert positive neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2

  16. Field induced spontaneous quasiparticle decay and renormalization of quasiparticle dispersion in a quantum antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Qiu, Y; Matsumoto, M; Tennant, D A; Coester, K; Schmidt, K P; Awwadi, F F; Turnbull, M M; Agrawal, H; Chernyshev, A L

    2017-05-05

    The notion of a quasiparticle, such as a phonon, a roton or a magnon, is used in modern condensed matter physics to describe an elementary collective excitation. The intrinsic zero-temperature magnon damping in quantum spin systems can be driven by the interaction of the one-magnon states and multi-magnon continuum. However, detailed experimental studies on this quantum many-body effect induced by an applied magnetic field are rare. Here we present a high-resolution neutron scattering study in high fields on an S=1/2 antiferromagnet C 9 H 18 N 2 CuBr 4 . Compared with the non-interacting linear spin-wave theory, our results demonstrate a variety of phenomena including field-induced renormalization of one-magnon dispersion, spontaneous magnon decay observed via intrinsic linewidth broadening, unusual non-Lorentzian two-peak structure in the excitation spectra and a dramatic shift of spectral weight from one-magnon state to the two-magnon continuum.

  17. Plutonium-238 alpha-decay damage study of the ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S. M.; Barber, T. L.; Cummings, D.G.; DiSanto, T.; Esh, D.W.; Giglio, J. J.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S.G.; Kennedy, J.R.; Jue, J-F; Noy, M.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Sinkler, W.

    2006-01-01

    An accelerated alpha-decay damage study of a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form has recently been completed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical durability of the waste form after significant exposure to alpha decay. This accelerated alpha-decay study was performed by doping the ceramic waste form with 238 Pu which has a much greater specific activity than 239 Pu that is normally present in the waste form. The alpha-decay dose at the end of the four year study was approximately 1 x 10 18 alpha-decays/gram of material. An equivalent time period for a similar dose of 239 Pu would require approximately 1100 years. After four years of exposure to 238 Pu alpha decay, the investigation observed little change to the physical or chemical durability of the ceramic waste form (CWF). Specifically, the 238 Pu-loaded CWF maintained it's physical integrity, namely that the density remained constant and no cracking or phase de-bonding was observed. The materials chemical durability and phase stability also did not change significantly over the duration of the study. The only significant measured change was an increase of the unit-cell lattice parameters of the plutonium oxide and sodalite phases of the material and an increase in the release of salt components and plutonium of the waste form during leaching tests, but, as mentioned, these did not lead to any overall loss of waste form durability. The principal findings from this study are: (1) 238 Pu-loaded CWF is similar in microstructure and phase composition to referenced waste form. (2) Pu was observed primarily as oxide comprised of aggregates of nano crystals with aggregates ranging in size from submicron to twenty microns in diameter. (3) Pu phases were primarily found in the intergranular glassy regions. (4) PuO phase shows expected unit cell volume expansion due to alpha decay damage of approximately 0.7%, and the sodalite phase unit cell volume has expanded slightly by 0.3% again

  18. Revealing discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts: Line-intensity correlation analysis from laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yonghoon, E-mail: yhlee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Kyung-Sik [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Song-Hee [Division of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Jeonnam 530-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jonghyun, E-mail: jyoo@appliedspectra.com [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results. - Highlights: • Broadband LIBS spectra of various edible sea salts were obtained. • Intensity correlation of emission lines of the elements in edible sea salts was analyzed. • The elements were categorized into three groups with independent discriminating power. • The effective combination of a few lines can provide dependable classification models.

  19. MeV particles in a decay chain process from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlid, L.

    2015-01-01

    The ejection of particles with energy up to 20 MeV u -1 was reported previously from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0). Studies of the kinetics of particle formation and decay, and of particle penetration through thick plates are now reported. Magnetic deflection is used to remove charged particles like electrons formed at the target. The signals at a collector in the beam at 0.9 m distance and a shadowed loop collector behind a 1.5–4.5 mm thick steel plate at 0.6 m are compared. The signal at the distant collector matches an intermediate particle B in a decay chain A → B → C with formation and decay time constants of 5–15 ns. The signal at the loop collector is delayed relative to the more distant collector, thus showing a delay of the particles penetrating through the steel plate. The signal at this collector is due to pair production with charge cancellation. Compton electrons from gamma radiation are observed at peak current densities of 1 mA cm -2 at the distant collector. (author)

  20. Salt and nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension: kidney dysfunction and brain anti-oxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktar, Süleyman; Ilhan, Selçuk; Meydan, Sedat; Aydin, Mehmet; Yönden, Zafer; Gökçe, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine the effects of salt-loading on kidney function and brain antioxidant capacity. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control rats were given normal drinking water and no drug treatment for 2 weeks. LNNA group: rats were given normal drinking water and the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), 3 mg/kg/day. LNNA + Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and 3 mg/kg L-NNA. Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and no drug treatment. Basal blood pressure and the levels of serum BUN, creatinine, uric acid, cortisol, electrolyte, serum antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were measured. NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels were measured in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cerebellum. Salt overload increased the blood pressure of the LNNA + Salt group. Salt-loading enhanced BUN, creatinine, sodium retention. High salt produced an increase in uric acid levels and a decrease in cortisol levels in serum. Additionally, the oxidative stress index in serum increased in the LNNA + Salt group. Salt-loading enhanced brain NO levels, but not SOD and CAT activity. L-NNA increased brain SOD activity, but not CAT and NO levels. In conclusion, salt-loading causes hypertension, kidney dysfunction, and enhances oxidative stress in salt-sensitive rats.

  1. The impact of high-salt exposure on cardiovascular development in the early chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Jin, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Zhao, Shu-Zhu; Chen, You-Peng; Chuai, Manli; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we show that high-salt exposure dramatically increases chick mortality during embryo development. As embryonic mortality at early stages mainly results from defects in cardiovascular development, we focused on heart formation and angiogenesis. We found that high-salt exposure enhanced the risk of abnormal heart tube looping and blood congestion in the heart chamber. In the presence of high salt, both ventricular cell proliferation and apoptosis increased. The high osmolarity induced by high salt in the ventricular cardiomyocytes resulted in incomplete differentiation, which might be due to reduced expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4. Blood vessel density and diameter were suppressed by exposure to high salt in both the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and chorioallantoic membrane models. In addition, high-salt-induced suppression of angiogenesis occurred even at the vasculogenesis stage, as blood island formation was also inhibited by high-salt exposure. At the same time, cell proliferation was repressed and cell apoptosis was enhanced by high-salt exposure in YSM tissue. Moreover, the reduction in expression of HIF2 and FGF2 genes might cause high-salt-suppressed angiogenesis. Interestingly, we show that high-salt exposure causes excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart and YSM tissues, which could be partially rescued through the addition of antioxidants. In total, our study suggests that excess generation of ROS might play an important role in high-salt-induced defects in heart and angiogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Salicylic acid improves salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by restoring membrane potential and preventing salt-induced K+ loss via a GORK channel

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakannan, Maheswari; Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Rengel, Zed; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous reports implicating salicylic acid (SA) in plant salinity responses, the specific ionic mechanisms of SA-mediated adaptation to salt stress remain elusive. To address this issue, a non-invasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique was used to study kinetics of NaCl-induced net ion fluxes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to various SA concentrations and incubation times. NaCl-induced K+ efflux and H+ influx from the mature root zone were both significantly decreased...

  3. Data in support of intermolecular interactions at early stage of protein/detergent particle association induced by salt/polyethylene glycol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Odahara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data provide information in support of the research article, “Intermolecular interactions at early stage of protein/detergent particle association induced by salt/polyethylene glycol mixtures” [1]. The data regarding variation of absorption spectra is used as an indicator of the duration of Rp. viridis PRU and RC, Rb. sphaeroides RC and LH2, and Rb. capsulatus LH2 in the native state in the presence of NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG mixture. The data about minimum concentrations of salt and PEG whose aqueous phases are mutually separated presents information on additional influence of Tris buffer and N-octyl-β-d-glucoside on the salt–PEG phase separation.

  4. Osmotic and Salt Stresses Modulate Spontaneous and Glutamate-Induced Action Potentials and Distinguish between Growth and Circumnutation in Helianthus annuus Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stolarz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Action potentials (APs, i.e., long-distance electrical signals, and circumnutations (CN, i.e., endogenous plant organ movements, are shaped by ion fluxes and content in excitable and motor tissues. The appearance of APs and CN as well as growth parameters in seedlings and 3-week old plants of Helianthus annuus treated with osmotic and salt stress (0–500 mOsm were studied. Time-lapse photography and extracellular measurements of electrical potential changes were performed. The hypocotyl length was strongly reduced by the osmotic and salt stress. CN intensity declined due to the osmotic but not salt stress. The period of CN in mild salt stress was similar to the control (~164 min and increased to more than 200 min in osmotic stress. In sunflower seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium, spontaneous APs (SAPs propagating basipetally and acropetally with a velocity of 12–20 cm min−1 were observed. The number of SAPs increased 2–3 times (7–10 SAPs 24 h−1plant−1 in the mild salt stress (160 mOsm NaCl and KCl, compared to the control and strong salt stress (3–4 SAPs 24 h−1 plant−1 in the control and 300 mOsm KCl and NaCl. Glutamate-induced series of APs were inhibited in the strong salt stress-treated seedlings but not at the mild salt stress and osmotic stress. Additionally, in 3-week old plants, the injection of the hypo- or hyperosmotic solution at the base of the sunflower stem evoked series of APs (3–24 APs transmitted along the stem. It has been shown that osmotic and salt stresses modulate differently hypocotyl growth and CN and have an effect on spontaneous and evoked APs in sunflower seedlings. We suggested that potassium, sodium, and chloride ions at stress concentrations in the nutrient medium modulate sunflower excitability and CN.

  5. Radiation-induced mucositis: a randomized clinical trial of micronized sucralfate versus salt & soda mouthwashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Marylin J; Miaskowski, Christine; Greenspan, Deborah; MacPhail, Laurie; Shih, Ai-Shan; Shiba, Gayle; Facione, Noreen; Paul, Steven M

    2003-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the major toxicities caused by radiation therapy (RT) treatments to the head and neck. The clinical efficacy of sucralfate (Carafate R) mouthwash for head and neck cancer patients (HNC) is not consistent across studies. In this study, it was hypothesized that if the particles in the original sucralfate suspension were micronized (i.e., < or = 25 microns) then the coating action of the mouthwash in the oral cavity would be enhanced. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the efficacy of micronized sucralfate (Carafate R) mouthwash and salt & soda mouthwash in terms of the severity of the mucositis, the severity of mucositis-related pain, and the time required to heal RT-induced mucositis in patients with HNC. Severe mucositis and related pain can interfere with the ingestion of food and fluids, so patients' body weights were measured as well. All patients in this randomized clinical trial carried out a systematic oral hygiene protocol called the PRO-SELF: Mouth Aware (PSMA) Program. Patients who developed RT-induced mucositis anytime during their course of RT were randomized to one of the two mouthwashes and followed to the completion of RT and at one month following RT. Two referral sites were used for the study. Repeated measures occurred with the following instruments/variables: MacDibbs Mouth Assessment and weight. Demographic, disease, and cancer treatment information was also obtained. Thirty patients successfully completed the study. The typical participant was male (70%), married/partnered (70%), White (63%), not working or retired (73%), and had an average of 14.5 years of education (SD = 3.7). T-tests and Chi-square analyses with an alpha set at 0.05 were used to compare differences between the two mouthwashes. No significant differences were found in the number of days to onset of mucositis (i.e., 16 +/- 8.4 days). When patients had their worst MacDibbs score, (i.e., the most severe mucositis), there were no significant

  6. BEAM-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF PERSISTENT CURRENT DECAY IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; JAIN, A.; TEPIKIAN, S.

    2001-01-01

    The two RHIC rings are equipped with superconducting dipole magnets. At injection, induced persistent currents in these magnets lead to a sextupole component. As the persistent currents decay with time, the horizontal and vertical chromaticities change. From magnet measurements of persistent current decays, chromaticity changes in the machine are estimated and compared with chromaticity measurements

  7. Analysis of proton-induced fragment production cross sections by the Quantum Molecular Dynamics plus Statistical Decay Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Fukahori, Tokio; Niita, Koji; Maruyama, Toshiki; Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production cross sections of various fragments from proton-induced reactions on {sup 56}Fe and {sup 27}Al have been analyzed by the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) plus Statistical Decay Model (SDM). It was found that the mass and charge distributions calculated with and without the statistical decay have very different shapes. These results also depend strongly on the impact parameter, showing an importance of the dynamical treatment as realized by the QMD approach. The calculated results were compared with experimental data in the energy region from 50 MeV to 5 GeV. The QMD+SDM calculation could reproduce the production cross sections of the light clusters and intermediate-mass to heavy fragments in a good accuracy. The production cross section of {sup 7}Be was, however, underpredicted by approximately 2 orders of magnitude, showing the necessity of another reaction mechanism not taken into account in the present model. (author)

  8. Does salt have a permissive role in the induction of puberty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitynski, Dori; Flynn, Francis W; Skinner, Donal C

    2015-10-01

    Puberty is starting earlier than ever before and there are serious physiological and sociological implications as a result of this development. Current research has focused on the potential role of high caloric, and commensurate high adiposity, contributions to early puberty. However, girls with normal BMI also appear to be initiating puberty earlier. Westernized diets, in addition to being high in fat and sugar, are also high in salt. To date, no research has investigated a link between elevated salt and the reproductive axis. We hypothesize that a high salt diet can result in an earlier onset of puberty through three mechanisms that are not mutually exclusive. (1) High salt activates neurokinin B, a hormone that is involved in both the reproductive axis and salt regulation, and this induces kisspeptin release and ultimate activation of the reproductive axis. (2) Vasopressin released in response to high salt acts on vasopressin receptors expressed on kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, thereby stimulating gonadotropin releasing hormone and subsequently luteinizing hormone secretion. (3) Salt induces metabolic changes that affect the reproductive axis. Specifically, salt acts indirectly to modulate adiposity, ties in with the obesity epidemic, and further compounds the pathologic effects of obesity. Our overall hypothesis offers an additional cause behind the induction of puberty and provides testable postulates to determine the mechanism of potential salt-mediated affects on puberty. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  10. Trace determination of heavy metal concentrations in fauna, flora and salt samples from Black Sea waters by charged particles - induced X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, T.; Ciortea, C.; Dima, S.; Petrovici, A.; Popescu, I.; Serbanescu, O.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were performed on Black Sea pollution by charged particles induced X-rays spectra analysis, using alpha and 16 O beams. Fauna, flora and salt samples were analysed. We found some of the concentrations of pollutant elements to be below the accepted levels. (author)

  11. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  12. Gel-free proteomics reveal potential biomarkers of priming-induced salt tolerance in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercha, Azzedine; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Gherroucha, Hocine; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Lagana, Aldo

    2013-10-08

    Seed priming has been successfully demonstrated to be an efficient method to improve crop productivity under stressful conditions. As a first step toward better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the priming-induced salt stress tolerance in durum wheat, and to overcome the limitations of the gel-based approach, a comparative gel-free proteomic analysis was conducted with durum wheat seed samples of varying vigor as generated by hydro- and ascorbate-priming treatments. Results indicate that hydro-priming was accompanied by significant changes of 72 proteins, most of which are involved in proteolysis, protein synthesis, metabolism and disease/defense response. Ascorbate-priming was, however, accompanied by significant changes of 83 proteins, which are mainly involved in protein metabolism, antioxidant protection, repair processes and, interestingly, in methionine-related metabolism. The present study provides new information for understanding how 'priming-memory' invokes seed stress tolerance. The current work describes the first study in which gel-free shotgun proteomics were used to investigate the metabolic seed protein fraction in durum wheat. A combined approach of protein fractionation, hydrogel nanoparticle enrichment technique, and gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis allowed us to identify over 380 proteins exhibiting greater molecular weight diversity (ranging from 7 to 258kDa). Accordingly, we propose that this approach could be useful to acquire a wider perspective and a better understanding of the seed proteome. In the present work, we employed this method to investigate the potential biomarkers of priming-induced salt tolerance in durum wheat. In this way, we identified several previously unrecognized proteins which were never been reported before, particularly for the ascorbate-priming treatment. These findings could provide new avenues for improving crop productivity, particularly under unfavorable environmental conditions. © 2013.

  13. High Salt Intake Attenuates Breast Cancer Metastasis to Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yijuan; Wang, Wenzhe; Wang, Minmin; Liu, Xuejiao; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei

    2018-04-04

    Diet-related factors are thought to modify the risk of cancers, while the influence of high salt intake remains largely uncharacterized. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In the present study, we examined the effect of salt intake on breast cancer by using a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model. Unexpectedly, both the fitness and the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice were improved by high salt intake. Similarly, high salt intake suppressed the primary tumor growth as well as metastasis to lung in mice. Mechanistically, high salt intake greatly reduced food intake and thus might exert antitumor effect through mimicking calorie restriction. Immunoblotting showed the lower proliferation marker Ki-67 and the higher expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in tumors of high salt intake mice. Importantly, high salt intake might induce hyperosmotic stress, which sensitized breast cancer cells to p53-dependent anoikis. Collectively, our findings raise the possibility that endogenous salt deposition might act as the first-line defense system against breast cancer progression as well as metastasis.

  14. TaSK5, an abiotic stress-inducible GSK3/shaggy-like kinase from wheat, confers salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Nikolai Kirilov; Christova, Petya Koeva; Kato, Hideki; Liu, Yuelin; Sasaki, Kentaro; Imai, Ryozo

    2014-11-01

    A novel cold-inducible GSK3/shaggy-like kinase, TaSK5, was isolated from winter wheat using a macroarray-based differential screening approach. TaSK5 showed high similarity to Arabidopsis subgroup I GSK3/shaggy-like kinases ASK-alpha, AtSK-gamma and ASK-epsilon. RNA gel blot analyses revealed TaSK5 induction by cold and NaCl treatments and to a lesser extent by drought treatment. TaSK5 functionally complemented the cold- and salt-sensitive phenotypes of a yeast GSK3/shaggy-like kinase mutant, △mck1. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaSK5 cDNA showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses. By contrast, the tolerance of the transgenic plants to freezing stress was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of abiotic stress-inducible genes were constitutively induced in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaSK5 may function in a novel signal transduction pathway that appears to be unrelated to DREB1/CBF regulon and may involve crosstalk between abiotic and hormonal signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Acidity decay of above-drainage underground mines in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, B; McDonald, L M; Skousen, J

    2010-01-01

    Acidity of water from abandoned underground mines decreases over time, and the rate of decrease can help formulate remediation approaches and treatment system designs. The objective of this study was to determine an overall acidity decay rate for above-drainage underground mines in northern West Virginia from a large data set of mines that were closed 50 to 70 yr ago. Water quality data were obtained from 30 Upper Freeport and 7 Pittsburgh coal seam mines in 1968, 1980, 2000, and 2006, and acidity decay curves were calculated. The mean decay constant, k, for Upper Freeport mines was 2.73 x 10(-2) yr(-1), with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 0.0052, whereas the k value for Pittsburgh mines was not significantly different at 4.26 x 10(-2) yr(-1) +/- 0.017. Acidity from the T&T mine, which was closed 12 yr ago, showed a k value of 11.25 x 10(-2) yr(-1). This higher decay rate was likely due to initial flushing of accumulated metal salts on reaction surfaces in the mine, rapid changes in mine hydrology after closure, and treatment. Although each site showed a specific decay rate (varying from 0.04 x 10(-2) yr(-1) to 13.1 x 10(-2) yr(-1)), the decay constants of 2.7 x 10(-2) yr(-1) to 4.3 x 10(-2) yr(-1) are useful for predicting water quality trends and overall improvements across a wide spectrum of abandoned underground mines. We found first-order decay models improve long-term prediction of acidity declines from above-drainage mines compared with linear or percent annual decrease models. These predictions can help to select water treatment plans and evaluate costs for these treatments over time.

  16. Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... northern dot-blotting, salt stress, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). INTRODUCTION ..... in protease composition are determined by nitrogen supply in ... from housekeeping to pathogen defense metabolism in.

  17. The effects of ascorbic acid on salt induced alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    contribute to the high electrical conductivity of salt-affected lands3. ... the cellular mechanisms of the stress and its application at the .... Fig 2: Effect of salt and ascorbic acid on a) stem length, b) root length, c) root number, d) dry weight of ...

  18. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey

  19. Safety studies dedicated to molten salt reactors with a fast neutron spectrum and operated in the Thorium fuel cycle - Innovative concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brovchenko, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear reactors of the 4. generation must allow an optimized use of natural resources, while performing at a high safety level. The framework of this thesis is the deployment study of one of such a system, an innovative and still little studied Molten Salt Fast Reactor. An excellent safety is an ultimate requirement of the nuclear energy deployment, so it is important to raise this question at the current early stage of the MSFR concept development. This concept was the subject of a neutronic tool benchmark within a European project EVOL. Definition, calculations and results analyses were performed during this thesis. Comparisons of static neutronic and burn-up calculations, performed by the project participants, concluded to a good agreement between the different codes and methods used and pointed out the sensibility of the nuclear database choice on the results. With the aim of safety analysis of the MSFR, the decay heat was studied in detail. The tool used for the decay heat calculation was developed and validated, to finally evaluate the decay heat in the reactor. The decay heat source presented in different zones was quantified, concluding to a high importance of the cooling of the fuel salt and the bubbling system enclosing a part of the fission products. The safety analysis methodology was also studied in this thesis. Even if the safety principles are directly transposable to the MSFR, the precise recommendations are not. This is due to the specificity of the design that relies on the liquid state of the fuel, on the reprocessing systems located in the reactor and the embryonic stage of the design. First, a preliminary transposition work of some criteria to the MSFR design was realized, resulting amongst other things in a list of accidental scenarios particular for MSFR. Finally, a preliminary physical study of some types of accidental scenarios was performed, that can be used as a basis for further analyses with more sophisticated tools. (author) [fr

  20. Terahertz field-induced ionization and perturbed free induction decay of excitons in bulk GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murotani, Yuta; Takayama, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Fumiya; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Shimano, Ryo

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the interaction between an intense terahertz (THz) pulse and excitons in bulk GaAs by using THz pump near-infrared (NIR) optical probe spectroscopy. We observed a clear spectral oscillation in the NIR transient absorption spectra at low temperature, which is interpreted as the THz pump-induced perturbed free induction decay (PFID) of the excitonic interband polarization. We performed a numerical simulation based on a microscopic theory and identified that the observed PFID signal originates from the THz field-induced ionization of excitons. Using a real-space representation of the excitonic wave function, we visualized how the ionization of an exciton proceeds under the intense single-cycle THz electric field. We also calculated the nonlinear susceptibility with the lowest-order perturbation theory assuming a weak THz pump, which showed a similar spectral feature with that obtained by the full treatment to field-induced ionization process. This coincidence is attributed to the fact that 1s-excitonic interband polarization is modified predominantly through interactions with the p-wave component of the excitonic wave function. A simple phenomenological expression of the PFID signal is presented to discuss effects of the THz pump pulse duration on the spectral oscillation.

  1. Gamma-ray lines from radiative dark matter decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David; Weniger, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The decay of dark matter particles which are coupled predominantly to charged leptons has been proposed as a possible origin of excess high-energy positrons and electrons observed by cosmic-ray telescopes PAMELA and Fermi LAT. Even though the dark matter itself is electrically neutral, the tree-level decay of dark matter into charged lepton pairs will generically induce radiative two-body decays of dark matter at the quantum level. Using an effective theory of leptophilic dark matter decay, we calculate the rates of radiative two-body decays for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles. Due to the absence of astrophysical sources of monochromatic gamma rays, the observation of a line in the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum would constitute a strong indication of a particle physics origin of these photons. We estimate the intensity of the gamma-ray line that may be present in the energy range of a few TeV if the dark matter decay interpretation of the leptonic cosmic-ray anomalies is correct and comment on observational prospects of present and future Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, in particular the CTA

  2. Bile salt tolerance of Lactococcus lactis is enhanced by expression of bile salt hydrolase thereby producing less bile acid in the cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jie; Liu, Song; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Changes of bile salt tolerance, morphology and amount of bile acid within cells were studied to evaluate the exact effects of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) on bile salt tolerance of microorganism. The effect of BSHs on the bile salt tolerance of Lactococcus lactis was examined by expressing two BSHs (BSH1 and BSH2). Growth of L. lactis expressing BSH1 or BSH2 was better under bile salt stress compared to wild-type L. lactis. As indicated by transmission electron microscopy, bile acids released by the action of BSH induced the formation of micelles around the membrane surface of cells subject to conjugated bile salt stress. A similar micelle containing bile acid was observed in the cytoplasm by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. BSH1 produced fewer bile acid micelles in the cytoplasm and achieved better cell growth of L. lactis compared to BSH2. Expression of BSH improved bile salt tolerance of L. lactis but excessive production by BSH of bile acid micelles in the cytoplasm inhibited cell growth.

  3. The American Heart Association Scientific Statement on salt sensitivity of blood pressure: Prompting consideration of alternative conceptual frameworks for the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Morris, R Curtis

    2017-11-01

    : Recently, the American Heart Association (AHA) published a scientific statement on salt sensitivity of blood pressure which emphasized a decades old conceptual framework for the pathogenesis of this common disorder. Here we examine the extent to which the conceptual framework for salt sensitivity emphasized in the AHA Statement accommodates contemporary findings and views of the broader scientific community on the pathogenesis of salt sensitivity. In addition, we highlight alternative conceptual frameworks and important contemporary theories of salt sensitivity that are little discussed in the AHA Statement. We suggest that greater consideration of conceptual frameworks and theories for salt sensitivity beyond those emphasized in the AHA Statement may help to advance understanding of the pathogenesis of salt-induced increases in blood pressure and, in consequence, may lead to improved approaches to preventing and treating this common disorder.

  4. Restoration of Tidal Flow to Impounded Salt Marsh Exerts Mixed Effect on Leaf Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B. A.; Schade, J. D.; Foreman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh impoundments (e.g. roads, levees) disconnect marshes from ocean tides, which impairs ecosystem services and often promotes invasive species. Numerous restoration projects now focus on removing impoundments. Leaf litter decomposition is a central process in salt marsh carbon and nutrient cycles, and this study investigated the extent to which marsh restoration alters litter decomposition rates. We considered three environmental factors that can potentially change during restoration: salinity, tidal regime, and dominant plant species. A one-month field experiment (Cape Cod, MA) measured decay of litter bags in impounded, restored, and natural marshes under ambient conditions. A two-week lab experiment measured litter decay in controlled incubations under experimental treatments for salinity (1ppt and 30 ppt), tidal regime (inundated and 12 hr wet-dry cycles), and plant species (native Spartina alterniflora and invasive Phragmites australis). S. alterniflora decomposed faster in situ than P. australis (14±1.0% mass loss versus 0.74±0.69%). Corroborating this difference in decomposition, S. alterniflora supported greater microbial respiration during lab incubation, measured as CO2 flux from leaf litter and biological oxygen demand of water containing leached organic matter (OM). However, nutrient analysis of plant tissue and leached OM show P. australis released more nitrogen than S. alterniflora. Low salinity treatments in both lab and field experiments decayed more rapidly than high salinity treatments, suggesting that salinity inhibited microbial activity. Manipulation of inundation regime did not affect decomposition. These findings suggest the reintroduction of tidal flow to an impounded salt marsh can have mixed effects; recolonization by the native cordgrass could supply labile OM to sediment and slow carbon sequestration, while an increase in salinity might inhibit decomposition and accelerate sequestration.

  5. High-energy limit of collision-induced false vacuum decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Sergei; Levkov, Dmitry [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-17

    We develop a consistent semiclassical description of field-theoretic collision-induced tunneling at arbitrary high collision energies. As a playground we consider a (1+1)-dimensional false vacuum decay initiated by a collision of N particles at energy E, paying special attention to the realistic case of N=2 particles. We demonstrate that the cross section of this process is exponentially suppressed at all energies. Moreover, the respective suppressesion exponent F{sub N}(E) exhibits a specific behavior which is significant for our semiclassical method and assumed to be general: it decreases with energy, reaches absolute minimum F=F{sub min}(N) at a certain threshold energy E=E{sub rt}(N), and stays constant at higher energies. We show that the minimal suppression F{sub min}(N) and threshold energy can be evaluated using a special class of semiclassical solutions which describe exponentially suppressed transitions but nevertheless evolve in real time. Importantly, we argue that the cross section at energies above E{sub rt}(N) is computed perturbatively in the background of the latter solutions, and the terms of this perturbative expansion stay bounded in the infinite-energy limit. Transitions in the high-energy regime proceed via emission of many soft quanta with total energy E{sub rt}; the energy excess E−E{sub rt} remains in the colliding particles till the end of the process.

  6. Lifetime measurements and decay spectroscopy of 132I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-lying states of odd-odd 132I, the 3p-3h nucleus with respect to the doubly magic 132Sn, have been characterized from decay spectroscopy. The neutron rich Iodine and Tellurium isotopes have been produced as fission product of alpha-induced fission of 235U and radiochemically separated. The life-time of the first excited state of 132I have been precisely measured using LaBr3(Ce scintillators from the decay of 132Te. The IT decay of the high spin isomer (8- in 132I has been measured with a Low Energy Photon Spectrometer (LEPS of segmented planar Ge detector.

  7. Decay modes of high-lying excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1993-01-01

    Inelastic, charge-exchange and transfer reactions induced by hadronic probes at intermediate energies have revealed a rich spectrum of new high-lying modes embedded in the nuclear continuum. The investigation of their decay properties is believed to be a severe test of their microscopic structure as predicted by nuclear models. In addition the degree of damping of these simple modes in the nuclear continuum can be obtained by means of the measured branching ratios to the various decay channels as compared to statistical model calculations. As illustrative examples the decay modes of high-spin single-particle states and isovector resonances are discussed. (author) 23 refs.; 14 figs

  8. Mechanism of Process-Induced Salt-to-Free Base Transformation of Pharmaceutical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Thomas; Qu, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    pH-solubility profiles of a model drug in salt form was established and the mechanism of salt-to-free base form transformation was investigated by increasing pH of the system. Wet massing experiments along with suspension experiments were used to investigate the effects of excipients on the stabi...

  9. Rare K decays: Challenges and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.

    2014-09-01

    At this stage of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) program, the prospect for a new physics signal in the very rare K → Kνν-bar decays may be dented, but remains well alive thanks to their intrinsic qualities. First, these decays are among the cleanest observables in the quark flavor sector. When combined with their terrible suppression in the SM (Standard Model), they thus offer uniquely sensitive probes. Second, the LHC capabilities are not ideal for all kinds of new physics, even below the TeV scale. For example, rather elusive scenarios like natural-SUSY-like hierarchical spectrum, baryon number violation, or new very light but very weakly interacting particles may well induce deviations in rare K decays. Even though experimentalists should brace themselves for tiny deviations, these modes thus have a clear role to play in the LHC era. (author)

  10. Electromagnetically induced nuclear beta decay calculated by a Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The transition probability for enhancement of forbidden nuclear beta decay by an applied plane-wave electromagnetic field is calculated in a nonrelativistic spinless approximation by a Green's function method. The calculation involves a stationary-phase approximation. The stationary phase points in the presence of an intense field are located in very different positions than they are in the field-free case. In order-of-magnitude terms, the results are completely consistent with an earlier, much more complete wave-function calculation which includes spin and relativistic effects. Both the present Green's function calculation and the earlier wave function calculation give electromagnetic contributions in first-forbidden nuclear beta decay matrix elements which are of order (R 0 /lambda-dash-bar/sub C/) 2 with respect to allowed decays, where R 0 is the nuclear radius and lambda-dash-bar/sub C/ is the electron Compton wavelength

  11. High salt loading induces urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of epithelial sodium channel alpha in the bladder epithelium in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Yamamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether high salt intake affects bladder function via epithelial sodium channel (ENaC by using Dahl salt-resistant (DR and salt-sensitive (DS rats. Bladder weight of DR + high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl and DS + HS groups were significantly higher than those of DR + normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl and DS + NS groups after one week treatment. We thereafter used only DR + HS and DS + HS group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group after the treatment period. Cystometrogram showed the intercontraction intervals (ICI were significantly shorter in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group during infusion of saline. Subsequent infusion of amiloride significantly prolonged ICI in DS + HS group, while no intra-group difference in ICI was observed in DR + HS group. No intra- or inter-group differences in maximum intravesical pressure were observed. Protein expression levels of ENaCα in the bladder were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group. ENaCα protein was localized at bladder epithelium in both groups. In conclusion, high salt intake is considered to cause urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of ENaC in the bladder epithelium with salt-sensitive hypertension, suggesting that ENaC might be a candidate for therapeutic target for urinary storage dysfunction.

  12. Decay assessment through thermographic analysis in architectural and archaeological heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Martinez-Perez, Laura; Fort, Rafael; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica

    2010-05-01

    Any exposed stone-built structure is subject to thermal variations due to daily, seasonal and secular environmental temperature changes. Surface temperature is a function of air temperature (due to convective heat transfer) and of infrared radiation received through insolation. While convective heat transfer homogenizes surface temperature, stone response to insolation is much more complex and the temporal and spatial temperature differences across structures are enhanced. Surface temperature in stone-built structures will be affected by orientation, sunlight inclination and the complex patterns of light and shadows generated by the often intricate morphology of historical artefacts and structures. Surface temperature will also be affected by different material properties, such as albedo, thermal conductivity, transparency and absorbance to infrared radiation of minerals and rocks. Moisture and the occurrence of salts will also be a factor affecting surface temperatures. Surface temperatures may as well be affected by physical disruptions of rocks due to differences in thermal inertia generated by cracks and other discontinuities. Thermography is a non-invasive, non-destructive technique that measures temperature variations on the surface of a material. With this technique, surface temperature rates of change and their spatial variations can be analysed. This analysis may be used not only to evaluate the incidence of thermal decay as a factor that generates or enhances stone decay, but also to detect and evaluate other factors that affect the state of conservation of architectural and archaeological heritage, as for example moisture, salts or mechanical disruptions.

  13. Thermal Analysis of Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in a Generic Bedded Salt repository using the Semi-Analytical Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    An example case is presented for testing analytical thermal models. The example case represents thermal analysis of a generic repository in bedded salt at 500 m depth. The analysis is part of the study reported in Matteo et al. (2016). Ambient average ground surface temperature of 15°C, and a natural geothermal gradient of 25°C/km, were assumed to calculate temperature at the near field. For generic salt repository concept crushed salt backfill is assumed. For the semi-analytical analysis crushed salt thermal conductivity of 0.57 W/m-K was used. With time the crushed salt is expected to consolidate into intact salt. In this study a backfill thermal conductivity of 3.2 W/m-K (same as intact) is used for sensitivity analysis. Decay heat data for SRS glass is given in Table 1. The rest of the parameter values are shown below. Results of peak temperatures at the waste package surface are given in Table 2.

  14. Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO 3 . Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450 0 C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175 0 C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig

  15. Numerical modeling of salt marsh morphological change induced by Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kelin; Chen, Qin; Wang, Hongqing; Hartig, Ellen K.; Orton, Philip M.

    2018-01-01

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate wave impacts during coastal storms, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. In this study, the Delft3D modeling suite was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy (2012) on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from rod Surface Elevation Tables and feldspar Marker Horizons (SET-MH) and hydrodynamic measurements during Hurricane Sandy were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model. The model results agreed well with in situ field measurements. The validated model was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Sandy across Jamaica Bay. Model results indicate that the island-wide morphological changes in the bay's salt marshes due to Sandy were in the range of −30 mm (erosion) to +15 mm (deposition), and spatially complex and heterogeneous. The storm generated paired deposition and erosion patches at local scales. Salt marshes inside the west section of the bay showed erosion overall while marshes inside the east section showed deposition from Sandy. The net sediment amount that Sandy brought into the bay is only about 1% of the total amount of reworked sediment within the bay during the storm. Numerical experiments show that waves and vegetation played a critical role in sediment transport and associated wetland morphological change in Jamaica Bay. Furthermore, without the protection of vegetation, the marsh islands of Jamaica Bay would experience both more erosion and less accretion in coastal storms.

  16. Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) induces drought and salt tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum plants (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, A.; Mohsin, A.M.; Shafiq, S.; Zafar, Y.; Hameed, S.M.; Arif, M.; Javed, M.; Gaxiola, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    /sup +/ ions from the soil to the vacoules by providing energy gradient to the cation exchangers. It was also found that K/sup +/ concentration decreased below detection limit in salt treated transgenic plants. Sodium and potassium ion uptake in the dehydrated AVP1 transgenic plant was two times more when compared to the dehydrated wild type plants. Relative water contents of dehydrated AVP1 transgenic plants was higher than that of dehydrated wild type which indicates that accumulation of solutes retain more water in the cell which helps to maintain the turgor and allows the plants to survive in saline and water deficit environments. Electron microscopic ultra structure studies of leaves showed that there is an increase of starch synthesis in the chloroplasts of AVP1 transgenic plants when compared to control. Immunogold labeling of AVP1 protein in transgenic and control leaf cells and some other physiological studies are in progress. AVP1 gene is encoded by a single gene so it is more feasible to produce transgenic crop plants with AVP1 to induce salt and drought tolerance unlike P type ATPAases which are encoded by at least 26 genes. (author)

  17. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd"2"+ doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m"2 g"−"1, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  18. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun, E-mail: hanxiaojun@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd{sup 2+} doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  19. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De-Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey tolerance and sensitivity remain largely unknown. To investigate this issue, potted olive plants of Leccino (salt-sensitive) and Frantoio (salt-tolerant) cultivars were grown in a phytotron chamber and treated with 0, 60 and 120mM NaCl. After forty days of treatment, growth analysis was performed and the concentration of sodium in root, stem and leaves was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Phenolic compounds were extracted using methanol, hydrolyzed with butanol-HCl, and quercetin and kaempferol quantified via high performance liquid-chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and HPLC-q-Time of Flight-MS analyses. In addition, the transcripts levels of five key genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR. The results of this study corroborate the previous observations, which showed that Frantoio and Leccino differ in allocating sodium in root and leaves. This study also revealed that phenolic compounds remain stable or are strongly depleted under long-time treatment with sodium in Leccino, despite a strong up-regulation of key genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway was observed. Frantoio instead, showed a less intense up-regulation of the phenylpropanoid genes but overall higher content of phenolic compounds. These data suggest that Frantoio copes with the toxicity imposed by elevated sodium not only with mechanisms of Na + exclusion, but also promptly allocating effective and adequate antioxidant compounds to more sensitive organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA Binding in High Salt: Analysing the Salt Dependence of Replication Protein A3 from the Halophile Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody A. Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic archaea maintain intracellular salt concentrations close to saturation to survive in high-salt environments and their cellular processes have adapted to function under these conditions. Little is known regarding halophilic adaptation of the DNA processing machinery, particularly intriguing since protein-DNA interactions are classically salt sensitive. To investigate such adaptation, we characterised the DNA-binding capabilities of recombinant RPA3 from Haloferax volcanii (HvRPA3. Under physiological salt conditions (3 M KCl, HvRPA3 is monomeric, binding 18 nucleotide ssDNA with nanomolar affinity, demonstrating that RPAs containing the single OB-fold/zinc finger architecture bind with broadly comparable affinity to two OB-fold/zinc finger RPAs. Reducing the salt concentration to 1 M KCl induces dimerisation of the protein, which retains its ability to bind DNA. On circular ssDNA, two concentration-dependent binding modes are observed. Conventionally, increased salt concentration adversely affects DNA binding but HvRPA3 does not bind DNA in 0.2 M KCl, although multimerisation may occlude the binding site. The single N-terminal OB-fold is competent to bind DNA in the absence of the C-terminal zinc finger, albeit with reduced affinity. This study represents the first quantitative characterisation of DNA binding in a halophilic protein in extreme salt concentrations.

  1. Effect of metal salts in the optical properties of polydiacetylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Ponce, J.A.; Morales-Saavedra, O.G.; Beristain-Manterola, M.F.; Hernandez-Alcantara, J.M.; Ogawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    Films of polydiacetylene (PDA)-containing polyesters with metal salts of Zn, Eu and Gd were prepared. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) absorption and photoluminescent (PL) spectra indicated that the presence of the metal salts induced a small shift of their maxima to higher and lower energies, respectively. PDAs films with an ester group in allylic position to the conjugated system presented two emission bands. The higher energy emission band was assigned to carbonyl emission and the lower energy emission band to self-trapped excitons (STE). Indeed, the inclusion of metal salts incremented the intensity relation between the higher and lower emission energy bands. On the other hand, Raman spectroscopy measurements performed in PDAs films derived of pentyn-1-ol indicated that the metal salts induced a slight statistical shift in the triple and double bond signals to higher energies. In this way, the intensity variations and band shifts detected by Raman, UV-VIS and PL spectroscopies showed that the presence of metal salts could have a remarkable influence on the energy levels of these PDAs. Nonlinear optical (NLO) third harmonic generation (THG) measurements were performed in order to verify this affirmation as well as the cubic NLO performance of these materials

  2. Bile duct proliferation associated with bile salt-induced hypercholeresis in Mdr2 P-glycoprotein-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, CV; Voshol, PJ; Wolters, H; Kruit, JK; Ottenhof, R; Groen, AK; Stellaard, F; Verkade, HJ; Kuipers, F

    Baekground/Aims: Bile flow consists of bile salt-dependent bile flow (BSDF), generated by canalicular secretion of bile salts, and bile salt-independent flow (BSIF), probably of combined canalicular and ductular origin. Bile salt transport proteins have been identified in cholangiocytes suggesting a

  3. Salt-induced Na+/K+-ATPase-α/β expression involves soluble adenylyl cyclase in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Mirja; Nedele, Johanna; Schelleckes, Katrin; Bondareva, Olga; Lenders, Malte; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Schnittler, Hans-Joachim; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Schmitz, Boris; Brand, Eva

    2017-10-01

    High dietary salt intake may lead to vascular stiffness, which predicts cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, and myocardial and cerebral infarctions as well as renal impairment. The vascular endothelium is a primary target for deleterious salt effects leading to dysfunction and endothelial stiffness. We hypothesize that the Ca 2+ - and bicarbonate-activated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) contributes to Na + /K + -ATPase expression regulation in vascular endothelial cells and is an important regulator of endothelial stiffness. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial cells with high sodium (150 mM Na + )-induced Na + /K + -ATPase-α and Na + /K + -ATPase-β protein expression determined by western blot. Promoter analyses revealed increased cAMP response element (CRE)-mediated Na + /K + -ATPase-α transcriptional activity under high sodium concentrations. Inhibition of sAC by the specific inhibitor KH7 or siRNA reduced the sodium effects. Flame photometry revealed increased intracellular sodium concentrations in response to high sodium stimulations, which were paralleled by elevated ATP levels. Using atomic force microscopy, a nano-technique that measures cellular stiffness and deformability, we detected significant endothelial stiffening under increased sodium concentrations, which was prevented by inhibition of sAC using KH7 and Na + /K + -ATPase using ouabain. Furthermore, analysis of primary aortic endothelial cells in an in vitro aging model revealed an impaired Na + /K + -ATPase-α sodium response and elevated intracellular sodium levels with cellular aging. We conclude that sAC mediates sodium-induced Na + /K + -ATPase expression in vascular endothelium and is an important regulator of endothelial stiffness. The reactivity of Na + /K + -ATPase-α expression regulation in response to high sodium seems to be impaired in aging endothelial cells and might be a component of endothelial dysfunction.

  4. Development of strong-sense validation benchmarks for the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    The Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of reactor concepts currently under development for the U. S. Dept. of Energy. The FHR is defined as a Generation IV reactor that features low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. Recent experimental work using simulant fluids have been performed to demonstrate key 'proof of principle' FHR concepts and have helped inform the reactor design process. An important element of developing FHR technology is to sufficiently validate the predictive accuracy of the computer codes used to model system response. This paper presents a set of thermal-hydraulics experiments, defined as Strong-Sense Benchmarks (SSB's), which will help establish the FHR validation domain for simulant fluid suitability. These SSB's are more specifically designed to investigate single-phase natural circulation which is the dominant mode of FHR decay heat removal during off-normal conditions. SSB s should be viewed as engineering reference standards and differ from traditional confirmatory experiments in the sense that they are more focused on fundamental physics as opposed to reproducing high levels of physical similarity with the prototypical design. (authors)

  5. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a

  7. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  8. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  9. Root-to-shoot signal transduction in rice under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of salt stress on changes in the level of Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins as signal molecules communicated through root-to-shoot in rice. The study focus to investigate the time related changes in the salt induced ABA and cytokinins accumulation concomitant with the changes in water potential and stomatal conductance of salt stressed plants. Seeds of 3 rice varieties were grown in plastic pots in phytotron. The changes in the level of abscisic acid (ABA), transzeatin riboside (t-zr) and 2-isopentyl adenine (2-ipa) were monitored in xylem sap and leaves of three rice varieties viz. BAS-385 (salt-sensitive), BG-402 (moderately tolerant) and NIAB-6 (tolerant). The salt solution (NaCl,1.2 dS m-1) was added to the rooting medium after transplanting when plants were 50 d old. There was delay in response of stomata to salt treatment in BAS-385 as opposed to earlier increase in leaf resistance in BG-402 and NIAB-6. The stem water potential increased sharply in all the varieties following salt treatment but the decrease in stomatal conductance of leaves preceded the decrease in stem water potential. The concentration of xylem ABA increased significantly greatly reaching a peak in BAS-385 much earlier (24 h of salt treatment) than that of other varieties. The ABA accumulation was delayed and the magnitude of ABA accumulation was greater in BG-402 and NIAB-6.The xylem flux of ABA followed a similar pattern. The concentration of xylem t-zr showed a short- term increase in all the varieties but the magnitude of increase was greater in BAS-385 at all the measurements till 96h of salt treatment .The concentration of xylem 2-ipa was higher in BAS-385 till 48 h of salt treatment . The flux of both the t-zr and 2ipa was greater in the tolerant variety 96h after salt treatment. The basal level of ABA and cytokinin appears to play important role in determining the response of a variety to salt stress. The xylem flux of ABA and cytokinin (2-ipa and t

  10. Numerical study on heat transfer characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2017-01-01

    To pursue sustainability and safety enhancement of nuclear energy, molten salt reactor is regarded as a promising candidate among various types of gen-IV reactors. Besides, pyroprocessing, which treats molten salt containing fission products, should consider safety related to decay heat from fuel material. For design of molten salt-related nuclear system, it is required to consider both thermal-hydraulic characteristics and neutronic behaviors for demonstration. However, fundamental heat transfer study of molten salt in operation condition is not easy to be experimentally studied due to its large scale, high temperature condition as well as difficulties of treating fuel material. >From that reason, numerical study can have benefit to investigate behaviors of liquid-fueled molten salt in real condition. In this study, open source CFD package OpenFOAM was used to analyze liquid-fueled molten salt loop having internal heat source as a first step of research. Among various molten salts considered as a candidate of liquid fueled molten salt reactors, in this study, FLiBe was chosen as liquid salt. For simulating heat generation from fuel material within fluid flow, volumetric heat source was set for fluid domain and OpenFOAM solver was modified as fvOptions as customized. To investigate thermal-hydraulic behavior of molten salt, CFD model was developed and validated by comparing experimental results in terms of heat transfer and pressure drop. As preliminary stage, 2D cavity simulations were performed to validate the modeling capacity of modified solver of OpenFOAM by comparison with those of ANSYS-CFX. In addition, cases of external heat flux and internal heat source were compared to configure the effect of heat source setting in various operation condition. As a result, modified solver of OpenFOAM considering internal heat source have sufficient modeling capacity to simulate liquid-fueled molten salt systems including heat generation cases. (author)

  11. The United States fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The United States is pursuing the development of fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) through the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to economically generate large amounts of electricity while maintaining full passive safety. FHRs, however, remain a longer-term power production option. A principal development focus is, thus, on shortening, to the extent possible, the overall development time by focusing initial efforts on the longest lead-time issues. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid-metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated-particle fuel and graphite components. Light-water reactors show the potential of transparent, high-heat-capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. The FHR development efforts include both reactor concept and technology developments and are being broadly pursued. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides technical leadership to the effort and is performing concept development on both a large base-load-type FHR as well as a small modular reactor (SMR) in addition to performing a broad scope of technology developments. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is providing coated-particle fuel irradiation testing as well as developing high-temperature steam generator technology. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT

  12. Validation of electro-thermal simulation with experimental data to prepare online operation of a molten salt target at ISOLDE for the Beta Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Cimmino, S; Marzari, S; Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Beta Beams is to study oscillation property of pure electrons neutrinos. It produces high energy beams of pure electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos for oscillation experiments by beta decay of He-6 and Ne-18 radioactive ion beams, stored in a decay ring at gamma = 100. The production of He-6 beam has already been accomplished using a thick beryllium oxide target. However, the production of the needed rate of Ne-18 has proven to be more challenging. In order to achieve the requested yield for Ne-18 a new high power target design based on a circulating molten salt loop has been proposed. To verify some elements of the design, a static molten salt target prototype has been developed at ISOLDE and operated successfully. This paper describes the electro-thermal study of the molten salt target taking into account the heat produced by Joule effect, radiative heat exchange, active water cooling due to forced convection and air passive cooling due to natural convection. The numerical results...

  13. Salicylic acid promotes plant growth and salt-related gene expression in Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) grown under different salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xule; Hu, Qingdi; Qian, Renjuan

    2018-03-01

    Salt stress is a critical factor that affects the growth and development of plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that mitigates the negative effects of salt stress on plants. To elucidate salt tolerance in large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) and the regulatory mechanism of exogenous SA on D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to evaluate leaf biomass, leaf anatomy, soluble protein and sugar content, and the relative expression of salt-induced genes in D. superbus under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions with and without 0.5 mM SA. The result showed that exposure of D. superbus to salt stress lead to a decrease in leaf growth, soluble protein and sugar content, and mesophyll thickness, together with an increase in the expression of MYB and P5CS genes. Foliar application of SA effectively increased leaf biomass, soluble protein and sugar content, and upregulated the expression of MYB and P5CS in the D. superbus , which facilitated in the acclimation of D. superbus to moderate salt stress. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl), no significant difference in plant physiological responses and relevant gene expression between plants with and without SA was observed. The findings of this study suggest that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effects of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  14. Decaying dark matter from dark instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-01-01

    We construct an explicit, TeV-scale model of decaying dark matter in which the approximate stability of the dark matter candidate is a consequence of a global symmetry that is broken only by instanton-induced operators generated by a non-Abelian dark gauge group. The dominant dark matter decay channels are to standard model leptons. Annihilation of the dark matter to standard model states occurs primarily through the Higgs portal. We show that the mass and lifetime of the dark matter candidate in this model can be chosen to be consistent with the values favored by fits to data from the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments.

  15. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Liebler, Stefan; Staub, Florian

    2017-11-01

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wave-function corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a \\overline{ {DR}} (or \\overline{ {MS}}) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop-induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infrared divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infrared counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiatively induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described.

  16. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark D. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Liebler, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Physics

    2017-04-15

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wavefunction corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a DR (or MS) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infra-red divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infra-red counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiative induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described.

  17. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark D. [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); Liebler, Stefan [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wave-function corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a DR (or MS) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop-induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infrared divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infrared counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiatively induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described. (orig.)

  18. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Liebler, Stefan; Staub, Florian; Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen

    2017-04-01

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wavefunction corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a DR (or MS) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infra-red divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infra-red counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiative induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described.

  19. Radiolysis salt phenomenology: application to storage of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Najib

    1993-01-01

    In France, rock salt is a candidate repository for highly radioactive waste. Rock salt contains water and adsorbed gases which can be released in boreholes after heating due to vitrified wastes. In addition, waste-induced irradiation in near-field conditions induce radiolytic reactions which also contribute to gas release. The aim of this work is to understand and evaluate the effects of heat and irradiation produced by waste containers in a deep disposal, primarily concerning gas production. This is justified by the impact of gases on long-term safety: toxicity, explosibility, chemical reactivity, pressure build-up. We have evidenced the influence of integrated dose, filling gases, temperature and grain size on an homogeneous medium (Asse Mine rock salt). We have then studied heterogeneous samples, which allowed to determine the influence of the chemical and mineralogical composition of rock salt (bedded rock salt from the Mine de Potasse d'Alsace). The role played by organic matter on gas production is important, leading for instance to high consumption rates of oxygen. Through this study, we have also considered the behaviour of clay-rich materials under irradiation. Our results constitute important bases for the future modelling of the phenomena which will take place in the near-field of a rock salt-type repository, especially concerning its long-term safety. (author) [fr

  20. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  1. Radioluminescence Decay Time Measurements in Silver-Doped Cadmium-Sulphide Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-induced radioluminescence decay times of CdS(Ag) crystals have been measured at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 300 K by using single-photon counting technique. These measurements indicate a complex and non-exponential type of decay time profiles, which are in general composed of two decay components, the fast one having about 3 ns and the slow one having about 6 ns. The decay times were found to be almost temperature independent. It was experimentally proved that the fast one is originating from the 594 nm emission line, whereas the slow one is originating from the 576 nm emission line. The whole wavelength-dependences of decay times (t 1 /e and t 1 /e 2 ) were also presented. The observation of fast and non-exponential decay times shows that the recombination mechanisms in CdS(Ag) crystals are not simple, responsible centers are not isolated, and there might be more than one radioluminescence center. This suggests the existence of

  2. Beta decay and other processes in strong electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.

    2011-01-01

    We consider effects of the fields of strong electromagnetic waves on various characteristics of quantum processes. After a qualitative discussion of the effects of external fields on the energy spectra and angular distributions of the final-state particles as well as on the total probabilities of the processes (such as decay rates and total cross sections), we present a simple method of calculating the total probabilities of processes with production of nonrelativistic charged particles. Using nuclear β decay as an example, we study the weak- and strong-field limits, as well as the field-induced β decay of nuclei stable in the absence of the external fields, both in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes. We also consider the possibility of accelerating forbidden nuclear β decays by lifting the forbiddeness due to the interaction of the parent or daughter nuclei with the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. It is shown that for currently attainable electromagnetic fields all effects on total β-decay rates are unobservably small.

  3. Analysis of DNA methylation of maize in response to osmotic and salt stress based on methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-pu

    2010-01-01

    Water stress is known to alter cytosine methylation, which generally represses transcription. However, little is known about the role of methylation alteration in maize under osmotic stress. Here, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) was used to screen PEG- or NaCl-induced methylation alteration in maize seedlings. The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments relevant to stress were successfully obtained. Two stress-specific fragments from leaves, LP166 and LPS911, shown to be homologous to retrotransposon Gag-Pol protein genes, suggested that osmotic stress-induced methylation of retrotransposons. Three MSAP fragments, representing drought-induced or salt-induced methylation in leaves, were homologous to a maize aluminum-induced transporter. Besides these, heat shock protein HSP82, Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 2, Lipoxygenase, casein kinase (CK2), and dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) factor were also homologs of MSAP sequences from salt-treated roots. One MSAP fragment amplified from salt-treated roots, designated RS39, was homologous to the first intron of maize protein phosphatase 2C (zmPP2C), whereas - LS103, absent from salt-treated leaves, was homologous to maize glutathione S-transferases (zmGST). Expression analysis showed that salt-induced intron methylation of root zmPP2C significantly downregulated its expression, while salt-induced demethylation of leaf zmGST weakly upregulated its expression. The results suggested that salinity-induced methylation downregulated zmPP2C expression, a negative regulator of the stress response, while salinity-induced demethylation upregulated zmGST expression, a positive effecter of the stress response. Altered methylation, in response to stress, might also be involved in stress acclimation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. In situ brine migration experiments at the Avery Island salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.B.; Van Sambeek, L.L.; Stickney, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    An in situ brine movement study was conducted at the Avery Island Salt Mine of the International Salt Company in southwestern Louisiana. The objective of the in situ experiments was to relate field measurements to previously determined laboratory and analytical results for the purpose of determining the rate and amount of brine movement through dome salt when subjected to heating. The heating in the experiments was provided by electrical heaters emplaced in the salt mine floor. An understanding of thermally induced brine movement is essential from the standpoint of identifying conditions which may influence the physical integrity of the nuclear waste canisters or impede the functional performance of the waste package system in a nuclear waste repository in geologic salt. 28 refs

  5. Mechanical modeling of the growth of salt structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, Ruben Alberto Mazariegos [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A 2D numerical model for studying the morphology and history of salt structures by way of computer simulations is presented. The model is based on conservation laws for physical systems, a fluid marker equation to keep track of the salt/sediments interface, and two constitutive laws for rocksalt. When buoyancy alone is considered, the fluid-assisted diffusion model predicts evolution of salt structures 2.5 times faster than the power-law creep model. Both rheological laws predict strain rates of the order of 4.0 x 10-15 s-1 for similar structural maturity level of salt structures. Equivalent stresses and viscosities predicted by the fluid-assisted diffusion law are 102 times smaller than those predicted by the power-law creep rheology. Use of East Texas Basin sedimentation rates and power-law creep rheology indicate that differential loading is an effective mechanism to induce perturbations that amplify and evolve to mature salt structures, similar to those observed under natural geological conditions.

  6. Advances in molten salt electrochemistry towards future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    This review article describes some selected novel molten salt electrochemical processes which have been created/developed by the author and his coworkers, with emphasis on the applications towards future energy systems. After showing a perspective of the applications of molten salt electrochemistry from the viewpoints of energy and environment, several selected topics are described in detail, which include nitride fuel cycle in a nuclear field, hydrogen energy system coupled with ammonia economy, thermally regenerative fuel cell systems, novel Si production process for solar cell and novel molten salt electrochemical processes for various energy and environment related functional materials including nitrides, rare earth-transition metal alloys, fine particles obtained by plasma-induced electrolysis, and carbon film. And finally, the author stresses again, the importance and potential of molten salt electrochemistry, and encourages young students, scientists and researchers to march in a procession hand in hand towards a bright future of molten salts. (author)

  7. Flow effect on {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe evolution behavior in a molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianhui; Guo, Chen [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Cai, Xiangzhou [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Chenggang; Zou, Chunyan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Han, Jianlong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jingen, E-mail: chenjg@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I evolution law in a molten salt reactor is analytically deduced. • The circulation of fuel salt through the primary loop decreases the concentration of {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe. • {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction is independent with the mass flow rate at normal core operating condition. • Increasing the external core volume would raise {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction caused by the flow effect. - Abstract: Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs fissile material dissolved in the fluoride salt as fuel which continuously circulates through the primary loop with the flow cycle time being a few tens of seconds. The nuclei evolution law is quite different from that in a solid fuel reactor. In this paper, we analytically deduce the nuclei evolution law of {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I which are entrained in the flowing salt, evaluate its concentration changing with the burnup time, and validate the result with the SCALE6. The circulation of fuel salt could decrease the concentration of {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I, and the reduction can achieve to around 40% and 50% for {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I respectively at a small power level (e.g., 2 MW) when the core has the same fuel salt volume as that of the outer-loop. Furthermore, it can be found that the reduction is inversely proportional to the core to outer-loop volume ratio, but uncorrelated with the mass flow rate under normal operating condition of a MSR. At low core power scale, the flow effect on {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction is apparent, but it is mitigated as the core power scale increases because of the rise of {sup 135}I concentration, which raises its decay to {sup 135}Xe and compensates the loss of {sup 135}Xe due to decay at the outer-loop. The decreased {sup 135}Xe concentration results in a core reactivity increase varying from around 150 pcm to 1000 pcm depending on the core power and core to outer-loop volume ratio.

  8. Sphingomyelin exhibits greatly enhanced protection compared with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine against detergent bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Portincasa, P.; Palasciano, G.; Groen, A. K.; van Erpecum, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    Inclusion of phosphatidylcholine within bile salt micelles protects against bile salt-induced cytotoxicity. In addition to phosphatidylcholine, bile may contain significant amounts of sphingomyelin, particularly under cholestatic conditions. We compared protective effects of egg yolk

  9. Neutron decay, semileptonic hyperon decay and the Cabibbo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The decay rates and formfactor ratios of neutron decay and semileptonic hyperon decays are compared in the framework of the Cabibbo model. The results indicate SU(3) symmetry breaking. The Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V us determined from these decays is in good agreement with the value determined from K→πeν decays, and with unitarity of the KM-matrix. (orig.)

  10. Rare meson decays into very light neutralinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreiner, H.K.; Grab, S. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics und Physikalisches Inst.; Koschade, D. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; London Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Reserach in String Theory; Kraemer, M.; O' Leary, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Langenfeld, U. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino from rare meson decays within the MSSM with and without minimal flavor violation. We present explicit formulae for the two-body decays of mesons into light neutralinos and perform the first complete calculation of the loop-induced decays of kaons to pions and light neutralinos and B mesons to kaons and light neutralinos. We find that the supersymmetric branching ratios are strongly suppressed within the MSSM with minimal flavor violation, and that no bounds on the neutralino mass can be inferred from experimental data, i.e. a massless neutralino is allowed. The branching ratios for kaon and B meson decays into light neutralinos may, however, be enhanced when one allows for non-minimal flavor violation. We find new constraints on the MSSM parameter space for such scenarios and discuss prospects for future kaon and B meson experiments. Finally, we comment on the search for light neutralinos in monojet signatures at the Tevatron and at the LHC. (orig.)

  11. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  12. Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin gene (MusaPIP2;6) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-05-01

    High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana.

  13. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  14. Comparison between the polypeptide profile of halophilic bacteria and salt tolerant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, G; González, C; Flores, P; Prado, B; Campos, V

    1997-12-01

    Changes in the polypeptide profile induced by salt stress in halotolerant and halophilic bacteria, isolated from the Atacama desert (northern Chile), were compared with those in the cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis (Leguminoseae) seedlings, a salt tolerant plant. SDS-PAGE analyses show the presence of four predominant polypeptides, with molecular weights around 78, 70, 60 and 44 kDa respectively, both in bacteria and in cotyledons from P. chilensis seedlings raised under salt stress conditions. Moreover, the 60 and 44 kDa polypeptides seem to be salt responsive, since their concentration increases with increasing NaCl in the growth medium. Our results suggest a common mechanism for salt tolerance in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes.

  15. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for fission product decay heat calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebah, J.; Lee, Y.K.; Nimal, J.C.; Nimal, B.; Luneville, L.; Duchemin, B.

    1994-01-01

    The calculated uncertainty in decay heat due to the uncertainty in basic nuclear data given in the CEA86 Library, is presented. Uncertainties in summation calculation arise from several sources: fission product yields, half-lives and average decay energies. The correlation between basic data is taken into account. The uncertainty analysis were obtained for thermal-neutron-induced fission of U235 and Pu239 in the case of burst fission and irradiation time. The calculated decay heat in this study is compared with experimental results and with new calculation using the JEF2 Library. (from authors) 6 figs., 19 refs

  16. Stability and decay rates of nonisotropic attractive Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huepe, C.; Tuckerman, L. S.; Metens, S.; Brachet, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Nonisotropic attractive Bose-Einstein condensates are investigated numerically with Newton and inverse Arnoldi methods. The stationary solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and their linear stability are computed. Bifurcation diagrams are calculated and used to find the condensate decay rates corresponding to macroscopic quantum tunneling, two-three-body inelastic collisions, and thermally induced collapse. Isotropic and nonisotropic condensates are compared. The effect of anisotropy on the bifurcation diagram and the decay rates is discussed. Spontaneous isotropization of the condensates is found to occur. The influence of isotropization on the decay rates is characterized near the critical point

  17. Statistical and direct decay of high-lying single-particle excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1993-01-01

    Transfer reactions induced by hadronic probes at intermediate energies have revealed a rich spectrum of high-lying excitations embedded in the nuclear continuum. The investigation of their decay properties is believed to be a severe test of their microscopic structure as predicted by microscopic nuclear models. In addition the degree of damping of these simple modes in the nuclear continuum can be obtained by means of the measured particle (n,p) decay branching ratios. The neutron and proton decay studies of high-lying single-particle states in heavy nuclei are presented. (author). 13 refs., 9 figs

  18. T violation in radiative β decay and electric dipole moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dekens

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In radiative β decay, T violation can be studied through a spin-independent T-odd correlation. We consider contributions to this correlation by beyond the standard model (BSM sources of T-violation, arising above the electroweak scale. At the same time such sources, parametrized by dimension-6 operators, can induce electric dipole moments (EDMs. As a consequence, the manifestations of the T-odd BSM physics in radiative β decay and EDMs are not independent. Here we exploit this connection to show that current EDM bounds already strongly constrain the spin-independent T-odd correlation in radiative β decay.

  19. T violation in radiative β decay and electric dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekens, W.; Vos, K.K., E-mail: k.k.vos@rug.nl

    2015-12-17

    In radiative β decay, T violation can be studied through a spin-independent T-odd correlation. We consider contributions to this correlation by beyond the standard model (BSM) sources of T-violation, arising above the electroweak scale. At the same time such sources, parametrized by dimension-6 operators, can induce electric dipole moments (EDMs). As a consequence, the manifestations of the T-odd BSM physics in radiative β decay and EDMs are not independent. Here we exploit this connection to show that current EDM bounds already strongly constrain the spin-independent T-odd correlation in radiative β decay.

  20. Optical radiation background from 40K decays in undersea neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, F.

    2002-01-01

    The photon flux produced by light sources uniformly distributed in an infinite homogeneous medium is calculated on the basis of a known property of light propagation, taking into account the contribution of both absorption and scattering processes. The results are applied to the issue of the decays of 40 K content in sea salt and then to the rates detected by photomultipliers deployed in the deep sea. Numerical calculations are in agreement with the recent measurements performed in the Mediterranean Sea by the ANTARES and NEMO Collaborations. (orig.)

  1. Strongly coupled single-phase flow problems: Effects of density variation, hydrodynamic dispersion, and first order decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    We have developed TOUGH2 modules for strongly coupled flow and transport that include full hydrodynamic dispersion. T2DM models tow-dimensional flow and transport in systems with variable salinity, while T32DMR includes radionuclide transport with first-order decay of a parent-daughter chain of radionuclide components in variable salinity systems. T2DM has been applied to a variety of coupled flow problems including the pure solutal convection problem of Elder and the mixed free and forced convection salt-dome flow problem. In the Elder and salt-dome flow problems, density changes of up to 20% caused by brine concentration variations lead to strong coupling between the velocity and brine concentration fields. T2DM efficiently calculates flow and transport for these problems. We have applied T2DMR to the dispersive transport and decay of radionuclide tracers in flow fields with permeability heterogeneities and recirculating flows. Coupling in these problems occurs by velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion. Our results show that the maximum daughter species concentration may occur fully within a recirculating or low-velocity region. In all of the problems, we observe very efficient handling of the strongly coupled flow and transport processes.

  2. Decay-accelerating factor 1 deficiency exacerbates Trypanosoma cruzi-induced murine chronic myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, María E; Ferrer, María F; Novoa, María Mercedes; Song, Wen-Chao; Gómez, Ricardo M

    2012-10-01

    Murine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) has been used to study the role of T-cells in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory idiopathic myositis. Absence of decay-accelerating factor 1 (Daf1) has been shown to enhance murine T-cell responses and autoimmunity. To determine whether Daf1 deficiency can exacerbate Tc-induced myositis, C57BL/6 DAF(+/+) and DAF(-/-) mice were inoculated with 5 × 10(4) trypomastigotes, and their morbidity, parasitemia, parasite burden, histopathology, and T-cell expansion were studied in the acute and chronic stages. DAF(-/-) mice had lower parasitemia and parasite burden but higher morbidity, muscle histopathology, and increased number of CD44(+) (activated/memory phenotype) splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. An enhanced CD8(+) T-cell immune-specific response may explain the lower parasitemia and parasite burden levels and the increase in histopathological lesions. We propose that Tc-inoculated DAF(-/-) mice are a useful model to study T-cell mediated immunity in skeletal muscle tissues. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impact on breeding rate of different Molten Salt reactor core structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiwei; Mei Longwei; Cai Xiangzhou; Chen Jingen; Guo Wei; Jiang Dazhen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has several advantages over the other Generation IV reactor. Referred to the French CNRS research and compared to the fast reactor, super epithermal neutron spectrum reactor type is slightly lower and beading rate reaches 1.002. Purpose: The aim is to explore the best conversion zone layout scheme in the super epithermal neutron spectrum reactor. This study can make nuclear fuel as one way to solve the energy problems of mankind in future. Methods: Firstly, SCALE program is used for molten salt reactor graphite channel, molten salt core structure, control rods, graphite reflector and layer cladding structure. And the SMART modules are used to record the important actinides isotopes and their related reaction values of each reaction channel. Secondly, the thorium-uranium conversion rate is calculated. Finally, the better molten salt reactor core optimum layout scheme is studied comparing with various beading rates. Results: Breading zone layout scheme has an important influence on the breading rate of MSR. Central graphite channels in the core can get higher neutron flux irradiation. And more 233 Th can convert to 233 Pa, which then undergoes beta decay to become 233 U. The graphite in the breading zone gets much lower neutron flux irradiation, so the life span of this graphite can be much longer than that of others. Because neutron flux irradiation in the uranium molten salt graphite has nearly 10 times higher than the graphite in the breading zone, it has great impact on the thorium-uranium conversion rates. For the super epithermal neutron spectrum molten salt reactors, double salt design cannot get higher thorium-uranium conversion rates. The single molten salt can get the same thorium-uranium conversion rate, meanwhile it can greatly extend the life of graphite in the core. Conclusions: From the analysis of calculation results, Blanket breeding area in different locations in the core can change the breeding rates of thorium

  4. Arabidopsis thaliana VDAC2 involvement in salt stress response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil salinity seriously affects plants distribution and yield, while salt stress induces SOS genes, and voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) and a mitochondrial porin, are induced too. In this paper, phenotypes of AtVDAC2 transgenic lines and wild type (RLD) were analyzed. It was found that AtVDAC2 over-expressing ...

  5. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables

  6. Thermal gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level nuclear wastes repositories, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In the present work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boudaries was observed

  7. Altered regulation of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yong; Lee, Jay Wook; Kim, Sejoong; Jung, Eun Sook; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2009-12-01

    Uninephrectomy (uNx) in young rats causes salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH). Alterations of sodium handling in residual nephrons may play a role in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we evaluated the adaptive alterations of renal sodium transporters according to salt intake in uNx-SSH rats. uNx or sham operations were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and normal-salt diet was fed for 4 weeks. Four experimental groups were used: sham-operated rats raised on a high-salt diet for 2 weeks (CHH) or on a low-salt diet for 1 week after 1 week's high-salt diet (CHL) and uNx rats fed on the same diet (NHH, NHL) as the sham-operated rats were fed. Expression of major renal sodium transporters were determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Systolic blood pressure was increased in NHH and NHL groups, compared with CHH and CHL, respectively. Protein abundances of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the CHH group were lower than the CHL group. Expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-γ increased in the CHH group. In contrast, expressions of NKCC2 and NCC in the NHH group didn't show any significant alterations, compared to the NHL group. Expressions of ENaC-α and ENaC-β in the NHH group were higher than the CHH group. Adaptive alterations of NKCC2 and NCC to changes of salt intake were different in the uNx group, and changes in ENaC-α and ENaC-β were also different. These altered regulations of sodium transporters may be involved in the pathogenesis of SSH in the uNx rat model.

  8. Benchmark Simulation of Natural Circulation Cooling System with Salt Working Fluid Using SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K. K.; Scarlat, R. O.; Hu, R.

    2017-09-03

    Liquid salt-cooled reactors, such as the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR), offer passive decay heat removal through natural circulation using Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops. The behavior of such systems should be well-understood through performance analysis. The advanced system thermal-hydraulics tool System Analysis Module (SAM) from Argonne National Laboratory has been selected for this purpose. The work presented here is part of a larger study in which SAM modeling capabilities are being enhanced for the system analyses of FHR or Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Liquid salt thermophysical properties have been implemented in SAM, as well as properties of Dowtherm A, which is used as a simulant fluid for scaled experiments, for future code validation studies. Additional physics modules to represent phenomena specific to salt-cooled reactors, such as freezing of coolant, are being implemented in SAM. This study presents a useful first benchmark for the applicability of SAM to liquid salt-cooled reactors: it provides steady-state and transient comparisons for a salt reactor system. A RELAP5-3D model of the Mark-1 Pebble-Bed FHR (Mk1 PB-FHR), and in particular its DRACS loop for emergency heat removal, provides steady state and transient results for flow rates and temperatures in the system that are used here for code-to-code comparison with SAM. The transient studied is a loss of forced circulation with SCRAM event. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first application of SAM to FHR or any other molten salt reactors. While building these models in SAM, any gaps in the code’s capability to simulate such systems are identified and addressed immediately, or listed as future improvements to the code.

  9. Formation and decay of laser-generated shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The process of formation and decay of laser-generated shock waves is described by a hydrodynamic model. Measurements of shock velocities are performed on copper foils for incident intensities between 3 x 10/sup 11/ and 3 x 10/sup 12/ W/cm/sup 2/, with the use of piezoelectric detectors. Maximum induced pressures are found between 0.5 and 1.2 Mbar in the intensity range considered. Analysis of the results with the shock-evolution model outlines the importance of the decay process of laser-generated shocks.

  10. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1990-04-01

    To satisfy the test objectives thirty highly radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./DG)

  11. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  12. Systematic Evaluation of Salt Cavern Well Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. L.; Lord, D. L.; Lord, A. S.; Bettin, G.; Sobolik, S. R.; Park, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) holds a reserve of crude oil ( 700 million barrels) to help ease any interruptions in oil import to the United States. The oil is stored in a set of 63 underground caverns distributed across four sites along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The caverns were solution mined into salt domes at each of the four sites. The plastic nature of the salt is beneficial for the storage of crude oil as it heals any fractures that may occur in the salt. The SPR is responsible for operating and maintaining the nearly 120 wells used to access the storage caverns over operational lifetimes spanning decades. Salt creep can induce deformation of the well casing which must be remediated to insure cavern and well integrity. This is particularly true at the interface between the plastic salt and the rigid caprock. The Department of Energy, the SPR Management and Operations contractor, and Sandia National Laboratories has developed a multidimensional well-grading system for the salt cavern access wells. This system is designed to assign numeric grades to each well indicating its risk of losing integrity and remediation priority. The system consists of several main components which themselves may consist of sub-components. The main components consider such things as salt cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations modeling salt deformation, and measurements of well casing deformation due to salt creep. In addition, the geology of the salt domes and their overlying caprock is also included in the grading. These multiple factors are combined into summary values giving the monitoring and remediation priority for each well. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  13. Weak decays of doubly heavy baryons. Multi-body decay channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yu-Ji; Wang, Wei; Xing, Ye; Xu, Ji [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, MOE Key Laboratory for Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China)

    2018-01-15

    The newly-discovered Ξ{sub cc}{sup ++} decays into the Λ{sub c}{sup +}K{sup -}π{sup +}π{sup +}, but the experimental data has indicated that this decay is not saturated by any two-body intermediate state. In this work, we analyze the multi-body weak decays of doubly heavy baryons Ξ{sub cc}, Ω{sub cc}, Ξ{sub bc}, Ω{sub bc}, Ξ{sub bb} and Ω{sub bb}, in particular the three-body nonleptonic decays and four-body semileptonic decays. We classify various decay modes according to the quark-level transitions and present an estimate of the typical branching fractions for a few golden decay channels. Decay amplitudes are then parametrized in terms of a few SU(3) irreducible amplitudes. With these amplitudes, we find a number of relations for decay widths, which can be examined in future. (orig.)

  14. Dark Matter Decays from Nonminimal Coupling to Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catà, Oscar; Ibarra, Alejandro; Ingenhütt, Sebastian

    2016-07-08

    We consider the standard model extended with a dark matter particle in curved spacetime, motivated by the fact that the only current evidence for dark matter is through its gravitational interactions, and we investigate the impact on the dark matter stability of terms in the Lagrangian linear in the dark matter field and proportional to the Ricci scalar. We show that this "gravity portal" induces decay even if the dark matter particle only has gravitational interactions, and that the decay branching ratios into standard model particles only depend on one free parameter: the dark matter mass. We study in detail the case of a singlet scalar as a dark matter candidate, which is assumed to be absolutely stable in flat spacetime due to a discrete Z_{2} symmetry, but which may decay in curved spacetimes due to a Z_{2}-breaking nonminimal coupling to gravity. We calculate the dark matter decay widths and we set conservative limits on the nonminimal coupling parameter from experiments. The limits are very stringent and suggest that there must exist an additional mechanism protecting the singlet scalar from decaying via this gravity portal.

  15. Measurement of Cerium and Gadolinium in Solid Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Salt Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ammon; Bryce, Keith; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2017-10-01

    Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) has many advantages-including that it is proliferation resistant. However, as part of the process, special nuclear materials accumulate in the electrolyte salt and present material accountability and safeguards concerns. The main motivation of this work was to explore a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) approach as an online monitoring technique to enhance the material accountability of special nuclear materials in pyroprocessing. In this work, a vacuum extraction method was used to draw the molten salt (CeCl 3 -GdCl 3 -LiCl-KCl) up into 4 mm diameter Pyrex tubes where it froze. The salt was then removed and the solid salt was measured using LIBS and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). A total of 36 samples were made that varied the CeCl 3 and GdCl 3 (surrogates for uranium and plutonium, respectively) concentrations from 0.5 wt% to 5 wt%. From these samples, univariate calibration curves for Ce and Gd were generated using peak area and peak intensity methods. For Ce, the Ce 551.1 nm line using the peak area provided the best calibration curve with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.099 wt% and a root mean squared error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.197 wt%. For Gd, the best curve was generated using the peak intensities of the Gd 564.2 nm line resulting in a LOD of 0.027 wt% and a RMSECV of 0.295 wt%. The RMSECV for the univariate cases were determined using leave-one-out cross-validation. In addition to the univariate calibration curves, partial least squares (PLS) regression was done to develop a calibration model. The PLS models yielded similar results with RMSECV (determined using Venetian blind cross-validation with 17% left out per split) values of 0.30 wt% and 0.29 wt% for Ce and Gd, respectively. This work has shown that solid pyroprocessing salt can be qualitatively and quantitatively monitored using LIBS. This work has the potential of significantly enhancing

  16. Salt stress induced changes in germination, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Final germination percentage (FG%) decreased with increasing salinity in GL, Paris Island cos and Isadora varieties, and was annulated at the highest salt concentration in GL, the most sensitive variety. However, in the less sensitive, KS, FG% was decreased by 60% compared to the control at 200 mM. KS and GL varieties ...

  17. The ontogeny of salt hunger in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, M

    1999-05-01

    Salt hunger is the behaviour of an animal suffering sodium deficiency. It is characterised by an increased motivation to seek and ingest sodium, and the ability to distinguish between sodium and other salts. Here I review the development of salt hunger in the rat. Salt hunger develops rapidly between birth and weaning. It can first be demonstrated 72 h postnatally when an intracerebroventricular injection of renin elicits greater swallowing of NaCl solution than water and greater mouthing of solid fragments of NaCl than of an artificial sweetener. However, sodium deficit per se cannot arouse the hunger at this age, and first elicits increased intake of NaCl only at 12 days-of-age. The next landmark is at 17 days-of-age when the hormonal synergy of aldosterone and central angiotensin II first elicits salt hunger, as it does in the adult. The specificity of the hunger for the sodium ion also develops postnatally: the 72 h-old sodium-hungry neonate does not distinguish between NaCl and other mono- and di-valent chloride salts but, increasingly during development, the sodium hungry pup distinguishes salts and by weaning age NaCl is clearly preferred to other salts almost as it is in adults. Early development may also be a sensitive period for determining lifelong preferences, and indeed, acute perinatal sodium depletion induces a lifelong enhancement of salt intake. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how a behaviour develops precociously and how, when the behaviour becomes important at weaning, the rat pup is competent to meet its sodium requirements, and may be adapted to anticipate sodium deficit.

  18. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  19. Salt stress-induced transcription of σB- and CtsR-regulated genes in persistent and non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains from food processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringus, Daina L; Ivy, Reid A; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can persist in food processing environments. Six persistent and six non-persistent strains from fish processing plants and one persistent strain from a meat plant were selected to determine if expression of genes in the regulons of two stress response regulators, σ(B) and CtsR, under salt stress conditions is associated with the ability of L. monocytogenes to persist in food processing environments. Subtype data were also used to categorize the strains into genetic lineages I or II. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure transcript levels for two σ(B)-regulated genes, inlA and gadD3, and two CtsR-regulated genes, lmo1138 and clpB, before and after (t=10 min) salt shock (i.e., exposure of exponential phase cells to BHI+6% NaCl for 10 min at 37°C). Exposure to salt stress induced higher transcript levels relative to levels under non-stress conditions for all four stress and virulence genes across all wildtype strains tested. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of induction data revealed that transcript levels for one gene (clpB) were induced at significantly higher levels in non-persistent strains compared to persistent strains (p=0.020; two-way ANOVA). Significantly higher transcript levels of gadD3 (p=0.024; two-way ANOVA) and clpB (p=0.053; two-way ANOVA) were observed after salt shock in lineage I strains compared to lineage II strains. No clear association between stress gene transcript levels and persistence was detected. Our data are consistent with an emerging model that proposes that establishment of L. monocytogenes persistence in a specific environment occurs as a random, stochastic event, rather than as a consequence of specific bacterial strain characteristics.

  20. Lamellar-lamellar phase separation of phospholipid bilayers induced by salting-in/-out effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, Mafumi [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Seto, Hideki, E-mail: hideki.seto@kek.jp [KENS and CMRC, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    The multilamellar structure of phospholipid bilayers is stabilized by the interactions between bilayers. Although the lamellar repeat distance is uniquely determined at the balance point of interactions between bilayers, a lamellar-lamellar phase separation, where the two phases with different lamellar repeat distance coexist, has been reported in a case of adding a salt to the aqueous solution of lipids. In order to understand the physical mechanism of the lamellar-lamellar phase separation, the effects of adding monovalent salt on the lamellar structure are studied by visual observation and by small-angle X-ray scattering. Further, a theoretical model based on the mean field theory is introduced and it is concluded that the salting-in and -out effects of lipid bilayers trigger the lamellar-lamellar phase separation.

  1. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  2. Americium Separations from High-Salt Solutions Using Anion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, W.

    2001-01-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues due to the ingrowth of 241 Am from the β-decay of 241 Pu. We investigated parameters that affect the sorption of Am onto anion-exchange resins from concentrated effluents derived from nitric acid processing of plutonium residues. These postevaporator wastes are nearly saturated solutions of acidic nitrate salts, and americium removal is complicated by physical factors, such as solution viscosity and particulates, as well as by the presence of large quantities of competing metals and acid. Single- and double-contact batch distribution coefficients for americium and neodymium from simple and complex surrogate solutions are presented. Varied parameters include the nitrate salt concentration and composition and the nitric acid concentration. We find that under these extremely concentrated conditions, Am(III) removal efficiencies can surpass 50% per contact. Distribution coefficients for both neodymium and americium are insensitive to solution acidity and appear to be driven primarily by low water activities of the solutions

  3. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of salt stress on tillering nodes to the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiong, Y.; Yuan, G.; Zhixia, X.; Xiaojing, L.

    2016-01-01

    In monsoon climate regions, the tillering nodes of winter wheat can be stressed by high salt accumulation on the soil surface in spring, thereby leading to salt-induced damage. To understand whether tillering nodes could be stressed by salinity and to estimate its effects on the growth of winter wheat under salt stress, the tillering nodes of two wheat cultivars, H-4589 (salt-sensitive) and J-32 (salt-tolerant), were treated with salinity to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in seedling growth. The results indicated that salt stress on tillering nodes significantly reduced plant height and shoot dry weight; increased Na+ accumulation, soluble sugar and proline in both H-4589 and J-32; which demonstrated remarkable effects on the growth of winter wheat when the tillering nodes were under salt stress. Furthermore, equivalent Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress, while remarkably different Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when roots were under salt stress. Based on the results from anatomic analyses, we speculated that no anatomic differences in tillering nodes between two cultivars could give reason to the equivalent Na+ accumulations in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress; and more lignified endodermis in primary roots as well as larger reduction of lateral root number in salt-tolerant cultivars which contributed to preventing Na+ influx could explain the remarkably lower Na+ accumulation in salt-tolerant cultivar when roots were under salt stress. All of these results indicated that the tillering nodes could mediate Na+ influx from the environment leading to salt-induced damage to the growth of winter wheat. (author)

  5. High salt-induced excess reactive oxygen species production resulted in heart tube malformation during gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin-Rui; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shuai; Chuai, Manli; Bao, Yongping; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2018-09-01

    An association has been proved between high salt consumption and cardiovascular mortality. In vertebrates, the heart is the first functional organ to be formed. However, it is not clear whether high-salt exposure has an adverse impact on cardiogenesis. Here we report high-salt exposure inhibited basement membrane breakdown by affecting RhoA, thus disturbing the expression of Slug/E-cadherin/N-cadherin/Laminin and interfering with mesoderm formation during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT). Furthermore, the DiI + cell migration trajectory in vivo and scratch wound assays in vitro indicated that high-salt exposure restricted cell migration of cardiac progenitors, which was caused by the weaker cytoskeleton structure and unaltered corresponding adhesion junctions at HH7. Besides, down-regulation of GATA4/5/6, Nkx2.5, TBX5, and Mef2c and up-regulation of Wnt3a/β-catenin caused aberrant cardiomyocyte differentiation at HH7 and HH10. High-salt exposure also inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Most importantly, our study revealed that excessive reactive oxygen species(ROS)generated by high salt disturbed the expression of cardiac-related genes, detrimentally affecting the above process including EMT, cell migration, differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, which is the major cause of malformation of heart tubes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hypernuclear weak decay puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, C.; Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Krmpotic, F.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Tadic, D.

    2002-01-01

    A general shell model formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay of the hypernuclei has been developed. It involves a partial wave expansion of the emitted nucleon waves, preserves naturally the antisymmetrization between the escaping particles and the residual core, and contains as a particular case the weak Λ-core coupling formalism. The extreme particle-hole model and the quasiparticle Tamm-Dancoff approximation are explicitly worked out. It is shown that the nuclear structure manifests itself basically through the Pauli principle, and a very simple expression is derived for the neutron- and proton-induced decays rates Γ n and Γ p , which does not involve the spectroscopic factors. We use the standard strangeness-changing weak ΛN→NN transition potential which comprises the exchange of the complete pseudoscalar and vector meson octets (π,η,K,ρ,ω,K * ), taking into account some important parity-violating transition operators that are systematically omitted in the literature. The interplay between different mesons in the decay of Λ 12 C is carefully analyzed. With the commonly used parametrization in the one-meson-exchange model (OMEM), the calculated rate Γ NM =Γ n +Γ p is of the order of the free Λ decay rate Γ 0 (Γ NM th congruent with Γ 0 ) and is consistent with experiments. Yet the measurements of Γ n/p =Γ n /Γ p and of Γ p are not well accounted for by the theory (Γ n/p th p th > or approx. 0.60Γ 0 ). It is suggested that, unless additional degrees of freedom are incorporated, the OMEM parameters should be radically modified

  7. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  8. Molecular interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids in oils and their effects on reverse micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njauw, Ching-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Yang; Ivanov, Viktor A; Khokhlov, Alexei R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2013-03-26

    It has been known that the addition of bile salts to lecithin organosols induces the formation of reverse wormlike micelles and that the worms are similar to long polymer chains that entangle each other to form viscoelastic solutions. In this study, we further investigated the effects of different bile salts and bile acids on the growth of lecithin reverse worms in cyclohexane and n-decane. We utilized rheological and small-angle scattering techniques to analyze the properties and structures of the reverse micelles. All of the bile salts can transform the originally spherical lecithin reverse micelles into wormlike micelles and their rheological behaviors can be described by the single-relaxation-time Maxwell model. However, their efficiencies to induce the worms are different. In contrast, before phase separation, bile acids can induce only short cylindrical micelles that are not long enough to impart viscoelasticity. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids and found that different bile salts/acids employ different functional groups to form hydrogen bonds with lecithin. Such effects determine the relative positions of the bile salts/acids in the headgroups of lecithin, thus resulting in varying efficiencies to alter the effective critical packing parameter for the formation of wormlike micelles. This work highlights the importance of intermolecular interactions in molecular self-assembly.

  9. Decay Heat Calculations for Reactors: Development of a Computer Code ADWITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Devesh

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of release of energy (decay heat) over an extended period of time after termination of neutron induced fission is necessary for determining the heat removal requirements when the reactor is shutdown, and for fuel storage and transport facilities as well as for accident studies. A Fuel Cycle Analysis Code, ADWITA (Activation, Decay, Waste Incineration and Transmutation Analysis) which can generate inventory based on irradiation history and calculate radioactivity and decay heat for extended period of cooling, has been written. The method and data involved in Fuel Cycle Analysis Code ADWITA and some results obtained shall also be presented. (author)

  10. Search for Dinucleon Decay into Kaons in Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litos, M.; Abe, K.; Hayato, Y.; Iida, T.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kozuma, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeda, A.; Takenaga, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Ueno, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Yamada, S.; Yokozawa, T.; Hazama, S.; Ishihara, C.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kaneyuki, K.; McLachlan, T.; Okumura, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Tanimoto, N.; Vagins, M. R.; Kearns, E.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Dufour, F.; Raaf, J. L.; Henning, B.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Casper, D.; Cravens, J. P.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Regis, C.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Albert, J. B.; Wongjirad, T.; Wendell, R.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Tasaka, S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishino, H.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Minamino, A.; Nakaya, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Tanaka, T.; Jung, C. K.; Lopez, G.; McGrew, C.; Terri, R.; Yanagisawa, C.; Tamura, N.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Mino, S.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Toyota, H.; Kuno, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, S. B.; Yang, B. S.; Ishizuka, T.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Yokosawa, Y.; Koshiba, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Chen, S.; Heng, Y.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Kielczewska, D.; Mijakowski, P.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Thrane, E.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    A search for the dinucleon decay pp→K+K+ has been performed using 91.6 kton .yr data from Super-Kamiokande-I. This decay provides a sensitive probe of the R-parity-violating parameter λ112''. A boosted decision tree analysis found no signal candidates in the data. The expected background was 0.28±0.19 atmospheric neutrino induced events and the estimated signal detection efficiency was 12.6%±3.2%. A lower limit of 1.7×1032 years has been placed on the partial lifetime of the decay O16→C14K+K+ at 90% C.L. A corresponding upper limit of 7.8×10-9 has been placed on the parameter λ112''.

  11. Decay rate ratios of Υ(5S)→B anti B reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dae Sung; Son, Hyungsuk

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the decay rate ratios for OZI allowed decays of Υ(5S) to two B mesons by using the decay amplitudes which incorporate the wave function of the Υ(5S) state. We obtain the result that the branching ratio of the Υ(5S) decay to B s * anti B s * is much larger than the branching ratio to B s anti B s * or anti B s B s * , in good agreement with the recent experimental results of CLEO and BELLE. This agreement with the experimental results is made possible since the nodes of the Υ(5S) radial wave function induce the nodes of the decay amplitude. We find that the results for the Υ(5S) decays to B u (*) anti B u (*) or B d (*) anti B d (*) pairs are sensitive to the parameter values used for the potential between heavy quarks. (orig.)

  12. A ROP2-RIC1 pathway fine-tunes microtubule reorganization for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changjiang; Lu, Hanmei; Li, Wei; Yuan, Ming; Fu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    The reorganization of microtubules induced by salt stress is required for Arabidopsis survival under high salinity conditions. RIC1 is an effector of Rho-related GTPase from plants (ROPs) and a known microtubule-associated protein. In this study, we demonstrated that RIC1 expression decreased with long-term NaCl treatment, and ric1-1 seedlings exhibited a higher survival rate under salt stress. We found that RIC1 reduced the frequency of microtubule transition from shortening to growing status and knockout of RIC1 improved the reassembly of depolymerized microtubules caused by either oryzalin treatment or salt stress. Further investigation showed that constitutively active ROP2 promoted the reassembly of microtubules and the survival of seedlings under salt stress. A rop2-1 ric1-1 double mutant rescued the salt-sensitive phenotype of rop2-1, indicating that ROP2 functions in salt tolerance through RIC1. Although ROP2 did not regulate RIC1 expression upon salt stress, a quick but mild increase of ROP2 activity was induced, led to reduction of RIC1 on microtubules. Collectively, our study reveals an ROP2-RIC1 pathway that fine-tunes microtubule dynamics in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis. This finding not only reveals a new regulatory mechanism for microtubule reorganization under salt stress but also the importance of ROP signalling for salinity tolerance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genetic effects of decay by electron capture of radionuclides in yeasts cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracheva, L.M.; Korolev, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Regularities of genetic effect on the yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae, incorporated radionuclides decaying according to the scheme of k-capture- 7 Be, 54 Mn, 85 Sr are studied. It is known that this type of decay models the ionization of internal electron shells of atoms which is most probable when a cell is affected by external ionizing radiation. It is shown that the decay of radionuclides connecting with a DNA molecule in a cell according to the scheme of D-capture brings about a strong lethal effect. The relative mutagenic efficiency is much lower than that for gamma-radiation and many radionuclides decaying according to the scheme of B-decay. In the mutation spectrum induced by these radionuclides the increase in the number of mutations of the reading frame shift type is observed

  14. CP violation in charmless two-body B decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The study of CP violation in charmless charged two-body decays of neutral B mesons provides a test of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa picture of the Standard Model, and is a sensitive probe to contributions of processes beyond it. Using a data sample of proton-proton collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1, collected with the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, CP violation has been observed for the first time in the B0_s to K-pi+ decay with a significance of more than 5 sigma. Furthermore, first measurements of direct and mixing-induced CP-violating asymmetries in the B0_s to K+K- decay have been performed, opening new avenues to the determination of the unitarity triangle angle gamma using decays affected by penguin processes.

  15. Attenuated flow‐induced dilatation of middle cerebral arteries is related to increased vascular oxidative stress in rats on a short‐term high salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosic, Anita; Jukic, Ivana; Stupin, Ana; Mihalj, Martina; Mihaljevic, Zrinka; Novak, Sanja; Vukovic, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Key points Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake leads to endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in different vascular beds in both animal and human models, due to increased oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to assess vascular response to flow‐induced dilatation (FID) and to elucidate the role of vascular oxidative stress/antioxidative capacity in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of HS‐fed rats in vitro.The novelty of this study is in demonstrating impaired flow‐induced dilatation of MCAs and down‐regulation of vascular antioxidant genes with HS intake, leading to increased levels of oxidative stress in blood vessels and peripheral lymph organs, which together contribute to impaired FID.In addition, results show increased oxidative stress in leukocytes of peripheral lymph organs, suggesting the occurrence of inflammatory processes due to HS intake.Recirculation of leukocytes might additionally increase vascular oxidative stress in vivo. Abstract The aim of this study was to determine flow‐induced dilatation (FID) and the role of oxidative stress/antioxidative capacity in isolated, pressurized middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of high salt (HS)‐fed rats. Healthy male Sprague‐Dawley rats (11 weeks old) were fed low salt (0.4% NaCl; LS group) or high salt (4% NaCl; HS group) diets for 1 week. Reactivity of MCAs in response to stepwise increases in pressure gradient (Δ10–Δ100 mmHg) was determined in the absence or presence of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic TEMPOL and/or the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) inhibitor N ω‐nitro‐l‐arginine methyl ester (l‐name). mRNA levels of antioxidative enzymes, NAPDH‐oxidase components, inducible (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) were determined by quantitative real‐time PCR. Blood pressure (BP), antioxidant enzymes activity, oxidative stress in peripheral leukocytes, lipid peroxidation products and the antioxidant capacity of plasma

  16. Testing CP in K/sub μ/3 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurer, M.

    1989-01-01

    K factories will open the way for high-precision CP tests in K/sub μ/ 3 decays. The standard model does not predict CP breaking in this process. We consider here the effects of nonstandard interactions mediated by vector and scalar particles and by leptoquarks. We show that, for the only experimentally measurable quantity, vector particles alone never induce CP violation, and give a general expression for the CP breaking induced by scalars and leptoquarks

  17. Inducing salt tolerance in sweet corn by magnetic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seed germination and growth of sweet corn under NaCl stress (0, 50, and 100 mM, after exposing the seeds to weak (15 mT or strong (150 mT magnetic fields (MF for different durations (0, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Salinity reduced seed germination and plant growth. MF treatments enhanced rate and percentage of germination and improved plant growth, regardless of salinity. Higher germination rate was obtained by the stronger MF, however, the seedling were more vigorous after priming with 15 mT MF. Proline accumulation was observed in parallel with the loss of plant water content under 100 mM NaCl stress. MF prevented proline accumulation by improving water absorption. Positive correlation between H2O2 accumulation and membrane thermostability (MTI was found after MF treatments, which revealed that MF primed the plant for salinity by H2O2 signaling. However, over-accumulation of H2O2 after prolonged MF exposure adversely affected MTI under severe salt stress. In conclusion, magnetic priming for 6 hours was suggested for enhancing germination and growth of sweet corn under salt stress.

  18. Impaired flow-induced arterial remodeling in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemkens, Pieter; Nelissen, Jelly; Meens, Merlijn J P M T

    2012-01-01

    Arteries from young healthy animals respond to chronic changes in blood flow and blood pressure by structural remodeling. We tested whether the ability to respond to decreased (-90%) or increased (+100%) blood flow is impaired during the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hype...

  19. Classification of decays involving variable decay chains with convolutional architectures

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Vidyo contribution We present a technique to perform classification of decays that exhibit decay chains involving a variable number of particles, which include a broad class of $B$ meson decays sensitive to new physics. The utility of such decays as a probe of the Standard Model is dependent upon accurate determination of the decay rate, which is challenged by the combinatorial background arising in high-multiplicity decay modes. In our model, each particle in the decay event is represented as a fixed-dimensional vector of feature attributes, forming an $n \\times k$ representation of the event, where $n$ is the number of particles in the event and $k$ is the dimensionality of the feature vector. A convolutional architecture is used to capture dependencies between the embedded particle representations and perform the final classification. The proposed model performs outperforms standard machine learning approaches based on Monte Carlo studies across a range of variable final-state decays with the Belle II det...

  20. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-03

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  1. Salt fluxes in a complex river mouth system of Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Vaz

    Full Text Available Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey, currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%. An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months.

  2. Self-assembly of micelles in organic solutions of lecithin and bile salt: Mesoscale computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, A.; Ivanov, V.; Komarov, P.; Khokhlov, A.; Tung, S.-H.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a coarse-grained model for studying the effects of adding bile salt to lecithin organosols by means of computer simulation. This model allows us to reveal the mechanisms of experimentally observed increasing of viscosity upon increasing the bile salt concentration. We show that increasing the bile salt to lecithin molar ratio induces the growth of elongated micelles of ellipsoidal and cylindrical shape due to incorporation of disklike bile salt molecules. These wormlike micelles can entangle into transient network displaying perceptible viscoelastic properties.

  3. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  4. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  5. Does the SU(5) monopole catalyze proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Pak, N.K.

    1983-08-01

    The role of Higgs induced mass for the fermions in the SU(5) monopole catalysis of the baryon decay problem is investigated. We find that the inclusion of such a mass does not rule out the Rubakov effect but it does suppress the catalysis cross-section

  6. Normotensive blood pressure in pregnancy: the role of salt and aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari-Moser, Carine; Escher, Geneviève; Kramer, Simea; Dick, Bernhard; Eisele, Nicole; Baumann, Marc; Raio, Luigi; Frey, Felix J; Surbek, Daniel; Mohaupt, Markus G

    2014-02-01

    A successful pregnancy requires an accommodating environment. Salt and water availability are critical for plasma volume expansion. Any changes in sodium intake would alter aldosterone, a hormone previously described beneficial in pregnancy. To date, it remains ambiguous whether high aldosterone or high salt intake is preferable. We hypothesized that increased aldosterone is a rescue mechanism and appropriate salt availability is equally effective in maintaining a normotensive blood pressure (BP) phenotype in pregnancy. We compared normotensive pregnant women (n=31) throughout pregnancy with young healthy female individuals (n=31-62) and performed salt sensitivity testing within the first trimester. Suppression of urinary tetrahydro-aldosterone levels by salt intake as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and urinary sodium excretion corrected for creatinine, respectively, was shifted toward a higher salt intake in pregnancy (Ppregnancy, neither high urinary tetrahydro-aldosterone nor sodium excretion was correlated with higher BP. In contrast, in nonpregnant women, systolic BP rose with aldosterone (Ppregnancy without causing aldosterone-induced hypertension. Second, salt seems to aid in BP lowering in pregnancy for reasons incompletely elucidated, yet involving renin suppression and potentially placental sensing mechanisms. Further research should identify susceptible individuals and clarify effector mechanisms.

  7. Bioelectronic tongue of taste buds on microelectrode array for salt sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingjun; Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Diming; Hu, Ning; Wang, Hua; Hsia, K Jimmy; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-15

    Taste has received great attention for its potential applications. In this work, we combine the biological tissue with micro-chips to establish a novel bioelectronic tongue system for salt taste detection. Before experiment, we established a computational model of action potential in salt taste receptor cell, simulating the responsive results to natural salt stimuli of NaCl solution with various concentrations. Then 36-channel microelectrode arrays (MEA) with the diameter of 30 μm were fabricated on the glass substrate, and taste epithelium was stripped from rat and fixed on MEA. When stimulated by the salt stimuli, electrophysiological activities of taste receptor cells in taste buds were measured through a multi-channel recording system. Both simulation and experiment results showed a dose-dependent increase in NaCl-induced potentials of taste receptor cells, which indicated good applications in salt measurements. The multi-channel analysis demonstrated that different groups of MEA channels were activated during stimulations, indicating non-overlapping populations of receptor cells in taste buds involved in salt taste perception. The study provides an effective and reliable biosensor platform to help recognize and distinguish salt taste components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proton decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay

  9. A note on Higgs decays into Z boson and J/Ψ(ϒ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Neng Gao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rare decays h→ZV with V denoting the narrow cc¯ or bb¯ resonances, such as J/Ψ or ϒ states, have been analyzed. Within the standard model, these channels may proceed through the tree-level transition h→ZZ⁎ with the virtual Z⁎→V, and also loop-induced process h→Zγ⁎, followed by γ⁎→V. Our analysis shows that, for the bottomonium final states, the decay rate of h→Zϒ from the loop-induced process is small and the former transition gives the dominant contribution; while, for the charmonium final states, Γ(h→ZJ/Ψ and Γ(h→ZΨ(2S induced by h→Zγ⁎→ZV could be comparable to the contribution given by the tree-level h→ZZ⁎→ZV transition.

  10. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Fengjuan; Qi, Shengdong; Li, Hui; Liu, Pu; Li, Pengcheng; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao; Huang, Jinguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis

  11. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Fengjuan, E-mail: jfj.5566@163.com; Qi, Shengdong, E-mail: zisexanwu@163.com; Li, Hui, E-mail: 332453593@qq.com; Liu, Pu, E-mail: banbaokezhan@163.com; Li, Pengcheng, E-mail: lpcsdau@163.com; Wu, Changai, E-mail: cawu@sdau.edu.cn; Zheng, Chengchao, E-mail: cczheng@sdau.edu.cn; Huang, Jinguang, E-mail: jghuang@sdau.edu.cn

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

  12. Controlling moisture content of wood samples using a modified soil-pan decay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Simon F. Curling; Patricia K. Lebow

    2005-01-01

    In wood, the threshold level below which decay cannot occur varies with species or type of wood product and other factors such as temperature, humidity, and propensity of exposure or service-use to allow rain-induced wetting and subsequent drying. The ability to control wood moisture content (MC) during laboratory decay testing could allow research on the moisture...

  13. An Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene from Synechocystis sp. Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 (sysr1 was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1-overexpressing (sysr1-OX tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1-OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1-OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs in sysr1-OX plants. Actually, the Z-3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1-OX plants than in WT plants within 1–2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z-3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E-2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C6 alcohol (Z-3-hexenol induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.

  14. A Locked Nucleic Acid Probe Based on Selective Salt-Induced Effect Detects Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of single based genetic mutation by using oligonucleotide probes is one of the common methods of detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms at known loci. In this paper, we demonstrated a hybridization system which included a buffer solution that produced selective salt-induced effect and a locked nucleic acid modified 12 nt oligonucleotide probe. The hybridization system is suitable for hybridization under room temperature. By using magnetic nanoparticles as carriers for PCR products, the SNPs (MDR1 C3435T/A from 45 volunteers were analyzed, and the results were consistent with the results from pyrophosphoric acid sequencing. The method presented in this paper differs from the traditional method of using molecular beacons to detect SNPs in that it is suitable for research institutions lacking real-time quantitative PCR detecting systems, to detect PCR products at room temperature.

  15. Osmopriming-induced salt tolerance during seed germination of alfalfa most likely mediates through H2O2 signaling and upregulation of heme oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh

    2017-07-01

    The present study showed that osmopriming or pretreatment with low H 2 O 2 doses (2 mM) for 6 h alleviated salt-reduced seed germination. The NADPH oxidase activity was the main source, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity might be a secondary source of H 2 O 2 generation during osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment. Hematin pretreatment similar to osmopriming improved salt-reduced seed germination that was coincident with the enhancement of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment was able to upregulate heme oxygenase HO-1 transcription, while the application of N,N-dimethyl thiourea (DMTU as trap of endogenous H 2 O 2 ) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI as inhibitor of NADPHox) not only blocked the upregulation of HO but also reversed the osmopriming-induced salt attenuation. The addition of CO-saturated aqueous rescued the inhibitory effect of DMTU and DPI on seed germination and α-amylase activity during osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment, but H 2 O 2 could not reverse the inhibitory effect of ZnPPIX (as HO inhibitor) or Hb (as CO scavenger) that indicates that the CO acts downstream of H 2 O 2 in priming-driven salt acclimation. The antioxidant enzymes and proline synthesis were upregulated in roots of seedlings grown from primed seeds, and these responses were reversed by adding DMTU, ZnPPIX, and Hb during osmopriming. These findings for the first time suggest that H 2 O 2 signaling and upregulation of heme oxygenase play a crucial role in priming-driven salt tolerance.

  16. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  17. β-decay properties in the Cs decay chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzoni, G.; Lică, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; IDS Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The study of the decay of neutron-rich Cs isotopes has two main objectives: on one side β decay is a perfect tool to access the low-spin structures in the daughter Ba nuclei, where the evolution of octupole deformed shapes can be followed, while, on the other hand, the study of the gross properties of these decays, in terms of decay rates and branching to delayed-neutron emission, are fundamental inputs for the modelling of the r-process in the Rare-Earth Elements peak. Results obtained at CERN-ISOLDE are discussed within this framework and compared to existing data and predictions from state-of-the-art nuclear models.

  18. Prevention of salt induced hypertension in rats by oral administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high salt diet can elevate blood pressure in humans and other susceptible animal species. A high proportion of our indigenous foods are fermented products and. Lactobacillus species have been reported to be the predominant flora in many of our indigenous fermentation processes. In this study, the effect of concurrent ...

  19. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  20. Correlation effects on the nonmesonic weak decay of the Λ hyperon in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, N. J.; Dickhoff, W. H.

    2005-08-01

    The nonmesonic weak decay of a Λ hyperon is studied in nuclear matter. Special emphasis is placed on a consistent treatment of correlations introduced by the strong interaction on its weak counterpart. The latter is described by the exchange of mesons between the initial ΛN state and the final NN one. The weak decay is studied in terms of the weak self-energy, which allows a systematic evaluation of short-range and tensor correlation effects that are determined by a realistic hyperon-nucleon interaction. The admixture of ΣN components through the strong interaction is also included in the calculation of the Λ decay properties. Calculations for the ratio of the neutron-induced partial width to the corresponding proton-induced one, Γn/Γp, are discussed in connection with recent experimental results.

  1. Corrosion-induced microstructural developments in 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}(FLiBe) salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Guiqiu, E-mail: guiqiuzheng@gmail.com [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); He, Lingfeng [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Fall, ID (United States); Carpenter, David [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The microstructural developments in the near-surface regions of AISI 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (FLiBe) salt have been investigated with the goal of using this material for the construction of the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), a leading nuclear reactor concept for the next generation nuclear plants (NGNP). Tests were conducted in molten FLiBe salt (melting point: 459 °C) at 700 °C in graphite crucibles and 316 stainless steel crucibles for exposure duration of up to 3000 h. Corrosion-induced microstructural changes in the near-surface regions of the samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with EDS capabilities. Intergranular corrosion attack in the near-surface regions was observed with associated Cr depletion along the grain boundaries. High-angle grain boundaries (15–180°) were particularly prone to intergranular attack and Cr depletion. The depth of attack extended to the depths of 22 μm after 3000-h exposure for the samples tested in graphite crucible, while similar exposure in 316 stainless steel crucible led to the attack depths of only about 11 μm. Testing in graphite crucibles led to the formation of nanometer-scale Mo{sub 2}C, Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particle phases in the near-surface regions of the material. The copious depletion of Cr in the near-surface regions induced a γ-martensite to α-ferrite phase (FeNi{sub x}) transformation. Based on the microstructural analysis, a thermal diffusion controlled corrosion model was developed and experimentally validated for predicting long-term corrosion attack depth.

  2. Biocompatibility of Four Common Orthopedic Biomaterials Following a High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Mathieu; Bernard, Cécile; Felix, Marie Solenne; Chaves-Jacob, Julien; Decherchi, Patrick; Dousset, Erick

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, salt consumption appears to be drastically above the recommended level in industrialized countries. The health consequences of this overconsumption are heavy since high-salt intake induces cardiovascular disease, kidney dysfunction, and stroke. Moreover, harmful interaction may also occur with orthopaedic devices because overconsumption of salt reinforces the corrosive aspect of biological tissues and favors bone resorption process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect of three weeks of a high-salt diet, associated (or not) with two weeks of the neuro-myoelectrostimulation (NMES) rehabilitation program on the biocompatibility of four biomaterials used in the manufacture of arthroplasty implants. Thus, two non-metallic (PEEK and Al2O3) and two metallic (Ti6Al4V and CrCo) compounds were implanted in the rat tibial crest, and the implant-to-bone adhesion and cell viability of two surrounded muscles, the Flexor Digitorum (FD) and Tibialis Anterior (TA), were assessed at the end of the experiment. Results indicated lower adhesion strength for the PEEK implant compared to other biomaterials. An effect of NMES and a high-salt diet was only identified for Al2O3 and Ti6Al4V implants, respectively. Moreover, compared to a normal diet, a high-salt diet induced a higher number of dead cells on both muscles for all biomaterials, which was further increased for PEEK, Al2O3, and CrCo materials with NMES application. Finally, except for Ti6Al4V, NMES induced a higher number of dead cells in the directly stimulated muscle (FD) compared to the indirectly stimulated one (TA). This in vivo experiment highlights the potential harmful effect of a high-salt diet for people who have undergone arthroplasty, and a rehabilitation program based on NMES. PMID:28696371

  3. Biocompatibility of Four Common Orthopedic Biomaterials Following a High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lecocq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, salt consumption appears to be drastically above the recommended level in industrialized countries. The health consequences of this overconsumption are heavy since high-salt intake induces cardiovascular disease, kidney dysfunction, and stroke. Moreover, harmful interaction may also occur with orthopaedic devices because overconsumption of salt reinforces the corrosive aspect of biological tissues and favors bone resorption process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect of three weeks of a high-salt diet, associated (or not with two weeks of the neuro-myoelectrostimulation (NMES rehabilitation program on the biocompatibility of four biomaterials used in the manufacture of arthroplasty implants. Thus, two non-metallic (PEEK and Al2O3 and two metallic (Ti6Al4V and CrCo compounds were implanted in the rat tibial crest, and the implant-to-bone adhesion and cell viability of two surrounded muscles, the Flexor Digitorum (FD and Tibialis Anterior (TA, were assessed at the end of the experiment. Results indicated lower adhesion strength for the PEEK implant compared to other biomaterials. An effect of NMES and a high-salt diet was only identified for Al2O3 and Ti6Al4V implants, respectively. Moreover, compared to a normal diet, a high-salt diet induced a higher number of dead cells on both muscles for all biomaterials, which was further increased for PEEK, Al2O3, and CrCo materials with NMES application. Finally, except for Ti6Al4V, NMES induced a higher number of dead cells in the directly stimulated muscle (FD compared to the indirectly stimulated one (TA. This in vivo experiment highlights the potential harmful effect of a high-salt diet for people who have undergone arthroplasty, and a rehabilitation program based on NMES.

  4. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    which ultimately spreads to the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) producing a fall in VSM intracellular calcium leading to vasodilatation (Amberg et al.,. 2003; Haddy, Vanhoutte and Feletou, 2006) and a fall in blood pressure. The higher heart rate of salt loaded rats compared to control rats (Fig. 3) is suggestive of sympathetic.

  5. Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Involved in Salt-Adaptation and Vesicle Trafficking in Tobacco by-2 Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Enrique; García De La Garma, Jesús; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves

    2017-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a highly diverse family of glycoproteins that are commonly found in most plant species. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of their function. AGPs are involved in different biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, tissue development and somatic embryogenesis. AGPs are also involved in abiotic stress response such as salinity modulating cell wall expansion. In this study, we describe how salt-adaptation in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures induces important changes in arabinogalactan proteins distribution and contents. Using the immuno-dot blot technique with different anti-AGP antibodies (JIM13, JIM15, and others), we observed that AGPs were highly accumulated in the culture medium of salt-adapted tobacco cells, probably due to the action of phospholipases. We located these AGP epitopes using immunogold labeling in the cytoplasm associated to the endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, and vesicles, plasma membrane and tonoplast. Our results show that salt-adaptation induced a significant reduction of the cytoplasm, plasma membrane and tonoplast content of these epitopes. Yariv reagent was added to the control and salt-adapted tobacco cell cultures, leading to cell death induction in control cells but not in salt-adapted cells. Ultrastructural and immunogold labeling revealed that cell death induced by Yariv reagent in control cells was due to the interaction of Yariv reagent with the AGPs linked to the plasma membranes. Finally, we propose a new function of AGPs as a possible sodium carrier through the mechanism of vesicle trafficking from the apoplast to the vacuoles in salt-adapted tobacco BY-2 cells. This mechanism may contribute to sodium homeostasis during salt-adaptation to high saline concentrations.

  6. Emulation and Calibration of the SALT Read-out Chip for the Upstream Tracker for Modernised LHCb Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dendek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb is one of the four major experiments currently operating at CERN. The main reason for constructing the LHCb forward spectrometer was a precise measurement of the CP violation in heavy quarks section as well as search for a New Physics. To obtain interesting results, the LHCb is mainly focused on study of B meson decays. Unfortunately, due to the present data acquisition architecture, the LHCb experiment is statistically limited for collecting such events. This fact led the LHCb Collaboration to decide to perform far-reaching upgrade. Key part of this upgrade will be replacement of the TT detector. To perform this action, it was requited to design new tracking detector with entirely new front-end electronics. This detector will be called the Upstream Tracker (UT) and the read-out chip — SALT. This note presents an overall discussion on SALT chip. In particular, the emulation process of the SALT data preformed via the software written by the author.

  7. CP violation in $B^0_{(s)} \\to h+h−$ decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Fazzini, Davide

    2018-01-01

    The time-dependent CPV direct and mixing-induced asymmetries in $B^0 \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $B_s \\to K^+ K^-$ decays have been measured at the LHCb experiment using data collected during Run1 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to 3fb$^{-1}$. The data set was also used for a measurement of time-integrated CP asymmetries in $B^0 \\to K^+ \\pi^-$ and $B_s \\to \\pi^+ K^-$ decays.The results obtained supersede those of B factories with much higher precision. No other experiment has ever measured CP violation in $B_s \\to K^+ K^-$ decays. The measurements of the time-integrated CP asymmetries are the most precise from a single experiment to date.

  8. Moisture and salt monitoring in concrete by evanescent field dielectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riminesi, C.; Marie-Victoire, E.; Bouichou, M.; Olmi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the water content and detecting the presence of soluble salts in concrete is a key issue for its maintenance. Evanescent field dielectrometry, originally developed for the diagnostics of frescoes and mural paintings, is proposed as a tool for monitoring the decay of cement-based materials. A measuring system, based on a scalar network analyzer and a resonant probe, has been realized and tested on concrete samples taken from historical buildings in France or purposely developed in the laboratory. Measurements on water-saturated and oven-dry samples provide the basis for calibrating the instrument for on site monitoring of concrete historical buildings, sculptures and cement-based artifacts.

  9. Beam-based measurements of persistent current decay in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fischer

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The two rings of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are equipped with superconducting dipole magnets. At injection, induced persistent currents in these magnets lead to a sextupole component. As the persistent currents decay with time, the horizontal and vertical chromaticities change. From magnet measurements of persistent current decays, chromaticity changes in the machine are estimated and compared with chromaticity measurements.

  10. Overexpression of a maize plasma membrane intrinsic protein ZmPIP1;1 confers drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lian; Zhou, Jing; Xiong, Yuhan; Liu, Chaoxian; Wang, Jiuguang; Wang, Guoqiang; Cai, Yilin

    2018-01-01

    Drought and salt stress are major abiotic stress that inhibit plants growth and development, here we report a plasma membrane intrinsic protein ZmPIP1;1 from maize and identified its function in drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. ZmPIP1;1 was localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum in maize protoplasts. Treatment with PEG or NaCl resulted in induced expression of ZmPIP1;1 in root and leaves. Constitutive overexpression of ZmPIP1;1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance compared to wild type. A number of stress responsive genes involved in cellular osmoprotection in ZmPIP1;1 overexpression plants were up-regulated under drought or salt condition. ZmPIP1;1 overexpression plants showed higher activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, lower contents of stress-induced ROS such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and higher levels of proline under drought and salt stress than did wild type. ZmPIP1;1 may play a role in drought and salt stress tolerance by inducing of stress responsive genes and increasing of ROS scavenging enzymes activities, and could provide a valuable gene for further plant breeding.

  11. Supra-salt normal fault growth during the rise and fall of a diapir: Perspectives from 3D seismic reflection data, Norwegian North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2016-10-01

    Normal faulting and the deep subsurface flow of salt are key processes controlling the structural development of many salt-bearing sedimentary basins. However, our detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal relationship between normal faulting and salt movement is poor due to a lack of natural examples constraining their geometric and kinematic relationship in three-dimensions. To improve our understanding of these processes, we here use 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway, to determine the structure and growth of a normal fault array formed during the birth, growth and decay of an array of salt structures. We show that the fault array and salt structures developed in response to: (i) Late Triassic-to-Middle Jurassic extension, which involved thick-skinned, sub-salt and thin-skinned supra-salt faulting with the latter driving reactive diapirism; (ii) Early Cretaceous extensional collapse of the walls; and (iii) Jurassic-to-Neogene, active and passive diapirism, which was at least partly coeval with and occurred along-strike from areas of reactive diapirism and wall collapse. Our study supports physical model predictions, showcasing a three-dimensional example of how protracted, multiphase salt diapirism can influence the structure and growth of normal fault arrays.

  12. JENDL FP decay data file 2000 and the beta-decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Katakura, Jun Ichi; Tachibana, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000 has been developed as one of the special purpose files of the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL), which constitutes a versatile nuclear data basis for science and technology. In the format of ENDF-6 this file includes the decay data for 1087 unstable fission product (FP) nuclides and 142 stable nuclides as their daughters. The primary purpose of this file is to use in the summation calculation of FP decay heat, which plays a critical role in nuclear safety analysis; the loss-of-coolant accident analysis of reactors, for example. The data for a given nuclide are its decay modes, the Q value, the branching ratios, the average energies released in the form of beta- and gamma-rays per decay, and their spectral data. The primary source of the decay data adopted here is the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). The data in ENSDF, however, cover only the measured values. The data of the short-lived nuclides, which are essential for the decay heat calculations at short cooling times, are often fully lacking or incomplete even if they exist. This is mainly because of their short half-life nature. For such nuclides a theoretical model calculation is applied in order to fill the gaps between the true and the experimentally known decay schemes. In practice we have to predict the average decay energies and the spectral data for a lot of short-lived FPs by use of beta-decay theories. Thus the beta-decay theory plays a very important role in generating the FP decay data file

  13. Analysis of Multiple Spurious Operation Scenarios for Decay Heat Removal Function of CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngseung; Bae, Yeon-kyoung; Kim, Myungsu [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The worst fire broke out in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975. A fire occurrence in a nuclear power plant has recognized a latently serious incident. Nuclear power plants should achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions during and after the occurrence of a fire. Functions of the safe shutdown are five such as the shutdown function, the decay heat removal function, the containment function, monitoring and control function, and the supporting function for CANDU type reactors. The purpose of this paper is to analyze that the decay heat removal function of the safe shutdown functions for CANDU type reactors is achieved under the fire induced multiple spurious operation. The scenarios of the fire induced multiple spurious operations (MSO) for the systems used for the decay heat cooling were analyzed. Additionally, Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU plants (ISAAC) for determining success criteria of thermal hydraulic analysis was used. Decay heat cooling systems of CANDU reactors are the auxiliary feedwater system, the emergency water supply system, and the shutdown cooling system. A big fire can threat the safety of nuclear power plants, and safe shutdown conditions. The regulatory body in Korea requires the fire hazard analysis including fire induced MSOs. The safe shutdown functions for CANDU reactors are the shutdown function, the decay heat removal function, the containment function, the monitoring and control function, and the supporting service function. The number of spurious operations for the auxiliary feedwater system is more than six and that for the emergency water supply system is one. Additionally, misoperations for the shutdown cooling system are more than two. Accordingly, if total nine components could be spuriously operated, the decay heat removal function would be lost entirely.

  14. Analysis of Multiple Spurious Operation Scenarios for Decay Heat Removal Function of CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngseung; Bae, Yeon-kyoung; Kim, Myungsu

    2016-01-01

    The worst fire broke out in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975. A fire occurrence in a nuclear power plant has recognized a latently serious incident. Nuclear power plants should achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions during and after the occurrence of a fire. Functions of the safe shutdown are five such as the shutdown function, the decay heat removal function, the containment function, monitoring and control function, and the supporting function for CANDU type reactors. The purpose of this paper is to analyze that the decay heat removal function of the safe shutdown functions for CANDU type reactors is achieved under the fire induced multiple spurious operation. The scenarios of the fire induced multiple spurious operations (MSO) for the systems used for the decay heat cooling were analyzed. Additionally, Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU plants (ISAAC) for determining success criteria of thermal hydraulic analysis was used. Decay heat cooling systems of CANDU reactors are the auxiliary feedwater system, the emergency water supply system, and the shutdown cooling system. A big fire can threat the safety of nuclear power plants, and safe shutdown conditions. The regulatory body in Korea requires the fire hazard analysis including fire induced MSOs. The safe shutdown functions for CANDU reactors are the shutdown function, the decay heat removal function, the containment function, the monitoring and control function, and the supporting service function. The number of spurious operations for the auxiliary feedwater system is more than six and that for the emergency water supply system is one. Additionally, misoperations for the shutdown cooling system are more than two. Accordingly, if total nine components could be spuriously operated, the decay heat removal function would be lost entirely

  15. Defense enzyme responses in dormant wild oat and wheat caryopses challenged with a seed decay pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed dormancy and resistance to seed decay organisms are fundamental ecological strategies for weed seed persistence in the weed seed-bank. Seeds have well-established physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores....

  16. Dynamical decay of nuclei at high temperature: competition between particle emission and fission decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delagrange, H.; Gregoire, C.; Scheuter, F.; Abe, Y.

    1985-06-01

    A generalized diffusion equation is propounded to follow the time evolution of an excited nucleus towards fission including along the particle decay. This theoretical model is built in order to try to analyse the anomalous behaviour of particle emission observed in many experimental data for heavy-ion induced reactions. Some calculations for the systems 194 Hg, 170 Yb and 248 Cf are presented. A possible extension of this generalized formalism is suggested to deal more consistently with the experimental data. 52 refs. 10 figs.

  17. Arabidopsis phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C 4 negatively regulates seedling salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Keke; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Jiewei; Li, Yuan; Yang, Hailian; Ren, Dongtao

    2017-08-01

    Previous physiological and pharmacological studies have suggested that the activity of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an important role in regulating plant salt stress responses by altering the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration. However, the individual members of plant PLCs involved in this process need to be identified. Here, the function of AtPLC4 in the salt stress response of Arabidopsis seedlings was analysed. plc4 mutant seedlings showed hyposensitivity to salt stress compared with Col-0 wild-type seedlings, and the salt hyposensitive phenotype could be complemented by the expression of native promoter-controlled AtPLC4. Transgenic seedlings with AtPLC4 overexpression (AtPLC4 OE) exhibited a salt-hypersensitive phenotype, while transgenic seedlings with its inactive mutant expression (AtPLC4m OE) did not exhibit this phenotype. Using aequorin as a Ca 2+ indicator in plc4 mutant and AtPLC4 OE seedlings, AtPLC4 was shown to positively regulate the salt-induced Ca 2+ increase. The salt-hypersensitive phenotype of AtPLC4 OE seedlings was partially rescued by EGTA. An analysis of salt-responsive genes revealed that the transcription of RD29B, MYB15 and ZAT10 was inversely regulated in plc4 mutant and AtPLC4 OE seedlings. Our findings suggest that AtPLC4 negatively regulates the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis seedlings, and Ca 2+ may be involved in regulating this process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Road salt application planning tool for winter de-icing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perera, Nandana

    2015-05-01

    Road authorities, who are charged with the task of maintaining safe, driveable road conditions during severe winter storm events are coming under increasing pressure to protect salt vulnerable areas (SVAs). For the purpose of modelling urban winter hydrology, the temperature index method was modified to incorporate ploughing and salting considerations and was calibrated using winter field data from two sites in Southern Ontario and validated using data collected from a section of Highway 401 - Canada's busiest highway. The modified temperature index model (MTIM) accurately predicted salt-induced melt (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99, RMSE = 19.9 and 282.4 m3, CRM = -0.003 and 0.006 for calibration and validation sites respectively), and showed a demonstrable ability to calculate the Bare Pavement Regain Time (BPRT). The BPRT is a key factor on road safety and the basis for many winter maintenance performance standards for different classes of highways. Optimizing salt application rate scenarios can be achieved using the MTIM with only two meteorological forecast inputs for the storm event - readily available on-line through the Road Weather Information System (RWIS) - and can serve as a simple yet effective tool for winter road maintenance practitioners seeking to optimize salt application rates for a given storm event in salt vulnerable areas.

  19. Investigation of anomalous very fast decay regimes in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldi, Marcello; Sagaut, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    The emergence of anomalous fast decay regimes in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) decay is investigated via both theoretical analysis and eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian simulations. The work provides new insight about a fundamental issue playing a role in HIT decay, namely the influence of non-standard shapes of the energy spectrum, in particular in the large energetic scale region. A detailed analysis of the kinetic energy spectrum E(k) and the non-linear energy transfer T(k) shows that anomalous decay regimes are associated with the relaxation of initial energy spectra which exhibit a bump at energetic scales. This feature induces an increase in the energy cascade rate, toward solutions with a smooth shape at the spectrum peak. Present results match observations reported in wind-tunnel experiments dealing with turbulence decay in the wake of grids and bluff bodies, including scaling laws for the dissipation parameter Cɛ. They also indicate that the ratio between the initial eddy turnover time and the advection time determines of how fast anomalous regimes relax toward classical turbulence free-decay. This parameter should be used for consistent data comparison and it opens perspectives for the control of multiscale effects in industrial applications.

  20. Measurement of time-dependent $\\mathcal{CP}$ violation in charmless B decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258083

    2013-01-01

    In the following we present the measurements of time-dependent $\\mathcal{CP}$ violation in charmless B meson decays performed by LHCb analyzing the $p-p$ collision data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV during the 2010 and 2011 LHC runs. In particular we will focus on the analysis of charmless two-body B decays where the direct and mixing-induced CP asymmetry terms of the $B^{0}\\to\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and $B_{s}^{0}\\to K^{+}K^{-}$ decays have been measured using 0.69 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected during 2011. The measurement of the branching ratio of the $B_{s}^{0}\\to K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0}$ decay, using 35 pb$^{-1}$ collected during 2010, is also reported. In the end we show the relative branching ratios of all the decay modes of $B_{(s)}^{0}\\to K_S h^{+}h^{\\prime -}$ decays (where $h^{(\\prime)}=\\pi,K$), measured analyzing 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected during 20 11.

  1. Effects of proliferation on the decay of thermotolerance in Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E P; Li, G C; Hahn, G M

    1985-09-01

    Development and decay of thermotolerance were observed in Chinese hamster HA-1 cells. The thermotolerance kinetics of exponentially growing and fed plateau-phase cells were compared. Following a 10-min heat exposure at 45 degrees C, cells in both growth states had similar rates of development of tolerance to a subsequent 45-min exposure at 45 degrees C. This thermotolerant state started to decay between 12 and 24 hr after the initial heat exposure. The decay appeared to initiate slightly sooner in the exponentially growing cells when compared to the fed plateau-phase cells. During the decay phase, the rate of thermotolerance decay was similar in the two growth conditions. In other experiments, cells were induced to divide at a slower rate by chronic growth (3 months) in a low concentration of fetal calf serum. Under these low serum conditions cells became more sensitive to heat and the rate of decay of thermotolerance remained the same for exponentially growing cells. Plateau-phase cells were also more sensitive, but thermotolerance decayed more rapidly in these cells. Although dramatic cell cycle perturbations were seen in the exponentially growing cells, these changes appeared not to be related to thermotolerance kinetics.

  2. Bath Salts Abuse Leading to New-Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.

  3. Time-dependent CP violation in $B^0_{(s)} \\to h^+h^-$ decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Fazzini, Davide

    2018-01-01

    The direct and mixing-induced CP-violating asymmetries in $B^0 \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $B_s \\to K^+ K^-$ decays have been measured using a sample of pp collisions collected by the LHCb experiment during the Run1 of the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$.The time-integrated CP asymmetries in $B^0 \\to K^+ \\pi^-$ and $B_s \\to \\pi^+ K^-$ decays have also been measured, using the same data sample.The measurements of the CP-violating asymmetries of the $B^0 \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, $B_s \\to K^+\\pi^-$ and $B_s \\to \\pi^+K^-$ decays are the most precise from a single experiment. The measurements of the CP-violating asymmetries of the Bs->KK decays are compatible with the previous results from LHCb.

  4. Tritium decay helium-3 effects in tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (T implanted by plasmas diffuses into bulk material, especially rapidly at elevated temperatures, and becomes trapped in neutron radiation-induced defects in materials that act as trapping sites for the tritium. The trapped tritium atoms will decay to produce helium-3 (3He atoms at a half-life of 12.3 years. 3He has a large cross section for absorbing thermal neutrons, which after absorbing a neutron produces hydrogen (H and tritium ions with a combined kinetic energy of 0.76 MeV through the 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the 3He produced in tungsten by tritium decay compared to the neutron-induced helium-4 (4He produced in tungsten. This is important given the fact that helium in materials not only creates microstructural damage in the bulk of the material but alters surface morphology of the material effecting plasma-surface interaction process (e.g. material evolution, erosion and tritium behavior of plasma-facing component materials. Effects of tritium decay 3He in tungsten are investigated here with a simple model that predicts quantity of 3He produced in a fusion DEMO FW based on a neutron energy spectrum found in literature. This study reveals that: (1 helium-3 concentration was equilibrated to ∼6% of initial/trapped tritium concentration, (2 tritium concentration remained approximately constant (94% of initial tritium concentration, and (3 displacement damage from 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction became >1 dpa/year in DEMO FW.

  5. Protection against salt toxicity in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae symbiotic association by using combined-N sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Singh, Satya S

    2006-09-01

    Protection from salt stress was observed in the terms of yield (fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein) and nitrogenase activity. Azollapinnata appeared highly sensitive to 40 mM external NaCl stress. Fronds of Azolla unable to grow beyond a concentration of 30 mM NaCl and accordingly death was recorded at 40 mM NaCl on the 6th day of incubation. Yield was inhibited by various levels of NaCl (0, 10, 20 and 30 mM). Addition of combined-N to the growth medium protected the association partially from salt toxicity. Among the N-sources (NO3-, NH4+ and urea) tried, urea mitigated the salt-induced toxicity most efficiently. Reduction in nitrogenase activity was observed when intact Azolla was grown in nutrient medium either supplemented with different levels of NaCl or combined nitrogen. Only NO3- (5 mM) protected the enzymatic activity from salt toxicity while other concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and urea slowed down the salt-induced inhibition of enzyme activity in Azolla-Anabaena association. These results suggested that an optimum protection from salt stress could be obtained by using a combination of combined nitrogen sources. The reason for this protection might be due to the availability of combined nitrogen to the association, nitrogen is only available through the biological nitrogen fixation which is the most sensitive to salt stress.

  6. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  7. Does vegetation prevent wave erosion of salt marsh edges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, R A; Lozada-Bernard, S M; Ravens, T M; Möller, I; Yeager, K M; Baird, A H

    2009-06-23

    This study challenges the paradigm that salt marsh plants prevent lateral wave-induced erosion along wetland edges by binding soil with live roots and clarifies the role of vegetation in protecting the coast. In both laboratory flume studies and controlled field experiments, we show that common salt marsh plants do not significantly mitigate the total amount of erosion along a wetland edge. We found that the soil type is the primary variable that influences the lateral erosion rate and although plants do not directly reduce wetland edge erosion, they may do so indirectly via modification of soil parameters. We conclude that coastal vegetation is best-suited to modify and control sedimentary dynamics in response to gradual phenomena like sea-level rise or tidal forces, but is less well-suited to resist punctuated disturbances at the seaward margin of salt marshes, specifically breaking waves.

  8. Genetic analysis of Myanmar Vigna species in responses to salt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... Salinity stress induced two new bands between 45 and 22 kDa, respectively, in salt .... 107875 National Institute of Agricultural Science (NIAS), Japan (India origin). V7 ..... American Society of Civil Engineers. New York.

  9. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE. PMID:27255892

  10. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters

  11. CP Violation in b- and c-hadron decays at LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Olaf; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    Testing the Standard Model of particle physics by precision measurements of CP violating observables in the decays of b and c hadrons has been one of the design goals of the LHCb experiment. World-leading measurements have been performed of the semileptonic asymmetry, {a}ssl, and of the mixing-induced CP-violating phase ϕs in the {B}s0{\\bar{B}}s0 system. The CKM angle γ is still the least known angle of the Unitarity Triangle, and the only one easily accessible using tree-level decays. A recent combination of LHCb measurements in various B → DK decay modes has yielded the most precise determination of γ from a single experiment to date. The LHCb experiment is collecting unprecedented samples of beauty baryons, allowing for the first time to study CP violating observables in their decays. A recent analysis provided the first evidence for CP violation in the beauty baryon sector. Finally, LHCb has the largest samples of charmed hadron decays collected by any experiment to date. These samples yield some of the world’s most sensitive searches for direct and indirect CP violation in the charm sector.

  12. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 ). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ 0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ 0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ 0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  13. Measurement of CP violation in $B_s^0 \\to \\phi \\phi$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the decay time dependent $CP$-violating asymmetry in $B_s^0 \\to \\phi\\phi$ decays is presented, along with measurements of the $T$-odd triple-product asymmetries. In this decay channel, the $CP$-violating weak phase arises from the interference between $B_s^0$-$\\overline{B}_s^0$ mixing and the loop-induced decay amplitude. Using a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0\\, fb^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb detector, a signal yield of approximately 4000 $B_s^0 \\to \\phi\\phi$ decays is obtained. The $CP$-violating phase is measured to be ${\\phi_s =-0.17\\pm0.15\\mathrm{\\,(stat)}\\pm0.03\\mathrm{\\,(syst)}}$ rad. The triple-product asymmetries are measured to be ${A_U=-0.003\\pm0.017\\mathrm{\\,(stat)}\\pm0.006\\mathrm{\\,(syst)}}$ and ${A_V=-0.017\\pm0.017\\mathrm{\\,(stat)}\\pm0.006\\mathrm{\\,(syst)}}$. Results are consistent with the hypothesis of $CP$ conservation.

  14. Branching ratios in the radiative decay of helium doubly excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coreno, M.; Prince, K. C.; Richter, R.; De Simone, M.; Bucar, K.; Zitnik, M.

    2005-01-01

    The doubly excited singlet states of He below the N=2 threshold may decay by autoionization or fluorescence. In the fluorescence decay channel, most decay cascades consist of emission of three photons, of which the first is a VUV photon, the second is in or near the visible range, and the last is another VUV photon. We have studied the fluorescence channel decay dynamics of the (2,0 n ) (2,1 n ) and (2,-1 n ) 1 P, n=3-7, states by wavelength dispersed photon-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. We have detected the photons in the second step of the cascade and determined the branching ratios for the strongest lines in this step. From these data we are able to calculate the branching ratios of the first step in the cascade. The results are in good agreement with calculations of the main decay channels of the higher resonances, but about 20-30 % lower, and so we are able to describe quantitatively the whole fluorescence cascade of the above-mentioned doubly excited states

  15. [Correction of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury with magnesium salts in magnesium-deficient rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonova, M V; Zheltova, A A; Spasov, A A; Smirnov, A V; Pan'shin, N G; Iezhitsa, I N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Mg L-asparaginate (Mg-L-Asp), Mg chloride (MgCl2) and Mg sulfate (MgSO4) on the severity of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in Mg-deficient rats has been evaluated. To induce Mg deficiency, twenty-eight rats were placed on a low Mg diet (Mg content water for 10 weeks. Twelve control rats were fed a basal control diet (Mg content = 500 mg/kg) and water (with Mg content 20 mg/l) for equal duration. On day 49 of low Mg diet, Mg-deficient rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) group that continued to receive low Mg diet; 2) low Mg diet plus oral MgSO4; 3) low Mg diet plus oral Mg-L-Asp and 4) low Mg diet plus oral MgCl2 (50 mg of Mg per kg of body weight). Isoproterenol was injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg BW, twice, at an interval of 24 hours) on the day 70 of the study, when plasma and erythrocyte Mg level in rats fed a low Mg diet were significantly decreased by 47% and 45% compared to intact animals. Twenty-four hours after second injection of isoproterenol, tests for activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were run and histopathological study was carried out. Administration of isoproterenol to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma CK, LDH and AST, however analyses in Mg deficient group demonstrated more dramatically increased activity of CK and AST compared to control rats (3,06 and 4,67 fold in Mg-deficient group vs. 1,91 and 3,92 fold in intact group). Increased leakage of cardiac injury markers was concomitant to increased volume of fuchsinophilic cardiomyocytes (54.2 +/- 1.7% in Mg-deficient group and 38.9 +/- 1.9% in intact group, p < 0.05). However, pretreatment with of MgCl2, MgSO4 and Mg-L-Asp during 21 days favorably decreased sensitivity of myocardium to isoproterenol-induced ischemic injury. All evaluated salts significantly decreased myocyte marker enzymes as well as protected myocardium against isoproterenol-induced histopathological perturbations.

  16. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  17. Heterogeneity of equilibrium molten globule state of cytochrome c induced by weak salt denaturants under physiological condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidur Rahaman

    Full Text Available While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s, the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD, ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N, denatured (D and intermediate state (X of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4 at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (Δε400 and CD ([θ]409, is a three-step process, N ↔ X ↔ D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1 that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2 that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3 that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1, classical (X2 and disordered (X3, i.e., D ↔ X3 ↔ X2 ↔ X1 ↔ N.

  18. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R. [Keele Univ., Applied And Environmental Geophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences (United Kingdom); Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R. [Geotechnology, Neath (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  19. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R.; Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R.

    2005-01-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  20. Salting by Vacuum Brine Impregnation in Nitrite-Free Lonza: Effect on Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Annalisa; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Pittia, Paola; Rosa, Marco Dalla; Paparella, Antonello

    2017-01-24

    Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI) as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or strain-dependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  1. Salting by vacuum brine impregnation in nitrite-free lonza: effect on Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Serio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonza is a traditional Italian meat product made from whole pork muscles, which is typically cured by dry salting. In this work, we study the effects of vacuum brine impregnation (VBI as an alternative salting method on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, in presence and in absence of nitrites. In comparison with the traditional brining process, VBI contributed to reducing the Enterobacteriaceae population on product surface but induced contamination of the inner muscle tissues. Our results suggest that the species isolated became adapted to processing conditions, and salt tolerance was species- or straindependent. This result is of particular importance for future applications of VBI in lonza manufacturing.

  2. Evaluation of genetic damage induced by glyphosate isopropylamine salt using Tradescantia bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Moya, Carlos; Silva, Mónica Reynoso; Arámbula, Alma Rosa Villalobos; Sandoval, Alfonso Islas; Vasquez, Hugo Castañeda; González Montes, Rosa María

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate is noted for being non-toxic in fishes, birds and mammals (including humans). Nevertheless, the degree of genotoxicity is seriously controversial. In this work, various concentrations of a glyphosate isopropylamine salt were tested using two methods of genotoxicity assaying, viz., the pink mutation assay with Tradescantia (4430) and the comet assay with nuclei from staminal cells of the same plant. Staminal nuclei were studied in two different forms, namely nuclei from exposed plants, and nuclei exposed directly. Using the pink mutation assay, isopropylamine induced a total or partial loss of color in staminal cells, a fundamental criterion utilized in this test. Consequently, its use is not recommended when studying genotoxicity with agents that produce pallid staminal cells. The comet assay system detected statistically significant (p < 0.01) genotoxic activity by isopropylamine, when compared to the negative control in both the nuclei of treated plants and directly treated nuclei, but only the treated nuclei showed a dose-dependent increase. Average migration in the nuclei of treated plants increased, when compared to that in treated nuclei. This was probably due, either to the permanence of isopropylamine in inflorescences, or to the presence of secondary metabolites. In conclusion, isopropylamine possesses strong genotoxic activity, but its detection can vary depending on the test systems used. PMID:21637555

  3. Evaluation of genetic damage induced by glyphosate isopropylamine salt using Tradescantia bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez-Moya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is noted for being non-toxic in fishes, birds and mammals (including humans. Nevertheless, the degree of genotoxicity is seriously controversial. In this work, various concentrations of a glyphosate isopropylamine salt were tested using two methods of genotoxicity assaying, viz., the pink mutation assay with Tradescantia (4430 and the comet assay with nuclei from staminal cells of the same plant. Staminal nuclei were studied in two different forms, namely nuclei from exposed plants, and nuclei exposed directly. Using the pink mutation assay, isopropylamine induced a total or partial loss of color in staminal cells, a fundamental criterion utilized in this test. Consequently, its use is not recommended when studying genotoxicity with agents that produce pallid staminal cells. The comet assay system detected statistically significant (p < 0.01 genotoxic activity by isopropylamine, when compared to the negative control in both the nuclei of treated plants and directly treated nuclei, but only the treated nuclei showed a dose-dependent increase. Average migration in the nuclei of treated plants increased, when compared to that in treated nuclei. This was probably due, either to the permanence of isopropylamine in inflorescences, or to the presence of secondary metabolites. In conclusion, isopropylamine possesses strong genotoxic activity, but its detection can vary depending on the test systems used.

  4. Evaluation of genetic damage induced by glyphosate isopropylamine salt using Tradescantia bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Moya, Carlos; Silva, Mónica Reynoso; Arámbula, Alma Rosa Villalobos; Sandoval, Alfonso Islas; Vasquez, Hugo Castañeda; González Montes, Rosa María

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate is noted for being non-toxic in fishes, birds and mammals (including humans). Nevertheless, the degree of genotoxicity is seriously controversial. In this work, various concentrations of a glyphosate isopropylamine salt were tested using two methods of genotoxicity assaying, viz., the pink mutation assay with Tradescantia (4430) and the comet assay with nuclei from staminal cells of the same plant. Staminal nuclei were studied in two different forms, namely nuclei from exposed plants, and nuclei exposed directly. Using the pink mutation assay, isopropylamine induced a total or partial loss of color in staminal cells, a fundamental criterion utilized in this test. Consequently, its use is not recommended when studying genotoxicity with agents that produce pallid staminal cells. The comet assay system detected statistically significant (p < 0.01) genotoxic activity by isopropylamine, when compared to the negative control in both the nuclei of treated plants and directly treated nuclei, but only the treated nuclei showed a dose-dependent increase. Average migration in the nuclei of treated plants increased, when compared to that in treated nuclei. This was probably due, either to the permanence of isopropylamine in inflorescences, or to the presence of secondary metabolites. In conclusion, isopropylamine possesses strong genotoxic activity, but its detection can vary depending on the test systems used.

  5. Combined effect of salt and drought on boron toxicity in Puccinellia tenuiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Dai, Zheng; Xia, Jingye; Chang, Can; Sun, Hongwen

    2018-08-15

    Boron toxicity is a worldwide problem, usually accompanied by salt (NaCl) and drought. The combined stresses may induce complex toxicity to the plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the combined stresses of salt and drought affect B toxicity in plants. Puccinellia tenuiflora seedlings were planted in vermiculite. A three (B) × three (salt) × three (drought) factorial experiment (for a total of 27 treatments) was conducted. After a 30-day cultivation, plants were harvested to determine dry weight and the concentrations of B, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ . Plant growth was inhibited by B toxicity, which was alleviated by salt and drought. B stress enhanced B uptake and transport of the plant, which was inhibited by salt and drought. B stress had a little effect on K + and Na + concentration and caused Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation in the plant. Salt addition increased Na + concentration and inhibited Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation. Drought addition inhibited Na + accumulation and enhanced Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation. The combined stresses of salt and drought had a greater alleviation on the inhibition of dry weight caused by B than individual salt and drought. Besides, the combined stresses of salt and drought also enhanced B uptake and inhibited B transport. The results indicate that salt, drought, and the combined stresses of salt and drought all can alleviate B toxicity in P. tenuiflora, the main mechanism of which is the restriction of B and Na + uptake caused by salt and drought. The combined stresses of salt and drought have a greater effect on B toxicity than individual salt and drought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.

    1988-04-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in a one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  7. Simulation-based Analysis of the Differences in the Removal Rate of Chlorides, Nitrates and Sulfates by Electrokinetic Desalination Treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    than chlorides and nitrates. A physicochemical model for electrochemically-induced reactive-transport processes is described and used for a theoretical analysis of the influence of the chemical interactions on the removal rate of the target ions. Simulations for the electro-desalination of a brick......Due to their abundance in the natural environment, chloride, nitrate and sulfate salts are considered the main responsible for the salt-induced decay processes in building materials and sculptures. Electro-desalination techniques, enhanced with carbonated clay buffer poultice placed between...

  8. HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.; Stippler, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in an one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. The project is funded by the BMFT and the CEC and carrier out in close co-operation with the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN)

  9. Mechanism for coherent production of pions from the decay of resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, C.S.; Lo, S.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Conditions and signatures for the induced emission of bosons from a microscopic device are discussed. Detailed formulae for a simple two-level model are derived. In this model the decay of N Δ-resonances residing in a microscopic volume V is discussed. It is shown that large amplification factors for unusual charge bunching of pions are obtained as a result of induced emissions

  10. Blood pressure, magnesium and other mineral balance in two rat models of salt-sensitive, induced hypertension: effects of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón, Lusliany Josefina; Marcano, Eunice; Rodríguez, Fátima; del Castillo, Jesús Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in regulating arterial blood pressure (BP). Inappropriate angiotensin type-1 receptor activation by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is related to increased arterial BP. Mg has a role in BP; it can affect cardiac electrical activity, myocardial contractility, and vascular tone. To evaluate the relationship between high BP induced by a high sodium (Na) diet and Mg, and other mineral balances, two experimental rat models of salt-sensitive, induced-hypertension were used: Ang-II infused and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We found that: 1) Ang-II infusion progressively increased BP, which was accompanied by hypomagnesuria and signs of secondary hyperaldosteronism; 2) an additive effect between Ang-II and a high Na load may have an effect on strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) balances; 3) Dahl SS rats fed a high Na diet had a slow pressor response, accompanied by altered Mg, Na, potassium (K), and phosphate (P) balances; and 4) losartan prevented BP increases induced by Ang II-NaCl, but did not modify mineral balances. In Dahl SS rats, losartan attenuated high BP and ameliorated magnesemia, Na and K balances. Mg metabolism maybe considered a possible defect in this strain of rat that may contribute to hypertension.

  11. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2008-01-01

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

  12. Comparative miRomics of Salt-Tolerant and Salt-Sensitive Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami Kavita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in soil salt causes osmotic and ionic stress to plants, which inhibits their growth and productivity. Rice production is also hampered by salinity and the effect of salt is most severe at the seedling and reproductive stages. Salainity tolerance is a quantitative property controlled by multiple genes coding for signaling molecules, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. MicroRNAs are key modulators of gene-expression that act at the post-transcriptional level by translation repression or transcript cleavage. They also play an important role in regulating plant’s response to salt-stress. In this work we adopted the approach of comparative and integrated data-mining to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of salt-stress in rice. We profiled and compared the miRNA regulations using natural varieties and transgenic lines with contrasting behaviors in response to salt-stress. The information obtained from sRNAseq, RNAseq and degradome datasets was integrated to identify the salt-deregulated miRNAs, their targets and the associated metabolic pathways. The analysis revealed the modulation of many biological pathways, which are involved in salt-tolerance and play an important role in plant phenotype and physiology. The end modifications of the miRNAs were also studied in our analysis and isomiRs having a dynamic role in salt-tolerance mechanism were identified.

  13. Hadronic decay of late-decaying particles and big-bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Research Center for the Early Universe, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)]. E-mail: masahiro_kawasaki@mac.com; Kohri, Kazunori [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Moroi, Takeo [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2005-10-06

    We study the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) scenario with late-decaying exotic particles with lifetime longer than {approx}1 s. With a late-decaying particle in the early universe, predictions of the standard BBN scenario can be significantly altered. Therefore, we derive constraints on its primordial abundance. We pay particular attention to hadronic decay modes of such particles. We see that the non-thermal production process of D, {sup 3}He and {sup 6}Li provides a stringent upper bound on the primordial abundance of late-decaying particles with hadronic branching ratio.

  14. Molten salt reactor as asymptotic safety nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.M.; Ignatyev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Safety is becoming the main and priority problem of the nuclear power development. An increase of the active safety measures could hardly be considered as the proper way to achieve the asymptotically high level of nuclear safety. It seem that the more realistic way to achieve such a goal is to minimize risk factors and to maximize the use of inherent and passive safety properties. The passive inherent safety features of the liquid fuel molten salt reactor (MSR) technology are making it attractive for future energy generation. The achievement of the asymptotic safety in MSR is being connected with the minimization of such risk factors as a reactivity excess, radioactivity stored, decay heat, non nuclear energy stored in core. In this paper safety peculiarities of the different MSR concepts are discussed

  15. RAS1, a quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Zhonghai

    2010-03-08

    Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for feeding the growing world population. We used natural genetic variation in salt tolerance among different Arabidopsis accessions to map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for salt tolerance and abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth. A recombinant inbred population derived from Landsberg erecta (Ler; salt and ABA sensitive) x Shakdara (Sha; salt and ABA resistant) was used for QTL mapping. High-resolution mapping and cloning of this QTL, Response to ABA and Salt 1 (RAS1), revealed that it is an ABA- and salt stress-inducible gene and encodes a previously undescribed plant-specific protein. A premature stop codon results in a truncated RAS1 protein in Sha. Reducing the expression of RAS1 by transfer-DNA insertion in Col or RNA interference in Ler leads to decreased salt and ABA sensitivity, whereas overexpression of the Ler allele but not the Sha allele causes increased salt and ABA sensitivity. Our results suggest that RAS1 functions as a negative regulator of salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth by enhancing ABA sensitivity and that its loss of function contributes to the increased salt tolerance of Sha.

  16. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  17. In vitro lipid peroxidation of intestinal bile salt-based nanoemulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, J; Charnay, C; Cristol, J P

    2013-01-01

    . Several nanoemulsions were compared in terms of physical characteristics and reactivity to 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation. Formulations included different types of lipids, a detergent (a conjugated bile salt or sodium dodecyl sulfate) and, finally, lipophilic...

  18. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  19. Geothermal in situ experiments in the Asse salt-mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopietz, J.; Jung, R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents design and results of in situ experiments carried out by the Bundesanstat fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, F.R. of Germany) in the Asse salt-mine. With reference to model calculations of the temperature field which is produced in salt formations by radioactive waste, temperature measurements in the area of electrical heating elements and in situ measurements of thermal conductivity have been performed. The measured temperatures are in good accordance with the theoretical prediction. Preliminary results of the thermal conductivity measurements correspond with the data of single NaCl crystals published by Birch and Clark. At present a heating experiment is being conducted in the Asse mine to investigate thermo-mechanical effects of a cylindrical heat source upon the surrounding rock salt. Possible thermal induced fractures monitored by permeability changes and seismoacoustical phenomena are the main objects of this experiment

  20. a Search for Nucleon Decay with Multiple Muon Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas James

    A search was made for nucleon decays which result in multiple delayed muon decays using the HPW (Harvard -Purdue-Wisconsin) water Cerenkov detector. The HPW detector consists of 680 metric tons of purified water instrumented with 704 five-inch photomultiplier tubes. The phototubes are situated on a volume array with a lattice spacing of approximately one meter, and the inside walls of the detector are lined with mirrors. This combination of mirrors and a volume array of phototubes gives the HPW detector a low trigger energy threshold and a high muon decay detection efficiency. The detector is surrounded by wire chambers to provide an active shield, and is located at a depth of 1500 meters-of-water-equivalent in the Silver King Mine in Park City, Utah. The entire HPW data set, consisting of 17.2 million events collec- ted during 282 live days between May 1983 and October 1984, was analyzed. No contained events with multiple muon decays were found in a 180 ton fiducial volume. This is consistent with the background rate from neutrino interactions, which is expected to be 0.7 (+OR-) 0.2 events. The calculated lower lifetime limit for the decay mode p (--->) (mu)('+)(mu)('+)(mu)('-) is: (tau)/B.R. = 1 x 10('31) years (90% C.L.). Limits are calculated for ten other proton decay modes and five bound neutron decay modes, most of which are around 4 x 10('30) years (90% C.L.). No previous studies have reported results from direct searches for eight of these modes.

  1. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl available in Nigeria for use as accident dosimeter in radiological emergency situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Ayobami Ademola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to assess and quantify radiation dose to the population. This could be done using materials in the vicinity that are sensitive to ionizing radiation. Common salt (NaCl is known to be a sensitive thermoluminescence (TL phosphor. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl used in Nigeria were investigated using an automated luminescence reader Risø TL/OSL-DA-15, with attention focused more on the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL. Strong radiation-induced TL and OSL signals were observed. The TL peaks occurred at about 100 °C, 240 °C and 280 °C. The dose response of both the TL and OSL signals showed a linear relationship. From the OSL pulse anneal curve with TL curve, a preheat temperature of 190 °C for 10 s was found adequate for the OSL measurements. There was no significant difference in the OSL decay for stimulation temperatures of 100 and 120 °C. Fading experiment over a storage period of 14 days showed about 13 and 3% decrease in the OSL signal of sample 1 and sample 2, respectively. The ratios of measured to given dose for dose recovery test were within ±19% of unity. Within the limit of error the samples could be used as a complementary emergency dosimeter in radiological accident situation.

  2. Modeling an economic evaluation of a salt fluoridation program in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo J; Fajardo, Jorge; Arana, Ana; Garcia, Carlos; Pachas, Flor

    2011-01-01

    This article models the cost-effectiveness, from a societal viewpoint, of a dental caries prevention program using salt fluoridation for children 12 years of age, compared with non-intervention (or status quo) in Arequipa, Peru. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods were used. The costs associated with implementing and operating the salt-fluoridation program were identified and measured using 2009 prices. Health outcomes were measured as dental caries averted over a 6-year period. Clinical effectiveness data was taken from published data. Costs were measured as direct treatment costs, programs costs and costs of productivity losses as a result of dental treatments. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. A hypothetical population of 25,000 12-year-olds living in Arequipa, Peru was used in this analysis. Two-way sensitivity analyses were conducted over a range of values for key parameters. Our primary analysis estimated that if a dental caries prevention program using salt-fluoridation was available for 25,000 6-year-old children for 6 years, the net saving from a societal perspective would total S/. 11.95 [1 US$ = S/. (2009) 3.01] per diseased tooth averted when compared with the status quo group. That is, after 6 years, an investment of S/.0.32 per annum per child would result in a net saving of S/.11.95 per decayed/missing/filled teeth prevented. While the analysis has inherent limitations as a result of its reliance on a range of assumptions, the findings indicate that for the situations prevailing in Peru, there are significant health and economic benefits to be gained from the use of salt fluoridation.

  3. Revisiting charmless hadronic Bu,d decays in QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Chua, C.-K.

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of QCD factorization, we consider two different types of power correction effects in order to resolve the CP puzzles and rate deficit problems with penguin-dominated two-body decays of B mesons and color-suppressed tree-dominated π 0 π 0 and ρ 0 π 0 modes: penguin annihilation and soft corrections to the color-suppressed tree amplitude. We emphasize that the electroweak penguin solution to the B→Kπ CP puzzle via new physics is irrelevant for solving the CP and rate puzzles related to tree-dominated decays. While some channels, e.g. K - π + , K - ρ 0 , π + π - , ρ ± π ± need penguin annihilation to induce the correct magnitudes and signs for their CP violation, some other decays such as B - →K - π 0 , π - η, K - η and B 0 →K* 0 η, π 0 π 0 require the presence of both power corrections to account for the measured CP asymmetries. In general, QCD factorization predictions for the branching fractions and direct CP asymmetries of B→PP, VP, VV decays are in good agreement with experiment. The predictions of perturbative QCD and soft-collinear effective theory are included for comparison.

  4. CP violation with Majorana neutrinos in K meson decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Claudio O.; Campos, Miguel [Centro Científico Tecnológico de Valparaíso andDepartment of Physics, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-17

    We study the possibility of having CP asymmetries in the decay K{sup ±}→π{sup ∓}ℓ{sup ±}ℓ{sup ±}(ℓ=e,μ). This decay violates Lepton Number by two units and occurs only if there are Majorana particles that mediate the transition. Even though the absolute rate is highly suppressed by current bounds, we search for Majorana neutrino scenarios where the CP asymmetry arising from the lepton sector could be sizeable. This is indeed the case if there are two or more Majorana neutrinos with similar masses in the range around 10{sup 2} MeV. In particular, the asymmetry is potentially near unity if two neutrinos are nearly degenerate, in the sense Δm{sub N}∼Γ{sub N}. The full decay, however, may be difficult to detect not only because of the suppression caused by the heavy-to-light lepton mixing, but also because of the long lifetime of the heavy neutrino, which would induce large space separation between the two vertices where the charge leptons are produced. This particular problem should be less serious in heavier meson decays, as they involve heavier neutrinos with shorter lifetimes.

  5. Improvements and validation of the transient analysis code MOREL for molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Kun; Zheng Youqi; Cao Liangzhi; Hu Tianliang; Wu Hongchun

    2017-01-01

    The liquid fuel salt used in the molten salt reactors (MSRs) serves as the fuel and coolant simultaneously. On the one hand, the delayed neutron precursors circulate in the whole primary loop and part of them decay outside the core. On the other hand, the fission heat is carried off directly by the fuel flow. These two features require new analysis method with the coupling of fluid flow, heat transfer and neutronics. In this paper, the recent update of MOREL code is presented. The update includes: (1) the improved quasi-static method for the kinetics equation with convection term is developed. (2) The multi-channel thermal hydraulic model is developed based on the geometric feature of MSR. (3) The Variational Nodal Method is used to solve the neutron diffusion equation instead of the original analytic basis functions expansion nodal method. The update brings significant improvement on the efficiency of MOREL code. And, the capability of MOREL code is extended for the real core simulation with feedback. The numerical results and experiment data gained from molten salt reactor experiment (MSRE) are used to verify and validate the updated MOREL code. The results agree well with the experimental data, which prove the new development of MOREL code is correct and effective. (author)

  6. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  7. Estimates of wave decay rates in the presence of turbulent currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thais, L. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, URA-CNRS 1441, Villenauve d' Ascq (France). Lab. de Mecanique; Chapalain, G. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, URA-CNRS 8577, Villenauve d' Ascq (France). Sedimentologie et Geodynamique; Klopman, G. [Albatros Flow Research, Vollenhove (Netherlands); Simons, R.R. [University College, London (United Kingdom). Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thomas, G.P. [University College, Cork (Ireland). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    2001-06-01

    A full-depth numerical model solving the free surface flow induced by linear water waves propagating with collinear vertically sheared turbulent currents is presented. The model is used to estimate the wave amplitude decay rate in combined wave current flows. The decay rates are compared with data collected in wave flumes by Kemp and Simons [J Fluid Mech, 116 (1982) 227; 130 (1983) 73] and Mathisen and Madsen [J Geophys Res, 101 (C7) (1996) 16,533]. We confirm the main experimental finding of Kemp and Simons that waves propagating downstream are less damped, and waves propagating upstream significantly more damped than waves on fluid at rest. A satisfactory quantitative agreement is found for the decay rates of waves propagating upstream, whereas not more than a qualitative agreement has been observed for waves propagating downstream. Finally, some wave decay rates in the presence of favourable and adverse currents are provided in typical field conditions. (Author)

  8. Partially Reconstructed Beauty Decays at LHCb for the Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Iwan Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Semileptonic beauty decays provide a theoretically clean probe of CKM Unitarity since their decay rates factorise into leptonic and hadronic currents. At hadron colliders the full kinematic properties of these decays cannot be determined due to the unreconstructable neutrino. The kinematics can however be inferred through the conservation of momentum perpendicular to the flight direction that can be resolved by the LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO). The RF foil is an essential component of the LHCb vertex locator (VELO), separating the secondary vacuum of the VELO from the primary vacuum of the LHC. The foil protects the VELO modules from beam induced effects such as RF waves, and protects the LHC vacuum from hardware effects such as outgassing. The RF foil contributes to the material budget of the experiment and degrades the quality of tracks resulting in a worsened resolution for the reconstructed production and decay vertices. The phase-II upgrade can greatly improve the performance of semileptonic measurements a...

  9. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  10. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  11. De Novo Endotoxin-Induced Production of Antibodies against the Bile Salt Export Pump Associated with Bacterial Infection following Major Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ming Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinically severe infection-related inflammation after major liver resection may cause hyperbilirubinemia. This study aims to clarify the impact of bacterial infection and endotoxins on the hepatobiliary transporter system and to explore possible mechanisms of endotoxin-related postoperative hyperbilirubinemia. Method. Mice that underwent major hepatectomy with removal of at least 70% of liver volume were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS at different dosages. Subsequently, hepatobiliary transporter compounds related to bile salt excretion were further investigated. Results. The expression of genes related to hepatobiliary transporter compounds was not significantly different in the liver tissue of mice after major hepatectomy and LPS exposure. However, bile salt export pump (BSEP protein expression within the liver tissue of mice treated with LPS after major hepatectomy was relatively weaker and was even further reduced in the high-dose LPS group. The formation of antibodies against the BSEP in response to endotoxin exposure was also detected. Conclusion. This study illustrates a possible mechanism whereby the dysfunction of hepatobiliary transporter systems caused by endotoxin-induced autoantibodies may be involved in the development of postoperative jaundice associated with bacterial infection after major hepatectomy.

  12. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination.

  13. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  14. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  15. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türk, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaa.turk@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); East Anatolian High Technology Research and Application Center, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Genişel, Mucip, E-mail: m.genisel@hotmail.com [Department of Crop and Animal Production, Vocational High School, Agri (Turkey); Erdal, Serkan, E-mail: serkanerdal25@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K{sup +}. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  16. In vitro salt stress induced production of gymnemic acid in callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is presented in this investigation. The highest efficiency of callus formation was observed in the medium containing different concentrations of 2,4-D. The gymnemic acid content increased with increasing concentration of 2,4-D along with NaCl. Key words: In vitro, Gymnema sylvestre, callus culture, gymnemic acid, salt ...

  17. Induced genetic variation for aluminum and salt tolerance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Yoshida, S.; Vegara, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: MNH applied to fertilized egg cells of 'Taichung 65' led to an increase in genetic variation in the progenies. Of a M 2 population of 15,000 seedlings, 2.3% were scored tolerant to salt. Tolerant plants showed less shoot and root growth inhibition. 50 variants expressed different degrees of tolerance to Al, even up to 30 ppm. The tolerance was related to longer root development. (author)

  18. The Monte-Carlo code DECAY to simulate the decay of baryon and meson resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenssgen, K.; Ritter, S.

    1983-01-01

    The code DECAY simulates the decay of unpolarized baryon and meson resonances in the laboratory frame. DECAY treats some resonances among these all baryon resonances of the spin 3/2 + decuplet and all meson resonances of the spin 1 - nonet. A given resonance decays via two or three particle decay steps until all decay products are stable particles. Program summary and code description are given. (author)

  19. Decay of hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.

    1985-01-01

    The pionic and non-mesonic decays of hypernuclei are discussed. In the first part, various decay processes which could be useful to obtain information of hypernuclear structure are discussed. The experimental data concerning the pionic and non-mesonic decays are discussed in the second part. As the experimental data, there are only few lifetime data and some crude data on the non-mesonic to π decay ratio. In the third and the fourth parts, some theoretical analyses are made on the pionic and the nonmesonic decays. DDHF calculation was performed for Λ and N systems by using Skyrme type ΛN and NN effective interactions. A suppression factor of the order of 10 -3 for A nearly equal 100 was obtained. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Silicon improves salt tolerance by increasing root water uptake in Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Xing; Xu, Xuan-Bin; Hu, Yan-Hong; Han, Wei-Hua; Yin, Jun-Liang; Li, Huan-Li; Gong, Hai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Silicon enhances root water uptake in salt-stressed cucumber plants through up-regulating aquaporin gene expression. Osmotic adjustment is a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants. Silicon can alleviate salt stress in plants. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood, and the possible role of silicon in alleviating salt-induced osmotic stress and the underlying mechanism still remain to be investigated. In this study, the effects of silicon (0.3 mM) on Na accumulation, water uptake, and transport were investigated in two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars ('JinYou 1' and 'JinChun 5') under salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited the plant growth and photosynthesis and decreased leaf transpiration and water content, while added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Silicon addition only slightly decreased the shoot Na levels per dry weight in 'JinYou 1' but not in 'JinChun 5' after 10 days of stress. Silicon addition reduced stress-induced decreases in root hydraulic conductivity and/or leaf-specific conductivity. Expressions of main plasma membrane aquaporin genes in roots were increased by added silicon, and the involvement of aquaporins in water uptake was supported by application of aquaporin inhibitor and restorative. Besides, silicon application decreased the root xylem osmotic potential and increased root soluble sugar levels in 'JinYou 1.' Our results suggest that silicon can improve salt tolerance of cucumber plants through enhancing root water uptake, and silicon-mediated up-regulation of aquaporin gene expression may in part contribute to the increase in water uptake. In addition, osmotic adjustment may be a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants.

  1. Gamma measurements in Bs->DsK and other tree-level decays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The angle gamma is the least constrained parameter in the CKM unitarity triangle. Its determination in decays induced by tree-level b -> u transitions is largely unaffected by potential new physics contributions. This allows for a consistency check of the unitarity triangle, but also of comparisons with gamma determinations from modes with loop-diagrams. We present here a new precise determination of gamma using a time-dependent flavour-tagged analysis of Bs -> Ds K decays with the LHCb experiment. New developments in flavour tagging are presented.

  2. A novel pulse-chase SILAC strategy measures changes in protein decay and synthesis rates induced by perturbation of proteostasis with an Hsp90 inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Fierro-Monti

    Full Text Available Standard proteomics methods allow the relative quantitation of levels of thousands of proteins in two or more samples. While such methods are invaluable for defining the variations in protein concentrations which follow the perturbation of a biological system, they do not offer information on the mechanisms underlying such changes. Expanding on previous work [1], we developed a pulse-chase (pc variant of SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture. pcSILAC can quantitate in one experiment and for two conditions the relative levels of proteins newly synthesized in a given time as well as the relative levels of remaining preexisting proteins. We validated the method studying the drug-mediated inhibition of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone, which is known to lead to increased synthesis of stress response proteins as well as the increased decay of Hsp90 "clients". We showed that pcSILAC can give information on changes in global cellular proteostasis induced by treatment with the inhibitor, which are normally not captured by standard relative quantitation techniques. Furthermore, we have developed a mathematical model and computational framework that uses pcSILAC data to determine degradation constants kd and synthesis rates Vs for proteins in both control and drug-treated cells. The results show that Hsp90 inhibition induced a generalized slowdown of protein synthesis and an increase in protein decay. Treatment with the inhibitor also resulted in widespread protein-specific changes in relative synthesis rates, together with variations in protein decay rates. The latter were more restricted to individual proteins or protein families than the variations in synthesis. Our results establish pcSILAC as a viable workflow for the mechanistic dissection of changes in the proteome which follow perturbations. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000538.

  3. A Novel Pulse-Chase SILAC Strategy Measures Changes in Protein Decay and Synthesis Rates Induced by Perturbation of Proteostasis with an Hsp90 Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Monti, Ivo; Racle, Julien; Hernandez, Celine; Waridel, Patrice; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Quadroni, Manfredo

    2013-01-01

    Standard proteomics methods allow the relative quantitation of levels of thousands of proteins in two or more samples. While such methods are invaluable for defining the variations in protein concentrations which follow the perturbation of a biological system, they do not offer information on the mechanisms underlying such changes. Expanding on previous work [1], we developed a pulse-chase (pc) variant of SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture). pcSILAC can quantitate in one experiment and for two conditions the relative levels of proteins newly synthesized in a given time as well as the relative levels of remaining preexisting proteins. We validated the method studying the drug-mediated inhibition of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone, which is known to lead to increased synthesis of stress response proteins as well as the increased decay of Hsp90 “clients”. We showed that pcSILAC can give information on changes in global cellular proteostasis induced by treatment with the inhibitor, which are normally not captured by standard relative quantitation techniques. Furthermore, we have developed a mathematical model and computational framework that uses pcSILAC data to determine degradation constants kd and synthesis rates Vs for proteins in both control and drug-treated cells. The results show that Hsp90 inhibition induced a generalized slowdown of protein synthesis and an increase in protein decay. Treatment with the inhibitor also resulted in widespread protein-specific changes in relative synthesis rates, together with variations in protein decay rates. The latter were more restricted to individual proteins or protein families than the variations in synthesis. Our results establish pcSILAC as a viable workflow for the mechanistic dissection of changes in the proteome which follow perturbations. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000538. PMID:24312217

  4. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  5. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  6. Salt consumption and the effect of salt on mineral metabolism in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Parker, M T; Daniluk, P D; Pagan, K I; Williams, J; Soderholm, L V; Hintz, H F

    1987-04-01

    The voluntary salt consumption of mature unexercised horses was measured weekly for up to 45 weeks. Voluntary intake among horses was quite variable ranging from 19 to 143 g of salt per day and was inversely related to total salt intake (salt in feeds plus voluntary intake). Mean daily voluntary salt consumption was 53 g. Season of the year did not influence voluntary intake. In preference tests which evaluated every two choice combination of 0.2% and 4% NaCl in test diets fed daily for four days, ponies generally preferred diets containing the lower amount of salt. In similar preference studies which used NaHCO3 as a sodium source, ponies always preferred the diet containing the lower level of NaHCO3. Metabolism studies employing diets containing 1, 3 or 5% NaCl showed that urinary excretion was the major excretory pathway for sodium and chloride. Fecal excretion, intestinal absorption and retention of sodium were not affected by level of salt intake. Urinary calcium excretion was unaffected by salt intake but calcium and phosphorus absorption and retention were enhanced when ponies were fed diets containing 3 or 5% sodium chloride. Magnesium and copper metabolism were unaffected by salt intake. Horses voluntarily consume relatively large amounts of sodium chloride but it is likely that not all voluntary consumption is related to the salt requirement of the horse. Habit and taste preference could also be involved. Salt consumption at the levels used in these studies does not appear to be detrimental to the metabolism of other minerals in the horse.

  7. Temperature calculations on different configurations for disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt dome model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Kevenaar, J.W.A.M.

    1978-06-01

    A medium size salt dome is considered as a structure in which a repository can be located for all radioactive wastes to be produced within the scope of a postulated nuclear power program. A dominating design factor for the lay-out of such a waste repository is the temperature distribution in the salt dome resulting from decay heat released from the buried solidified high-level reprocessing waste. Two numerical models are presented for the calculation of both global and local rock salt temperatures. The results of calculations performed with these models are demonstrated to be compatible. Rock salt temperatures related to several types of burial configurations, ranging from two layer configurations with various vertical distances between the layers via a three and a four layer repository to deep bore hole concepts varying from 100 to 600 m bore hole depth, can therefore be calculated with one rather simple unit cell model. The results of these calculations indicate that rock salt temperatures can be kept within acceptable limits to realize a repository using standard mining techniques. The temperatures at mine galery level prove to be a dominating factor in the selection of a repository configuration. More detailed calculations of these temperatures taking into account the loading sequence and the cooling capacity of the mine ventilation are recommended. Finally the apparent advantages of a deep bore hole concept emphasize the need for R and D work with respect to advanced drilling techniques in order to achieve deep dry disposal bore holes that can be realized from a burial mine in the salt dome. (Auth.)

  8. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  9. Proton-induced accelerated decay of the fungicide, vinclozolin, on TiO2 surface under solar irradiation: Experimental and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Ivan; Gorbachev, Mikhail Y; Gorinchoy, Natalia N

    2018-04-03

    The photochemical degradation of vinclozolin by addition of titanium dioxide on silica support has been examined both experimental and quantum-chemically. Solar irradiation of vinclozolin on silica with and without addition of titanium dioxide for 6 h resulted in 21% and 97.8% vinclozolin residues, respectively. In both these cases, phototransformation leads to the formation of (3,5-dichlorophenyl isocyanate) and (3,5-dichloroaniline). The presence of the intermediary product resulted from opening of the 2,4-oxazolidine-dione ring is also confirmed by GS-MS and LC-MS chromatography. The proton-induced mechanism of vinclozolin decay at the above experimental conditions is clarified on the base of DFT calculations.

  10. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  11. Induced resistance in tomato by SAR activators during predisposing salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Francis Pye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR, and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-s-methyl-ester, BTH and Tiadinil (N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in WT and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by P. capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA.

  12. Beta-decay and decay heat. Summary report of consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicols, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    Experts on decay data and decay heat calculations participated in a Consultants' Meeting organized at IAEA Headquarters on 12-14 December 2005. Debate focused on the validation of decay heat calculations as a function of cooling time for fuel irradiated in power reactors through comparisons with experimental benchmark data. Both the current understanding and quantification of mean beta and gamma decay energies were reviewed with respect to measurements and the Gross Theory of Beta Decay. Particular emphasis was placed on the known development of total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy (TAGS), and detailed discussions took place to formulate the measurement requirements for mean beta and gamma data of individual radionuclides. This meeting was organized in cooperation with the OECD/NEA Working Party for Evaluation and Cooperation (WPEC). Proposals and recommendations were made to resolve particular difficulties, and an initial list of fission products was produced for TAGS studies. The discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the meeting are briefly described in this report. (author)

  13. Molten salt reactor related research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, Jiri; Hombourger, Boris; Fiorina, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland represented by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a member of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). In the past, the research at PSI focused mainly on HTR, SFR, and GFR. Currently, a research program was established also for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Safety is the key point and main interest of the MSR research at the Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES) department of PSI. However, it cannot be evaluated without knowing the system design, fuel chemistry, salt thermal-hydraulics features, safety and fuel cycle approach, and the relevant material and chemical limits. Accordingly, sufficient knowledge should be acquired in the other individual fields before the safety can be evaluated. The MSR research at NES may be divided into four working packages (WP): WP1: MSR core design and fuel cycle, WP2: MSR fuel behavior at nominal and accidental conditions, WP3: MSR thermal-hydraulics and decay heat removal system, WP4: MSR safety, fuel stream, and relevant limits. The WPs are proposed so that there are research topics which can be independently studied within each of them. The work plan of the four WPs is based on several ongoing or past national and international projects relevant to MSR, where NES/PSI participates. At the current stage, the program focuses on several specific and design independent studies. The safety is the key point and main long-term interest of the MSR research at NES. (author)

  14. Salt stress induces the formation of a novel type of 'pressure wood' in two Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Dennis; Lautner, Silke; Wildhagen, Henning; Behnke, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz; Fromm, Jörg; Polle, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    • Salinity causes osmotic stress and limits biomass production of plants. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying hydraulic adaptation to salinity. • Anatomical, ecophysiological and transcriptional responses to salinity were investigated in the xylem of a salt-sensitive (Populus × canescens) and a salt-tolerant species (Populus euphratica). • Moderate salt stress, which suppressed but did not abolish photosynthesis and radial growth in P. × canescens, resulted in hydraulic adaptation by increased vessel frequencies and decreased vessel lumina. Transcript abundances of a suite of genes (FLA, COB-like, BAM, XET, etc.) previously shown to be activated during tension wood formation, were collectively suppressed in developing xylem, whereas those for stress and defense-related genes increased. A subset of cell wall-related genes was also suppressed in salt-exposed P. euphratica, although this species largely excluded sodium and showed no anatomical alterations. Salt exposure influenced cell wall composition involving increases in the lignin : carbohydrate ratio in both species. • In conclusion, hydraulic stress adaptation involves cell wall modifications reciprocal to tension wood formation that result in the formation of a novel type of reaction wood in upright stems named 'pressure wood'. Our data suggest that transcriptional co-regulation of a core set of genes determines reaction wood composition. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. The free radical species in polyacrylonitrile fibers induced by γ-radiation and their decay behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weihua; Wang Mouhua; Xing Zhe; Wu Guozhong

    2012-01-01

    Free radicals in vacuum, air and oxygen atmospheres were studied using electron spin resonance (ESR). Mainly two types of radicals, namely alkyl radicals and polyimine radicals, are formed in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers after γ-ray irradiation. The G value of the radical formation was calculated to be 2.1 (number of radicals per 100 eV absorbed) in air at room temperature based on the ESR measurements. The radical stability and decay behaviors at room temperature and elevated temperatures were also investigated under different atmospheres. The alkyl radicals were found to be rather stable when stored in vacuum at room temperature, but they decayed via reaction with oxygen when stored in air. The alkyl radicals disappeared completely after a thermal treatment at 110 °C in vacuum, but only 15% of the polyimine radicals decayed; this indicates that polyimine radicals are more stable compared to the alkyl radicals due to their lower mobility. - Highlights: ► Radicals formed by radiation were assigned to polyimine and alkyl radicals. ► G-value of radicals was measured to be 2.1 per 100 eV. ► The radicals were found to be extremely stable in vacuum at room temperature. ► Effect of oxygen on radical decay under various conditions was studied.

  16. Radiation-induced growth and isothermal decay of infrared-stimulated luminescence from feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guralnik, Benny; Li, Bo; Jain, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    the growth and decay of laboratory-regenerated luminescence signals. Here we review a selection of common models describing the response of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) of feldspar to constant radiation and temperature as administered in the laboratory. We use this opportunity to introduce...

  17. CP violation in K decays and rare decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalla, G.

    1996-12-01

    The present status of CP violation in decays of neutral kaons is reviewed. In addition selected rare decays of both K and B mesons are discussed. The emphasis is in particular on observables that can be reliably calculated and thus offer the possibility of clean tests of standard model flavor physics. 105 refs

  18. Balancing sub- and supra-salt strain in salt-influenced rifts: Implications for extension estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Alexander J.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2017-09-01

    The structural style of salt-influenced rifts may differ from those formed in predominantly brittle crust. Salt can decouple sub- and supra-salt strain, causing sub-salt faults to be geometrically decoupled from, but kinematically coupled to and responsible for, supra-salt forced folding. Salt-influenced rifts thus contain more folds than their brittle counterparts, an observation often ignored in extension estimates. Fundamental to determining whether sub- and supra-salt structures are kinematically coherent, and the relative contributions of thin- (i.e. gravity-driven) and thick-skinned (i.e. whole-plate stretching) deformation to accommodating rift-related strain, is our ability to measure extension at both structural levels. We here use published physical models of salt-influenced extension to show that line-length estimates yield more accurate values of sub- and supra-salt extension compared to fault-heave, before applying these methods to seismic data from the Halten Terrace, offshore Norway. We show that, given the abundance of ductile deformation in salt-influenced rifts, significant amounts of extension may be ignored, leading to the erroneous interpretations of thin-skinned, gravity-gliding. If a system is kinematically coherent, supra-salt structures can help predict the occurrence and kinematics of sub-salt faults that may be poorly imaged and otherwise poorly constrained.

  19. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Goffe

    Full Text Available To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes, amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty, time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s, and individual serving.Controlled, laboratory, conditions.A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women aged 18-59 years.Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD of 7.86g (4.54 per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22. The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001. This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers' salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

  20. Changes in Sea Salt Emissions Enhance ENSO Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang; Russell, Lynn M.; Lou, Sijia; Lamjiri, Maryam A.; Liu, Ying; Singh, Balwinder; Ghan, Steven J.

    2016-11-15

    Two 150-year pre-industrial simulations with and without interactive sea salt emissions from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) are performed to quantify the interactions between sea salt emissions and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Variations in sea salt emissions over the tropical Pacific Ocean are affected by changing wind speed associated with ENSO variability. ENSO-induced interannual variations in sea salt emissions result in decreasing (increasing) aerosol optical depth (AOD) by 0.03 over the equatorial central-eastern (western) Pacific Ocean during El Niño events compared to those during La Niña events. These changes in AOD further increase (decrease) radiative fluxes into the atmosphere by +0.2 W m-2 (-0.4 W m-2) over the tropical eastern (western) Pacific. Thereby, sea surface temperature increases (decreases) by 0.2–0.4 K over the tropical eastern (western) Pacific Ocean during El Niño compared to La Niña events and enhances ENSO variability by 10%. The increase in ENSO amplitude is a result of systematic heating (cooling) during the warm (cold) phase, of ENSO in the eastern Pacific. Interannual variations in sea salt emissions then produce the anomalous ascent (subsidence) over the equatorial eastern (western) Pacific between El Niño and La Niña events, which is a result of heating anomalies. Due to variations in sea salt emissions, the convective precipitation is enhanced by 0.6–1.2 mm day-1 over the tropical central-eastern Pacific Ocean and weakened by 0.9–1.5 mm day-1 over the Maritime Continent during El Niño compared to La Niña events, enhancing the precipitation variability over the tropical Pacific.

  1. Flavor-changing Z decay in the one generation technicolor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lu, G.; Xiao, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The flavor-changing decay Z→b bar s(bar bs) induced through pseudo Goldstone bosons (PGB's) is calculated in two kinds of one generation technicolor models (OGTM's). (a) For model I, we find that an interesting branching ratio B(Z→b bar s+bar bs)∼10 -6 can be obtained for particular choices of the parameters; such a magnitude of the order of the branching ratio is at the border of being detectable. (b) For model II, the PGB contributions can strongly enhance the branching ratio B(Z→b bar s+bar bs). With the current experimental limit on the branching ratios of rare Z decay, the model-dependent bounds on the mass of the color octet pseudo Goldstone bosons can be derived. As will be seen, the decay Z→b bar s(bar bs) may provide a unique window to study the TC theory

  2. Theoretical constraints on the rare tau decays in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Shindou, Tetsuo; Simonetto, Cristoforo

    2008-09-01

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model contains in general sources of tau lepton flavour violation which induce the rare decays τ → μγ and τ → eγ. We argue in this paper that the observation of both rare processes would imply a lower bound on the radiative muon decay of the form BR(μ → eγ)>or similar C x BR(τ → μγ)BR(τ → eγ). We estimate the size of the constant C without specifying the origin of the tau flavour violation in the supersymmetric model and we discuss the implications of our bound for future searches of rare lepton decays. In particular, we show that, for a wide class of models, present B-factories could discover either τ → μγ, but not both. We also derive for completeness the constant C in the most general setup, pursuing an effective theory approach. (orig.)

  3. Neutron-induced Backgrounds in 134Xe for Large-Scale Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Nina; Kidd, Mary; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    136Xe is used in large neutrinoless double-beta (0 νββ) decay experiments, such as KamLAND- Zen and EXO 200. Though highly purified, 136Xe still contains a significant amount of 134Xe. Recently, a new nuclear energy level was found in 134Xe. If 134Xe decays from this proposed excited state, it will emit a 2485.7 keV gamma ray. Because this energy lies near the region of interest of 136Xe νββ decay experiments (Q value 2457.8 keV), it could make a significant contribution to the background. A purified gaseous sample of 134Xe will be irradiated with neutrons of an incident energy of 4.0 MeV at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory and monitored with high-purity germanium detectors. The spectra obtained from these detectors will be analyzed for the presence of the 2581 keV gamma ray. We will report on the status of this experiment. Future plans include expanding this measurement to higher initial neutron energies. Tennesse Tech University CISE Grant program.

  4. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  5. The Decay of Forced Turbulent Coflow of He II Past a Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuin, S.; Varga, E.; Skrbek, L.

    2014-04-01

    We present an experimental study of the decay of He II turbulence created mechanically, by a bellows-induced flow past a stationary grid in a 7×7 mm2 superfluid wind tunnel. The temporal decay L( t) originating from various steady-states of vortex line length per unit volume, L 0, has been observed based on measurements of the attenuation of second-sound, in the temperature range 1.17 Kbench-mark Oregon towed grid experiments and, despite our turbulence being non-homogeneous, find strong similarities.

  6. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  7. Study Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Saksono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt. Salt washing process should increase the saltquality. It should clean the salt from sludge or clay and also reduce the impurity compound such as Mg, Ca and the reductor content. The objective of these reseach is to assess the effect of washing process on the content og hygroscopic impurities compound (Ca and Mg, and reductor content of salt. The research also investigate the water absorbing, pH, KIO3 content as function of time to obtain effect of washing process on KIO3 stability in salt. The experiment result shows that the lowest content of Mg and reductor compound 0.016 % wt and 2.65 ppm respectively which is reached at the fi ne salt washing process using 27 % wt brine. The analysis of water content indicates an increase the Ca and Mg content, causing an water absorbtion in salt , However the effect on pH the is not clear.

  8. Effect of long-term changes in soil chemistry induced by road salt applications on N-transformations in roadside soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Sophie M.; Machin, Robert; Cresser, Malcolm S.

    2008-01-01

    Of several impacts of road salting on roadside soils, the potential disruption of the nitrogen cycle has been largely ignored. Therefore the fates of low-level ammonium-N and nitrate-N inputs to roadside soils impacted by salting over an extended period (decades) in the field have been studied. The use of road salts disrupts the proportional contributions of nitrate-N and ammonium-N to the mineral inorganic fraction of roadside soils. It is highly probable that the degree of salt exposure of the soil, in the longer term, controls the rates of key microbial N transformation processes, primarily by increasing soil pH. Additional influxes of ammonium-N to salt-impacted soils are rapidly nitrified therefore and, thereafter, increased leaching of nitrate-N to the local waterways occurs, which has particular relevance to the Water Framework Directive. The results reported are important when assessing the fate of inputs of ammonia to soils from atmospheric pollution. - Road salting effects ammonification and nitrification in roadside soils

  9. Effect of long-term changes in soil chemistry induced by road salt applications on N-transformations in roadside soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Sophie M. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York Y010 5DD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sg507@york.ac.uk; Machin, Robert; Cresser, Malcolm S. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York Y010 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Of several impacts of road salting on roadside soils, the potential disruption of the nitrogen cycle has been largely ignored. Therefore the fates of low-level ammonium-N and nitrate-N inputs to roadside soils impacted by salting over an extended period (decades) in the field have been studied. The use of road salts disrupts the proportional contributions of nitrate-N and ammonium-N to the mineral inorganic fraction of roadside soils. It is highly probable that the degree of salt exposure of the soil, in the longer term, controls the rates of key microbial N transformation processes, primarily by increasing soil pH. Additional influxes of ammonium-N to salt-impacted soils are rapidly nitrified therefore and, thereafter, increased leaching of nitrate-N to the local waterways occurs, which has particular relevance to the Water Framework Directive. The results reported are important when assessing the fate of inputs of ammonia to soils from atmospheric pollution. - Road salting effects ammonification and nitrification in roadside soils.

  10. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  11. Potential effects of salt-laden cooling air in the ALMR RVACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsbedt, A.; Gordon, B.M.; Baston, V.F.; Steigerwald, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) concept has a totally passive safety-related decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the 471 MWt modular reactor to the atmosphere or ambient air by natural convection heat transfer. The system has no active components, requires no operator action to initiate, and thus is totally passive. The effects of operation of the RVACS in coastal environments where the air has high concentrations of air-borne sea-salt have been addressed. The potential for corrosion of the carbon steel and RVACS related structures have been evaluated and it was concluded that corrosion is not a problem. (author)

  12. [Gold salt alveolitis in 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, E; Tomsic, M; Logar, D

    1995-06-01

    When the characteristic symptoms for an interstitial pulmonary disease arise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a drug-induced alveolitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In such cases, the administration of the drug and gold salts should be stopped. The cases of three patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had been treated with gold salts for 2 months (A), 23 months (B), and 36 months (C) are presented. The total dose of sodium aureothiomalate amounted to 280 mg for patient A, 1150 mg for patient B, and 2190 mg for patient C. Clinical signs, X-rays of the lungs, pulmonary function tests, and laboratory tests were evaluated for the three patients while, for patient A BAL as well as provocation tests were additionally performed before and after therapy. In this case, the histological picture of the lungs is presented; biopsies were taken during the first BAL. The clinical complaints of all 3 patients were similar, with the alveolitis being observed as diffuse in one case and above all in the upper regions in two cases on radiology. This led to differing degrees of diffusion disorders in the lungs. In patient A, the diagnosis was made in the stage of progressive fibrotic alveolitis and was treated with D-penicillamine. All 3 patients received steroids over 3-6 months and the gold salts were stopped. Because of the long duration and doubtful differential diagnosis for patient A with either rheumatoid lung or gold salt alveolitis, a provocation test with sodium aureothiomalate was performed. All 3 patients had blood eosinophilia while, in case A, a thrombopenia was also found. A gold salt alveolitis can occur as a side effect of gold salts in addition to skin vasculitis and hematological disorders. When the gold salt administration is not stopped a fibrotic alveolitis can develop. The provocation test can be diagnostically useful to distinguish between a rheumatoid lung and gold salt alveolitis.

  13. Overexpression of DgWRKY4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High salinity seriously affects the production of chrysanthemum, so improving the salt tolerance of chrysanthemum becomes the focus and purpose of our research. The WRKY transcription factor (TF family is highly associated with a number of processes of abiotic stress responses. We isolated DgWRKY4 from Dendranthema grandiflorum, and a protein encoded by this new gene contains two highly conserved WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. Then, we functionally characterized that DgWRKY4 was induced by salt, and DgWRKY4 overexpression in chrysanthemum resulted in increased tolerance to high salt stress compared to wild-type (WT. Under salt stress, the transgenic chrysanthemum accumulated less malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2− than WT, accompanied by more proline, soluble sugar, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT; in addition, a stronger photosynthetic capacity and a series of up-regulated stress-related genes were also found in transgenic chrysanthemum. All results demonstrated that DgWRKY4 is a positive regulatory gene responding to salt stress, via advancing photosynthetic capacity, promoting the operation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, maintaining membrane stability, enhancing the osmotic adjustment, and up-regulating transcript levels of stress-related genes. So, DgWRKY4 can serve as a new candidate gene for salt-tolerant plant breeding.

  14. [Effects of drying and wetting cycles induced by tides on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 over a salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen Jun; Han, Guang Xuan; Xu, Yan Ning; Zhang, Xi Tao; Wang, An Dong; Che, Chun Guang; Sun, Bao Yu; Zhang, Xiao Shuai

    2018-01-01

    As a unique hydrological characteristic, the tidal action can strongly affect carbon balance in a salt marsh despite their short duration. Using the eddy covariance technique, we measured the net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) and its environmental factors and tidal change over a salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta. It aimed to investigate the effect of tidal process and drying and wetting cycles induced by tides on NEE. The results showed that the tidal process promoted the daytime CO 2 uptake, but it didn't clearly affect the nighttime CO 2 release. Tidal inundation was a major factor influencing daytime NEE. The diurnal change of NEE showed a distinct U-shaped curve on both drought and wet stages, but not with substantial variation in its amplitude during the drought stage. The drying and wetting cycles enhanced the absorption of daytime CO 2 . Under drought stage, the mean of the maximum photosynthetic rate (A max ), apparent quantum yield (α) and ecosystem respiration (R eco ) were higher than those in wet stage. In addition, the drying and wetting cycles suppressed the nighttime CO 2 release from the salt marsh but increased its temperature sensitivity.

  15. Charm Decays at BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.

    2004-01-01

    The results of several studies of charmed mesons and baryons at BABAR are presented. First, searches for the rare decays D 0 → l + l - are presented and new upper limits on these processes are established. Second, a measurement of the branching fraction of the isospin-violating hadronic decay D* s (2112) + → D s + π 0 relative to the radiative decay D* s (2112) + → D s + γ is made. Third, the decays of D* sJ (2317) + and D sJ (2460) + mesons are studied and ratios of branching fractions are measured. Fourth, Cabibbo-suppressed decays of the Λ c + are examined and their branching fractions measured relative to Cabibbo-allowed modes. Fifth, the Χ c 0 is studied through its decays to Χ - π + and (Omega) - K + ; in addition to measuring the ratio of branching fractions for Χ c 0 produced from the c(bar c) continuum, the uncorrected momentum spectrum is measured, providing clear confirmation of Χ c 0 production in B decays

  16. Phenotypic effects of salt and heat stress over three generations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léonie Suter

    Full Text Available Current and predicted environmental change will force many organisms to adapt to novel conditions, especially sessile organisms such as plants. It is therefore important to better understand how plants react to environmental stress and to what extent genotypes differ in such responses. It has been proposed that adaptation to novel conditions could be facilitated by heritable epigenetic changes induced by environmental stress, independent of genetic variation. Here we assessed phenotypic effects of heat and salt stress within and across three generations using four highly inbred Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes (Col, Cvi, Ler and Sha. Salt stress generally decreased fitness, but genotypes were differently affected, suggesting that susceptibility of A. thaliana to salt stress varies among genotypes. Heat stress at an early rosette stage had less detrimental effects but accelerated flowering in three out of four accessions. Additionally, we found three different modes of transgenerational effects on phenotypes, all harboring the potential of being adaptive: heat stress in previous generations induced faster rosette growth in Sha, both under heat and control conditions, resembling a tracking response, while in Cvi, the phenotypic variance of several traits increased, resembling diversified bet-hedging. Salt stress experienced in earlier generations altered plant architecture of Sha under salt but not control conditions, similar to transgenerational phenotypic plasticity. However, transgenerational phenotypic effects depended on the type of stress as well as on genotype, suggesting that such effects may not be a general response leading to adaptation to novel environmental conditions in A. thaliana.

  17. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.

    1990-04-01

    The HAW-project plants the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters containing Cs-137 and Sr-90 at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated, the measuring equipment installed, and two preceedings inactive electrical tests taken into operation. Furthermore, the components of a system for transportation and emplacement of highly radioactive canisters was fabricated, installed, and preliminarily tested. After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of the 30 radioactive canisters is now envisaged for early 1991. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed and will be tested. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  18. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  19. Limit for the Survivability from Potassium Decay of Bacterial Spores in Halite Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.; Bada, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    Vreeland et al.1 recently claimed to have isolated and cultured a viable spore forming halotolerant bacterium from a 250 million year old brine inclusion present in a salt crystal from the Salado formation. An earlier report suggested that viable bacterial spores could be revived from samples obtained from insects entombed in 25-40 million year old Dominican amber2. On the bases of these reports, Parkes3 raised the question of whether bacterial spores under some conditions might be effectively immortal. Sporulation, induced by an adverse change in the environmental conditions, is able to stabilize the DNA primarily against hydrolytic depurination for extended periods of time4. However, the organism is still exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment. Dormant spores have a reduced sensitivity to ionizing radiation per se, but unlike active organisms are unable to repair DNA damage encountered during long-term exposure to ionizing radiation. The accumulated damage may overwhelm any repair mechanism that starts in the early stage of spore germination5. The main radionuclide in a halite fluid inclusion is 40K, which accounts for 0.0117% of natural potassium. 40K decays via beta decay to 40Ca and via electron capture to 40Ar, releasing a primary gamma-ray. About 83.3 % of the beta's emitted are in the energy range of 0.3-1.3 MeV. We assume 7 g/l for an average concentration of natural potassium in a halite fluid inclusion, which means that the amount of 40K in a 10 μ l fluid inclusion is 8.19 ng. We have chosen a 10 μ l because this volume is typical of that used to obtain chemical data and in the attempts to extract bacteria. Less than a percent of the gamma decay energy is absorbed in a fluid inclusion of 10 μ l. Thus, we will not take the gamma decay energy into account for the further discussion. Almost all the beta energy is absorbed in the fluid inclusion. The total decay energy absorbed in a time period of 250 million years is about 87 kGy. The most

  20. Simulation of water quality for Salt Creek in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melching, Charles S.; Chang, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality processes in the Salt Creek watershed in northeastern Illinois were simulated with a computer model. Selected waste-load scenarios for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions were simulated in the stream system. The model development involved the calibration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) for a diel survey on August 29-30, 1995, and the verification of this model with water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the IEPA for a diel survey on June 27-28, 1995. In-stream measurements of sediment oxygen demand rates and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) decay rates by the IEPA and traveltime and reaeration-rate coefficients by the U.S. Geological Survey facilitated the development of a model for simulation of water quality in the Salt Creek watershed. In general, the verification of the calibrated model increased confidence in the utility of the model for water-quality planning in the Salt Creek watershed. However, the model was adjusted to better simulate constituent concentrations measured during the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. Two versions of the QUAL2E model were utilized to simulate dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Salt Creek watershed for selected effluent discharge and concentration scenarios for water-quality planning: (1) the QUAL2E model calibrated to the August 29-30, 1995, diel survey, and (2) the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. The results of these simulations indicated that the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey simulates reliable information for water-quality planning. The results of these simulations also indicated that to maintain DO concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) throughout most of Salt Creek for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, the sewage-treatment plants (STP's) must discharge

  1. Rare B decays, rare τ decays, and grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, M.; Yuan, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In multi-Higgs-boson extensions of the standard model, tree-level flavor-changing neutral currents exist naturally, unless suppressed by some symmetry. For a given rate, the exchanged scalar or pseudoscalar mass is very sensitive to the flavor-changing coupling between the first two generations. Since the Yukawa couplings of the first two generations are unknown and certainly very small, bounds which rely on some assumed value of this flavor-changing coupling are quite dubious. One might expect the size (and reliability) of the Yukawa couplings involving the third generation to be greater. In this paper, we consider processes involving τ's and B's, and determine the bounds on the flavor-changing couplings which involve third-generation fields. The strongest bound in the quark sector comes from B-bar B mixing and in the lepton sector, surprisingly, from μ→eγ. It is then noted that the flavor-changing couplings in the quark sector are related to those in the lepton sector in many grand unified theories, and one can ask whether an analysis of rare τ decays or rare B decays will provide the strongest constraints. We show that rare B decays provide the strongest bounds, and that no useful information can be obtained from rare τ decays. It is also noted that the most promising decay modes are B→Kμτ and B s →μτ, and we urge experimenters to look for rare decay modes of the B in which a τ is in the final state

  2. Sensitivity of Electron Transfer Mediated Decay to Ion Pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Marvin N; Richter, Clemens; Lugovoy, Evgeny; Seidel, Robert; Slavíček, Petr; Aziz, Emad F; Abel, Bernd; Winter, Bernd; Hergenhahn, Uwe

    2017-08-17

    Ion pairing in electrolyte solutions remains a topic of discussion despite a long history of research. Very recently, nearest-neighbor mediated electronic de-excitation processes of core hole vacancies (electron transfer mediated decay, ETMD) were proposed to carry a spectral fingerprint of local solvation structure and in particular of contact ion pairs. Here, for the first time, we apply electron-electron coincidence detection to a liquid microjet, and record ETMD spectra of Li 1s vacancies in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride (LiCl) in direct comparison to lithium acetate (LiOAc). A change in the ETMD spectrum dependent on the electrolyte anion identity is observed for 4.5 M salt concentration. We discuss these findings within the framework of the formation and presence of contact ion pairs and the unique sensitivity of ETMD spectroscopy to ion pairing.

  3. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  4. Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These open-quotes staticclose quotes properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions

  5. Decay, excitation, and ionization of lithium Rydberg states by blackbody radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Glukhov, I. L.

    2010-09-01

    Details of interaction between the blackbody radiation and neutral lithium atoms were studied in the temperature ranges T = 100-2000 K. The rates of thermally induced decays, excitations and ionization were calculated for S-, P- and D-series of Rydberg states in the Fues' model potential approach. The quantitative regularities for the states of the maximal rates of blackbody-radiation-induced processes were determined. Approximation formulas were proposed for analytical representation of the depopulation rates.

  6. Perspectives for the Measurement of Beauty Production Via Semileptonic Decays in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrisi, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the present talk we report results from a study of the performance for the detection in ALICE of (a) B → e + X decays with the central barrel and (b) B → μ + X decays with the muon spectrometer. We include an evaluation of the expected statistical and systematic uncertainties on the measurement of the cross section of beauty hadrons. We also discuss the possibility of detecting the modifications of beauty hadrons' transverse momentum (pt) distribution induced by in-medium gluon radiation calculated by a phenomenological model. (author)

  7. Synthesis of [11C]cyanoalkyltriphenylphosphoranes via [11C]cyanide substitution on haloalkylphosphonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoernfeldt, K.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of the 11 C-labelled bifunctional precursors 3-[ 11 C]cyanoethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (1'), 4-[ 11 C]cyanopropyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (2'), 5-[ 11 C]cyanobutyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (3'), 4-[ 11 C]cyanopropyltriphenylphosphonium iodide (4') and 5-[ 11 C]cyanobutyltriphenylphosphonium iodide (5') is presented. The label was introduced using [ 11 C]cyanide in a substitution reaction on the ω-halo-alkyltriphenylphosphonium salt (bromide or iodide salt). The phosphonium salts 1'-5' were formed in 33-99% radiochemical yield in 5-10 min reaction time. After addition of epichlorohydrin as generator of base, the precursors 1-3 were formed. The potential of the intermediates 1-3 in Wittig reactions was shown in model reactions with aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. The aromatic olefins obtained from 1'-5' were formed in 85-96% radiochemical yield, with Z/E ratios between 67/33-75/25. The aliphatic olefins were obtained in 60-78% radiochemical yield from 4' and 5'. In the reaction with 1' and an aliphatic aldehyde, the yield decreased to 5-10%. The Z/E ratios were 100/0 for the aliphatic olefins. In an experiment starting with 2,7 GBq (73 mCi) hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide, 451 MBq (12.2 mCi) olefin from 3' and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde was obtained in 44 min from hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide production, with a 55% decay corrected radiochemical yield, the radiochemical purity was 96%. (Author)

  8. Pore-network model of evaporation-induced salt precipitation in porous media: The effect of correlations and heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtian, Hassan; Shokri, Nima; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Salt transport and precipitation in porous media constitute a set of complex and fascinating phenomena that are of considerable interest to several important problems, ranging from storage of CO2 in geological formations, to soil fertility, and protection of pavements and roads, as well as historical monuments. The phenomena occur at the pore scale and are greatly influenced by the heterogeneity of the pore space morphology. We present a pore-network (PN) model to study the phenomena. Vapor diffusion, capillary effect at the brine-vapor interface, flow of brine, and transport of salt and its precipitation in the pores that plug the pores partially or completely are all accounted for. The drying process is modeled by the invasion percolation, while transport of salt in brine is accounted for by the convective-diffusion equation. We demonstrate that the drying patterns, the clustering and connectivity of the pore throats in which salt precipitation occurs, the saturation distribution, and the drying rate are all strongly dependent upon the pore-size distribution, the correlations among the pore sizes, and the anisotropy of the pore space caused by stratification that most natural porous media contain. In particular, if the strata are more or less parallel to the direction of injection of the gas that dries out the pore space (air, for example) and/or causes salt precipitation (CO2, for example), the drying rate increases significantly. Moreover, salt tends to precipitate in clusters of neighboring pores that are parallel to the open surface of the porous medium.

  9. Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniels, Sean T.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Mihail, Jeanne D.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Werner, Scott J.

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of wood substrates is likely relevant to bird species with life histories that require regular interactions with wood for food and shelter. Woodpeckers detect decayed wood for cavity placement or foraging, and some species may be capable of detecting trees decayed by specific fungi; however, a mechanism allowing for such specificity remains unidentified. We hypothesized that decay fungi associated with woodpecker cavity sites alter the substrate reflectance in a species-specific manner that is visually discriminable by woodpeckers. We grew 10 species of wood decay fungi from pure cultures on sterile wood substrates of 3 tree species. We then measured the relative reflectance spectra of decayed and control wood wafers and compared them using the receptor noise-limited (RNL) color discrimination model. The RNL model has been used in studies of feather coloration, egg shells, flowers, and fruit to model how the colors of objects appear to birds. Our analyses indicated 6 of 10 decayed substrate/control comparisons were above the threshold of discrimination (i.e., indicating differences discriminable by avian viewers), and 12 of 13 decayed substrate comparisons were also above threshold for a hypothetical woodpecker. We conclude that woodpeckers should be capable of visually detecting decayed wood on trees where bark is absent, and they should also be able to detect visually species-specific differences in wood substrates decayed by fungi used in this study. Our results provide evidence for a visual mechanism by which woodpeckers could identify and select substrates decayed by specific fungi, which has implications for understanding ecologically important woodpecker–fungus interactions.

  10. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  11. Textural and biochemical changes during ripening of old-fashioned salted herrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Eva; Christensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    the ripening period could be explained by free-radical-induced cross-linking of myosin and the formation of aggregates. In addition, degradation of these aggregates correlated with the decrease in hardness observed at 371 days. CONCLUSIONS: Texture changes during ripening of salted herrings can be explained...... of salted herrings. The aim of this study was to measure the texture changes during ripening using two differentmethods and to correlate the texture changeswith brine composition andwith biochemical modifications at themolecular level. RESULTS: During ripening (up to 151 days), hardness was higher in salted...... herrings compared to raw herrings, irrespective of the brine composition. However, the increase in hardness of herring prepared with extra brine occurred later. After prolonged storage (371 days), hardness was found for both batches to decrease to the level of raw herring. The increase in hardness during...

  12. Experimental results on salt concrete for barrier elements made of salt concrete in a repository for radioactive waste in a salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsch, Alex-W.; Preuss, Juergen; Mauke, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Bartensleben rock salt mine in Germany was used as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from 1971 to 1991 and from 1994 to 1998. The repository with an overall volume of about 6 million m 3 has to be closed. Salt concrete is used for the refill of the voids of the repository. The concrete mixtures contain crushed salt instead of natural aggregates as the void filling material should be as similar to the salt rock as possible. Very high requirements regarding low heat development and little or even no cracking during concrete hardening had to be fulfilled even for the barrier elements made from salt concrete which separate the radioactive waste from the environment. Requirements for the salt concrete were set up with regard to the fluidity of the fresh concrete during the hardening process and its durability. In the view of a comprehensive numerical calculations of the temperature development and thermal stresses in the massive salt concrete elements of the backfill of the voids, experimental results for material properties of the salt concrete are presented: mixture of the salt concrete, thermodynamic properties (adiabatic heat release, thermal dilatation, thermal conductivity and heat capacity), mechanical short term properties, creep (under tension, under compression), autogenous shrinkage

  13. β- decay of 150Ce to odd-odd 150Pr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yasuaki; Shibata, Michihiro; Kosuga, Kazuto; Shima, Yosuke; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Hayashi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The β - decay of 150 Ce having a half-life of 6.05(7) s produced by the thermal-neutron-induced fission of 235 U has been studied using the on-line isotope separator at the Kyoto University Research Reactor. A decay scheme containing 18 excited levels and 55 γ-rays was constructed from γ-ray singles and γ-γ coincidence measurements. Of these, 9 levels and 37 γ-rays were newly placed. The dominant β-feeding observed at the 110 keV level of 150 Pr was found to be an allowed unhindered spin-flip transition. On the basis of the systematics of the neighboring nuclides, the Gallagher-Moszkowski coupling rules, and the selection rules for the β-decay of deformed nuclei, the Nilsson configurations of the ground and 110 keV states in 150 Pr were newly proposed to be π5/2 + [413]-ν3/2 - [521] and π5/2 - [532]-ν3/2 - [532], respectively. (author)

  14. Involvement of ENaC in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Tengis S; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with renal and vascular dysfunctions, which lead to impaired fluid excretion, increased cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance. It is commonly accepted that increased renal sodium handling and plasma volume expansion are necessary factors for the development of salt-induced hypertension. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a trimeric ion channel expressed in the distal nephron that plays a critical role in the regulation of sodium reabsorption in both normal and pathological conditions. In this mini-review, we summarize recent studies investigating the role of ENaC in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. On the basis of experimental data obtained from the Dahl salt-sensitive rats, we and others have demonstrated that abnormal ENaC activation in response to a dietary NaCl load contributes to the development of high blood pressure in this model. The role of different humoral factors, such as the components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, members of the epidermal growth factors family, arginine vasopressin, and oxidative stress mediating the effects of dietary salt on ENaC are discussed in this review to highlight future research directions and to determine potential molecular targets for drug development. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Genetic Components of Root Architecture Remodeling in Response to Salt Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena; Koevoets, Iko Tamar; Mol, Selena; Hoefsloot, Huub CJ; Feron, Richard; Tester, Mark A.; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Korte, Arthur; Haring, Michel A; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Testerink, Christa

    2017-01-01

    Salinity of the soil is highly detrimental to plant growth. Plants respond by a redistribution of root mass between main and lateral roots, yet the genetic machinery underlying this process is still largely unknown. Here, we describe the natural variation among 347 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in root system architecture (RSA) and identify the traits with highest natural variation in their response to salt. Salt-induced changes in RSA were associated with 100 genetic loci using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Two candidate loci associated with lateral root development were validated and further investigated. Changes in CYP79B2 expression in salt stress positively correlated with lateral root development in accessions, and cyp79b2 cyp79b3 double mutants developed fewer and shorter lateral roots under salt stress, but not in control conditions. By contrast, high HKT1 expression in the root repressed lateral root development, which could be partially rescued by addition of potassium. The collected data and Multi-Variate analysis of multiple RSA traits, available through the Salt_NV_Root App, capture root responses to salinity. Together, our results provide a better understanding of effective RSA remodeling responses, and the genetic components involved, for plant performance in stress conditions.

  16. Genetic Components of Root Architecture Remodeling in Response to Salt Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena

    2017-11-07

    Salinity of the soil is highly detrimental to plant growth. Plants respond by a redistribution of root mass between main and lateral roots, yet the genetic machinery underlying this process is still largely unknown. Here, we describe the natural variation among 347 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in root system architecture (RSA) and identify the traits with highest natural variation in their response to salt. Salt-induced changes in RSA were associated with 100 genetic loci using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Two candidate loci associated with lateral root development were validated and further investigated. Changes in CYP79B2 expression in salt stress positively correlated with lateral root development in accessions, and cyp79b2 cyp79b3 double mutants developed fewer and shorter lateral roots under salt stress, but not in control conditions. By contrast, high HKT1 expression in the root repressed lateral root development, which could be partially rescued by addition of potassium. The collected data and Multi-Variate analysis of multiple RSA traits, available through the Salt_NV_Root App, capture root responses to salinity. Together, our results provide a better understanding of effective RSA remodeling responses, and the genetic components involved, for plant performance in stress conditions.

  17. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  18. Determination of the environmental effect for the sea salt aerosols corrosion (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Fumio; Umehara, Toshihiro; Kato, Akitoshi; Taniguchi, Akihide

    2009-01-01

    Fukui Prefecture presently hosts 15 reactor units, including PWRs, BWR, FBR (Monjyu) and Japanese ATR (Fugen), all of which are located along the Japan Sea. Under such a circumstange, corrosion due to sea salt aerosols is one of the major factors causing ageing degradation of nuclear power plants facilities. Many scientists have been engaged in research on the corrosion of structures due to sea salt aerosols. In pursuing sea salt aerosol-induced corrosion research, it was necessary to perform corrosion tests under a certain set of environmental conditions since corrosion of structures is highly sensitive to environmental factors. In this respect, we installed the outdoor exposure test facilities along the sea coast in Awara-city and inland in Fukui-city, Fukui Prefecture of Japan. The amounts of sea salt aerosol tend to be lower in the summer season and higher in the winter season. The difference between seasons is expected to relate to the wind speed, the sunshine time, the rain amount and others. We tried to use the multivariate analysis for finding some relations between sea salt aerosol amounts and environment factor. We found the clear relations. (author)

  19. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  20. Effects of salting treatment on the physicochemical properties, textural properties, and microstructures of duck eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lilan; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Mingsheng; Yao, Yao; Nie, Xuliang; Du, Huaying

    2017-01-01

    In order to illuminate the forming process of salted egg, the effects of the brine solution with different salt concentrations on the physicochemical properties, textural properties, and microstructures of duck eggs were evaluated using conventional physicochemical property determination methods. The results showed that the moisture contents of both the raw and cooked egg whites and egg yolks, the springiness of the raw egg yolks and cooked egg whites exhibited a decreasing trend with the increase in the salting time and salt concentration. The salt content, oil exudation and the hardness of the raw egg yolks showed a constantly increasing trend. Viscosity of the raw egg whites showed an overall trend in which it first deceased and then increased and decreased again, which was similar to the trend of the hardness of the cooked egg whites and egg yolks. As the salting proceeded, the pH value of the raw and cooked egg whites declined remarkably and then declined slowly, whereas the pH of the raw and cooked egg yolks did not show any noticeable changes. The effect of salting on the pH value varied significantly with the salt concentration in the brine solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that salted yolks consist of spherical granules and embedded flattened porosities. It was concluded that the treatment of salt induces solidification of yolk, accompanied with higher oil exudation and the development of a gritty texture. Different salt concentrations show certain differences. PMID:28797071

  1. Identification and characterization of a salt stress-inducible zinc finger protein from Festuca arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ruth C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased biotic and abiotic plant stresses due to climate change together with an expected global human population of over 9 billion by 2050 intensifies the demand for agricultural production on marginal lands. Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses responsible for reduced crop productivity worldwide and the salinization of arable land has dramatically increased over the last few decades. Consequently, as land becomes less amenable for conventional agriculture, plants grown on marginal soils will be exposed to higher levels of soil salinity. Forage grasses are a critical component of feed used in livestock production worldwide, with many of these same species of grasses being utilized for lawns, erosion prevention, and recreation. Consequently, it is important to develop a better understanding of salt tolerance in forage and related grass species. Findings A gene encoding a ZnF protein was identified during the analysis of a salt-stress suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH expression library from the forage grass species Festuca arundinacea. The expression pattern of FaZnF was compared to that of the well characterized gene for delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS, a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis, which was also identified in the salt-stress SSH library. The FaZnF and P5CS genes were both up-regulated in response to salt and drought stresses suggesting a role in dehydration stress. FaZnF was also up-regulated in response to heat and wounding, suggesting that it might have a more general function in multiple abiotic stress responses. Additionally, potential downstream targets of FaZnF (a MAPK [Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase], GST [Glutathione-S-Transferase] and lipoxygenase L2 were found to be up-regulated in calli overexpressing FaZnF when compared to control cell lines. Conclusions This work provides evidence that FaZnF is an AN1/A20 zinc finger protein that is involved in the regulation

  2. Salt Stability - The Effect of pHmax on Salt to Free Base Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ling; Merritt, Jeremy M; Yu, Weili; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the disproportionation process can be impacted by the properties of the salt, specifically pHmax. Five miconazole salts and four sertraline salts were selected for this study. The extent of conversion was quantified using Raman spectroscopy. A mathematical model was utilized to estimate the theoretical amount of conversion. A trend was observed that for a given series of salts of a particular basic compound (both sertraline and miconazole are bases), the extent of disproportionation increases as pHmax decreases. Miconazole phosphate monohydrate and sertraline mesylate, although exhibiting significantly different pHmax values (more than 2 units apart), underwent a similar extent of disproportionation, which may be attributed to the lower buffering capacity of sertraline salts. This work shows that the disproportionation tendency can be influenced by pHmax and buffering capacity and thus highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate salt form during the screening process in order to avoid salt-to-free form conversion.

  3. Turbulence modulation induced by interaction between a bubble swarm and decaying turbulence in oscillating-grid turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Ryota; Morikawa, Koichi; Higuchi, Masamori; Saito, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the interaction between a bubble swarm and homogeneous isotropic turbulence was experimentally investigated. The objective is to clarify the turbulence modulation induced by interaction between the bubble swarm and the homogeneous isotropic turbulence without mean flow. In order to generate simultaneously ideally homogeneous isotropic turbulence and a sufficiently controlled bubble swarm, we employed both oscillating grid and bubble generators equipped with audio speakers. First, the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was formed by operating the oscillating grid cylindrical acrylic pipe (height: 600 mm, inner diameter: 149 mm) filled with ion-exchanged and degassed water. Second, we stopped the oscillating-grid in arbitrary time after the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was achieved. A few moments later, the controlled bubble swarm (number of bubbles: 3, average equivalent diameter of bubble: 3 mm, bubble Reynolds number: 859, Weber number: 3.48) was launched into the decaying turbulence described above, using the bubble generators. The bubble formation, bubble size and bubble-launch timing are controlled arbitrarily and precisely by this device. In this study, we conducted the following experiments: 1) measurement of the motion of bubbles in rest water and oscillating grid turbulence via high-speed visualization, 2) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in rest water via PIV system with LIF method, 3) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in oscillating-grid turbulence via PIV system with LIF method. In the vitalization of the liquid-phase motion of both experiments, two high speed video cameras were employed in order to simultaneously film large- and small-scale interrogation areas. The liquid-phase ambient turbulence hastened the change of the bubble motion from zigzag mode to spiral mode. The interaction between the bubble swarm and liquid-phase turbulence increased decay-rate of the turbulence. (author)

  4. Evidence for the electromagnetic decay instability driven by two plasmon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.; Afeyan, B.B.; Estabrook, K.G.; Drake, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the electromagnetic decay instability (EDI) and its role in laser-produced plasmas. The electromagnetic decay instability provides another channel through which parametric instabilities involving Langmuir waves can saturate. In the case where EDI is pumped by the Langmuir waves associated with two plasmon decay, EDI is shown to present an explanation for ω o /2 emission from laser-produced plasmas which is consistent with experimental observations

  5. Detection of salts in soil using transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) carbon dioxide (CO2) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) by the aid of a metal mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N.; Ramli, M.; Khumaeni, A.; Kurihara, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a nickel metal mesh was used to allow a direct detection of salt in soil sample by LIBS utilizing unique characteristics of a TEA CO2. The metal mesh is placed in the front of the soil sample to prevent the soil sample from blowing off upon focusing the high pulsed laser beam irradiation. LIBS apparatus used in this work is a TEA CO2 laser operated at wavelength of 10.6 μm with pulse energy and duration of 3J and 200 ns, respectively. The laser beam was focused using a ZnSe lens (f = 200 mm) onto soil sample after passing through the metal mesh. The emission spectrum from the induced plasma was detected using an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system consisting of a 0.32-m-focal length spectrograph with a grating of 1200 graves/mm and a 1024-channel photodiode detector array with a micro-channel plate intensifier. The soil sample used is a standard soil and ordinary soil containing several salts such as Ca, Mg at high concentration. The LIBS experiment was carried out at high pressure surrounding gas of 1 atmosphere. It was observed that by the aid of the metal mesh, strong breakdown gas plasma can be produced just after TEA CO2 laser irradiation on soil sample without significant sample blowing off. It was found that emission lines from salts, Ca (Ca II 393. 3 nm, Ca II 396.3 nm, Ca I 422.5 nm), and also other salts including Mg and Na can clearly be detected with strong emission intensity and narrow spectral width. This result implies that a TEA CO2 LIBS assisted by the metal mesh (metal mesh method) can be used for direct analysis several salts such as Ca, Mg, and Na in soil sample.

  6. Differential effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the neutral and acidic pathways of bile salt synthesis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, NR; Post, SM; Wolters, H; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Boverhof, R; Kuipers, F; Princen, HMG

    Effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) on the neutral and acidic biosynthetic pathways of bile salt (BS) synthesis were evaluated in rats with an intact enterohepatic circulation and in rats with long-term bile diversion to induce BS synthesis, For this purpose, bile salt pool composition,

  7. Salt stress in Thellungiella halophila activates Na+ transport mechanisms required for salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; García-Ramírez, Liliana; Pantoja, Omar

    2005-11-01

    Salinity is considered one of the major limiting factors for plant growth and agricultural productivity. We are using salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) to identify biochemical mechanisms that enable plants to grow in saline conditions. Under salt stress, the major site of Na+ accumulation occurred in old leaves, followed by young leaves and taproots, with the least accumulation occurring in lateral roots. Salt treatment increased both the H+ transport and hydrolytic activity of salt cress tonoplast (TP) and plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases from leaves and roots. TP Na(+)/H+ exchange was greatly stimulated by growth of the plants in NaCl, both in leaves and roots. Expression of the PM H(+)-ATPase isoform AHA3, the Na+ transporter HKT1, and the Na(+)/H+ exchanger SOS1 were examined in PMs isolated from control and salt-treated salt cress roots and leaves. An increased expression of SOS1, but no changes in levels of AHA3 and HKT1, was observed. NHX1 was only detected in PM fractions of roots, and a salt-induced increase in protein expression was observed. Analysis of the levels of expression of vacuolar H(+)-translocating ATPase subunits showed no major changes in protein expression of subunits VHA-A or VHA-B with salt treatment; however, VHA-E showed an increased expression in leaf tissue, but not in roots, when the plants were treated with NaCl. Salt cress plants were able to distribute and store Na+ by a very strict control of ion movement across both the TP and PM.

  8. Tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, A.

    1994-09-01

    The most recent experimental results of τ physics are reviewed. The covered topics include precision measurements of semihadronic τ decay and their impact on tau branching ratio budget, the current status of the tau consistency test, a determination of Michel parameters and τ neutrino helicity, and upper limits on lepton-number violating τ decays. (orig.)

  9. Retrospective dosimetry using salted snacks and nuts: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansson, M.; Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Bernhardsson, C.; Mattsson, S.; Raeaef, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using ordinary household table salt for dosimetry is suggested by its high sensitivity to ionising radiation, which generates a readout of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). However, to exploit this finding for retrospective human dosimetry, it would be needed to find salt in close proximity to the exposed individual. Finding salty snacks frequently tucked into handbags, backpacks or pockets seemed to be a possibility; these items therefore became the test materials of the present study. The aluminium or cardboard packages used to exclude the moisture that makes crisps and nuts go soft and stale also helps to retain the induced OSL signal. Therefore, different snacks, either their salt component alone or mixed with the snack, are exposed to ionising radiation and then were assessed for their dosimetric properties. The results indicate the feasibility of using some salty snacks for dosimetry, with a minimum detectable dose as low as 0.2 mGy (authors)

  10. A violation of CP symmetry in B meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karyotakis, Y.; Monchenault, G.H. de

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the issue of CP-violation and reports the most recent results about the observation of large CP asymmetries in the decay of neutral B-mesons. Some of the CP asymmetries in the neutral B-meson decay are expected to be large. CP-violation always involves quantum mechanical interference. This occurs for instance when there are 2 paths for a particle to decay into a given final state. The interference between the mixing-induced amplitude (B 0 → B-bar 0 → f) and the decay amplitude (B 0 → f) to a CP eigenstate f leads to a time dependent CP asymmetry that can be interpreted in terms of the angles of the unitary triangle (sin(2β)). The experimental challenge comes from the fact that B decays to some CP eigenstates have very small branching ratios and low efficiencies for complete reconstruction of the final state. It is therefore necessary to produce a very large number of B-mesons to perform a CP-measurement. To make the measurement possible, a new type of e + e - collider, called asymmetric B-factory has been designed. 2 asymmetric B-factories are operating in the world: PEP2 (Stanford, Usa) fitted with the Babar detector and KEK-B (Japan) which hosts Belle detector. The measurements given by Babar and Belle are in good agreement and can be combined. The average value is sin(2β) = 0.78 ± 0.08 and this value is in excellent agreement with the standard model predictions based on available experimental data. (A.C.)

  11. Baryon decay: Flipped SU(5) surmounts another challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.); Lopez, J.L.; Nanopoulos, D.V. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Woodlands, TX (USA). Astroparticle Physics Group)

    1990-12-06

    Effective four-dimensional field theories derived from string theories may contain superpotential terms that violate baryon number. Terms that are cubic in the standard model particles are well known to lead to excessively rapid proton decay, and the same is true for terms that are quartic in these light fields. This holds even if the terms contain many powers of fields with large intermediate vacuum expectation values, corresponding to asymmetric manifolds of compactification. We show that no such B-violating superpotential interaction arises in flipped SU(5), thanks to an extra symmetry of the effective cubic d=4 and quartic d=5 superpotentials terms, induced at short distances. We conclude that in this model baryon decay proceeds predominantly through conventional d=6 gauge boson exchange, and we recalculate its rate using the latest LEP data to estimate the heavy gauge boson masses. (orig.).

  12. Revisiting the annihilation decay anti Bs→π+π-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yadong; Su, Fang; Lu, Gongru; Hao, Hongjun

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to know the strength of the annihilation contribution in B charmless non-leptonic decays. The anti B s →π + π - process could serve as a good probe of the strength. We have studied the process in the QCD factorization framework. Using a gluon mass scale dictated by the studies of infrared behavior of gluon propagators to avoid enhancements in the soft endpoint regions, we find that the CP averaged branching ratio is about 1.24 x 10 -7 , the direct CP asymmetry C ππ is about -0.05, while the mixing-induced CP asymmetry is quite large with the value S ππ =0.18. This process could be measured at LHC-b experiments in the near future and would deepen our understanding of the dynamics of B charmless decays. (orig.)

  13. Fast-neutron-induced potential background near the Q value of neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, W.; Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Krishichayan

    2016-01-01

    The 76Ge (n,p)76Ga reaction and the subsequent β decay of 76Ga to 76Ge has been used to excite the 3951.89-keV state of 76Ge , which decays by the emission of a 2040.70-keV γ ray. Using high-purity germanium detectors, the associated pulse-height signal may be undistinguishable from the potential signal produced in neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge with its Q value of 2039.0 keV. At 20-MeV neutron energy the production cross section of the 2040.70-keV γ ray is approximately 0.1 mb.

  14. Biochemical Changes Associated With Giving PALUDAL Salt In The Drinking Water Of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABD-EL-MONEIM, A.E.; LOTFI, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of adult male albino rats were given either tap water (control) or saline water (1 % unrefined paludal salt dissolved in tap water or 1 % pure chemically synthesized NaCl in tap water). The experiment was carried out under hot summer conditions. At the end of 28 days of the treatment, blood samples were collected to follow up the biochemical alterations induced by paludal salt intake in kidney, liver and thyroid function tests besides serum electrolytes since unrefined paludal salt is being used extensively nowadays by Egyptian people as a table salt which comprises risks to human health.The results revealed that drinking water containing high level of either pure or unrefined crude salts led to significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were significantly depressed in both groups received high levels of salt in their drinking water. The level of serum total protein was decreased and albumin was negatively affected by salinity of water especially in paludal group while serum globulin was significantly increased in the other two groups. The biochemical alterations observed in rats as a result of drinking water containing paludal salt were more pronounced than those occurred in rats drank tap water plus pure NaCl.

  15. Physiological and biochemical perspectives of non-salt tolerant plants during bacterial interaction against soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Baek, Kwang Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells. Salinity also affects plant growth regulators and suppresses seed germination and root and shoot growth. Bacterial secretion of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins compensates for the salt-induced hormonal decrease in plants, and bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase synthesis decreases ethylene production to stimulate plant growth. Furthermore, bacteria modulate the redox state of salinity-affected plants by enhancing antioxidants and polyamines, which leads to increased photosynthetic efficiency. Bacteria-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in stressed plants regulates plant cellular activities and prevents salt stress damage. Plant-bacterial interaction reprograms the expression of salt stress-responsive genes and proteins in salinity-affected plants, resulting in a precise stress mitigation metabolism as a defense mechanism. Soil bacteria increase the fertility of soil and regulate the plant functions to prevent the salinity effects in glycophytes. This review explains the current understanding about the physiological changes induced in glycophytes during bacterial interaction to alleviate the adverse effects of soil salinity stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  16. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D