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Sample records for salt basins north

  1. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  2. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  3. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  4. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  5. The role of deformation bands controlling reservoir quality in a salt-walled mini-basin, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Philip; Jones, Stuart; Imber, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    At shallow burial depths, sediments are typically poorly consolidated and subject to low confining pressure and differential stress. Fractures that form in poorly consolidated and therefore non-lithified sediments would be unable to remain open. However, the large amount of pore space present would allow for processes such as grain sliding and grain rolling, resulting in the formation of deformation bands. The structure and style of the resulting deformation bands would depend on the size, shape and sorting of the grains, as well as early cementation, porosity and the orientation and magnitude of the local stresses. Previous studies on deformation bands in general have shown that they produce an anisotropy that can affect fluid flow. Early deformation band formation near the surface may also influence later diagenesis at greater burial depths, and thus have a further impact on fluid flow in sandstone. Dilatant (deformation) bands are commonly reported for poorly consolidated sandstones at surface or near-surface conditions (governing later reservoir quality for spatially and temporally complex sedimentary fills of salt-walled mini-basins.

  6. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  7. Salt movements within the Central European basin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy; Bayer, Ulf; Scheck-Wenderoth [GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany); Littke, Ralf [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    2010-04-15

    Evolution of salt structures in relation to tectonic events within central part of the Central European Basin System is described by summarizing results which have been obtained and published in frame of the research project DFG-SPP 1135. These results illustrate main phases of salt tectonics within the basin system from the Triassic to present day. During the Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk, extension triggered raft tectonics and salt movements within the Ems Trough, the Glueckstadt and the Horn Grabens. The next phase of salt movements occurred in response to a Middle-Late Keuper regional extensional event which was strongest within the Triassic depocenters of the Central European Basin System, such as the Horn Graben, the Glueckstadt Graben, the Ems and the Rheinsberg Troughs. Regional erosion truncated the study area during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. The magnitude of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous erosion is declining towards southern margin of the basin system where a dextral transtensional regime was established in the Lower Saxony Basin and neighboring areas during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The late Early Cretaceous-early Late Cretaceous is characterized by a relative tectonic quiescence without strong salt movements. The Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion provocated renewed salt movements, causing the thick-skinned salt tectonics along the Elbe Fault System and the thin-skinned character of salt movements towards the north from the area of strain localisation. Post-inversion Cenozoic subsidence was accompanied by salt movements, related either to diapiric rise due to regional shortening and/or to local almost E-W directed extension. (orig.)

  8. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  9. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  10. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2005-03-31

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project is the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and basin modeling and petroleum system identification of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first six (6) to nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus is on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  11. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-11-05

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project is the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and basin modeling and petroleum system identification of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first six (6) to nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus is on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  12. Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Baskin, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program.The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at Federal, State, and local levels.A major design feature of the NAWQA Program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which ae the principal building blocks of the program upon which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. These study units cover areas from less than 1.000 to greater than 60,000 mi2 and incorporate from about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation’s water use and population served by public water supply. In 1993, assessment activities began in the Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study unit.

  13. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Salt Basin, New Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A. B.; Phillips, F. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Salt Basin is a closed drainage basin located in southeastern New Mexico (Otero, Chaves, and Eddy Counties), and northwestern Texas (Hudspeth, Culberson, Jeff Davis, and Presidio Counties), which can be divided into a northern and a southern system. Since the 1950s, extensive groundwater withdrawals have been associated with agricultural irrigation in the Dell City, Texas region, just south of the New Mexico-Texas border. Currently, there are three major applications over the appropriations of groundwater in the Salt Basin. Despite these factors, relatively little is known about the recharge rates and storage capacity of the basin, and the estimates that do exist are highly variable. The Salt Basin groundwater system was declared by the New Mexico State Engineer during 2002 in an attempt to regulate and control growing interest in the groundwater resources of the basin. In order to help guide long-term management strategies, a conceptual model of groundwater flow in the Salt Basin was developed by reconstructing the tectonic forcings that have affected the basin during its formation, and identifying the depositional environments that formed and the resultant distribution of facies. The tectonic history of the Salt Basin can be divided into four main periods: a) Pennsylvanian-to-Early Permian, b) Mid-to-Late Permian, c) Late Cretaceous, and d) Tertiary-to-Quaternary. Pennsylvanian-to-Permian structural features affected deposition throughout the Permian, resulting in three distinct hydrogeologic facies: basin, shelf-margin, and shelf. Permian shelf facies rocks form the primary aquifer within the northern Salt Basin, although minor aquifers occur in Cretaceous rocks and Tertiary-to-Quaternary alluvium. Subsequent tectonic activity during the Late Cretaceous resulted in the re-activation of many of the earlier structures. Tertiary-to-Quaternary Basin-and-Range extension produced the current physiographic form of the basin.

  14. Comparison of the rift and post-rift architecture of conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a regional comparison between selected 2D seismic transects from large, conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore southern Brazil (Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Kwanza Basin, northern and southern Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin). Tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of the main rift and post-rift units, free-air gravity data and flexural isostatic backstripping were used for a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key mechanisms controlling the present-day differences in conjugated and neighbouring South Atlantic basins. A significant variation in the tectonic-sedimentary architecture along-strike at each margin and between the conjugated basins across the South Atlantic reflects major differences in (1) the structural configuration of each margin segment at transitional phase between rifting and breakup, as emphasized in the highly asymmetric settings of the large Santos salt basin and the conjugated, salt-free southern Namibe Basin, (2) the post-breakup subsidence and uplift history of the respective margin segment, which caused major differences for example between the Campos and Espirito Santo basins and the conjugated northern Namibe and Kwanza basins, (3) variations in the quantity and distribution of post-breakup margin sediments, which led to major differences in the subsidence history and the related present-day basin architecture, for example in the initially rather symmetric, siliciclastic Pelotas and Walvis basins, and (4) the deposition of Aptian evaporites in the large rift and sag basin provinces north of the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, highly contrasting the siliciclastic basins along the margin segments south of the ridges. The resulting present-day architecture of the basins can be generally classified as (i) moderately symmetric, salt-free, and magma-rich in the northern part of the southern segment, (i) highly asymmetric, salt-bearing and magma-poor vs. salt-free and magma

  15. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  16. Salt tectonics on propagating passive roof detachments: The case of the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Kergaravat, Charlie; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ribes, Charlotte; Pichat, Alexandre; Callot, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The Sivas Basin is located in a particular position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to the West. This Tertiary basin is formed during the closure of the Northern branch of Neotethys. In regard to subsurface data, this basin developed over an ophiolitic basement obducted from the North during the Late Cretaceous, outcropping mainly to the North and South of the basin boundaries. Following the campanian obduction, the basin infill starts with the development of carbonate platforms directly on the topographic highs of ophiolitic basement, comparable to the present day Omanese ophiolite. Onset of Tauride compression results in a general deepening of the southern basin during Paleocene to Eocene, with the deposition of thick marine deposits. From the southern edge to the central part, we recognized proximal and coarse marine deposits passing to turbidites and volcanoclastic alternances. The late Eocene records a very quick shallowing due to the onset of the Taurus retro-arc development, marked by a thick evaporitic sequence over a wide area, followed by a continental clastic succession, grading northward into evaporites. The Oligocene and Miocene stages are characterized by the northwqrd migration of the foreland basin, associated to the emplacement of salt controlled mini-basins, on top of the evaporitic sequence north of the former foreland through, mostly with continental filling, except a transgression at Aquitanian. The facies evolution of the Sivas Basin is closely related to the tectonic setting. The southern part of the basin corresponds to the Taurus retro-arc during Eocene to Oligocene times, resulting into the development of the foreland through and northward directed thrusts. This process allows for the development of slices of Eocene turbidites, thus modifying deeply the Eocene to Oligocene paleogeography, and depositional

  17. Quantitative-qualitative characteristics of salt deposit in Tuzla basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, Amir; Barakovic, Amir; Smailhodzic, Hrustem

    2017-04-01

    In the northeastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the southern slopes of the mountain Majevica, in Tuzla basin, within salt-bearing formation known as the "strip series," deposits of rock salt are present. Tuzla rock salt deposit is made of sodium salt halite (NaCl) and thenardite (Na2SO4) that were deposited in five series of salt each separated by dolomite, clay-marl sediments. The deposit has an irregular oval shape, with a short axis length of 600-900 m and longer, about 2500 m. It covers an area of approximately 2 km2. The main objective of this paper is to present for both deposits their morphological characteristics, mineralogical characteristics, litofacial characteristics of sediments and lithostratigraphic column, hydrogeological characteristics, tectonics and salt reserves through quality, classification, categorization and calculation.

  18. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil

    2017-04-01

    The presence of a thick Messinian evaporite unit is a well known feature of the Mediterranean basins. This salt unit is composed of three sub-units (Lower, Mobile and Upper Units) in the Northwest Mediterranean. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean it is characterized by a multilayered evaporite sequence. In both regions the salt acted as a detachment favoring the downslope gravitational failure of the overlying sediments in a thin-skinned deformation regime (e.g. Liguro-Provençal or Levant basins). As a result, these salt-bearing passive margins exhibit the classical three-domain structural zonation characterized by upslope extension, intermediate translation and downslope contraction. Nevertheless, the presence of pre-salt reliefs (e.g. irregularly eroded palaeotopography or volcanic edifices) is rather common in the translational domain of the Northwestern Mediterranean (e.g. Liguro-Provençal and West Corsica margins). In this scenario, pre-salt reliefs act as flow barriers and hinder salt drainage. When their summit lies close or above the top salt, these structures may partially or fully block salt flow. They also disrupt locally the structural zonation of the passive margin and constrain cover deformation. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Eratosthenes seamount is characterized by a large scale submerged massif (ca. 120 km in size) that significantly influenced the structural evolution of the surrounding areas. This inherited relief acted as a buttress and deflected the Messinian salt flow constraining supra-salt deformation (e.g. Levant Basin and Nile margin). In addition, the geometry of the Eratosthenes seamount also restrained the structural style of the allochthonous salt that was expulsed during the development of the Cyprus subduction zone to the north. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and new analysis techniques, we investigate salt and supra-salt deformation in response to two different types of pre-salt relief: 1

  19. Gravity gliding in the Bay of Mecklenburg? - New seismic data at the North German Basin margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebscher, Christian; Damm, Volkmar; Engels, Martin; Juhlin, Christopher; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Malinowski, Michal; Noack, Vera; Schnabel, Michael; Seidel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Halotectonic pulses in the Bays of Mecklenburg and Kiel including the Glückstadt Graben have been previously explained by reactive and passive diapirism or differential load, e.g., caused by sub-salt faulting. Salt walls that formed above those sub-salt faults further grew during phases of inversion. Consequently, phases of enhanced halotectonics have been mainly related to the Triassic W-E extension, Jurassic North Sea doming, the Alpine orogeny. The location of salt walls was attributed to deep rooted sub-salt faults. Alternative concepts of salt tectonics have been developed for continental slopes. Salt deformation may start already during the precipitation of the salt due to basin floor tilt, which may result from thermo-tectonic subsidence or from the salt load. As the consequence the emerging salt layer creeps towards the basin center causing internal folding and thrusting ("gravity gliding"). The resulting thickness variations of the salt are considered to be significant enough that sedimentation in the depressions directly initiate differential load and passive diapirism. Extensional faulting in the basin margin and diapirism in the central basin continues if basin subsidence continues or if basin margin sedimentation causes differential load on the salt rim ("gravity spreading"). In the course of RV MARIA S. MERIAN expedition MSM52 (BalTec) in March 2016 we imaged the tectonic conditions within the Paleozoic to recent sedimentary strata of the southern Baltic Sea between the North German Basin across the Tornquist Fan with yet unparalleled vertical resolution. The equipment consisted of 8 GI-Guns (70 Hz dominant frequency) as a source array and a digital seismic streamer of 2700 m active length. Due to the short initial offset of 37 meters between the seismic source array and the first active streamer section the data image without gap the subsurface geology from the Paleozoic strata or basement up to the seafloor. A SW-NE striking seismic profiles from

  20. Style and timing of salt tectonics in the Dniepr-Donets Basin (Ukraine): implications for triggering and driving mechanisms of salt movement in sedimentary basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stovba, S.M.; Stephenson, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Ukrainian Dniepr-Donets Basin (DDB) is a Late Palaeozoic intracratonic rift basin, with sedimentary thicknesses up to 19 km, displaying the effects of salt tectonics during its entire history of formation, from Late Devonian rifting to the Tertiary. Hundreds of concordant and discordant salt

  1. Mechanical stratification of autochthonous salt: Implications from basin-scale numerical models of rifted margin salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in

  2. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard Meade

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Part of sec. 5, T. 23 S., R. 20 E. has been selected as a site for subsurface investigation as a potential repository for radioactive waste. This site has easy access to transportation, is on public land, is isolated from human habitation, is not visible from Arches National Park, and the salt body lies within about 800 feet (244 m) of the surface. Further exploration should include investigation of possible ground water in the caprock and physical exploration of the salt body to identify a thick bed of salt for use as a storage zone that can be isolated from the shaly interbeds that possibly contain quantities of hydrocarbons. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after

  3. The Agost Basin (Betic Cordillera, Alicante province, Spain): a pull-apart basin involving salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Estévez, Antonio; Martín-Rojas, Ivan; Guerrera, Francesco; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2017-08-01

    The Agost Basin is characterized by a Miocene-Quaternary shallow marine and continental infilling controlled by the evolution of several curvilinear faults involving salt tectonics derived from Triassic rocks. From the Serravallian on, the area experienced a horizontal maximum compression with a rotation of the maximum stress axis from E-W to N-S. The resulting deformation gave rise to a strike-slip fault whose evolution is characterized progressively by three stages: (1) stepover/releasing bend with a dextral motion of blocks; (2) very close to pure horizontal compression; and (3) restraining bend with a sinistral movement of blocks. In particular, after an incipient fracturing stage, faults generated a pull-apart basin with terraced sidewall fault and graben subzones developed in the context of a dextral stepover during the lower part of late Miocene p.p. The occurrence of Triassic shales and evaporites played a fundamental role in the tectonic evolution of the study area. The salty material flowed along faults during this stage generating salt walls in root zones and salt push-up structures at the surface. During the purely compressive stage (middle part of late Miocene p.p.) the salt walls were squeezed to form extrusive mushroom-like structures. The large amount of clayish and salty material that surfaced was rapidly eroded and deposited into the basin, generating prograding fan clinoforms. The occurrence of shales and evaporites (both in the margins of the basin and in the proper infilling) favored folding of basin deposits, faulting, and the formation of rising blocks. Later, in the last stage (upper part of late Miocene p.p.), the area was affected by sinistral restraining conditions and faults must have bent to their current shape. The progressive folding of the basin and deformation of margins changed the supply points and finally caused the end of deposition and the beginning of the current erosive systems. On the basis of the interdisciplinary results

  4. Investigations on boron isotopic geochemistry of salt lakes in Qaidam basin, Qinghai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y.K.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Liu, W.G.; Wang, Y.H.; Jin, L.

    The isotopic compositions of boron in salt lakes located in Qaidam Basin, Qinghai, have been determined using the procedure of thermal ionization mass spectrometry of cesium borate with graphite loading. The salt lakes were controlled by evaporation...

  5. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The North Caspian basin is a petroleum-rich but lightly explored basin located in Kazakhstan and Russia. It occupies the shallow northern portion of the Caspian Sea and a large plain to the north of the sea between the Volga and Ural Rivers and farther east to the Mugodzhary Highland, which is the southern continuation of the Ural foldbelt. The basin is bounded by the Paleozoic carbonate platform of the Volga-Ural province to the north and west and by the Ural, South Emba, and Karpinsky Hercynian foldbelts to the east and south. The basin was originated by pre-Late Devonian rifting and subsequent spreading that opened the oceanic crust, but the precise time of these tectonic events is not known. The sedimentary succession of the basin is more than 20 km thick in the central areas. The drilled Upper Devonian to Tertiary part of this succession includes a prominent thick Kungurian (uppermost Lower Permian) salt formation that separates strata into the subsalt and suprasalt sequences and played an important role in the formation of oil and gas fields. Shallow-shelf carbonate formations that contain various reefs and alternate with clastic wedges compose the subsalt sequence on the 1 basin margins. Basinward, these rocks grade into deep-water anoxic black shales and turbidites. The Kungurian salt formation is strongly deformed into domes and intervening depressions. The most active halokinesis occurred during Late Permian?Triassic time, but growth of salt domes continued later and some of them are exposed on the present-day surface. The suprasalt sequence is mostly composed of clastic rocks that are several kilometers thick in depressions between salt domes. A single total petroleum system is defined in the North Caspian basin. Discovered reserves are about 19.7 billion barrels of oil and natural gas liquids and 157 trillion cubic feet of gas. Much of the reserves are concentrated in the supergiant Tengiz, Karachaganak, and Astrakhan fields. A recent new oil discovery

  6. Landslide Inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified...

  7. Reinterpretation of Halokinetic Features in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains Paradox Salt Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. A.; Giles, K. A.; Rowan, M. G.; Hearon, T. E., IV

    2016-12-01

    The Paradox Basin in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado is a foreland basin formed in response to flexural loading by the Pennsylvanian-aged Uncompaghre uplift during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogen. Thick sequences of evaporites (Paradox Formation) were deposited within the foreland basin, which interfinger with clastic sediments in the foredeep and carbonates around the basin margin. Differential loading of the Pennsylvanian-Jurassic sediments onto the evaporites drove synsedimentary halokinesis, creating a series of salt walls and adjacent minibasins within the larger foreland basin. The growing salt walls within the basin influenced patterns of sediment deposition from the Pennsylvanian through the Cretaceous. By integrating previously published mapping with recent field observations, mapping, and subsurface interpretations of well logs and 2D seismic lines, we present interpretations of the timing, geometry, and nature of halokinesis within the Paradox Basin, which record the complex salt tectonic history in the basin. Furthermore, we present recent work on the relationships between the local passive salt history and the formation of syndepositional counter-regional extensional fault systems within the foreland. These results will be integrated into a new regional salt-tectonic and stratigraphic framework of the Paradox Basin, and have broader implications for interpreting sedimentary records in other basins with a mobile substrate.

  8. Gravity and magnetic modelling of North Sea basins[Marine and Onshore North Sea Acquisition for Lithospheric Seismic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngsie, S.B.; Thybo, H. [Copenhagen Univ., Geological Inst. (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    One of the primary sources of information for interpretation of subsurface geology and large scale tectonic features is potential field data. Gravity and magnetic data may reveal large and small scale features such as basement type, intrusions into the crust, volcanic roks, basement furface, faults and salt structures. As such, this type of data provides an invaluable source of information, which is cimplimentary to seismic data. We are currently conducting a project on interpretation of basins in the North Sea Based on potential field data, constrained by the wealth of existing seismic data. High resolution modelling of gravimetric and magnetic anomalies constrained by seismic P-wave velocity models and normal incidence reflection seismic data may reveal intrinsic details of upper- and lower Palaeozoic basin formation and changes in crustal domains in the Danish North Sea area. The MONA LISA (Marine and Onshore North Sea Acquisition for Lithospheric Seismic Analysis) data set from the south-eastern North Sea (MONA LISA Working Group, 1997) consists of four deep seismic normal incidence reflection profiles recorded to 26 s (twt) and coincident wide-angle reflection/refraction data recorded on 26 onshore mobile seismometers and 29 ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH's) placed along profiles 1,2 and 3. The east-west trending MONA LISA profile 3 traverses the basement high of the Mid North Sea - Ringkoebing Fyn High (MSRFH) and crosses the N-S striking Central Graben (CG) and Horn Graven (HG). (au)

  9. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  10. Salinity management in river basins : modelling and management of the salt-affected Jarreh Reservoir (Iran)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiati, K.

    1991-01-01

    The sources and origin of salts in the basin of the two salt- affected Shapur and Dalaki rivers (Southern Iran) and the processes involved in salinization have been studied. The extent of water deterioration have been identified by examining spatial changes in the rivers water

  11. The origin of salt-encased sediment packages: Observations from the SE Precaspian Basin (Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Naiara; Duffy, Oliver B.; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Dooley, Tim P.

    2017-04-01

    Intrasalt sediment packages containing siliciclastic sediments, carbonate sediments, or non-halite evaporites such as gypsum or anhydrite are common within most salt sequences. Intrasalt sediment packages may have been deposited before, during, or after salt deposition and be incorporated into the salt by various processes. Understanding the origin and evolution of intrasalt sediment packages may yield important insights into the tectonic and geodynamic history of the basin, and also into the understanding of salt tectonics. Despite the importance of intrasalt sediment packages, currently there is no systematic description of their possible origins and their distinguishing criteria. This work is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the possible origins of intrasalt sediment packages, as well as criteria to determine if they originated as subsalt, suprasalt or intrasalt sequences. The second part examines how sediment packages that originated on top of salt, such as minibasins, can be encased within salt. Four key encasement processes are proposed: a) salt expulsion from beneath a minibasin experiencing density-driven subsidence; b) salt expulsion from beneath adjacent subsiding minibasins; c) salt expulsion associated with lateral shortening; d) override of minibasins by a salt sheet sourced from elsewhere. The third part of the paper presents a case study from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan, where, using a borehole-constrained 3D seismic reflection dataset, the proposed criteria are applied to an area with abundant, newly discovered sediment packages within salt.

  12. Salt deformation mechanism and gas accumulation in the Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene, Constantin; Floroiu, Alina

    2017-04-01

    The Transylvanian Basin is the main producer of hydrocarbon gases in Romania. The first gas field (Sarmasel) has been discovered in 1909, untill now more than 129 gas structures being identified and exploited. The aim of this paper is to investigate the causes that created zones with different intensity of the diapirism in relation with the methane generation and accumulation. The Badenian salt movement had different intensities in the Transylvanian Basin. In the central part there are salt pillows, salt layers and piercement of salt. In this zone the salt is not outcropping and its flow produced only the doming of the overlying deposits. In the eastern and western parts of the basin salt flow determined an intensively deformation of the overlying rocks and the formation of the salt diapirs and salt wall growth. In these areas the salt even outcrops within a few sectors. The following mechanisms could be implied in the Badenian salt flow: salt buoyancy, differential sediment loading, flexural buckling of the overburden and drag by overburden. To evaluate which mechanism dominates in the Badenian salt flow in the Transylvanian Basin a simple model has been used considering an elastic plate overlying a viscous fluid. In this model the viscous fluid is the layer of Badenian salt and the elastic plate is represented by the overburden composed of Upper Miocene and Pliocene deposits. The vertical pressure gradient was calculated considering a constant density of overburden (2500 kg/m3) in correlation with the different sedimentary rates of the Upper Badenian (450 m/Ma), Sarmatian (150 m/Ma) and Pliocene (80 m/Ma). The initial salt thickness was variable, less than 300 m south of Mureş River and more than 500 m in the other zones of the basin. The amplitude and the wavelength of folding as well as the others parameters, like the thickness of the overburden and of the salt encountered in the apex of the structures as well as in the adjacent synclines have been measured on

  13. Near Surface Tectonics in the Baltic Sea Sector of the North German Basin and the Tornquist Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hseinat, Mu'ayyad; Huebscher, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous to recent tectonic evolution of the North German Basin and the transition zone to the Baltic Shield/southwest Baltic Sea are discussed on the basis of a dense grid of ca. 800 reflection seismic profiles. The study area covers the transition from the salt floored North German Basin (Bay of Kiel) to the salt free Tornquist Zone (Pomeranian Bay). The geological structure was studied by individual seismic sections and derived high-resolution time-structure maps of the main horizons, the Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary and Pleistocene. Numerous significant faults could be identified in the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary layers throughout the study area. Several of the faults propagate upwards across the unconsolidated Pleistocene sediments and penetrate the seafloor topography. In the salt floored North German Basin, three major fault trends are observed: NW-SE, N-S and NNE-SSW striking faults. Several of the faults are located directly above basement (sub-salt) faults and salt pillows. The majority of these faults are trending N-S to NNE-SSW and parallel the direction of the Glückstadt Graben faults. Basement tectonics controls supra-salt tectonics, but the ductile salt layer causes an offset between the sub- and supra-salt faults. In the salt free Pomeranian Bay, two major fault trends are found: NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults. The majority of these faults are located above basement faults following the Tornquist Zone direction. The fault movements are interpreted as a reactivation of pre-existing faults and vertical salt movement due to major plate reorganisation related to the Africa-Iberia-Europe convergence and later Alpine Orogeny (ca. 90 Ma). The faults and salt tectonics were afterward reactivated between Late Eocene and Middle Miocene when the principal horizontal stress orientation changed from a NE-SW to a NW-SE direction, the present-day orientation. We suggest that the recent tectonics and upward propagation of the faults resulted from ice

  14. Progress report: chemical character of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota was at one time the most popular summer resort in the state. With decline in lake level the lake has become a shallow body pf vary saline water, which scenic value and recreational appeal completely destroyed. Under the Missouri River development program, it is proposed to restore the lake level to an altitude of 1,425 feet by diversion of Missouri River water. The chemical character of the water in Devils Lake and in other surface bodies in Devils Lake Basin is determined from the analyses of 95 samples. The physical and chemical properties of lake bed deposits are also shown. Lake water in the basin vary considerable in both concentration and composition, ranging from fresh bicarbonate waters of 300 parts per million dissolved solids to sulfate waters of over 100,000 parts per million of soluble salts. Twenty-four samples indicates the chemical character of water in the Red River of the North and its tributaries. The probable concentration of dissolved solids in water of Devils Lake at altitude 1,425 feet has been estimated as ranging from 3,000 to 7,600 parts per million. Final concentration will largely depend upon the percentage of deposited salts reentering solution and the quality of the inflow water. The possible effects of lake effluents on downstream developments, with particular reference to sanitation and pollution problems, are also discussed in this report.

  15. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  16. The Early Gulf of Mexico as a Subaerial Basin Below Sea Level (SABSEL) Basin. Evidence from Stratigraphy and Facies of Luanne salt, Norphlet sandstone and Smackover Brown Dense Formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Many workers recognize that large salt deposits form in post-rift sag basins which were subaerial and susceptible to rapid flooding from adjacent oceansl. I have termed these basins "subaerial basins below sea level" or "SABSEL" basins. A key marker of SABSEL basins are terrestrial sediments immediately overlain by deepwater sediments with no transition. Desert deposits -including Aeolian dunes- are preserved in the adiabatically heated depression. Dunes are not eroded by transgressing seas but are drowned by rising water as in a bath tub. They maintain their shape. Deepwater marine black shales or limestones drape the dunes. The Southern North sea is an example. Above the original marine shale over the dunes are evaporites. Winds descending into the basin were heated by adiabatic compression providing the very hot air need to allow survival of potassium salts. A similar situation was probably active during the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean basin, and the opening of the South Atlantic. In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) a desert is on the Louann salt. Here the sea invaded the lows first to deposit the salt overlying tilted fault blocks of the opening basin, as in the Afar Triangle of Africa. In the GOM entry to the west fed in sea water, then closed. The Norphlet desert formed. Streams carried sands to the basin to be spread by winds where they willed, not limited to sand entry areas. Upon deposition their original weight depressed the salt. Seismic shows depressions in the salt but the dunes are high at the top Norphlet, forming distinctive small "eyes" at the top salt. The 600 foot dunes are draped by deep water dolomitic finely laminated organic rich black/ brown shale, the Brown Dense Facies of the Smackover formation. The lack of reworking of the dunes found by detailed seismic is distinctive of deposition in a SABSEL basin. The overlap of terrestrial sediments by deep water deposition is good evidence of sudden flooding. In summary this vertical

  17. Sapropels in the Great Salt Lake basin: Indicators of massive groundwater-discharge events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    Two stratigraphic intervals of finely laminated, organic-rich muds (referred to as sapropels), which in places are interbedded with mirabilite (Na2SO4 10H2O) and/or halite (NaCl), are present in cores of sediments from the floor of Great Salt Lake, UT (GSL). The muds vary in thickness, including the interbedded salt, from less than 0.5 m to over 10 m (in the case of the younger sapropel in the north arm of GSL). They contain brine-shrimp cysts and well-defined laminations less than 1 mm thick. Immediately after recovery in cores, the muds are pure black, but they oxidize to brown colors after a few days of exposure to the atmosphere. Organic-carbon contents in the younger sapropel are 3-5 %, and nitrogen percentages range from about 0.2 to 0.4. The sapropels are overlain by muds deposited in shallow hypersaline lakes, and overlie sediments of deep, freshwater lakes. Independent evidence from radiocarbon ages and shoreline chronology indicates that the upper sapropel was deposited while the lake was shallow (less than 25 m deep; average maximum depth of modern GSL is ~10 m; maximum depth of Lake Bonneville is >300 m). The age of the upper sapropel is about 10-11.5 cal ka, and it was deposited immediately following the regression of Lake Bonneville, which filled the basin during marine oxygen-isotope stage 2. The older sapropel directly overlies sediments of a deep lake that is likely correlative with oxygen-isotope stage 6. A hypothesis to explain sapropel deposition is that groundwater that had been stored in mountain aquifers during the high-lake periods was discharged onto the basin floor where it ran into the lake and formed a freshwater cap on the saline water; organic matter that settled to the bottom of the lake from the surface exhausted dissolved oxygen and accumulated on the bottom of the stratified lake. The ages of spring and wetland deposits at numerous localities around the basin are consistent with this hypothesis. This hypothetical cause for sapropel

  18. Analog modeling and kinematic restoration of inverted hangingwall synclinal basins developed above syn-kinematic salt: Application to the Lusitanian and Parentis basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; McClay, Ken; Ferrer, Oriol; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-04-01

    The formation of hagingwall syncline basins is basically constrained by the geometry of the basement-involved fault, but also by salt distribution . The formation of such basins is common around the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Lusitanian, Parentis, Basque-Cantabian, Cameros and Organyà basins) where Upper Triassic (Keuper) salt governed their polyphasic Mesozoic extension and their subsequent Alpine inversion. In this scenario, a precise interpretation of the sub-salt faults geometry and a reconstruction of the initial salt thickness are key to understand the kinematic evolution of such basins. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and these Mesozoic basins as natural analogues, the aim of this work is to: 1) investigate the main parameters that controlled the formation and evolution of hagingwall syncline basins analyzing the role of syn-kinematic salt during extension and subsequent inversion; and 2) quantify the deformation and salt mobilization based on restoration of analog model cross sections. The experimental results demonstrate that premature welds are developed by salt deflation with consequent upward propagation of the basal fault in salt-bearing rift systems with a large amount of extension,. In contrast, thicker salt inhibits the upward fault propagation, which results into a further salt migration and development of a hagingwall syncline basins flanked by salt walls. The inherited extensional architecture as well as salt continuity dramatically controlled subsequent inversion. Shortening initially produced the folding and the uplift of the synclinal basins. Minor reverse faults form as a consequence of overtightening of welded diapir stems. However, no trace of reverse faulting is found around diapirs stems, as ductile unit is still available for extrusion, squeezing and accommodation of shortening. Restoration of the sandbox models has demonstrated that this is a powerful tool to unravel the complex structures in the models and this may

  19. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong-Qing; Kuang, Hong-Wei; Peng, Nan; Xu, Huan; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Neng-Sheng; An, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Min; Hu, Xiu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    In North China, the Mesozoic terrestrial basins, sedimentary palaeogeography and tectonic settings involved five evolutionary stages: (1) the Early‒Middle Triassic, (2) the Late Triassic to Early‒Middle Jurassic, (3) the Late Jurassic to early Early Cretaceous, (4) the middle‒late Early Cretaceous and (5) the Late Cretaceous. The regional punctuated tectonic events occurred during these evolutionary stages. During the Early‒Middle Triassic (stage 1), the Xingmeng Orogenic Belt (XMOB, i.e.,...

  20. Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating groundwater recharge rates in the Stampriet Basin is important for assessing the sustainability of the groundwater resource both within south-east Namibia, and across the borders of this transboundary resource into Botswana and South Africa. The 65 000 km2 basin contains a multi-layered aquifer system, of up ...

  1. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  2. Compressional salt tectonics in the early stages of the South Pyrenean foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrel, Laura; Teixell, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Salt tectonics in the Pyrenees has been widely documented for the Cretaceous extensional episode, defining the existence of salt walls and minibasins along the northern and southern Pyrenean paleomargins. The original geometry of these salt structures was heavily overprinted by shortening during the Alpine orogeny, but restored models have been documented. Other features explored regarding salt tectonics are the big domic or equidimensional diapirs that evolved during the Late Tertiary and still retain their shape in the southern Pyrenees. In either case, the Triassic Keuper evaporite layer is the source layer for the diapiric structures, which is also traditionally recognized as the main detachment level for the external Pyrenean thrust belts. In this work we focus on the role played by salt during the early stages of Alpine compression, which has been comparatively much less investigated. The Late Cretaceous to Eocene early foreland basin of the Southern Pyrenees shows evidence of salt movement that is often overlooked due to the most evident imprint of thrusts and associated fault-related folds. In this preliminary study we report field examples that shed some light on the interplay between halokinesis and buckling in the low-strain compressional regime during the early stages of the Pyrenean orogeny. Also we discuss how the growing salt structures control the local subsidence and the sediment dispersal patterns within the basin. We describe cases of salt-related geometries in the Eocene basins of the southern Pyrenees in areas as the footwall of the Montsec thrust -the Ager basin-, the External Sierras south of the Jaca basin, and the Pobla de Segur and Senterada intramontane conglomerate deposits on the Boixols and Nogueres thrust sheets. The examples are separate, but they offer a wide range of geometries such as tight synclines, vertical and overturned fold limbs, growth strata, and fault boundaries that can be interpreted as thrust welds. These serve as a

  3. Effects of piping irrigation laterals on selenium and salt loads, Montrose Arroyo Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Selenium and salinity are water-quality issues in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Certain water bodies in the lower Gunnison River Basin, including the lower Gunnison River and the Uncompahgre River, exceed the State standard for selenium of 5 micrograms per liter. Remediation methods to reduce selenium and salt loading in the lower Gunnison River Basin were examined. A demonstration project in Montrose Arroyo, located in the Uncompahgre River Basin near Montrose, was done during 1998-2000 to determine the effects on selenium and salt loads in Montrose Arroyo from replacing 8.5 miles of open-ditch irrigation laterals with 7.5 miles of pipe. The participants in the project were the National Irrigation Water Quality Program, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program, the Uncompahgre Valley Water Users Association, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The placing of five laterals in pipe significantly decreased selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo. The selenium load at the outflow monitoring site was about 194 pounds per year less (28-percent decrease) in the period after the laterals were placed in pipe. More than 90 percent of the decrease in selenium load was attributed to a decrease in ground-water load. Salt loads also decreased because of the lateral project, but by a smaller percentage than the selenium loads. The salt load at the outflow site on Montrose Arroyo was about 1,980 tons per year less in the post-project period than in the pre-project period. All of the effects of the demonstration project on selenium and salt loads probably were not measured by this study because some of the lateral leakage that was eliminated had not necessarily discharged to Montrose Arroyo upstream from the monitoring sites. A greater decrease in selenium loads relative to salt loads may have been partially the result of decreases in selenium concentrations in ground water in some areas.

  4. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study will increase the scientific understanding of the factors that influence surface- and ground-water quality. This information will benefit water-resources managers that need, but often lack, the data required to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  5. Salt diapirs in the Dead Sea basin and their relationship to Quaternary extensional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, A.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2001-01-01

    Regional extension of a brittle overburden and underlying salt causes differential loading that is thought to initiate the rise of reactive diapirs below and through regions of thin overburden. We present a modern example of a large salt diapir in the Dead Sea pull-apart basin, the Lisan diapir, which we believe was formed during the Quaternary due to basin transtension and subsidence. Using newly released seismic data that are correlated to several deep wells, we determine the size of the diapir to be 13 x 10 km. its maximum depth 7.2 km. and its roof 125 m below the surface. From seismic stratigraphy, we infer that the diapir started rising during the early to middle Pleistocene as this section of the basin underwater rapid subsidence and significant extension of the overburden. During the middle to late Pleistocene, the diapir pierced through the extensionally thinned overburden, as indicated by rim synclines, which attest to rapid salt withdrawal from the surrounding regions. Slight positive topography above the diapir and shallow folded horizons indicate that it is still rising intermittently. The smaller Sedom diapir, exposed along the western bounding fault of the basin is presently rising and forms a 200 m-high ridge. Its initiation is explained by localized E-W extension due monoclinal draping over the edge of a rapidly subsiding basin during the early to middle Pleistocene, and its continued rise by lateral squeezing due to continued rotation of the Amazyahu diagonal fault. 

  6. Landslide inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified according to a number of specific characteristics identified at the time recorded in the GIS database. The classification scheme was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009). Several significant landslide characteristics recorded in the database are portrayed with symbology on this map. The specific characteristics shown for each landslide are the activity of landsliding, landslide features, deep or shallow failure, type of landslide movement, and confidence of landslide interpretation. These landslide characteristics are determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features, or landforms, observed for each landslide. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  7. Relationship between basement-linked and gravity-driven fault systems in the UKCS salt basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, S.A. [Amerada Hess Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Ruffell, A.H. [Queens Univ, Belfast (United Kingdom) School of Geosciences; Harvey, M.J. [Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    Extension of basement below significant detachment layers such as salt results in the formation of structures in the cover strata above the detachment layer in two ways. `Thick-skinned` cover structures evolve to balance basement stretching. These are linked to the basement faults via detachment in the salt layer, or are directly linked to the basement structure, depending on the amount of basement fault detachment relative to salt layer thickness. Basement extension also results in rotation of major basement fault blocks, tilting the detachment layer and precipitating gravity-driven, `thin-skinned` slip of the cover involving detached extensional faulting and folding. Detachment layers consisting specifically of salt play two roles in facilitating the development of thin-skinned systems: salt constitutes the detachment layer and also lends buoyancy to the cores of anticlonal folds, reducing resistance to shortening. The detachment layer may become tilted away from the basement fault scarp, resulting in `synthetic slip systems` with the same polarity as the underlying basement fault, or the detachment may be tilted toward the basement scarp, giving `antithetic slip systems`, of the opposite polarity. Examples from the Central Graben and Channel Basin are discussed. Examples of antithetic systems from the Irish Sea, Central Graben and a field example from the Bristol Channel Basin are discussed. (author)

  8. Unraveling the hydrocarbon charge potential of the Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea: An integrated approach to reduce exploration risk in complex salt basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Oliver; Shtukert, Olga; Bishop, Andrew; Kornpihl, Kristijan; Milne, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea, is an intra-continental syn-rift basin containing many complex salt structures. The salt is late-Carboniferous to Early Permian in age, with regional extension in the Triassic initiating the salt movement resulting in formation of sub- and mini-basins with significant subsidence (especially in the northeastern part of the basin). Subsequent tectonic phases allowed growth and distortion of salt diapirs that were later affected by uplift and erosion during Tertiary resulting in the formation of salt-related traps in Triassic and Lower Jurassic strata. During Plio-Pleistocene, glacial erosion removed additional Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. This basin is regarded as a frontier salt province. A small hydrocarbon discovery (Pandora well) in the southwestern part of the basin points to the presence several functioning petroleum systems. The primary play type is related to salt traps below overhangs. Such structures are however, very difficult to image with conventional seismic techniques due to i) generation of multiples from sea floor and top of shallow salt bodies and ii) seismic shadow zones within the salt (possibly resulting from shale and carbonate stringers) which cause severe diffractions so that prospective areas adjacent to the salt remain elusive. Arctic exploration is expensive and the ability to focus on the highest potential targets is essential. A unique solution to this challenging subsurface Arctic environment was developed by integrating petroleum system modeling with full azimuth broadband seismic acquisition and processing. This integrated approach allows intelligent location of seismic surveys over structures which have the maximum chance of success of hydrocarbon charge. Petroleum system modeling was conducted for four seismic sections. Salt was reconstructed according to the diapiric evolution presented in Nilsen et al. (1995) and Koyi et al. (1995). Episodes of major erosion were assigned to Tertiary (tectonic) and

  9. Composition of fluid inclusions in Permian salt beds, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedder, E.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Dorrzapf, A.F.; Aruscavage, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods have been developed and used to extract and chemically analyze the two major types of fluid inclusions in bedded salt from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Data on the ratio K: Ca: Mg were obtained on a few of the clouds of tiny inclusions in "chevron" salt, representing the brines from which the salt originally crystallized. Much more complete quantitative data (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Cl, SO4 and Br) were obtained on ??? 120 individual "large" (mostly ???500 ??m on an edge, i.e., ??? ??? 1.6 ?? 10-4 g) inclusions in recrystallized salt. These latter fluids have a wide range of compositions, even in a given piece of core, indicating that fluids of grossly different composition were present in these salt beds during the several (?) stages of recrystallization. The analytical results indicating very large inter-and intra-sample chemical variation verify the conclusion reached earlier, from petrography and microthermometry, that the inclusion fluids in salt and their solutes are generally polygenetic. The diversity in composition stems from the combination of a variety of sources for the fluids (Permian sea, meteoric, and groundwater, as well as later migrating ground-, formation, or meteoric waters of unknown age), and a variety of subsequent geochemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and rock-water interaction. The compositional data are frequently ambiguous but do provide constraints and may eventually yield a coherent history of the events that produced these beds. Such an understanding of the past history of the evaporite sequence of the Palo Duro Basin should help in predicting the future role of the fluids in the salt if a nuclear waste repository is sited there. ?? 1987.

  10. Neogene dinocyst zonation for the eastern North Sea Basin, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    . Absolute ages of the new dinocyst zones are proposed based on correlation from the studied succession within the North Sea Basin with the international zonations and stratigraphic schemes. In addition, parts of the succession have been dated by strontium isotope analysis of mollusc shells. Inconsistencies...... due to first and last occurrences of some dinocyst species in previous studies and the present study, especially within the Lower Miocene, implied that new Sr-isotope datings from mollusc shells from the cored Sdr. Vium borehole and other localities in this study would be invaluable. Indeed......, this method allowed the previous last occurrence of Cordosphaeridium cantharellus (one of the zonal index fossils) dated as between 17.95 My and 19.5 My in previous studies, to be assigned a new dating of 18.4 My. The timespan of the zones range from 2.6 My for the Amiculospharea umbraculum Zone to 0.4 My...

  11. Subsidence and basin-fill architecture of a lignite-bearing salt rim syncline: insights into rim syncline evolution and salt diapirism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, C.; Pollok, L.; Schmidt, C.; Wilde, V.; Winsemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades, salt-withdrawal basins achieved much attention due to their significant hydrocarbon potential like in the Gulf of Mexico, along the Brazilian passive margin and in northern Germany. The Helmstedt-Staßfurt salt wall and the related Schöningen rim syncline are an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of salt-withdrawal basins in detail. An excellent data set of 358 wells allows a detailed assessment of the basin-fill architecture. The aim was to expand on the classical cross-section based rim syncline analysis by the use of 3D models and basin simulations. The Helmstedt-Staßfurt salt wall is 70 km long, 6-8 km wide and one of the most important diapiric structures in northern Germany, based on the economically significant lignite-bearing rim synclines. The analysed Schöningen rim syncline, located on the southwestern side of the Helmstedt-Staßfurt structure, is 8 km long and 3 km wide. The basin-fill is up to 366 m thick and contains 13 major lignite seams with thicknesses between 0.1 and 30 m. Cross-sections perpendicular to the basin axis indicate that the basin-fill has a pronounced lenticular shape. This shape varies from more symmetric in the NW to clearly asymmetric in the SE. It coincides to the broadening of the salt diapir from NW to SE. The geometry of the rim syncline therefore seems to be a function of the diapir morphology. Sediments close to a diapir margin tend to be sheared by the rising diapir and this effect is probably enhanced where the diapir becomes broader and as a result, the related rim syncline is more asymmetric. Isopach maps imply a two-fold depocentre evolution. The depocentre migrated over time towards the salt wall and also showed some distinct shifts parallel to the salt wall. The shifts parallel to salt wall were abrupt, in contrast to the more gradual migration of the depocentres perpendicular to the salt wall. The basin modelling part of the study was carried out with the software Petro

  12. Palaeoenvironmental changes across the Danian–Selandian boundary in the North Sea Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Anne; Thomsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The Danian–Selandian boundary (not, vert, similar60 Ma) marks the cessation of 40 million years of carbonate deposition in the North Sea Basin and a shift to siliciclastic deposition. On the basis of variations in lithology, benthic and planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils in three...... groups the benthic assemblages into four biofacies, which correspond fairly closely to lithological units. Correlation of the Storebælt records with marine palaeorecords from the Danish Basin and the North Sea Basin indicate that the transformation of the North Sea from a carbonate to a siliciclastic...... basin occurred in four steps separated by relatively long, stable periods. The most important external factors involved in the change are, firstly, a drop in the relative sea-level during the late Danian leading to the disappearance of bryozoans from the North Sea Basin and to non-deposition and erosion...

  13. Effect of enzyme preparation on quality of preserves in flavored oil from poorly maturing fish of the North Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazhnaya I. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the need for developing new technologies for processing poorly maturing fish of the North Basin based on the analysis of catch volumes and taking into account the main directions of state policy of development of the fishing industry. As an object of research the preserves of blue whiting in flavored oil have been chosen. Oil has been flavored by the smoke preparation "Squama–2" developed at the Department of Food Production Technology. To activate the process of maturation the enzyme preparation from king crab pankrias has been used (the total activity of the enzyme preparation is equal to 74.4 IU. The enzyme preparation has been developed on the basis of Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO (the pilot batch. The preserves have been produced according to traditional technological schemes with addition of the enzyme preparation in brine salting at the semi-finished product. The aim of research is to establish the preferred dose of the enzyme preparation, its effect on the organoleptic characteristics, maturation rate and shelf life preserves. Sampling salted semi-finished and finished products, preparing them for the analysis have been carried out according to the standard methods under the current regulatory documents. The results have shown that using the enzyme preparation in the manufacture of preserves allows expand the range of products from small-maturing fish of the North Basin. In the production of pilot batches of blue whiting preserves in flavored oils using enzyme preparation based on results of the organoleptic and chemical investigations the necessary dose of enzyme preparation added to the brine during raw materials salting equal to 0.05 g/l has been established. Shelf life of preserves (with mass fraction of salt in the finished product equal to 6 % at the given dose of the enzyme preparation is 4 months.

  14. Field guide to Laramide basin evolution and drilling activity in North Park and Middle Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechesne, Marieke; Cole, James Channing; Martin, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the geologic history of the North Park–Middle Park area and its past and recent drilling activity. Field trip stops highlight basin formation and the consequences of geologic configuration on oil and gas plays and development. The starting point is the west flank of the Denver Basin to compare and contrast the latest Cretaceous through Eocene basin fill on both flanks of the Front Range, before exploring sediments of the same age in the North Park – Middle Park intermontane basin.

  15. The lithic assemblages of Donggutuo, Nihewan basin: Knapping skills of early pleistocene hominins in North China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi-Xia Yang; Michael D Petraglia; Ya-Mei Hou; Jian-Ping Yue; Cheng-Long Deng; Ri-Xiang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Donggutuo (DGT) is one of the richest archaeological localities in the Nihewan Basin of North China, thereby providing key information about the technological behaviours of early hominins in eastern Asia...

  16. Location of Photographs Showing Landslide Features in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data points represent locations of photographs taken of landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Photos were taken in spring of 2010 during field...

  17. Landslide Deposit Boundaries for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This layer is an inventory of existing landslides deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide deposit shown on this map has been...

  18. Head Scarp Boundary for the Landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons represent head scarps and flank scarps associated with landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. This work was completed as part...

  19. Analogue modeling of arc and backarc deformation in the New Hebrides arc and North Fiji Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Lister, G. S.; Jessell, M. W.

    In most backarc basins, extension is perpendicular to the arc. Thus individual spreading ridges extend approximately parallel to the arc. In the North Fiji Basin, however, several ancient and active spreading ridges strike 70°-90° to the New Hebrides arc. These high-angle spreading ridges relocated

  20. Studies of the suitability of salt domes in east Texas basin for geologic isolation of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    The suitability of salt domes in the east Texas basin (Tyler basin), Texas, for long-term isolation of nulear wastes is being evaluated. The major issues concern hydrogeologic and tectonic stability of the domes and potential natural resources in the basin. These issues are being approached by integration of dome-specific and regional hydrogeolgic, geologic, geomorphic, and remote-sensing investigations. Hydrogeologic studies are evaluating basinal hydrogeology and ground-water flow around the domes in order to determine the degree to which salt domes may be dissolving, their rates of solution, and the orientation of saline plumes in the fresh-water aquifers. Subsurface geologic studies are being conducted: (1) to determine the size and shape of specific salt domes, the geology of the strata immediately surrounding the domes, and the regional geology of the east Texas basin; (2) to understand the geologic history of dome growth and basin infilling; and (3) to evaluate potential natural resources. Geomorphic and surficial geology studies are determining whether there has been any dome growth or tectonic movement in the basin during the Quaternary. Remote-sensing studies are being conducted to determine: (1) if dome uplift has altered regional lineation patterns in Quaternary sediments; and (2) whether drainage density indicates Quaternary structural movement. On the basis of the screening criteria of Brunton et al (1978), Oakwood and Keechi domes have been chosen as possible candidate domes. Twenty-three domes have been eliminated because of insufficient size, too great a depth to salt, major hydrocarbon production, or previous use (such as liquid propane storage or salt mining or brining). Detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphic investigations are now being conducted around Oakwood and Keechi salt domes. (JMT)

  1. The role of salt tectonics and overburden in the generation of overpressure in the Dutch North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelskamp, S.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of timing of salt movement and mechanical compaction on the generation of overpressures in Mesozoic rocks. To that end we apply 2D basin modelling on two N-S trending cross sections in the Dutch Central Graben and Terschelling Basin, respectively. Several

  2. The concurrence of atmospheric rivers and explosive cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eiras-Barca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive cyclogenesis of extratropical cyclones and the occurrence of atmospheric rivers are characteristic features of a baroclinic atmosphere, and are both closely related to extreme hydrometeorological events in the mid-latitudes, particularly on coastal areas on the western side of the continents. The potential role of atmospheric rivers in the explosive cyclone deepening has been previously analysed for selected case studies, but a general assessment from the climatological perspective is still missing. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis data for 1979–2011, we analyse the concurrence of atmospheric rivers and explosive cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins for the extended winter months (ONDJFM. Atmospheric rivers are identified for almost 80 % of explosive deepening cyclones. For non-explosive cyclones, atmospheric rivers are found only in roughly 40 % of the cases. The analysis of the time evolution of the high values of water vapour flux associated with the atmospheric river during the cyclone development phase leads us to hypothesize that the identified relationship is the fingerprint of a mechanism that raises the odds of an explosive cyclogenesis occurrence and not merely a statistical relationship. These new insights on the relationship between explosive cyclones and atmospheric rivers may be helpful to a better understanding of the associated high-impact weather events.

  3. Mesozoic lithofacies palaeogeography and petroleum prospectivity in North Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Carnarvon Basin, which lies in the North West Shelf of Australia, is highly rich in gas resources. As a typical passive marginal basin, it experienced the pre-rifting, early rifting, main rifting, late rifting, post-rifting sagging and passive margin stages. The basin was mainly filled with thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, of which the Mesozoic hosts the principal source, reservoir and seal intervals. Mesozoic palaeogeography has an important control on the oil and gas distribution. Triassic gas-prone source rocks of deltaic origin determine the high endowment of natural gases in the North Carnarvon Basin. The more restricted distribution of oil accumulations is controlled by oil source rocks in the Upper Jurassic Dingo Claystone. The Muderong Shale deposited in the Early Cretaceous marine transgression provides the effective regional seal for the underlying oil and gas reservoirs.

  4. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  5. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC salinity was very high in Valcuerna (7.9 dS/m) with underlain saline lutites, high to moderate in Clamor (2.6 dS/m) and Violada (2.1 dS/m) with gypsum-rich soils, and low in Alcanadre (1.0 dS/m) due to dilution in the inefficient traditional flood-irrigation system. Annual salt loads were highest in Valcuerna (11.9 Mg/ha) and lowest in Alcanadre (3.6 Mg/ha) and Clamor (3.3 Mg/ha). Salt load was also high in flood-irrigated Violada (10.3 Mg/ha), but dropped to 2.6 Mg/ha after its modernization to sprinkler irrigation (in 2008-09). N-fertilizer applications ranged from 221 kg/ha in the corn-dominated Valcuerna in 2010 to 63 kg/ha in 2008 in Violada, when farmers barely applied fertilizers due to the irrigation modernization works in progress that year. The highest N applications derived from pig slurry applications by farmers that used their lands as disposal sites for their farm

  6. Late Cretaceous to recent tectonic evolution of the North German Basin and the transition zone to the Baltic Shield/southwest Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hseinat, M.; Hübscher, C.

    2017-06-01

    In this study we investigate the Late Cretaceous to recent tectonic evolution of the southwestern Baltic Sea based on a dense grid of seismic reflection profiles. This area covers the Baltic Sea sector of the salt influenced North German Basin and its transition to the salt free Baltic Shield across the Tornquist Zone. The Upper Cretaceous to recent structural evolution is discussed by means of individual seismic sections and derived high-resolution time-structure maps of the main horizons, i.e., the Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary and Pleistocene. The Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary layers reveal numerous significant faults throughout the study area. Several of these faults propagate upwards across the unconsolidated Pleistocene sediments and occasionally penetrate the surface. The salt influenced North German Basin reveals three major fault trends: NW-SE, N-S and NNE-SSW. Several of these faults are located directly above basement (sub-salt) faults and salt pillows. The majority of these faults are trending N-S to NNE-SSW and parallel the direction of the Glückstadt Graben faults. In the salt free Tornquist Zone, we identify two major shallow fault trends, which are NW-SE and NE-SW. The majority of these faults are located above basement faults, following the direction of the Tornquist Zone. We conclude that generally basement tectonics controls activation and trends of shallow faults. If salt is present, the ductile salt layer causes a lateral shift between the sub- and supra-salt faults. Major plate reorganisation related to the Africa-Iberia-Europe convergence and the subsequent Alpine Orogeny caused reactivation of pre-existing faults and vertical salt movement in the Late Cretaceous. The change of stress orientation from NE-SW to a NW-SE during Neogene caused another phase of fault and salt tectonic reactivation. We explain that the ice-sheet loading and/or present-day stress field may have acted in combination, causing the recent tectonics and upward extension of

  7. How three countries in the Americas are fortifying dietary salt reduction: a north and south perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka

    2011-09-01

    A chronic disease/risk factor prevention framework with three policy environments--communications, physical and economic--was used to organize population level interventions that address the "over consumption of dietary salt", a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The framework was then used to map the population based strategies to reduce dietary salt consumption being applied in three countries in the Americas--Argentina, Canada and Chile--each with a history of multi-sector approaches to deal with the risk factors for chronic disease, offering a north versus south perspective. Results show that in all three countries policy instruments are concentrated in the communications environment, e.g., media and education campaigns and/or regulations for standardized information on the salt or sodium content of packaged food products. Notable gaps are the requirement for nutrient information on meals and food items prepared by food establishments and restrictions on advertising and marketing of foods to children. In the physical environment, referring to the sodium levels in commercially prepared foods and meals available on the market, voluntary reformulation of food products is underway at this time in the three countries. Argentina and Chile began with bread and have gradually added other food categories; Canada at the outset is addressing all food categories where products have added salt. Argentina alone is at this point actively approaching regulations to limit the salt content of food, preferring this over ongoing monitoring of voluntary targets. No government in the three counties has yet considered action in the economic environment, a complex area where the research on and initiatives to limit or disadvantage energy-dense food products to address obesity may also capture foods that are highly salted. In the meantime, with recent research estimating substantially higher gains in population health from government legislation to limit salt in foods

  8. Computer program to simulate the salt balance between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents a computer simulation program that was used by Waddell and Bolke (1973) to predict the salt balance between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah, for either existing or modified culvert openings (fig. 1). The development of the program, its accuracy and limitations, are described in the above report, which was prepared as part of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Geological and Mineral Survey. Users of this program should consider it an addendum to the report by Waddell and Bolke (1973).Although this program has been tested by its contributor, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the contributor or the Government, as to the functioning of the program and related program material, nor shall the fact of distribution constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the contributor or the Government, in connection therewith.The FORTRAN IV program listing (table 1) defines the constants and variables necessary for understanding the mechanics and the output from the program.

  9. Density-dependent groundwater flow and dissolution potential along a salt diapir in the Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, Eric; Danchiv, Alex; Dresmann, Horst; Mocuţa, Marius; Huggenberger, Peter; Scheidler, Stefan; Wiesmeier, Stefan; Popa, Iulian; Zlibut, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Salt diapirs and the surrounding sediments are often involved in a variety of human activities, such as salt mining, exploration and storage of hydrocarbons, and also storage of radioactive waste material. The presence of highly soluble evaporitic rocks, a complex tectonic setting related to salt diapirsm, and human activities can lead to significant environmental problems, e.g. land subsidence, sinkhole development, salt cavern collapse, and contamination of water resources with brines. In the Transylvanian town of Ocna Mures. rock salt of a near-surface diapir has been explored since the Roman ages in open excavations, and up to the 20th century in galleries and with solution mining. Most recently, in 2010 a sudden collapse in the adjacent Quaternary unconsolidated sediments led to the formation of a 70-90m wide salt lake with a max. depth of 23m. Over the last 3 years a Romanian-Swiss research project has led to the development of 3D geological and hydrogeological information systems in order to improve knowledge on possible hazards related to uncontrolled salt dissolution. One aspect which has been investigated is the possibility of density-driven flow along permeable subvertical zones next to the salt dome, and the potential for subsaturated groundwater to dissolve the upper sides of the diapir. Structural 3D models of the salt diapir, the adjacent basin sediments, and the mining galleries, led to the development of 2D numerical vertical density-dependent models of flow and transport along the diapir. Results show that (1) increased rock permeability due to diapirsm, regional tectonic thrusting and previous dissolution, and (2) more permeable sandstone layers within the adjacent basin sediments may lead to freshwater intrusion towards the top of the diapir, and, therefore, to increased potential for salt dissolution.

  10. Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin information status and research planning meeting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E.; Krummel, J. R.; Hayse, J. W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Stull, E. A.; Gorenflo, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-26

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant ecological and natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea continental shelf including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals including federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012 and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) were contracted to assist the MMS Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region in identifying and prioritizing information needs related to the North Aleutian Basin and potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities. The overall approach focused on three related but separate tasks: (1) identification and

  11. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    Devils Lake basin, a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota, covers about 3,900 square miles of land, the topography of which is morainal and of glacial origin. In this basin lies a chain of waterways, which begins with the Sweetwater group and extends successively through Mauvais Coulee, Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, and East Devils Lake, to Stump Lake. In former years when lake levels were high, Mauvais Coulee drained the Sweetwater group and discharged considerable water into Devils Lake. Converging coulees also transported excess water to Stump Lake. For at least 70 years prior to 1941, Mauvais Coulee flowed only intermittently, and the levels of major lakes in this region gradually declined. Devils Lake, for example, covered an area of about 90,000 acres in 1867 but had shrunk to approximately 6,500 acres by 1941. Plans to restore the recreational appeal of Devils Lake propose the dilution and eventual displacement of the brackish lake water by fresh water that would be diverted from the Missouri River. Freshening of the lake water would permit restocking Devils Lake with fish. Devils and Stump Lake have irregular outlines and numerous windings and have been described as lying in the valley of a preglacial river, the main stem and tributaries of which are partly filled with drift. Prominent morainal hills along the south shore of Devils Lake contrast sharply with level farmland to the north. The mean annual temperature of Devils Lake basin ranges between 36 ? and 42 ? F. Summer temperatures above 100 ? F and winter temperatures below -30 ? Fare not uncommon. The annual precipitation for 77 years at the city of Devils Lake averaged 17.5 inches. Usually, from 75 to 80 percent of the precipitation in the basin falls during the growing season, April to September. From 1867 to 1941 the net fall of the water surface of Devils Lake was about 38 feet. By 1951 the surface had risen fully 14 feet from its lowest altitude, 1,400.9 feet. Since 1951, the level has

  12. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  13. Regional geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin; Part I, conceptual model and data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional study of the geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin and developing a regional multi-layered ground-water flow model to determine regional flow paths. In the salt-dome basin the Tokio Formation and Brownstown Marl (Austin aquifer in this report), and Nacatoch Sand of Late Cretaceous age and the Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Sparta Sand, and Cockfield Formation of Tertiary age contain regional aquifers within the maximum potential repository depth of 3,000 feet. The Cretaceous units contain saltwater throughout the basin. The Tertiary units contain freshwater to varying distances downdip from outcrop areas in the basin. Natural flow directions and rates of movement of groundwater have been changed in the salt-dome basin by the withdrawl of freshwater and by the injection of wastes (principally oil-field brines) into saline aquifers. Except for the Sparta aquifer, ground-water flow directions are not well known because of a lack of potentiometric data. A regional test-drilling program, to collect the data needed to document concepts of the flow system and to quantify inputs to the planned ground-water flow model, has been proposed. The Sparta aquifer is being modeled because data are available for the unit. As regional test drilling provides data on other units, will be added to the model developed for the Sparta aquifer. (USGS)

  14. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  15. Late-Variscan Tectonic Inheritance and Salt Tectonics Interplay in the Central Lusitanian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carlos R.; Marques, Fernando O.

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic inheritance and salt structures can play an important role in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of basins. The Alpine regional stress field in west Iberia had a horizontal maximum compressive stress striking approximately NNW-SSE, related to the Late Miocene inversion event. However, this stress field cannot produce a great deal of the observed and mapped structures in the Lusitanian Basin. Moreover, many observed structures show a trend similar to well-known basement fault systems. The Central Lusitanian basin shows an interesting tectonic structure, the Montejunto structure, generally assigned to this inversion event. Therefore, special attention was paid to: (1) basement control of important observed structures; and (2) diapir tectonics (vertical maximum compressive stress), which can be responsible for significant vertical movements. Based on fieldwork, tectonic analysis and interpretation of geological maps (Portuguese Geological Survey, 1:50000 scale) and geophysical data, our work shows: (1) the Montejunto structure is a composite structure comprising an antiform with a curved hinge and middle Jurassic core, and bounding main faults; (2) the antiform can be divided into three main segments: (i) a northern segment with NNE-SSW trend showing W-dipping bedding bounded at the eastern border by a NNE-SSW striking fault, (ii) a curved central segment, showing the highest topography, with a middle Jurassic core and radial dipping bedding, (iii) a western segment with ENE-WSW trend comprising an antiform with a steeper northern limb and periclinal termination towards WSW, bounded to the south by ENE-WSW reverse faulting, (3) both fold and fault trends at the northern and western segments are parallel to well-known basement faults related to late-Variscan strike-slip systems with NNE-SSW and ENE-WSW trends; (4) given the orientation of Alpine maximum compressive stress, the northern segment border fault should be mostly sinistral strike-slip and the western

  16. Ranking contributing areas of salt and selenium in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, using multiple linear regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Joshua I.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigating the effects of salt and selenium on water quality in the Grand Valley and lower Gunnison River Basin in western Colorado is a major concern for land managers. Previous modeling indicated means to improve the models by including more detailed geospatial data and a more rigorous method for developing the models. After evaluating all possible combinations of geospatial variables, four multiple linear regression models resulted that could estimate irrigation-season salt yield, nonirrigation-season salt yield, irrigation-season selenium yield, and nonirrigation-season selenium yield. The adjusted r-squared and the residual standard error (in units of log-transformed yield) of the models were, respectively, 0.87 and 2.03 for the irrigation-season salt model, 0.90 and 1.25 for the nonirrigation-season salt model, 0.85 and 2.94 for the irrigation-season selenium model, and 0.93 and 1.75 for the nonirrigation-season selenium model. The four models were used to estimate yields and loads from contributing areas corresponding to 12-digit hydrologic unit codes in the lower Gunnison River Basin study area. Each of the 175 contributing areas was ranked according to its estimated mean seasonal yield of salt and selenium.

  17. The formation of the North Barents Superdeep Basin by gabbro to eclogite transformation in continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Arctic area includes deep basins both water loaded and sediment loaded ones. They are underlain by the attenuated crystalline crust with high P-wave velocities. The nature of the crust in these basins and mechanisms of their formation are debatable. Detailed data on the North Barents superdeep sedimentary Basin can be used to approach the problem. To produce such a basin with 16-18 km of sediments by stretching of continental lithosphere the beta factor should be about 2.5. According to the seismic reflection profiling data the intensity of stretching of the crystalline basement in the basin does not exceed 10%. This could ensure the sediment loaded subsidence of no more than 1 km. In the deepest part of the basin the crystalline crust is only 14 km thick and has the mean density of 2900 kg/m3 typical of the oceanic crust. Subsidence of oceanic crust formed at the axis of spreading continues 80 Myr at a rate rapidly decreasing in time. In the North Barents Basin intense subsidence continued 220 Myr since the Late Devonian and until the Late Jurassic. Moreover, about two thirds of the subsidence took place since the beginning of the Triassic while subsidence of oceanic crust would have already ended long ago. These data make rather improbable the existence of oceanic crust in the basin. The analysis of the seismic refraction profiling data shows that the basin is several kilometers deeper than it would be if the Moho boundary was underlain by mantle peridotites. No large negative isostatic anomalies are however observed above the basin. Abnormally large depth of the basin can be explained by the existence under the Moho of a layer of eclogites 15-20 km thick. These mafic rocks which are denser than mantle peridotites pertain to the crust by their composition. Together with crystalline rocks 14 km thick located above the Moho they form the crystalline crust with the thickness 30-35 km which is typical of many continental regions. The formation of eclogites from

  18. Constraints on Faulting and Basin Architecture in the North Basin of Lake Malawi from Active-Source Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, E. A.; Shillington, D. J.; Accardo, N. J.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; McCartney, T.; Nyblade, A.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand, R.; Salima, J.; Mruma, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is actively extending as evidenced by seismicity and volcanic activity, and it is a great example of continental rifting. The western branch of the EARS consists of a series of rift basins bound by 100-km-long border faults, with Lake Malawi being the southernmost. Previous studies on Lake Malawi suggest that the border faults accommodate most of the crustal extension and account for most of the seismicity. However, the 2009 Karonga earthquake sequence and other seismicity on intrabasinal faults suggest that they may also be important for crustal extension and hazards. This study uses seismic reflection and wide-angle refraction data from the Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi and Tanzania (SEGMeNT) experiment to constrain detailed basin architecture, shallow velocities, and fault structures of the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. We present results from the main reflection/refraction dip line across the North Basin. Seven lake bottom seismometers (LBS) were spaced at 7 km and recorded shots from a 2580 cu in air gun array fired every 250 m. We recorded multichannel seismic data (MCS) along the same line with a 1500-m-long streamer and a source of 1540 cu in fired every 37.5 m. The LBS also recorded the small volume shots along this line. We picked sedimentary and crustal refractions and reflections using recordings from both shot volumes. We used the First Arrival Seismic Tomography (FAST) code to obtain a smooth velocity model using the first arrivals, and iterative forward modeling was done using the RAYINVR code to produce layered model using both first and later arrivals. Concurrently, the coincident seismic reflection profile was processed using the SeisSpace software package. Preliminary results show sediments in the North basin are thickening Eastward, reaching a thickness of over 4 km adjacent to the Livingstone border fault. Sediments have velocities of 2-3 km/s. The largest intra-basin fault has a substantial

  19. Geodynamic implications for zonal and meridional isotopic patterns across the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Allison A.; Jackson, Matthew G.; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Kurz, Mark D.; Gill, Jim; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Jenner, Frances; Brens, Raul; Arculus, Richard

    2017-03-01

    We present new Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-He isotopic data for 65 volcanic samples from the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins. This includes 47 lavas obtained from 40 dredge sites spanning an east-west transect across the Lau and North Fiji basins, 10 ocean island basalt (OIB)-type lavas collected from seven Fijian islands, and eight OIB lavas sampled on Rotuma. For the first time, we are able to map clear north-south and east-west geochemical gradients in 87Sr/86Sr across the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins: lavas with the most geochemically enriched radiogenic isotopic signatures are located in the northeast Lau Basin, while signatures of geochemical enrichment are diminished to the south and west away from the Samoan hot spot. Based on these geochemical patterns and plate reconstructions of the region, these observations are best explained by the addition of Samoa, Rurutu, and Rarotonga hot spot material over the past 4 Ma. We suggest that underplated Samoan material has been advected into the Lau Basin over the past ˜4 Ma. As the slab migrated west (and toward the Samoan plume) via rollback over time, younger and hotter (and therefore less viscous) underplated Samoan plume material was entrained. Thus, entrainment efficiency of underplated plume material was enhanced, and Samoan plume signatures in the Lau Basin became stronger as the trench approached the Samoan hot spot. The addition of subducted volcanoes from the Cook-Austral Volcanic Lineament first from the Rarotonga hot spot, then followed by the Rurutu hot spot, contributes to the extreme geochemical signatures observed in the northeast Lau Basin.

  20. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Johnson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69 g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003. Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55–9.87 g/day versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57–10.12 g/day individuals (p = 0.82. There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  2. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Liu

    2015-04-01

    Besides, during the Late Mesozoic, a huge terrestrial biota, mainly dinosaur fauna, dominated in North China. The Yanliao biota of the Middle–Late Jurassic and the Jehol biota of the Early Cretaceous are characterized by feathered dinosaurs, primitive birds, mammals, pterosaur, insects and plants (angiosperms. In northeastern Asia, this Late Mesozoic tectonic background , palaeogeoraphy and palaeoecology were shared by East China, Korean Peninsula, Japan and the Far East of Russia.

  3. Aptian ‘Shale Gas’ Prospectivity in the Downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Valentine, Brett J.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.; Dulong, Frank T.; Bove, Alana M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates regional ‘shale gas’ prospectivity of the Aptian section (primarily Pine Island Shale) in the downdip Mississippi Salt Basin (MSB). Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered gas resource of 8.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in the chronostratigraphic-equivalent Pearsall Formation in the Maverick Basin of south Texas, where industry has established a moderately successful horizontal gas and liquids play. Wells penetrating the downdip MSB Aptian section at depths of 12,000-15,000 ft were used to correlate formation tops in a 15-well cross-section extending about 200 miles (mi) east-southeastward from Adams Co. to Jackson Co. Legacy cuttings from these wells were analyzed for thermal maturity and source rock quality. Bitumen reflectance (n=53) increases with increasing present-day burial depth in the east-central study area from 1.0% to 1.7%. As the Aptian section shallows in Adams Co. to the west, bitumen Ro values are higher (1.7-2.0%), either from relatively greater heat flux or greater mid-Cenomanian uplift and erosion in this area. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges 0.01-1.21 and averages 0.5 wt.% (n=51); pyrolysis output (S2; n=51) averages 0.40 mg HC/g rock, indicating little present-day hydrocarbon-generative potential. Bitumen reflectance is preferred as a thermal maturity parameter as Tmax values are unreliable. Normalized X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineral analyses (n=26) indicate high average clay abundance (53 wt.%) relative to quartz (29%) and carbonate (18%). Mineral content shows a spatial relationship to an Appalachian orogen clastic sediment source, with proximal high clay and quartz and distal high carbonate content. Clastic influx from the Appalachian orogen is confirmed by detrital zircon U-Pb ages with dominant Grenville and Paleozoic components [105 ages from a Rodessa sandstone and 112 ages from a Paluxy (Albian) sandstone]. Preliminary information from fluid inclusion microthermometry

  4. Reconstruction of North American drainage basins and river discharge since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Wickert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last glacial cycle, ice sheets and the resultant glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA rearranged river systems. As these riverine threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea were stretched, severed, and restructured, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and time-varying drainage basin areas, and sometimes delivered enough meltwater to the oceans in the right places to influence global climate. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges, by combining models of past ice sheets, glacial isostatic adjustment, and climate. The result is a time series of synthetic paleohydrographs and drainage basin maps from the Last Glacial Maximum to present for nine major drainage basins – the Mississippi, Rio Grande, Colorado, Columbia, Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, Saint Lawrence, Hudson, and Susquehanna/Chesapeake Bay. These are based on five published reconstructions of the North American ice sheets. I compare these maps with drainage reconstructions and discharge histories based on a review of observational evidence, including river deposits and terraces, isotopic records, mineral provenance markers, glacial moraine histories, and evidence of ice stream and tunnel valley flow directions. The sharp boundaries of the reconstructed past drainage basins complement the flexurally smoothed GIA signal that is more often used to validate ice-sheet reconstructions, and provide a complementary framework to reduce nonuniqueness in model reconstructions of the North American ice-sheet complex.

  5. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution and crustal architecture of the Orphan Basin during North Atlantic rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouiza, Mohamed; Hall, Jeremy; Welford, J. Kim

    2017-04-01

    The Orphan Basin is located in the deep offshore of the Newfoundland margin, and it is bounded by the continental shelf to the west, the Grand Banks to the south, and the continental blocks of Orphan Knoll and Flemish Cap to the east. The Orphan Basin formed in Mesozoic time during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean between eastern Canada and western Iberia-Europe. This work, based on well data and regional seismic reflection profiles across the basin, indicates that the continental crust was affected by several extensional episodes between the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous, separated by events of uplift and erosion. The preserved tectono-stratigraphic sequences in the basin reveal that deformation initiated in the eastern part of the Orphan Basin in the Jurassic and spread towards the west in the Early Cretaceous, resulting in numerous rift structures filled with a Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous syn-rift succession and overlain by thick Upper Cretaceous to Cenozoic post-rift sediments. The seismic data show an extremely thinned crust (4-16 km thick) underneath the eastern and western parts of the Orphan Basin, forming two sub-basins separated by a wide structural high with a relatively thick crust (17 km thick). Quantifying the crustal architecture in the basin highlights the large discrepancy between brittle extension localized in the upper crust and the overall crustal thinning. This suggests that continental deformation in the Orphan Basin involved, in addition to the documented Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rifting, an earlier brittle rift phase which is unidentifiable in seismic data and a depth-dependent thinning of the crust driven by localized lower crust ductile flow.

  6. Knowledge and Understanding of the Hydrogeology of the Salt Basin in South-Central New Mexico and Future Study Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.; Chace, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Salt Basin covers about 2,400 square miles of south-central New Mexico and extends across the State line into Texas. As much as 57 million acre-feet of ground water may be stored within the New Mexico part of the Salt Basin of which 15 million acre-feet are potentially potable and recoverable. Recent work suggests that the volume of ground water in storage within the New Mexico portion of the Salt Basin may be substantially greater than 57 million acre-feet. In this report, aquifers contained in the San Andres, Bone Spring, and Victorio Peak Limestones and in the Yeso, Hueco, and Abo Formations are collectively referred to as the carbonate aquifer. Porosity and permeability of the major aquifer are primarily determined by the density and interconnectedness of fractures and karstic solution channels. The spatial variability of these fractures and karstic features leads to a large spatial variability in hydraulic properties in the carbonate aquifer. Ground water generally moves southward away from recharge areas along the northern border of the Salt Basin and generally moves eastward to southeastward away from areas of distributed recharge on the Otero Mesa and the Diablo Plateau. Ground water originating from these recharge areas generally moves toward the central valley. Present day discharge is mostly through ground-water withdrawal for agricultural irrigation. A zone of relatively low hydraulic gradient, corresponding to the location of the Otero Break, extends from near the Sacramento River watershed southward toward Dell City, Texas. Ground water in the carbonate aquifer generally is very hard and has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 500 to 6,500 milligrams per liter. Substantial variability exists in current estimates of (1) ground-water recharge, (2) natural ground-water discharge, (3) the volume of ground water in storage, (4) the volume of recoverable ground water, (5) the conceptual model of ground-water flow, (6) the distribution of ground

  7. Modeled sulfate concentrations in North Dakota streams, 1993-2008, based on spatial basin characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate concentration data collected from North Dakota streams during recent (1993–2008) years indicates generally higher sulfate concentrations across much of the State compared to concentrations during earlier years. The higher sulfate concentrations have been attributed in other studies to wetter climatic conditions, associated increases in contributing drainage areas, and rising water tables. The State’s current (2013) stream classification system, which includes a standard for 30-day average sulfate concentration, is based on earlier data and thus may not reflect natural conditions for more recent years. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health and the North Dakota State Water Commission, completed a study to evaluate the relation of maximum seasonal (30-day moving average) sulfate concentrations during 1993–2008 to characteristics of the contributing basins to model expected naturally-occurring sulfate concentrations in North Dakota streams.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2017-11-13

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.2-mile reach of North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding that correspond to selected water levels (stages) at the North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind., streamgage (USGS station number 03371650). Real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also shows observed USGS stages at the same site as the USGS streamgage (NWS site NFSI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current (2015) stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03371650, North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals, except for the highest profile of 22.9 ft, referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 12.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 22.9 ft, which is the highest stage of the current (2015) USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 1.9 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability of these maps, along with information regarding current stage from the USGS

  9. Soil Trace Gas Flux for Wetland Vegetation Zones in North Dakota Prairie Pothole Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. L.; Beeri, O.; Dekaiser, E. S.

    2003-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are considered a source for radiatively trace gases [methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O)] but flux data for these greenhouse gases are lacking for depressional wetlands that comprise the Prairie Pothole Region. This region is characterized by thousands of small, closed basins that extend along the Missouri Coteau from north central Iowa to central Alberta. Surrounding each body of water are conspicuous zonation patterns given by specific vegetation life-forms and soil properties that are predominately formed by basin hydrology. Basin vegetation zones include deep marsh, shallow marsh, wet meadow, low prairie, and cropland (Stewart and Kantrud,1971). Our primary objective was to determine if net greenhouse gas flux for soils in these wetland basins [mg/m2/day CO2 equivalent (IPCC, 2000)] vary with vegetative zone for prairie pothole ecosystems. These data may then be used to map estimates for total basin greenhouse gas (GHG) flux. Additionally, we aimed to find the relative contribution of each of the 3 trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to net GHG flux. We hypothesized that flux would be greatest for marsh areas and lowest for upland areas. We selected a semi-permenant prairie pothole research site in Max, ND and mapped respective vegetative zones for 3 adjacent basins. Sample points were randomly selected for each basin and zone using aerial imagery. Samples of soil gases were collected using the static chamber method on August 3, 2003, and these were analyzed using gas chromatography for CO2, CH4 and N2O the following day. Soil moisture, clay content, organic matter, and temperature data were also collected. Net greenhouse gas flux for the cropped zone soils was significantly lower (pwetland zones within these closed basin ecosystems and that CH4 contributes most to net GHG flux for these wetland soils.

  10. Location of photographs showing landslide features in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Data points represent locations of photographs taken of landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Photos were taken in spring of 2010 during field verification of landslide locations (deposits previously mapped using LiDAR-derived imagery). The photographs depict various landslide features, such as scarps, pistol-butt trees, or colluvium deposits. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  11. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  12. Top of Head Scarp and Internal Scarps for Landslide Deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data points represent head scarps, flank scarps, and minor internal scarps (linear) associated with landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin,...

  13. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the North Atlantic Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the North Atlantic Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  14. Evidence of widespread wildfires in a coal seam from the middle Permian of the North China Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Zhao, Cunliang; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Kalkreuth,Wolfgang; Qin, Shenjun

    2017-01-01

    The North China Basin is the largest coal-bearing basin in China, and has an areal extent of 800,000 km2. We analyzed 138 coal samples and in situ pillar coal samples of the middle Permian from this basin by macropetrography, microscope, scanning electron microscope, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometer in order to study wildfires. High contents of inertinite (charcoal) and natural coke particles observed in coal samples indicate that vegetation in precursor mires and ...

  15. Use of Landsat Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Indices for Monitoring Drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Osman; Ekercin, Semih; Dadaser-Celik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST) changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R 2) values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2°C) in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984–2011). Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5–2°C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin. PMID:24587709

  16. Interaction between continental sedimentation and salt tectonic in Emirhan and Karayün minibasins, (the Sivas Basin, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Charlotte; Kergaravat, Charlie; Bonnel, Cédric; Datillo, Paolo; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between salt tectonic and sedimentation are of primary interest to understand the formation and evolution of mini-basins, as well as the complex sedimentary architecture related to interplay between evaporite flow and sediment transport and deposition. The Sivas basin, located on the Central Anatolian plateau (Turkey), is an elongated Oligo-Miocene sag basin that developed in an orogenic context above the complex Taurus-Pontides suture. The core of the basin presents evaporite-related structures which developed following the deposition of the thick evaporitic Hafik Formation (Early Oligocene). This part of the basin shows numerous mini-basins separated by evaporites structures such as welds, glaciers and diapirs of various shapes. The filling of these mini-basins began during the late Oligocene with continental red clastics (Karayün Fm.), capped by shallow marine deposits (Karacaören Fm.) during the Middle Miocene. Our work is focused on the Emirhan and Karayün minibasins, which show a 4km sedimentary pile surrounded by evaporites structures. Based on sedimentary sections and geological field mapping, we defined three major sedimentological sequences characterized by first general sediment progradation, from distal facies as alluvial plain to proximal facies such as fluvial and alluvial system. Then the minibasins record a retrogradation with a progressive disconnection from the fluvial system, locally associated to lacustrine deposits. The last stage of evolution is a regional transgression, characterized by shallow marine deposit such as lagoonal facies. Despite this same trend, several differences have been identified between the two minibasins. Six units corresponding to six facies associations are defined in both minibasins. Limits of these units coincide with an imbalance of sedimentation, evidenced by strong connection from sediment source or disconnection. The geometry of sedimentary units present an important variability, either sub

  17. Pleistocene deformations in the contexte of the Rharb foredeep basin (north western Atlantic Moroccan margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maad, N.; Le Roy, P.; Sahabi, M.; Gutscher, M. A.; Dakki, M.; Hssain, M.; van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Brahim, L. Ait; M'hammdi, N.; Trenteseaux, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study relates to the Cenozoic post rift deformations of Rharb foredeep basin in response to the Europe-Africa convergence. Here we are going to retail the tectonic structures of the Rharb basin, in particular the active front of the Prerifaine nappe in the area of Lalla Zahra. The method is based on the interpretations of the high resolution seismic reflection data acquired during the Protit2 (2003) and the Nomads cruises (2007). The surveys were conducted by the University of Brest in France and the Faculté des Sciences d'El Jadida in Morocco. They allowed to record more than 2000 km of seismic lines through the Rharb continental shelf. The integration of new data with industrial seismic lines provided by ONHYM and field observations collected along the coastline allows us to identify the formation and the recent evolution of the western termination of the Southern Rif Corridor. This coastal basin corresponds to the foredeep basin linked to the Rif Cordillera and extends southwards through the northern Moroccan Meseta that defines the foreland region of the Western Rif (Flinch,93). The integrated study clarifies the post-nappe evolution of the offshore Rharb basin during Neogene and quaternary times. A succession of deformations affect the Rharb basin with separating episodes of relaxation and quiescence. Their ages are based on chronostratigraphical attribution of mean unconformities. A Lower Pliocene episode is characterized by reactivation of faults affecting the Nappe. The uplift of the basin and the individualization of the Lallah Zarah ridge increases and controls the terrigenous fluxes. A Middle Pleistocene still active episode and corresponds to a new uplift of the two margins of the basin. Faulting remains more active in the North along the Lallah Zarah ridge and offshore Larache where large active listric faults are observed. The progressive segmentation of the basin determinates the sedimentary filling with cyclic sequences extending progressively

  18. Limited access to iodized salt among the poor and disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Tapas Kumar; Das, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Roy, Rabindranath

    2010-08-01

    Iodine deficiency is endemic in West Bengal as evident from earlier studies. This community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district during August-November 2005 to assess the consumption of adequately-iodized salt and to ascertain the various factors that influence access to iodized salt. In total, 506 households selected using the multi-stage cluster-sampling technique and all 79 retail shops from where the study households buy salt were surveyed. The iodine content of salt was tested by spot iodine-testing kits. Seventy-three percent of the households consumed salt with adequate iodine content (> or = 15 ppm). Consumption of adequately-iodized salt was lower among rural residents [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-0.9], Muslims (PR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), and households with monthly per-capita income of ban on non-iodized salt were more likely to consume adequately-iodized salt (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.01-1.3). The iodine content was higher in salt sold in sealed packets (PR: 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.8) and stored on shelves (PR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0). Seventy-two percent of the salt samples from the retail shops had the iodine content of > or = 15 ppm. The findings indicate that elimination of iodine deficiency will require targeting the vulnerable and poor population.

  19. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  20. Sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic deposits in the North German Basin (Lower Saxony Basin, Süntel Mountains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huaqing; Betzler, Christian; Erbacher, Jochen; Zuo, Fanfan

    2017-04-01

    A core recovered in the North German Basin at the locality of Eulenflucht in the Süntel Mountains, 30 km SE of Hannover, Germany, documents the Oxfordian to Kimmeridgian sequence stratigraphy of this basin. Thirteen different facies are recognized which reflect an outer ramp to restricted hypersaline lagoon evolution. Changes in grain size, variations in the amount of components, fluctuations of the matrix content and of the microscopic texture, as well as vertical lithofacies stacking patterns are integrated to define short-term sequences. Medium-term sequences are identified by changes in facies combinations and the bundling of short-term sequences. Long-term sequences are differentiated by facies proportion statistics in the distinct medium-term sequences. This allows to present a complete sequence stratigraphic subdivision of the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian succession. The stable carbon isotopic composition of bulk samples enables a correlation with chemostratigraphic records found elsewhere. This result is supported by an ostracod stratigraphy that allows a chronostratigraphic assignment of the succession. The medium-term sequences are estimated to be driven by 400 kyr long-term Milankovitch eccentricity cycles. The long-term sequences are dominated by climate and local tectonic movements. It is proposed that a shallowing trend during the Kimmeridgian time was induced by regional uplift.

  1. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  2. The Tangshan Earthquake Sequence and its implications for the evolution of the North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    NáBěLek, John; Chen, Wang-Ping; Ye, Hong

    1987-11-01

    The 1976 Tangshan earthquake sequence that occurred on the northern margin of the North China sedimentary basin is one of the strongest and most destructive intracontinental earthquake sequences ever recorded by worldwide long-period seismograph networks. We have studied the source process of the six largest events of this earthquake sequence by formally inverting long-period P and SH wave seismograms from the World-Wide Standardized Seismographic Network. Our analysis shows that the main shock was caused by motion on at least three fault segments, each with a different orientation. The initial, and dominant, faulting occurred on two segments of a north-northeast trending right-lateral strike-slip fault system. The last stage of faulting had a significant component of thrusting and occurred on an east-northeast trending subsidiary fault at the southern end of the main fault. The largest aftershock occurred at the northeastern end of the main fault and had a nearly pure normal faulting mechanism with east-west striking nodal planes. This event occurred in a pull-apart region where the north-northeast trending main strike-slip fault system steps to the right. This region subsided by more than 1 m during the earthquake sequence. To the north of this step the main fault is delineated by numerous aftershocks whose mechanisms are by-and-large consistent with right-lateral slip on this segment. The large event in 1945 (M = 6.3) probably occurred on this part of the fault. A region of substantial subsidence (up to 1.5 m) associated with the earthquake sequence was also observed in the south, where the main fault system takes another step to the right. Two of the large aftershocks occurred nearby and had strike-slip mechanisms. The overall faulting process of the Tangshan sequence is well characterized by right-lateral slip on a set of right-stepping faults. The mechanisms and the points of nucleation of the strongest shocks, and the extent of the ruptures, appear to be

  3. Late quaternary geomorphology of the Great Salt Lake region, Utah, and other hydrographically closed basins in the western United States: A summary of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Attributes of Quaternary lakes and lake basins which are often important in the environmental prehistory of semideserts are discussed. Basin-floor and basin-closure morphometry have set limits on paleolake sizes; lake morphometry and basin drainage patterns have influenced lacustrine processes; and water and sediment loads have influenced basin neotectonics. Information regarding inundated, runoff-producing, and extra-basin spatial domains is acquired directly from the paleolake record, including the littoral morphostratigraphic record, and indirectly by reconstruction. Increasingly detailed hypotheses regarding Lake Bonneville, the largest late Pleistocene paleolake in the Great Basin, are subjects for further testing and refinement. Oscillating transgression of Lake Bonneville began about 28,000 yr B.P.; the highest stage occurred about 15,000 yr B.P., and termination occurred abruptly about 13,000 yr B.P. A final resurgence of perennial lakes probably occurred in many subbasins of the Great Basin between 11,000 and 10,000 yr B.P., when the highest stage of Great Salt Lake (successor to Lake Bonneville) developed the Gilbert shoreline. The highest post-Gilbert stage of Great Salt Lake, which has been one of the few permanent lakes in the Great Basin during Holocene time, probably occurred between 3,000 and 2,000 yr B.P.

  4. Finding the lost segment of the North Anatolian Fault in the Bursa Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutoglu, S. H.; Deguchi, T.; Gundogdu, O.; Seker, D. Z.; Kuscu, S.

    2011-12-01

    After the 1999 Golcuk Mw=7.4, the seismic stress of the North Anatolian Fault has been transferred onto the segments in the Marmara Sea. The NAF is separated to three branches around the Marmara region; one branch runs into the Marmara Sea from the Yalova-Cinarcik location in the north, the second branch runs into the Marmara Sea from the Gemlik location in the south, and the last one goes toward the Bursa basin from the Sakarya-Pamukova location in the lower south. Some researchers consider that the south branch, which experienced the last major earthquake in the year 1064, poses a danger as much as the north branch.For that reason, this study has been conducted for monitoring the fault activities around the Bursa basin. In this respect, the four Palsar data having the best baseline condition have been obtained between the years 2007-2010. The processing of these data have been resulted in significant deformation interferograms for the data pairs of 31st Oct 2007-8th May 2010 and 31st Jan. 2008-24th Dec. 2010. There are seen deformation anomalies in the Bursa basin along 33 km long in E-W direction and 4.5 km long in N-S direction. The shape of the deformation fringes points out that there is a right lateral strike slip fault line passing through the Bursa basin. The geomorphologic characteristics in the region make us think this fault line may connect to the Sakarya-Geyve branch of the North Anatolian Fault system. The maximum amount of the deformation around the fault line has been determined 18 cm in three years. This amount is too much in comparison to 2.2 cm/yr slip rate of the NAF. As the deformation anomalies are investigated in detail a contraction draws attention, overlapping with a right lateral strike slip motion. Consequently, it can precociously be sad that there exits an uplifting combining with the lateral motion. In addition, significant deformation anomalies have been detected on the Gemlik location where the Iznik fault segment reaches the

  5. A MAP MASH-UP APPLICATION: INVESTIGATION THE TEMPORAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON SALT LAKE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kirtiloglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate climate change effects that have been occurred at the beginning of the twenty-first century at the Konya Closed Basin (KCB located in the semi-arid central Anatolian region of Turkey and particularly in Salt Lake region where many major wetlands located in and situated in KCB and to share the analysis results online in a Web Geographical Information System (GIS environment. 71 Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images and meteorological data obtained from 10 meteorological stations have been used at the scope of this work. 56 of Landsat images have been used for extraction of Salt Lake surface area through multi-temporal Landsat imagery collected from 2000 to 2014 in Salt lake basin. 15 of Landsat images have been used to make thematic maps of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI in KCB, and 10 meteorological stations data has been used to generate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, which was used in drought studies. For the purpose of visualizing and sharing the results, a Web GIS-like environment has been established by using Google Maps and its useful data storage and manipulating product Fusion Tables which are all Google’s free of charge Web service elements. The infrastructure of web application includes HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, Google Maps API V3 and Google Fusion Tables API technologies. These technologies make it possible to make effective “Map Mash-Ups” involving an embedded Google Map in a Web page, storing the spatial or tabular data in Fusion Tables and add this data as a map layer on embedded map. The analysing process and map mash-up application have been discussed in detail as the main sections of this paper.

  6. Statistical Aspects of Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin, 1945-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Examined are statistical aspects of the 715 tropical cyclones that formed in the North Atlantic basin during the interval 1945-2010. These 715 tropical cyclones include 306 storms that attained only tropical storm strength, 409 hurricanes, 179 major or intense hurricanes, and 108 storms that struck the US coastline as hurricanes. Comparisons made using 10-year moving average (10-yma) values between tropical cyclone parametric values and surface air and ENSO-related parametric values indicate strong correlations to exist, in particular, against the Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) surface air temperature, the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index, the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) index, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, in addition to the Oceanic Ni o index (ONI) and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) indices. Also examined are the decadal variations of the tropical cyclone parametric values and a look ahead towards the 2012 hurricane season and beyond.

  7. Geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin pertinent to the storage of radioactive wastes; a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Salt domes in northern Louisiana are being considered as possible storage sites for nuclear wastes. The domes are in an area that received regional sedimentation through early Tertiary (Eocene) time with lesser amounts of Quaternary deposits. The Cretaceous-Tertiary accumulation is a few thousand feet thick; the major sands are regional aquifers that extend far beyond the boundaries of the salt-dome basin. Because of multiple aquifers, structural deformation, and variations in the hydraulic characteristics of cap rock, the ground-water hydrology around a salt dome may be highly complex. The Sparta Sand is the most productive and heavily used regional aquifer. It is either penetrated by or overlies most of the domes. A fluid entering the Sparta flow system would move toward one of the pumping centers, all at or near municipalities that pump from the Sparta. Movement could be toward surface drainage where local geologic and hydrologic conditions permit leakage to the surface or to a surficial aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  9. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data

  10. Landslide deposit boundaries for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This layer is an inventory of existing landslides deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide deposit shown on this map has been classified according to a number of specific characteristics identified at the time recorded in the GIS database. The classification scheme was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009). Several significant landslide characteristics recorded in the database are portrayed with symbology on this map. The specific characteristics shown for each landslide are the activity of landsliding, landslide features, deep or shallow failure, type of landslide movement, and confidence of landslide interpretation. These landslide characteristics are determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features, or landforms, observed for each landslide. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey.Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  11. Oligocene dinoflagellate cysts from the North Alpine Foreland Basin: new data from the Eggerding Formation (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ali

    2012-02-01

    In spite of detailed geological and geophysical investigations, information available on palynostratigraphy for the successions deposited in the Austrian part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) is scanty. For the first time, relatively diverse and well preserved Oligocene dinocyst assemblages, comprising 53 genera and 138 species, are presented from the organic-rich sediments of the Eggerding Formation. These assemblages contribute to the biostratigraphy of the Oligocene deposits within the NAFB. Dinocysts such as Chiropteridium lobospinosum, Membranophoridium aspinatum, Cordosphaeridium spp., Enneadocysta spp., Deflandrea spp., Spiniferites/Achomosphaera group, Hystrichokolpoma spp., Apteodinium spp., Glaphyrocysta/Areoligera complex and Wetzeliella spp. represent the main palynological elements. The occurrence of Chiropteridium spp., Tuberculodinium vancampoae, Distatodinium biffii and Wetzeliella gochtii is of particular importance for regional correlations within the Lower Oligocene sediments. A comparison with age-controlled assemblages from the North Sea Basin, Carpathian and circum-Mediterranean regions substantiate the attribution to the Rupelian. Lack or sporadic occurrence of the oceanic taxa (e.g. Nematosphaeropsis and Impagidinium) and dominance of Glaphyrocysta/Areoligera indicate an inner-neritic marine setting during the deposition of the studied intervals. Although, it is difficult to reconstruct precisely the climatic conditions based on the recorded dinocysts, warm? sea surface water is suggested. A variation in salinities is interpreted based on the abundances of Homotryblium spp. The abundance of Peridiniaceae taxa (e.g. Lejeunecysta, Wetzeliella, and Deflandrea) indicates nutrient-rich surface water.

  12. A new structural model of the Pachitea Basin, Peru: Interaction of thick-skinned tectonics and salt detached thrusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J.; Rebaza, J.; Westlund, D.; Stratton, M.; Alegria, C.

    2015-11-01

    We present four new structural transects, a new seismo-stratigraphic correlation, a refined structural model and new shortening rates for the Pachitea Basin (=PB), Peru. Our results are based on the integration and detailed interpretation of newly acquired industry seismic (2D, 2005 vintage), existing well data, existing and proprietary surface geology data and newly acquired aero magnetic data (2007 vintage). Our assessment confirms the presence of at least four distinct structural styles in the area, thick-skinned structures, thin-skinned detachment thrusting, salt-tectonics and localized strike-slip tectonics. Based on seismo-stratigraphic correlations we conclude that the oldest rocks carried to outcrop by the San Matias (=SM) thrust are of Jurassic age. We interpret the thin-skinned master detachment to be located in varying positions, directly below or above, autochtonous salt pillows. Timing assessment of the SM thrust sheet reveals that it has been active from at least ∼5 Ma to post-2 Ma, supporting regionally published timing data for this latitude. Positive topographic surface expressions indicate ongoing contraction along the mountain front of the Peruvian Eastern Cordillera (=EC). Across the PB we calculate between 2.6% and 5.5% for thick-skinned shortening and at least 25.5% for the thin-skinned shortening. For the SM thrust sheet we calculate a slip-rate of ∼1-1.6 mm/yr, which is in line with published slip rates on individual thrusts from around the world. Observations along the SM thrust system indicate that thin- and thick-skinned systems interact mechanically, and that they have been active intermittently. We conclude that the location of salt pillows as well as pre-existing or growing basement-involved structures helped trigger the SM thrust. Different types of salt bodies are present in the PB, autochtonous pillows, slightly thrusted pillows and allochtonous diapirs. Our results provide new insight into the structural interplay, particularly

  13. Meso–Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure in the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxing Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Bay Basin is a region where part of the North China Craton has been thinned and destroyed. It has experienced two periods of crustal thinning that occurred during the Cretaceous and Paleogene, but investigations of its Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure are limited. Therefore, in this study, the distributions of mantle heat flow, crustal heat flow, and Moho temperatures during the Meso–Cenozoic are calculated based on analyses of the thermal history of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that the ratio of mantle heat flow to surface heat flow peaked during the late stages of the early Cretaceous and during the middle to late Paleogene. The corresponding mantle heat flow was more than 65% of the surface heat flow. Moho temperatures reached three peaks: 900–1100 °C in the late stages of the early Cretaceous; 820–900 °C in the middle to late Paleogene; and (in the Linqing Depression, Cangxian Uplift, and Jizhong Depression 770–810 °C during the early Neogene. These results reveal that the Bohai Bay Basin experienced significant geological change during the Cretaceous, including the transformation of lithospheric thermal structure from “cold mantle and hot crust” before the Cretaceous to “hot mantle and cold crust” after the Cretaceous. The results also indicate that the basin experienced two large-scale rifting events. Therefore, this work may provide the thermal parameters for further investigations of the geodynamic evolution of eastern China.

  14. Salt or ice diapirism origin for the honeycomb terrain in Hellas basin, Mars?: Implications for the early martian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David K.; Head, James W.

    2017-03-01

    The "honeycomb" terrain is a Noachian-aged cluster of ∼7 km wide linear cell-like depressions located on the northwestern floor of Hellas basin, Mars. A variety of origins have been proposed for the honeycomb terrain, including deformation rings of subglacial sediment, frozen convection cells from a Hellas impact melt sheet, a swarm of igneous batholiths, salt diapirism, and ice diapirism. Recent work has shown that the salt or ice diapirism scenarios appear to be most consistent with the morphology and morphometry of the honeycomb terrain. The salt and ice diapirism scenarios have different implications for the ancient martian climate and hydrological cycle, and so distinguishing between the two scenarios is critical. In this study, we specifically test whether the honeycomb terrain is consistent with a salt or ice diapir origin. We use thermal modeling to assess the stability limits on the thickness of an ice or salt diapir-forming layer at depth within the Hellas basin. We also apply analytical models for diapir formation to evaluate the predicted diapir wavelengths in order to compare with observations. Ice diapirism is generally predicted to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths for ∼100 m to ∼1 km thick ice deposits. Gypsum and kieserite diapirism is generally predicted to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths for ≥ 600-1000 m thick salt deposits, but only with a basaltic overburden. Halite diapirism generally requires approx. ≥ 1 km thick halite deposits in order to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths. Hellas basin is a distinctive environment for diapirism on Mars due to its thin crust (which reduces surface heat flux), low elevation (which allows Hellas to act as a water/ice/sediment sink and increases the surface temperature), and location within the southern highlands (which may provide proximity to inflowing saline water or glacial ice). The plausibility of an ice diapir mechanism generally requires temperatures ≤ 250

  15. The problem of salt waters and its influence on the rivers in the Odra river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdziorz, A.; Lach, R.; Korczak, K.; Pluta, I.; Niedziocha, Z.; Dziewulski, M.; Lach, H.; Filipek, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Water Protection

    1997-12-31

    Coal mining in the Odra and Wisla river basins in Poland gives rise to salination of the rivers Olza, Klodnica, Ruda and Nacyna, and Bierawka. This causes problems in use of river water for drinking water, for irrigation and for industrial applications and causes corrosion of water facilities. The paper discusses the water pollution due to mine drainage in the Odra basin and then reviews methods to reduce this (by desalination, hydrotechnological methods, hydrogeological methods (recirculation and deep roll injection), and mining methods). 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Climatology, hydrology, and simulation of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, A.V.; Osborne, Leon; Wood, Carrie M.; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Devils Lake is a natural lake in northeastern North Dakota that is the terminus of a nearly 4,000-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin. The lake has not reached its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (a tributary of the Red River of the North) in recorded history. However, geologic evidence indicates a spill occurred sometime within the last 1,800 years. From 1993 to 1999, Devils Lake rose 24.5 feet and, at the present (August 2000), is about 13 feet below the natural spill elevation. The recent lake-level rise has caused flood damages exceeding $300 million and triggered development of future flood-control options to prevent further infrastructure damage and reduce the risk of a potentially catastrophic uncontrolled spill. Construction of an emergency outlet from the west end of Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River is one flood-control option being considered. This report describes the climatologic and hydrologic causes of the recent lake level rise, provides information on the potential for continued lake-level rises during the next 15 years, and describes the potential effectiveness of an emergency outlet in reducing future lake levels and in reducing the risk of an uncontrolled spill. The potential effects of an outlet on downstream water quantity and quality in the upper Sheyenne River also are described.

  17. Patterns of genetic diversity in Hepatozoon spp. infecting snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P; Salvi, Daniele; Brito, José C; Carretero, Miguel A; Perera, Ana; Meimberg, Harald; Harris, David James

    2014-03-01

    Species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 are blood parasites most commonly found in snakes but some have been described from all tetrapod groups and a wide variety of hematophagous invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested possible associations between Hepatozoon spp. found in predators and prey. Particularly, some saurophagous snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean region have been found to be infected with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those of various sympatric lizard hosts. In this study, we have screened tissue samples of 111 North African and Mediterranean snakes, using specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, the newly-generated Hepatozoon spp. sequences grouped separately into five main clusters. Three of these clusters were composed by Hepatozoon spp. also found in snakes and other reptiles from the Mediterranean Basin and North Africa. In the other two clusters, the new sequences were not closely related to geographically proximate known sequences. The phylogeny of Hepatozoon spp. inferred here was not associated with intermediate host taxonomy or geographical distribution. From the other factors that could explain these evolutionary patterns, the most likely seems series of intermediate hosts providing similar ribotypes of Hepatozoon and a high prevalence of host shifts for Hepatozoon spp. This is indicated by ribotypes of high similarity found in different reptile families, as well as by divergent ribotypes found in the same host species. This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp.

  18. Generalized hydrogeology and ground-water budget for the C Aquifer, Little Colorado River Basin and parts of the Verde and Salt River Basins, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Ward, John J.; Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    The C aquifer underlies the Little Colorado River Basin and parts of the Verde and Salt River Basins and is named for the primary water-bearing rock unit of the aquifer, the Coconino Sandstone. The areal extent of this aquifer is more than 27,000 square miles. More than 1,000 well and spring sites were identified in the U.S. Geological Survey database for the C aquifer in Arizona and New Mexico. The C aquifer is the most productive aquifer in the Little Colorado River Basin. The Little Colorado River is the primary surface-water feature in the area, and it has a direct hydraulic connection with the C aquifer in some areas. Spring discharge as base flow from the C aquifer occurs predominantly in the lower 13 miles of the Little Colorado River subsequent to downward leakage into the deeper Redwall-Muav Limestone aquifer. Ground-water mounds or divides exist along the southern and northeastern boundaries of the Little Colorado River Basin. The ground-water divides are significant boundaries of the C aquifer; however, the location and persistence of the divides potentially can be affected by ground-water withdrawals. Ground-water development in the C aquifer has increased steadily since the 1940s because population growth has produced an increased need for agricultural, industrial, and public water supply. Ground-water pumpage from the C aquifer during 1995 was about 140,000 acre-feet. Ground-water budget components for the C aquifer were evaluated using measured or estimated discharge values. The system was assumed to be in a steady-state condition with respect to natural recharge and discharge, and the stability of discharge from major springs during the past several decades supported the steady-state assumption. Downward leakage to the Redwall-Muav Limestone aquifer is a major discharge component for the ground-water budget. Discharge from the C aquifer is estimated to be 319,000 acre-feet per year.

  19. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.

    1997-01-01

    on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical...... body. Mn/Fe-ratios in longer sediment cores thus have a potential to reconstruct chemical regimes of the deep water of the Baltic Sea in the past and indirectly trace variability in the strength and frequency of storms over the North Sea and the North Atlantic during the Holocene. Copyright (C) 1996......-pressure areas over the North Atlantic in more recent times. The last three events have also been observed by hydrographic measurements. During the long time stagnation periods, Fe and Mn will be segregated into a particulate phase (iron sulfide) which accumulates at the seafloor and a dissolved phase (Mn2...

  20. Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin During the Weather Satellite Era, 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) represents an extension of previous work concerning the tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic basin during the weather satellite era, 1960-2014, in particular, that of an article published in The Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science. With the launch of the TIROS-1 polar-orbiting satellite in April 1960, a new era of global weather observation and monitoring began. Prior to this, the conditions of the North Atlantic basin were determined only from ship reports, island reports, and long-range aircraft reconnaissance. Consequently, storms that formed far from land, away from shipping lanes, and beyond the reach of aircraft possibly could be missed altogether, thereby leading to an underestimate of the true number of tropical cyclones forming in the basin. Additionally, new analysis techniques have come into use which sometimes has led to the inclusion of one or more storms at the end of a nominal hurricane season that otherwise would not have been included. In this TP, examined are the yearly (or seasonal) and 10-year moving average (10-year moving average) values of the (1) first storm day (FSD), last storm day (LSD), and length of season (LOS); (2) frequencies of tropical cyclones (by class); (3) average peak 1-minute sustained wind speed () and average lowest pressure (); (4) average genesis location in terms of north latitudinal () and west longitudinal () positions; (5) sum and average power dissipation index (); (6) sum and average accumulated cyclone energy (); (7) sum and average number of storm days (); (8) sum of the number of hurricane days (NHD) and number of major hurricane days (NMHD); (9) net tropical cyclone activity index (NTCA); (10) largest individual storm (LIS) PWS, LP, PDI, ACE, NSD, NHD, NMHD; and (11) number of category 4 and 5 hurricanes (N4/5). Also examined are the December-May (D-M) and June-November (J-N) averages and 10-year moving average values of several climatic factors, including the (1

  1. Intake of low sodium salt substitute for 3years attenuates the increase in blood pressure in a rural population of North China - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Webster, Jacqui; Fu, Ling-Yu; Wang, Hai-Long; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen-Li; Shi, Jing-Pu

    2016-07-15

    Lowering salt intake is one of the successful and cost-effective methods to reduce blood pressure (BP). In this randomized controlled study, we investigated the effects of a 3-year substitution of table salt with a low-sodium salt substitute in a rural population of North China. Subjects from 200 families residing in five villages in Liaoning, North China were registered in this study and randomly divided into two groups: normal salt (100% sodium chloride) and low salt substitute (65% NaCl, 25% KCl, 10% MgSO4). We compared the effects of the low-sodium salt substitute and normal salt on differences in BP from baseline to various follow-up time points during this 3-year study period. We also examined several factors that may affect the long-term changes in BP. Hypertension was defined per World Health Organization guidelines as BP≥140/90mmHg. The low sodium substitute significantly reduced the increase in both systolic and diastolic BP compared with the regular salt (P=0.000). Also, the population aged 40-70years showed most beneficial response to the salt substitute compared with those aged 70years. The low salt substitute had similar beneficial effects in both males and females. In addition, the salt type consumed and body mass index significantly affected the change in BP. Use of the salt substitute significantly reduces the increase in BP over a long term, and thus, the salt substitute can be used as a replacement for regular salt in the daily diet to prevent/diminish the incidence of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Min H.

    1991-09-10

    Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

  3. Geodynamical Nature of the Formation of Large Plates of Platforms, Jointed in North Caspian Oil and Gas Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitov, Nassipkali; Tulegenova, Gulmira P.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problems of tectonic zoning and determination of geodynamical nature of the formation of jointed tectonic structures within the North Caspian oil and gas basin, represented by Caspian Depression of Russian platform of East European Pre-Cambrian Craton and plate ancient Precambrian Platform stabilization and Turan…

  4. Thin- and thick-skinned salt tectonics in the Netherlands: a quantitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Gessel, S.F. van; Dulk, M. den

    2012-01-01

    The Zechstein salt in the Dutch part of the North Sea Basin played a key role in the generation of successful petroleum plays. This is not only because of its sealing capacity, but also because the salt occurs in structures that provide lateral and vertical traps. The structural styles of areas with

  5. Evolution characteristic of gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm in the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghong Yi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over years of oil and gas exploration in the Qaidam Basin, reservoirs have been discovered in many layers. In the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin, the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm is an important target for oil and gas exploration, and gypsum-salt rocks are the high-quality caprocks for the preservation of oil and gas reservoirs in this area. For predicting oil and gas exploration direction and target in the western Qaidam Basin and providing guidance for its oil and gas exploration deployment, its depositional characteristics and environment of gypsum-salt rocks in this area were investigated based on the core observation, thin section identification, and analysis of grain size, sensitivity parameter ratios (Sr/Cu, Fe/Mn, (Fe + Al/(Ca + Mg, V/(V + Ni and Pr/Ph, pyrite content and inclusions. The following characteristics are identified. First, gypsum-salt rocks are mainly distributed in the depocenter of the lake basin and their thickness decreases towards the margin of the basin. They are laterally transformed into carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. They are areally distributed in the shape of irregular ellipse. Second, gypsum-salt rocks are vertically developed mainly in the middle and upper parts of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm and they are interbedded with carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. Their single layer thickness changes greatly, and there are many layers with good continuity. Third, Sand Group III to Group I in the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm (inter-salt are of reductive water environment of semi-deep to deep lake facies due to their sedimentation in an arid and hot climate. It is concluded that gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm are distributed widely with great accumulative thickness in this area; and that they are originated from deep lake water by virtue of evaporation, concentration and crystallization in an arid and hot climate instead

  6. Paleozoic basins in the North Sea: New images from reprocessed and pre-stack depth migrated MONA LISA data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viejo, G.F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geol. Inst. (Denmark); Laigle, M. [Inst. de Physique du Globe de Paris (France); Ranero, C. [GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the North Sea has been extensively studied due to the wealth of data largely related to hydrocarbon exploration. However, Paleozoic strata beneath the Mesozoic sequences have only been inferred due to poor seismic imaging or potential field data. The low prospectivity for hydrocarbon has resulted in lack of borehole information of this geological time span in the southeastern North Sea. In this study we present images of large Paleozoic basins obtained through reporcessing and prestack depth migration of seismic data from the MONA LISA project. The depth images show in detail the structur of pre-Permian basins and help to understand the tectonic evolution of the Danish basin and the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. (au)

  7. Seismic shaking in the North China Basin expected from ruptures of a possible seismic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Benchun; Liu, Dunyu; Yin, An

    2017-05-01

    A 160 km long seismic gap, which has not been ruptured over 8000 years, was identified recently in North China. In this study, we use a dynamic source model and a newly available high-resolution 3-D velocity structure to simulate long-period ground motion (up to 0.5 Hz) from possibly worst case rupture scenarios of the seismic gap. We find that the characteristics of the earthquake source and the local geologic structure play a critical role in controlling the amplitude and distribution of the simulated strong ground shaking. Rupture directivity and slip asperities can result in large-amplitude (i.e., >1 m/s) ground shaking near the fault, whereas long-duration shaking may occur within sedimentary basins. In particular, a deep and closed Quaternary basin between Beijing and Tianjin can lead to ground shaking of several tens of cm/s for more than 1 min. These results may provide a sound basis for seismic mitigation in one of the most populated regions in the world.

  8. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip highlights recent research into the Laramide uplift, erosion, and sedimentation on the western side of the northern Colorado Front Range. The Laramide history of the North Park?Middle Park basin (designated the Colorado Headwaters Basin in this paper) is distinctly different from that of the Denver basin on the eastern flank of the range. The Denver basin stratigraphy records the transition from Late Cretaceous marine shale to recessional shoreline sandstones to continental, fluvial, marsh, and coal mires environments, followed by orogenic sediments that span the K-T boundary. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene strata in the Denver basin consist of two mega-fan complexes that are separated by a 9 million-year interval of erosion/non-deposition between about 63 and 54 Ma. In contrast, the marine shale unit on the western flank of the Front Range was deeply eroded over most of the area of the Colorado Headwaters Basin (approximately one km removed) prior to any orogenic sediment accumulation. New 40Ar-39Ar ages indicate the oldest sediments on the western flank of the Front Range were as young as about 61 Ma. They comprise the Windy Gap Volcanic Member of the Middle Park Formation, which consists of coarse, immature volcanic conglomerates derived from nearby alkalic-mafic volcanic edifices that were forming at about 65?61 Ma. Clasts of Proterozoic granite, pegmatite, and gneiss (eroded from the uplifted core of the Front Range) seem to arrive in the Colorado Headwaters Basin at different times in different places, but they become dominant in arkosic sandstones and conglomerates about one km above the base of the Colorado Headwaters Basin section. Paleocurrent trends suggest the southern end of the Colorado Headwaters Basin was structurally closed because all fluvial deposits show a northward component of transport. Lacustrine depositional environments are indicated by various sedimentological features in several sections within the >3 km of sediment

  9. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  10. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilili Abuduwaili

    Full Text Available Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1 Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2 The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2>B(400g.m-2>C(300g.m-2>D(200g.m-2>E(100g.m-2>F(0g.m-2. (3The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the

  11. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  12. The Disastrous Effects of Salt Dust Deposition on Cotton Leaf Photosynthesis and the Cell Physiological Properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  13. Vesta's north pole quadrangle Av-1 (Albana): Geologic map and the nature of the south polar basin antipodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, David T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Scully, Jennifer E.; O'Brien, David P.; Gaskell, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Bowling, Timothy J.; Ermakov, Anton; Hiesinger, Harald; Williams, David A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2014-12-01

    As part of systematic global mapping of Vesta using data returned by the Dawn spacecraft, we have produced a geologic map of the north pole quadrangle, Av-1 Albana. Extensive seasonal shadows were present in the north polar region at the time of the Dawn observations, limiting the ability to map morphological features and employ color or spectral data for determination of composition. The major recognizable units present include ancient cratered highlands and younger crater-related units (undivided ejecta, and mass-wasting material on crater floors). The antipode of Vesta's large southern impact basins, Rheasilvia and Veneneia, lie within or near the Av-1 quadrangle. Therefore it is of particular interest to search for evidence of features of the kind that are found at basin antipodes on other planetary bodies. Albedo markings known as lunar swirls are correlated with basin antipodes and the presence of crustal magnetic anomalies on the Moon, but lighting conditions preclude recognition of such albedo features in images of the antipode of Vesta's Rheasilvia basin. “Hilly and lineated terrain,” found at the antipodes of large basins on the Moon and Mercury, is not present at the Rheasilvia or Veneneia antipodes. We have identified small-scale linear depressions that may be related to increased fracturing in the Rheasilvia and Veneneia antipodal areas, consistent with impact-induced stresses (Buczkowski, D. et al. [2012b]. Analysis of the large scale troughs on Vesta and correlation to a model of giant impact into a differentiated asteroid. Geol. Soc. of America Annual Meeting. Abstract 152-4; Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20123). The general high elevation of much of the north polar region could, in part, be a result of uplift caused by the Rheasilvia basin-forming impact, as predicted by numerical modeling (Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre

  14. Water Quality and Algal Data for the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2006-01-01

    The upper North Umpqua River Basin has experienced a variety of water-quality problems since at least the early 1990's. Several reaches of the North Umpqua River are listed as water-quality limited under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Diamond Lake, a eutrophic lake that is an important source of water and nutrients to the upper North Umpqua River, is also listed as a water-quality limited waterbody (pH, nuisance algae). A draft Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) was proposed for various parameters and is expected to be adopted in full in 2006. Diamond Lake has supported potentially toxic blue-green algae blooms since 2001 that have resulted in closures to recreational water contact and impacts to the local economy. Increased populations of the invasive tui chub fish are reportedly responsible, because they feed on zooplankton that would otherwise control the algal blooms. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Diamond Lake Restoration Project advocates reduced fish biomass in Diamond Lake in 2006 as the preferred alternative. A restoration project scheduled to reduce fish biomass for the lake includes a significant water-level drawdown that began in January 2006. After the drawdown of Diamond Lake, the fish toxicant rotenone was applied to eradicate the tui chub. The lake will be refilled and restocked with game fish in 2007. Winter exports of nutrients from Diamond Lake during the restoration project could affect the summer trophic status of the North Umpqua River if retention and recycling in Lemolo Lake are significant. The FEIS includes comprehensive monitoring to assess the water quality of the restored Diamond Lake and the effects of that restoration downstream. One component of the monitoring is the collection of baseline data, in order to observe changes in the river's water quality and algal conditions resulting from the restoration of Diamond Lake. During July 2005, the USGS, in cooperation with Douglas County, performed a synoptic

  15. Hydroclimate temporal variability in a coastal Mediterranean watershed: the Tafna basin, North-West Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulariah, Ouafik; Longobardi, Antonia; Meddi, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    One of the major challenges scientists, practitioners and stakeholders are nowadays involved in, is to provide the worldwide population with reliable water supplies, protecting, at the same time, the freshwater ecosystems quality and quantity. Climate and land use changes undermine the balance between water demand and water availability, causing alteration of rivers flow regime. Knowledge of hydro-climate variables temporal and spatial variability is clearly helpful to plan drought and flood hazard mitigation strategies but also to adapt them to future environmental scenarios. The present study relates to the coastal semi-arid Tafna catchment, located in the North-West of Algeria, within the Mediterranean basin. The aim is the investigation of streamflow and rainfall indices temporal variability in six sub-basins of the large catchment Tafna, attempting to relate streamflow and rainfall changes. Rainfall and streamflow time series have been preliminary tested for data quality and homogeneity, through the coupled application of two-tailed t test, Pettitt test and Cumsum tests (significance level of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01). Subsequently maximum annual daily rainfall and streamflow and average daily annual rainfall and streamflow time series have been derived and tested for temporal variability, through the application of the Mann Kendall and Sen's test. Overall maximum annual daily streamflow time series exhibit a negative trend which is however significant for only 30% of the station. Maximum annual daily rainfall also e exhibit a negative trend which is intend significant for the 80% of the stations. In the case of average daily annual streamflow and rainfall, the tendency for decrease in time is unclear and, in both cases, appear significant for 60% of stations.

  16. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection – Part 2: A simulated case study in the North German Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kissinger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site-specific risk assessment, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required. Practical simulation of brine displacement involves decisions regarding the complexity of the model. The choice of an appropriate level of model complexity depends on multiple criteria: the target variable of interest, the relevant physical processes, the computational demand, the availability of data, and the data uncertainty. In this study, we set up a regional-scale geological model for a realistic (but not real onshore site in the North German Basin with characteristic geological features for that region. A major aim of this work is to identify the relevant parameters controlling saltwater intrusion in a complex structural setting and to test the applicability of different model simplifications. The model that is used to identify relevant parameters fully couples flow in shallow freshwater aquifers and deep saline aquifers. This model also includes variable-density transport of salt and realistically incorporates surface boundary conditions with groundwater recharge. The complexity of this model is then reduced in several steps, by neglecting physical processes (two-phase flow near the injection well, variable-density flow and by simplifying the complex geometry of the geological model. The results indicate that the initial salt distribution prior to the injection of CO2 is one of the key parameters controlling shallow aquifer salinization. However, determining the initial salt distribution involves large uncertainties in the regional-scale hydrogeological parameterization and requires complex and computationally demanding models (regional-scale variable-density salt transport. In order to evaluate strategies for minimizing leakage into shallow aquifers

  17. 40Ar/39Ar Dates from Cretaceous Bentonites in a Foreland Basin Setting, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, G.; Benowitz, J.; Layer, P. W.; Sliwinski, M. G.; McCarthy, P.; Hanks, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Bentonite beds occur in marine and non-marine Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Colville foreland basin of Alaska's North Slope. Thirteen new 40Ar/39Ar ages of bentonite mineral separates recovered from cores and a single outcrop location in the Nanushuk, Seabee, and Tuluvak formations confirm that volcanic ash deposition began as early as the late Albian and was persistent throughout the Cenomanian-Turonian. The 40Ar/39Ar results provide more precise age control than established biostratigraphic boundaries, and are useful for the interpretation of the foreland basin sediments in the context of increasing temperatures and global sea levels during the mid to Late Cretaceous. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra from six samples (biotite, sanidine, and glass phases) show limited argon loss and are used to calculate plateau ages. A biotite age of of 102.6 × 1.5 Ma from the deltaic deposits of the upper Nanushuk Formation is one of only a few radioisotopic dates for that formation, and supports the biostratigraphic determination based on ammonite and bivalve fossils. The Nanushuk Formation date, combined with a biotite age of 98.2 × 0.8 Ma from the base of the overlying marine Seabee Formation, roughly brackets a major transgressive event on the central North Slope to just after the Albian-Cenomanian boundary (~100.5 Ma). The 98.2 × 0.8 Ma age for the base of the Seabee Formation is older than expected, as are three ages for the Tuluvak Formation (94.4 × 0.9; 96.2 × 2.0; 96.6 × 1.4 Ma). The major and trace element geochemistry of a sub-sample of six bentonites from exploration wells at Umiat, Alaska show a range in composition from andesitic to rhyolitic, with a continental arc source. The bentonites become more felsic from the late Albian (~102 Ma) to late Cenomanian (~94 Ma). A likely source for the bentonites is the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt (OCVB) of eastern Siberia, a continental arc which became active in the Albian and experienced episodes of effusivity throughout

  18. Late Burdigalian sea retreat from the North Alpine Foreland Basin: new magnetostratigraphic age constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, K.; Kirscher, U.; Reichenbacher, B.; Pippèrr, M.; Jung, D.; Doppler, G.; Krijgsman, W.

    2017-05-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the final sea retreat from the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) during the Burdigalian (Early Miocene) is hampered by a lack of reliable age constraints. In this high resolution magnetostratigraphic study we try to solve a significant age bias for the onset of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (OSM) deposition in the neighboring S-German and Swiss Molasse Basins. We measured > 550 samples from eleven drill cores covering the transition from marine to brackish to freshwater environments in the S-German Molasse Basin. Based on combined bio-, litho- and magnetostratigraphic constraints, the composite magnetostratigraphic pattern of these cores provides two reasonable age correlation options (model 1 and 2). In model 1, the base of the brackish succession lies within Chron C5Cr ( 16.7-17.2 Ma), and the onset of OSM deposition has an age of 16.5 Ma. Correlation model 2 suggests the transition to brackish conditions to be within C5Dr.1r ( 17.7-17.5 Ma), and yields an age around 16.7 Ma for the shift to the OSM. Most importantly, both models confirm a much younger age for the OSM base in the study area than previously suggested. Our results demonstrate a possible coincidence of the last transgressive phase (Kirchberg Fm) with the Miocene Climatic Optimum (model 1), or with the onset of this global warming event (model 2). In contrast, the final retreat of the sea from the study area is apparently not controlled by climate change. Supplementary material B. Profiles of the eleven studied drill cores including lithologies, all magnetostratigraphic data (inclinations), interpreted polarity pattern (this study and Reichenbacher et al., 2013) and magnetic susceptibility (this study). Legend for graphs on page 1. Samples without a stable direction above 200 °C or 20 mT are depicted as +-signs and plotted at 0° inclination. The interpreted normal (black), reversed (white) and uncertain (grey) polarity zones in the polarity columns are based on at least

  19. Summer variability of Saharan dust transport events in mountain areas north and south of Po basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Tony C.; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Putero, Davide; Duchi, Rocco; Alborghetti, Marcello; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Pietro Verza, Gian; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Mineral dust intrusions from northern African desert regions have a strong impact on the Mediterranean areas and Italian peninsula as they can cause an anomalous increase of aerosol concentrations in the tropospheric column and often an increase of particulate matter at ground level. The estimate of Saharan dust contribution to aerosols concentrations is therefore a key issue in air quality assessment and policy formulation, since can cause air quality exceedances of the PM10 daily limits (50 μg m-3) set by the European Union (EU/2008/50). This study presents a first identification and characterization of Saharan dust outbreaks observed during summer season at two high mountain stations located both South (Mt. Cimone, 2165 m asl) and North (Rifugio Guasti, Stelvio National Park, 3285 m asl) of Po valley. An estimation of their impact on PM10 concentrations in both sites, and in urban and rural areas of the Po basin is provided. Joining specific measurements (ground and satellite based) and numerical modeling, an investigation into the vertical structure of dust load will be presented. Actually, methodologies conceived for distinguishing dust outbreaks transported above the boundary layer without any impact at the ground level from those causing deposition are currently still lacking. Basically, the approach proposed in this work includes a deep analysis of in-situ measurements starting from long-term observation of Saharan dust carried out at the Mt. Cimone and more recent measurements performed in the framework of SHARE Stelvio Project, as well as the usage of ad hoc model chain (meteorological processor, chemical transport model, and aerosols optical properties calculation) to describe emission, transport and deposition dynamics of mineral dust that - in summertime - often affect the North Italy.

  20. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  1. Ecological economics of North American integration: the reshaping of the economic landscape in the Santiago river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Peniche Camps

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological Economics studies social metabolism; that is, the material and energy flow into and out of the economy. Using the ecological economics perspective, we analyse the transformation of the economic landscape of the Santiago river basin, Mexico. We discuss why the appropriation of water resources is one of the most important drivers of North American economic integration. We argue that the theoretical model of neo-extractivism can explain the dynamics of social metabolism behind the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA.

  2. Insights into mantle heterogeneities: mid-ocean ridge basalt tapping an ocean island magma source in the North Fiji Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brens, R., Jr.; Jenner, F. E.; Bullock, E. S.; Hauri, E. H.; Turner, S.; Rushmer, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The North Fiji Basin (NFB), and connected Lau Basin, is located in a complex area of volcanism. The NFB is a back-arc basin (BAB) that is a result of an extinct subduction zone, incorporating the complicated geodynamics of two rotating landmasses: Fiji and the Vanuatu island arc. Collectively this makes the spreading centers of the NFB the highest producing spreading centers recorded. Here we present volatile concentrations, major, and trace element data for a previously undiscovered triple junction spreading center in the NFB. We show our enrichment samples contain some of the highest water contents yet reported from (MORB). The samples from the NFB exhibit a combination of MORB-like major chemical signatures along with high water content similar to ocean island basalts (OIB). This peculiarity in geochemistry is unlike other studied MORB or back-arc basin (to our knowledge) that is not attributed to subduction related signatures. Our results employ the use of volatiles (carbon dioxide and water) and their constraints (Nb and Ce) combined with trace element ratios to indicate a potential source for the enrichment in the North Fiji Basin. The North Fiji Basin lavas are tholeiitic with similar major element composition as averaged primitive normal MORB; with the exception of averaged K2O and P2O5, which are still within range for observed normal MORB. For a mid-ocean ridge basalt, the lavas in the NFB exhibit a large range in volatiles: H2O (0.16-0.9 wt%) and CO2 (80-359 ppm). The NFB lavas have volatile levels that exceed the range of MORB and trend toward a more enriched source. In addition, when compared to MORB, the NFB lavas are all enriched in H2O/Ce. La/Sm values in the NFB lavas range from 0.9 to 3.8 while, Gd/Yb values range from 1.2 to 2.5. The NFB lavas overlap the MORB range for both La/Sm (~1.1) and Gd/Yb (~1.3). However, they span a larger range outside of the MORB array. High La/Sm and Gd/Yb ratios (>1) are indications of deeper melting within the

  3. The lithic assemblages of Donggutuo, Nihewan basin: Knapping skills of early pleistocene hominins in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Xia; Petraglia, Michael D; Hou, Ya-Mei; Yue, Jian-Ping; Deng, Cheng-Long; Zhu, Ri-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Donggutuo (DGT) is one of the richest archaeological localities in the Nihewan Basin of North China, thereby providing key information about the technological behaviours of early hominins in eastern Asia. Although DGT has been subject of multiple excavations and technological studies over the past several decades, few detailed studies on the lithic assemblages have been published. Here we summarize and describe the DGT lithic assemblages, examining stone tool reduction methods and technological skills. DGT dates to ca. 1.1 Ma, close to the onset of the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (MPT), indicating that occupations at DGT coincided with increased environmental instability. During this time interval, the DGT knappers began to apply innovative flaking methods, using free hand hard hammer percussion (FHHP) to manufacture pre-determined core shapes, small flakes and finely retouched tools, while occasionally using the bipolar technique, in contrast to the earlier and nearby Nihewan site of Xiaochangliang (XCL). Evidence for some degree of planning and predetermination in lithic reduction at DGT parallels technological developments in African Oldowan sites, suggesting that innovations in early industries may be situational, sometimes corresponding with adaptations to changes in environments and local conditions.

  4. GIS-based hazard and risk maps of the Douro river basin (north-eastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gomes Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Douro river basin, in north-eastern Portugal, is a very complex region in terms of its geomorphological structure and morphodynamics. More specifically, the region – the Port Wine-growing region, a UNESCO heritage site – is a landslide-prone area resulting from several factors intrinsic to the bedrock and its detritic cover, combined with factors capable of triggering slope instability mechanisms, such as intense rainfall and human activities. Recently, due to intense rainfall and human activities, frequent rock and mud slides occurred, some of them catastrophic, killing people and damaging property. In the last decade (2000–2010, an accurate inventory of these catastrophic events was made, showing that these events occurred near local small towns, Peso da Régua (2001, Armamar (2003 and Carrazeda de Ansiães (2007. In this paper, we present a case study using field data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS tools to evaluate landslide hazard and risk assessment following multicriteria evaluation techniques.

  5. Pleistocene PaleoDEMs for GIA modelling and ice age palaeogeography of the North Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschers, Freek; Cohen, Kim

    2017-04-01

    An important input for modelling coastline shifting over ice age periods with sea-level fall and rise, is palaeotopography. Palaeotopography, however, is difficult information to acquire and usually sophisticated geophysical glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models are run over just the modern bathymetry. We present a set of palaeoDEMs for the last two glacial Terminations (c. 130 resp. c. 15 ka) for the southern North Sea Basin (onshore and offshore parts; Netherlands, Belgium and British surroundings), including a warping DEM to correct for long-term 'background' subsidence. The palaeoDEMs are constructed using techniques developed for high resolution geomodelling by TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands, using borehole data and surface bathymetry/topography grids and scripting that honours lithostratigraphical order. The warping DEMs make use of the thickness mapping at Quaternary and Neogene time scales. Together, these sets can be used to patch the modern bathymetry and ice-thickness DEMs that are currently used in GIA modelling.

  6. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid migration through fault zones and fractures in the North German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.

  7. Root Disease Incidence in Eastern White Pine Plantations With and Without Symptoms of Ozone Injury in the Coweeta Basin of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodor D. Leininger; W.E. Winner; S.A. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the Coweeta Basin, Macon County, North Carolina, to determine the incidence of root diseases and their relatedness to ozone symptomatology in two eastern white pine (Pinus strobes) plantations. Heterobasidion annosum was isolated from

  8. Tropical cyclogenesis associated with extratropical precursors in the North Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarneau, Thomas J., Jr.

    This thesis investigates genesis pathways of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the North Atlantic basin during 2004--2008 with a focus on TCs that form in conjunction with extratropical precursor disturbances. These genesis pathways are nonbaroclinic, low-level baroclinic, trough-induced, transient-trough interaction, weak tropical transition (TT), and strong TT. The transient-trough interaction, trough-induced, weak TT, and strong TT genesis pathways all occur in conjunction with extratropical precursor disturbances. This thesis will assess the physical and dynamical mechanisms relevant to TC genesis among these genesis pathways via composite and case study analyses. An automated vortex-tracking algorithm identified 158 null cases and 84 TCs during the 2004--2008 North Atlantic TC seasons. The nondeveloping disturbances (incipient TCs) were categorized by their TC genesis pathway 12 h prior to their initial peak intensity (TC genesis). The developing and nondeveloping disturbances in the extratropical genesis pathways were stratified by the character of the synoptic-scale flow pattern as defined by the 300-hPa streamfunction. Three distinct composite categories emerged: tropospheric-deep cutoff low (CUTOFF), upstream trough (TROUGH), and foldover ridging (FOLDOVER). CUTOFF composite precursor disturbances frequently follow the strong TT pathway and are typically associated with mature extratropical cyclones initially. Deep, moist convection (hereafter, convection) develops along an axis of strong low-level frontogenesis north and northwest of the disturbance. Diabatic processes are important in vertical potential vorticity redistribution, contributing to the transformation of a deep cold core extratropical cyclone to a warm core subtropical cyclone (and eventual TC), and vertical wind shear reduction. CUTOFF composite null cases feature the concentration of convection away from the incipient low-level disturbance and vertical wind shear remains strong over the

  9. Discussions on the sedimentary-tectonic event and tectonic setting of the North Tarim Basin in Cryogenian-Cambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. B.; Li, J. H.; Li, W. S.

    2012-04-01

    Across the Tarim Basin, limited surface outcrops of Cryogenian to Cambrian sedimentary succession are completely exposed in the vicinity of Aksu area(Northwest Tarim), Kuruktag(Northeast Tarim)and Southwest Tarim, thus provides a unique, well preserved and accessible means by which to study the early development of the north Tarim Basin. Based on the field geological investigation in the northwestern and northeastern of Tarim Basin, with the referencing of paleomagnetism mapping and previous research, basin evolution process in Cryogenian-Cambrian is discussed according to sedimentary-tectonic event and other evidences. The major lithological types of Cryogenian-Cambrian system in Northeast Tarim are: tillite, clastic rocks(rich in organic matter) and carbonate ,with interbeds of volcanic rocks while in Northwest Tarim, the calstic rocks and carbonate are the common rock type, with tillite and volcanic interbeds in a small amount. The north margin of Tarim Block, which was a part of Rodinia supercontinent, neighboring the northwestern margin of Australia, was deeply rifted in Cryogenian-Ediacaran and developed into two rifts in the northwestern and northeastern margin, while formed a thick layer of the rift-passive margin deposits and the layer in the northwestern rift was not completely developed as the northeastern. The deepest rift-passive magin sediment which can be observed is Cryogenian-Middle Ordovician strata, and the period can be divided into Cryogenian faulted period (supercontinent rifting stage) and Ediacaran-Middle Ordovician subsidence period (plate drifting stage).

  10. Using runoff slope-break to determine dominate factors of runoff decline in Hutuo River Basin, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shumin

    2009-01-01

    Water resources in North China have declined sharply in recent years. Low runoff (especially in the mountain areas) has been identified as the main factor. Hutuo River Basin (HRB), a typical up-stream basin in North China with two subcatchments (Ye and Hutuo River Catchments), was investigated in this study. Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the general trend of precipitation and runoff for 1960-1999. Then Sequential Mann-Kendall test was used to establish runoff slope-break from which the beginning point of sharp decline in runoff was determined. Finally, regression analysis was done to illustrate runoff decline via comparison of precipitation-runoff correlation for the period prior to and after sharp runoff decline. This was further verified by analysis of rainy season peak runoff flows. The results are as follows: (1) annual runoff decline in the basin is significant while that of precipitation is insignificant at alpha=0.05 confidence level; (2) sharp decline in runoff in Ye River Catchment (YRC) occurred in 1968 while that in Hutuo River Catchment (HRC) occurred in 1978; (3) based on the regression analysis, human activity has the highest impact on runoff decline in the basin. As runoff slope-breaks in both Catchments strongly coincided with increase in agricultural activity, agricultural water use is considered the dominate factor of runoff decline in the study area.

  11. Geology Structure Identification Using Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM Method of Tomography Result in North West Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudra Irawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available North West Java Basin is a tertiary sedimentary basin which is located in the right of the western part of the Java island. North West Java Basin is geodynamic where currently located at the rear position of the path of the volcanic arc of Java that is the result of the India-Australia plate subduction to the south towards the Eurasian plate (Explanation of Sunda in the north. Geology structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanicfield due to the classical problem at tropical region. In the study interpretation of fault structures can be done on a cross-section of Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM used prayer namely Hardware Key Device, ie Central Processing Unit: RedHat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0, prayer Monitor 24-inch pieces, Server: SGI altix 450/SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 9.0, 32 GB, 32 X 2,6 GHz Procesor, network: Gigabyte 1 Gb/s, and the software used is paradigm, product: Seismic Processing and Imaging. The third fault obtained in this study in accordance with the geological information derived from previous research conducted by geologists. The second general direction is northwest-southeast direction represented by Baribis fault, fault-fault in the Valley Cimandiri and Gunung Walat. This direction is often known as the directions Meratus (Meratus Trend. Meratus directions interpreted as directions that follow the pattern of continuous arc Cretaceous age to Meratus in Kalimantan.

  12. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  13. Strategic development plan for integrated water resources management in Lake Manyara sub-basin, North-Eastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngana, J. O.; Mwalyosi, R. B. B.; Yanda, P.; Madulu, N. F.

    This paper reports that the core problem in the water resources management of the Lake Manyara sub-basin in north-eastern Tanzania is unsustainable utilization and management of natural resources. The subsequent effects observed in the sub-basin are natural resource use conflicts, poverty, low productivity, overcrowding, high siltation in rivers and lakes, degraded environment, decreased river flows, polluted water sources, etc. In order to establish strategies to arrest this situation, a strategic planning process has been used as a tool involving key stakeholders in the basin at various levels. Policy making officials at the district level i.e. planning officers, agricultural officers, water engineers and natural resources officers and grass root level experiences of respective wards in the basin were established through involving Ward executive officers. Water users of the key sectors in the basin were equally involved which included hotels, tented camps, irrigators and livestock keepers. Institutions working in natural resources management in the areas also participated including NGOs. The main causes leading to unsustainable utilization and management of natural resources were established as poverty, environment degradation, poor governance, weak enforcement of conservation laws, conflicting policies, inadequate experts at all levels, inadequate information on natural resources, high natural population growth rate, high immigration rates, high livestock population in comparison to land carrying capacity, political interference in implementation, limited water resources and lack of basin wide institution managing the natural resources in the basin. Various strategic objectives were identified by stakeholders and respective strategies, activities and verifiable indicators mapped for implementation. Stakeholders having owned the process and articulated the strategies themselves showed commitment and readiness to cooperate in the implementation of the plan.

  14. Nonlinear interactions between the Amazon River basin and the Tropical North Atlantic at interannual timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes-Jaramillo, Alejandro; Marwan, Norbert; Poveda, Germán; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    We study the physical processes involved in the potential influence of Amazon (AM) hydroclimatology over the Tropical North Atlantic (TNA) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) at interannual timescales, by analyzing time series of the precipitation index (P-E) over AM, as well as the surface atmospheric pressure gradient between both regions, and TNA SSTs. We use a recurrence joint probability based analysis that accounts for the lagged nonlinear dependency between time series, which also allows quantifying the statistical significance, based on a twin surrogates technique of the recurrence analysis. By means of such nonlinear dependence analysis we find that at interannual timescales AM hydrology influences future states of the TNA SSTs from 0 to 2 months later with a 90-95% statistical confidence. It also unveils the existence of two-way feedback mechanisms between the variables involved in the processes: (1) precipitation over AM leads the atmospheric pressure gradient between TNA and AM from 0 to 2 month lags, (2) the pressure gradient leads the trade zonal winds over the TNA from 0 to 3 months and from 7 to 12 months, (3) the zonal winds lead the SSTs from 0 to 3 months, and (4) the SSTs lead precipitation over AM by 1 month lag. The analyses were made for time series spanning from 1979 to 2008, and for extreme precipitation events in the AM during the years 1999, 2005, 2009 and 2010. We also evaluated the monthly mean conditions of the relevant variables during the extreme AM droughts of 1963, 1980, 1983, 1997, 1998, 2005, and 2010, and also during the floods of 1989, 1999, and 2009. Our results confirm that the Amazon River basin acts as a land surface-atmosphere bridge that links the Tropical Pacific and TNA SSTs at interannual timescales. The identified mutual interactions between TNA and AM are of paramount importance for a deeper understanding of AM hydroclimatology but also of a suite of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena over the TNA, including recently

  15. Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin

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    Y. Jun Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

  16. Chemostratigraphic Constraints on Late Jurassic Paleoceanography of the East Texas Basin, Southern Margin of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, P.; Rowe, H. D.

    2010-12-01

    Late Jurassic deposition of organic-rich muds occurred in the East Texas Basin of modern-day Texas and Louisiana in a ramp-style marine setting during the early formation of the Gulf of Mexico. These mudrocks are regional known as the Haynesville and Bossier Formations. The goals of the current project are to 1) develop a better understanding of the paleoceanographic conditions and the depositional environment, and 2) develop linkages between the record from the southern margin of North America and other well-documented paleoceanographic records of Kimmeridgian age. Ten drill cores from the study area have been studied for their geochemistry. Each core was scanned at a 1-foot interval using a handheld x-ray fluorescence instrument, providing rapid, quantitative analysis of the following elemental concentrations: Mg, Al, S, Si, P, K, Ti, Ca, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Rb, U, Sr, Zr, and V. In addition, preliminary interpretations for total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (%N), and bulk rock TOC and N isotopic composition of core samples reveal distinct differences between the Bossier and Haynesville formations. Results from previous geochemical studies suggest that the siliciclastic-dominated Bossier formation has less TOC than the underlying Haynesville formation. Furthermore, the Haynesville is much more carbonate-rich (calcite) than the overlying Bossier. An upwardly increasing trend in Si/Al in some cores suggests increasing detrital quartz influx. A linear relationship between Fe and Al suggest that iron is primarily in clay mineral phases in the Haynesville. Enrichments in Mo concentrations and Cr/V ratios reveal periods of anoxic conditions.

  17. Characterisation of the bacterial populations in a saline heat storage aquifer in the North German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-04-01

    The colonization and the ecology of microorganisms in the deep biosphere arouse increasing interest of scientists because of utilizing the subsurface for e.g. energy storage and recovery. The research project AquiScreen investigates the operational reliability of eight geothermally used groundwater systems in Germany under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical, and petrological aspects. This study shows the results of the heat storage in Neubrandenburg (depth: 1250 m), a typical site for saline fluids in the North German Basin. The seasonal alternation in charge and discharge mode enabled sampling the warm (75˚ C) and the cold (45˚ C) side of the geothermal doublet. The analyses focus on microbially induced corrosion on plant components and scaling resulting in filter and/or formation clogging. Microbiological analyses were carried out with fluid and solid phase samples by 16S rDNA based Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprinting. The analyses are utilized to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on such systems. The genetic fingerprinting revealed significant differences in the bacterial community structure between the warm and cold side of the heat storage. Since the geochemical analyses revealed no remarkable differences, the temperature might be crucial for the different community structures. At the warm side of the aquifer the identified bacteria are closely related to Variovorax and Sphingomonas. At the cold side of the heat storage sulphate reducing and fermentative bacteria were detected. These results correspond with locally observed iron sulphide precipitation and corrosion processes on plant components. Particularly the bacterial population of the cold side was studied over a period of two years. Thereby seasonal changes in the abundance of the identified bacteria, depending on the operational mode of the geothermal plant, were observed. After a malfunction in the pump system of the cold side of the heat storage changes in

  18. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  19. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  20. Geology, selected geophysics, and hydrogeology of the White River and parts of the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow systems, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Watrus , James M.; Burns, Andrews G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Pari, Keith T.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Patrick , William G.; Comer, John B.; Inkenbrandt, Paul C.; Krahulec, K.A.; Pinnell, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The east-central Great Basin near the Utah-Nevada border contains two great groundwater flow systems. The first, the White River regional groundwater flow system, consists of a string of hydraulically connected hydrographic basins in Nevada spanning about 270 miles from north to south. The northernmost basin is Long Valley and the southernmost basin is the Black Mountain area, a valley bordering the Colorado River. The general regional groundwater flow direction is north to south. The second flow system, the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow system, consists of hydrographic basins that straddle

  1. An investigation of basin effects on flood discharges in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Orlo A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship of peak discharge to causative storm variables and drainage-basin characteristics was made to provide guidelines for future analyses of frequency and magnitudes of floods from small drainage areas. The procedure used was (l) to estimate peak discharges on the ll study basins from multiple-regression models developed from the storm variables and (2) to relate the peak discharges to the basin characteristics through regression or correlation with particular attention given to the effect of basin shape.

  2. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  3. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary-tectonic development in the Chengde Basin, Yanshan fold-thrust belt, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Ankun; Ye, Hao

    2015-12-01

    The Chengde Basin is located in the central part of the Yanshan fold-thrust belt in the northern North China Craton. The sediments in the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Tuchengzi Formation in the Chengde Basin provide a detrital record of basin dynamics and uplift of the basin margins during that time. We analyzed the sedimentary facies, paleocurrents, and provenance of the Tuchengzi Formation in the Chengde Basin for the period of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous shortening in the Yanshan fold-thrust belt. Four sedimentary facies associations have been identified in the Tuchengzi Formation, corresponding to proximal fan, mid-fan, distal alluvial fan, and fluvial facies. The transport and distribution of the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Chengde Basin was controlled by the faults bounding the basin. Paleocurrent indicators and provenance data of conglomerate clasts reveal that the sediments of the Tuchengzi Formation in the northern part of the Chengde Basin were delivered from source regions to the north of the basin. The early sediments of the Tuchengzi Formation in the southern part of the basin comprise a suite of fluvial deposits, similar to the fluvial sediments in the northern part of the basin, and their paleocurrent data and the compositions of conglomerate clasts also suggest a northern source. However, the subsequent sedimentation in the Tuchengzi Formation in the southern part of the basin changed markedly to proximal fan facies, with sediments being derived from the south of the basin, according to the paleocurrent data and conglomerate clast lithology. The Sandaohe sheet, which is located in the southeast limb of the Chengde syncline, is not a klippe formed as a result of long-distance northward thrusting, but an autochthonous pop-up tectonic wedge generated by N-S shortening during the Early Cretaceous sedimentation of the Tuchengzi Formation. The sedimentation ended before the onset of the Early Cretaceous volcanic

  4. Modeling and analysis of direct-current electrical resistivity in the Durham Triassic basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Erwin

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-two Schlumberger electrical soundings were made in the Durham Triassic basin in an effort to determine basin structural geometry, depth of the sedimentary layers, and spatial distribution of individual rock facies. A digital computer program was used to invert the sounding curves of apparent resistivity versus distance to apparent resistivity versus depth. The apparent-resistivity-versus-depth data from the computer-modeling program were used to construct a geoelectric model of the basin that is believed to accurately represent the subsurface geology of the basin. The largest depth to basement in the basin along a resistivity profile (geoelectric section) was determined to be 1,800 m. A resistivity decrease was observed on certain soundings from depths of 100 to 1,000 m; below a 1,000-m depth, apparent resistivity increased to the bottom of the basin. Resistivity values for basement rocks were greater than 1,000 ohm-m and less than 350 ohm-m for the sedimentary layers in the basin. The data suggest that the basin contains a system of step faults near its eastern boundary. ?? 1987.

  5. New advances in oil and gas survey of the Qianjin depression in Sanjiang basin, north china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Shizhen; Zhou, Xingui; Wang, Dandan; Lin, Yanhua; Liu, Weibin; Meng, Yuanlin; Zhou, Ximing

    2017-05-01

    With more difficult of the development of oil and gas exploration in the large oil and gas bearing basins in Northeast China, the development level of old oil field has entered the late stage, and new oil and gas area is an urgent need to find. As one of the seven primary prospective basins in the periphery of the Songliao Basin, Sanjiang Basin has a great potential for oil and gas exploration. Through a series of oil and gas geological survey work carried out in Sanjiang Basin recently, we made some new progress in biogas resources, Late Paleozoic strata dark mudstone and the hydrocarbon potential of silica rock. These advances are significant to evaluate oil and gas potential resource in Northeast China.

  6. Changes in streamflow and summary of major-ion chemistry and loads in the North Fork Red River basin upstream from Lake Altus, northwestern Texas and western Oklahoma, 1945-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Wahl, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Upstream from Lake Altus, the North Fork Red River drains an area of 2,515 square miles. The quantity and quality of surface water are major concerns at Lake Altus, and water-resource managers and consumers need historical information to make informed decisions about future development. The Lugert-Altus Irrigation District relies on withdrawals from the lake to sustain nearly 46,000 acres of agricultural land. Kendall's tau tests of precipitation data indicated no statistically significant trend over the entire 100 years of available record. However, a significant increase in precipitation occurred in the last 51 years. Four streamflow-gaging stations with more than 10 years of record were maintained in the basin. These stations recorded no significant trends in annual streamflow volume. Two stations, however, had significant increasing trends in the base-flow index, and three had significant decreasing trends in annual peak flows. Major-ion chemistry in the North Fork Red River is closely related to the chemical composition of the underlying bedrock. Two main lithologies are represented in the basin upstream from Lake Altus. In the upper reaches, young and poorly consolidated sediments include a range of sizes from coarse gravel to silt and clay. Nearsurface horizons commonly are cemented as calcium carbonate caliche. Finer-grained gypsiferous sandstones and shales dominate the lower reaches of the basin. A distinct increase in dissolved solids, specifically sodium, chloride, calcium, and sulfate, occurs as the river flows over rocks that contain substantial quantities of gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. These natural salts are the major dissolved constituents in the North Fork Red River.

  7. Structural equation model of total phosphorus loads in the Red River of the North Basin, USA and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of trends in nutrient loading is often limited to correlation, qualitative reasoning, or references to the work of others. This paper represents efforts to improve causal attribution of water-quality changes. The Red River of the North basin provides a regional test case because of international interest in the reduction of total phosphorus loads and the availability of long-term total phosphorus data and ancillary geospatial data with the potential to explain changes in water quality over time. The objectives of the study are to investigate structural equation modeling methods for application to water-quality problems and to test causal hypotheses related to the drivers of total phosphorus loads over the period 1970 to 2012. Multiple working hypotheses that explain total phosphorus loads and methods for estimating missing ancillary data were developed, and water-quality related challenges to structural equation modeling (including skewed data and scaling issues) were addressed. The model indicates that increased precipitation in season 1 (November–February) or season 2 (March–June) would increase total phosphorus loads in the basin. The effect of agricultural practices on total phosphorus loads was significant, although the effect is about one-third of the effect of season 1 precipitation. The structural equation model representing loads at six sites in the basin shows that climate and agricultural practices explain almost 60% of the annual total phosphorus load in the Red River of the North basin. The modeling process and the unexplained variance highlight the need for better ancillary long-term data for causal assessments.

  8. Factors controlling the sedimentary evolution of the Kimmeridgian ramp in the north Iberian Basin (NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bádenas, B.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge reached by the authors on the carbonate ramp which developed in the iberian basin during Kimmeridgian times. Our results were obtained from a combined field analysis and computer modelling carried out in the north Iberian Chain (NE Spain. Extensive field analysis in the Ricia area (Zaragoza, NE Spain, resulted in a detailed mapping of the transition from inner to outerramp facies on this carbonate rampo Three facies belts may be distinguished in this rampo The outer ramp facies consists of marls and mudstones rhythmic facies. The inner ramp facies, located aboye fair-weather wave base, are dominated by coral patch reef growing. The middle ramp facies are represented by marls and micrites bearing skeletal and oolitic tempestite levels which sharply grade into high-amplitude o'olitic sandwave. Factors such as resedimentation by storms, carbonate production and relative variation of sea level acting in the Kimmeridgian ramp are also quantiphied and discussed. Most of the mud accumulated in outer-ramp areas was produced in the coral «carbonate factory» located in inner areas. Off-shore resedimentation by storm was the main agent of basinward transport of this mudo The deduced accommodation curve consists of three elements: a linear rise which satisfactorily matches the normal subsidence figures observed in intracratonic basins; a third-order cycle, that may have a regional cause and higher order cycles in the Milanckovich band, that may be eustatic in origin.La sedimentación en la cuenca ibérica septentrional durante el Kimmeridgiense tuvo lugar en una extensa rampa carbonatada de bajo ángulo. Las facies de rampa externa, acumuladas por debajo del nivel de base del oleaje debido a tormentas (i.e., C. 50 to 80 m de profundidad, están formadas por una ritmita de margas y calizas (i.e., Fm Loriguilla. Las facies de rampa interna, localizadas por encima del nivel de base del oleaje de

  9. Nutrient Loads and Ground-Water Residence Times in an Agricultural Basin in North-Central Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient loads from ground-water discharge were studied in Broad Brook Basin, a 15.8-square mile basin in north-central Connecticut, dominated by agricultural activity. Loads were calculated, along with the travel times of ground water from recharge to discharge areas, to estimate the time required for the effects of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to be observed. Most concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in Broad Brook exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecoregion XIV nutrient criteria for streams. During the study period (1993-2004), annual loads of nitrogen from Broad Brook Basin ranged from 117,000 to 270,000 pounds (lb), and yields were about 10 times larger than those from forested basins in Connecticut. Ground-water discharge from the aquifer to the streams (base flow) during the study period was estimated with hydrograph separation and accounted for 82 percent of the total runoff from the basin. Nitrate nitrogen in base flow averaged 71 percent of the annual load of total nitrogen discharged from the basin, indicating that the largest source of nitrogen was likely from ground-water discharge. Annual loads of total phosphorus from the basin ranged from 2,330 to 14,400 lb, and yields were about five times higher than those from forested basins in Connecticut. Dissolved phosphorus averaged about 71 percent of the total phosphorus load, and ground-water discharge accounted for only as much as 40 percent of the annual load of dissolved phosphorus; therefore, phosphorus loads are dominated by stormwater-runoff events. Ground-water samples collected from 11 wells in the basin contained elevated concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen. Dissolved gas analyses indicated that little denitrification was occurring in the aquifer. Apparent ages of the ground-water samples ranged from greater than 2 to more than 50 years based on sulfur hexafluoride, tritium, and tritium/helium-3 analyses. A three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was used in

  10. Structural imaging of the East Beni Sueif Basin, north eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, E.; Sehim, A.

    2017-12-01

    The East Beni Sueif Basin is the only tested hydrocarbon-bearing basin on the eastern side of the Nile in Egypt. The basin is located around 150 km to the south of Cairo. This work introduces the first attempt of seismic interpretation and structural patterns of this basin, for which subsurface published works are lacking. Structural imaging of the area is achieved through interpretation of pre-stack time migration (PSTM) seismic cube and data sets of seven wells. The penetrated sedimentary section is represented by Albian-Middle Eocene sediments. The East Beni Sueif Basin is a type of the whole graben-system and is bounded by two NW-SE bounding faults. These faults had continued activity in an extensional regime associated with fault-propagating folds. The basin is traversed by a N75°E-trending fault system at basement level. This fault system separates the basin into two structural provinces. The Northwestern Province is deeper and shows more subsidence with a predominance of NW-trending longitudinal faults and N60·W oblique faults to the basin trend. The Southeastern Province is shallow and crossed by N14·W-trending faults which are slightly oblique to the basin axis. Albian time had witnessed the main extensional tectonic phase and resulted in major subsidence along basin-bounding faults associated with growth thickening of basal deposits. During Senonian time, the basin experienced a mild phase of transtensional tectonics, which formed negative-flower structures entrapping different folds along the N75°E and N60·W faults. The timing and style of these structures are similar to the Syrian-Arc structures in several Western Desert oil fields. The basin emerged during the Paleocene with scoured and eroded top Cretaceous sediments. Subsidence was resumed during the Early Eocene and resulted in 1500 m-thick carbonate sediments. Lastly, a mild extensional activity possibly occurred during the Oligocene-Miocene time. Despite the possible restricted potentiality

  11. THE OLIGOCENE MOLLUSC FAUNA OF THE PIEDMONT BASIN (NORTH-WESTERN ITALY I. SCAPHOPODA AND ARCHAEOGASTROPODA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CRISTINA BONCI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to study the Oligocene Scaphopoda and Archaeogastropoda of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (T.P.B., aiming towards an overall revision of the Oligocene mollusc fauna of this Basin. Five taxa of Scaphopoda and twenty-eight taxa of Archaeogastropoda have been analysed; among these a new species of Nerita (Theliostyla is proposed. 

  12. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  13. Spatial analysis of groundwater electrical conductivity using ordinary kriging and artificial intelligence methods (Case study: Maharlu-Bakhtegan and Tashk salt lakes basin, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghader, Fatemeh; Aljoumani, Basem; Tröger, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The main resources of fresh water are the groundwater. In Iran, the quality and quantity of groundwater is affected significantly by rapid population growth and unsustainable water management in the agricultural and industrial sectors. in Maharlu-Bakhtegan and Tashk salt lakes basin, the overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation purpose caused the salt water intrusion from the lakes to the area's aquifers, moreover, the basin is located in south of Iran with semiarid climate, faces a significant decline in rainfall. All these reasons cause the degradation of ground water quality. For this study, geographical coordinates of 406 observation wells will be defined as inputs and groundwater electrical conductivities (EC) will be set as output. Ordinary kriging (OK) and artificial neural networks (ANN) will be investigated for modeling groundwater salinity. Eighty percent of data will be randomly selected to train and develop mentioned models and twenty percent of data will be used for testing and validating. Finally, the outputs of models will be compared with the corresponding measured values in observation wells.

  14. Hydrology and water quality of an urban stream reach in the Great Basin - Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, water years 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of an urbanized reach of Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined as part of the Great Salt Lake Basins study, part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. Physical and chemical properties of the stream were referenced to established aquatic-life criteria as available. Two fixed sampling sites were established on Little Cottonwood Creek with the purpose of determining the influence of urbanization on the water quality of the stream. The fixed-site assessment is a component of the National Water-Quality Assessment surface-water study design used to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of selected water-quality constituents.The occurrence and distribution of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved and suspended organic carbon, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and suspended sediment were monitored during this study. From October 1998 to September 2000, stream samples were collected at regular intervals at the two fixed sites. Additional samples were collected at these sites during periods of high flow, which included runoff from snowmelt in the headwaters and seasonal thunderstorms in the lower basin.

  15. Occurrence and source apportionment of Per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs) in North Canal Basin, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Zhe; Wang, Bin; Wang, Wei; Li, Wen-Chao; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shu-Bo; Wang, Yu-Jue; Yu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Various per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs) were first systematically investigated in North Canal Basin, Beijing, China. A total of 68 surface water samples were collected from North Canal Basin, Beijing, at high spatial resolution. The seasonal disparity was compared and associated with source variation. PFCs concentrations in low-water period ranged from 26 to 207 ng/L, and significantly declined levels were found in high-water period. The individual component proportions among different sites varied less in high-water period, when runoff played a role in mixing and diluting PFCs. A methodology combined with principal component analysis (PCA), heat map-hierarchical cluster analysis (HM-HCA), and correlation analysis were introduced to discriminate sources of PFCs in surface water. The statistical results agreed with each other, and daily domestic consumption, fire-fighting products and related industries were identified as sources of PFCs in this region. In addition, two composition ratios were proposed through the methodology to distinguish the impact of nonpoint source, and the outcome demonstrates that great disparities exist in compositional profiles between nonpoint source and others. Overall, the results showed that this comprehensive analysis method has great potential for source apportionment in surface water and other environmental compartments.

  16. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of salt controlled minibasin in a fold-an-thrust belt setting Example from the Sivas Basin Turkey and physical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Darnault, Romain; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present the influence of regional shortening on the evolution of a minibasin province and the associated foldbelt geometry based on a natural example, the Sivas Basin, then compared to a physical experiment. The Sivas Basin in the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is a foreland fold-and-thrust belt, displaying in the central part a typical wall and basin province characterized by spectacularly exposed minibasins, separated by continuous steep-flanked walls and diapirs over a large area (45x25 km). The advance of the orogenic wedge is expressed within the second generation of minibasins by a shortening-induced squeezing of diapirs. Network of walls and diapirs evolve form polygonal to linear pattern probably induced by the squeezing of pre-existing evaporite walls and diapirs, separating linear primary minibasins. From base to top of secondary minibasins, halokinetic structures seem to evolve from small-scale objects along diapir flanks, showing hook and wedges halokinetic sequences, to large stratigraphic wedging, megaflap and salt sheets. Minibasins show progressively more linear shape at right angle to the regional shortening and present angular unconformities along salt structures related to the rejuvenation of pre-existing salt diapirs and walls probably encouraged by the shortening tectonic regime. The advance of the fold-and-thrust belts during the minibasins emplacement is mainly expressed during the late stage of minibasins development by a complex polygonal network of small- and intermediate-scale tectonic objects: (1) squeezed evaporite walls and diapirs, sometimes thrusted forming oblique or vertical welds, (2) allochthonous evaporite sheets, (3) thrusts and strike-slip faults recording translation and rotation of minibasins about vertical axis. Some minibasins are also tilted, with up to vertical position, associated with both the salt expulsion during minibasins sinking, recorded by large stratigraphic wedge, and the late

  17. Field based geothermal exploration: Structural controls in the Tarutung Basin/North Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukman, M.; Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Tarutung Basin is one of several basins along the prominent Sumatra Fault System (SFS) which represents a dextral strike slip fault zone segmented into individual fault strands. The basins are located at right-stepping transfer. The Tarutung Basin hosts geothermal manifestations such as hot springs and travertines indicating a geothermal system with some decent potential in the subsurface. As part of geothermal exploration, field geology is investigated focusing on how the structural setting controls the thermal manifestation distribution. A complex fault pattern is now newly mapped and evidences sinistral faults striking E-W (Silangkitang), normal faults striking SE-NW at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin (Sitompul) and normal faults striking NW-SE at the western strand of the basin (Sitaka). These structures form an angle greater than 450 with respect to the current maximum principal stress which is oriented in N-S. Secondary sinistral shear fractures identified as antithetic Riedel shears can be correlated with hot spring locations at Silangkitang, forming an angle of 500 with respect to the current maximum stress. A large angle of normal fault and antithetic Riedel shear trend with respect to the current maximum stress direction indicates that the structures have been rotated. Unidentified dextral strike slip faults might exist at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin to accommodate the clockwise rotation between the eastern boundary of the basin and the NW-SE striking normal fault of Panabungan. Normal faults striking parallel with the SFS East of the basin are interpreted as dilatational jogs caused by the clockwise rotated block movement with respect to the NW-SE fault trend sinistral shear along ENE-WSW faults. Silicified pryroclastics in association with large discharge at hot springs at these NW-SE striking normal faults support this hypothesis. As proposed by Nivinkovich (1976) and Nishimura (1986) Sumatra has rotated 20° clockwise since the last

  18. Landscape Based Modeling of Nonpoint Source Nitrogen Loading in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this research was to arrive at a quantitative and qualitative assessment of nonpoint sources of potential excess N under different land use/land cover (LULC) categories in the Neuse River Basin on a seasonal time scale. This assessment is being supplied to EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, for inclusion in a hydrologic model to predict seasonal fluxes of N from the terrestrial landscape to surface receiving waters and groundwater in the Neuse River Basin. The analysis was performed in the following five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model to predict potential excess N on land, (2) a literature review to parameterize N fluxes under LULC categories found in the Neuse River Basin, (3) acquisition of high resolution (15-m pixel) LULC data from EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, (4) acquisition of a soil N inventory map for the Neuse River Basin, (5) calculations of potential excess N on a seasonal basis for the entire Neuse River Basin.

  19. An experimental peri-urban basin in North-western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancibault, K.; Rodriguez, F.; Mosini, M.-L.; Furusho, C.; Bocher, E.; Palaccio, M.; Palma-Lopes, S.; Letellier, L.; Benot, R.; Andrieu, H.

    2009-04-01

    Basins located in the suburbs, known as peri-urban basins, face a quick land-use change, increasing pollution and flood risks. Being neither urban nor rural basins, they have been left apart by hydrologists. Improving hydrological models taking into account both natural and anthropogenic surfaces and pathways is the objective of the French project AVuPUR. One of the two peri-urban basins chosen for this project is the Chézine basin, located in northwestern France, in the suburbs of Nantes. The Chézine basin is subject to an oceanic climate and has a quite flat topography. Whereas the upstream part of the catchment remains essentially rural, the urbanization is dense in the downstream part and under development in the medium part. The mean urbanization over the basin is about 18%. A first part of the project consists of collecting geographical and hydrological data, followed by a first hydrological data analysis. Then different spatial segmentation methods are tested based on a geomorphological analysis and ultimately hydrological models well adapted for these particular basins will be developed. Nantes Metropole supplies geographical data as roads, buildings, land-use, sewer networks, Digital Elevation Model, etc. They also have monitored Chézine basin since 2001, with a water level recorder and a rain gauge. The outlet, at the water level recorder, defines a 29 km² basin with a 15km long river. During summer 2008, additional recorders were installed, in the medium part of the basin, at the outlet of the rural subcatchment : a rain gauge and a flow meter. This will help to analyse the hydrological behaviour of the catchment, by characterizing the rainfall spatial variability over the basin and by pointing out the rural surface contribution. In autumn 2008, a geophysical experimental study was carried out, using different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar, DC-electrical resistivity tomography and EM31 electromagnetic profiling method. The aim of this

  20. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Guerrero

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosol (SSA source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution for a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the particle size and the surface wind speed raised to the power 3.41. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around −0.002 and −1.2 μg m−3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA strongly vary across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m−3 and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m−3. The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes

  1. Clays of volcanic – detrititus strata of North the Bohemian coal basin as a raw material for the preparation of natural mineral pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Rucký

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials which are suitable for the preparation of mineral pigments are found in the area of the North Bohemian brown coal basin. Set Experiments on a hydrocyclone were realized as a part of the technological research of the suitability of “bolus” and ochres from the North Bohemian brown coal basin to be applicated as ecological pigments. It was found that this method of processing is suitable for the preparation of the product which can serve as a mineral pigment. Produced pigments were examined concerning their application in the area of paint pigments with a positive result.

  2. Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G.K.; Miller, K.A.; Mason, J.P.; Gianakos, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

  3. Integrated well log and 2-D seismic data interpretation to image the subsurface stratigraphy and structure in north-eastern Bornu (Chad) basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isyaku, Aminu A.; Rust, Derek; Teeuw, Richard; Whitworth, Malcolm

    2016-09-01

    Structural and stratigraphic mapping within the Bornu Basin in north east Nigeria was commonly carried out using traditional field geological methods. However, such traditional approaches remain inadequate in the semi-arid region characterised by topographically flat areas and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops that are mostly concealed beneath sand cover. Previous studies in the north-eastern part of the basin carried out using ditch cuttings from few wells and disconnected seismic data were largely inadequate and the resulting stratigraphic analyses were more often generalised. This paper presents an integrated structural and stratigraphic study of the basin using combined subsurface geophysical datasets. A Combined Log Pattern (CLP) method is a well log analysis, which utilises various well log data including gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and sonic logs to identify lithology and stratigraphic boundaries of subsurface formations. This method is applied to constrain the subsurface stratigraphy of the north-eastern part of the Bornu Basin bordering the Lake Chad. In addition to qualitative combined well log analysis, the time-depth relationship of the sonic log and seismic data was quantitatively determined by tying a well with an intersecting seismic section to validate the stratigraphic facies horizons identified. Four well log facies and their environments of deposition were characterised from the combined well log analysis of the different log types. It is discovered that the Cretaceous basement structural features controlled the deposition of overlying formations in the basin. Without intact core data, the shallower wells were discovered to have bottomed over subsurface horst features while deeper wells penetrated into the basal facies contained mainly within the grabens. Main subsurface structural lineaments in the area include NW-SE, NE-SW and NNW-SSE trending faults, which mainly formed the horst and graben features. Some stratigraphic formations

  4. Source rocks and related petroleum systems of the Chelif Basin, (western Tellian domain, north Algeria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arab, Mohamed; Bracène, Rabah; Roure, François; Zazoun, Réda Samy; Mahdjoub, Yamina; Badji, Rabie

    2015-01-01

    In the Chelif basin, the geochemical characterization reveals that the Upper Cretaceous and Messinian shales have a high generation potential. The former exhibits fair to good TOC values ranging from 0.5 to 1.2% with a max. of 7%. The Messinian series show TOC values comprised between 0.5 and 2.3%

  5. Flood forecasting for the upper reach of the Red River Basin, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vu Quang station on the Lo River. Located on the upper reach of the Red River basin, these stations do not have any tidal effect. As such, no tidal data are needed for forecasting purposes . Multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The general forecasting equation based on MLR can be written as follows: H, =A+Iaj Hr- I +.

  6. Geological evolution of the North Sea: Cross-border basin modeling study on the schillground high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, S.; Lutz, R.; Nelskamp, S.; Verweij, J.M.; Kaufmann, D.; Reinhardt, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a basin modeling study covering the cross-border area of the southern Schillground High in the Dutch-German offshore area. A high resolution petroleum system model has been constructed with the aim to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation potential of Carboniferous

  7. An environmental DNA assay for detecting Arctic grayling in the upper Missouri River basin, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; J. C. S. Dysthe; Michael Young; Kevin McKelvey; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    The upper Missouri River basin in the northwestern US contains disjunct Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) populations of conservation concern. To assist efforts aimed at understanding Artic grayling distribution, we developed a quantitative PCR assay to detect the presence of Arctic grayling DNA in environmental samples. The assay amplified low...

  8. Analysis of the fault geometry of a Cenozoic salt-related fault close to the D-1 well, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenoe Clausen, O.; Petersen, K.; Korstgaard, A.

    1995-12-31

    A normal detaching fault in the Norwegian-Danish Basin around the D-1 well (the D-1 faults) has been mapped using seismic sections. The fault has been analysed in detail by constructing backstripped-decompacted sections across the fault, contoured displacement diagrams along the fault, and vertical displacement maps. The result shows that the listric D-1 fault follows the displacement patterns for blind normal faults. Deviations from the ideal displacement pattern is suggested to be caused by salt-movements, which is the main driving mechanisms for the faulting. Zechstein salt moves primarily from the hanging wall to the footwall and is superposed by later minor lateral flow beneath the footwall. Back-stripping of depth-converted and decompacted sections results in an estimation of the salt-surface and the shape of the fault through time. This procedure then enables a simple modelling of the hanging wall deformation using a Chevron model with hanging wall collapse along dipping surfaces. The modelling indicates that the fault follows the salt surface until the Middle Miocene after which the offset on the fault also may be accommodated along the Top Chalk surface. (au) 16 refs.

  9. Water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Clark, Melanie L.; Miller, Kirk A.; Porter, Stephen D.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report also is for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://wy.water.usgs.gov/YELL/index.htm. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report, in addition to reports in this series from other basins, can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  10. Heat, Salt, and Mass Transports in the Eastern Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean: an Insight from Two Years of Mooring Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnyushkov, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the recent decade, the Arctic Ocean (AO) has experienced dramatic changes evident in all components of the climate system, e.g., in sea ice cover, thermohaline state, and freshwater budget; and there is no indication that they will discontinue in the near future. The role of deep ocean processes in these changes is still poorly understood. For instance, the peculiarities of Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) - the topographically-controlled current that carries Atlantic Water (AW) around the AO and transports a vast amount of mass, heat, and salt from the Nordic Seas around the polar basin - may play a crucial role in these changes in the Eurasian Basin (EB). Using observations collected in 2013-15 at six moorings distributed at the continental slope of the Laptev Sea we quantify the volume, heat and salt transports of the AW in the eastern EB of the Arctic Ocean. The utilized moorings were deployed in September 2013 as a part of the Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System (NABOS) program along the 125°E meridian, providing a detailed picture of structure and variability of the ACBC in this region. Collected 2013-15 observations suggest that at the central Laptev Sea slope the ACBC carries 5.1 Sv of water in the upper 800 m layer; 3.1 Sv of this volumetric water transport is associated with the AW. The mean heat transport carried by the AW was as high as 9.6±0.4 TW, estimated using a zero degree reference temperature (the lower temperature limit of the AW), and 32.7±1.3 TW relative to the freezing point (-1.8 °C). At the Laptev Sea slope, the AW heat transport constitutes 71% of the net heat transport in the entire layer spanned by NABOS mooring instruments (46.0±1.7 TW), confirming the dominant role of AW heat in the thermal balance of the EB. According to the mooring records, the water, heat and salt transports across the Laptev Sea slope experienced strong annual changes and demonstrated significant negative trends in 2013-15.

  11. How rheological heterogeneities control the internal deformation of salt giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    Salt giants, like the North European Zechstein, consist of several evaporation cycles of different evaporites with highly diverse rheologies. Common Potassium and Magnesium (K-Mg) salt are typically 10 to 100 times less viscous as halite while stringers consisting of anhydrite and carbonates are about 100 times more viscous. In most parts, these mechanically layered bodies experienced complex deformation, resulting in large scale internal folding with ruptured stringers and shear zones, as observed in seismic images. Furthermore, locally varying evaporation history produced different mechanical stratigraphies across the salt basin. Although most of these extraordinary soft or strong layers are rather thin (pillow. Strain is accumulated in the soft layers leading to stronger salt flow near these layers and extensive deformation inside of them. Thus, if a soft layer is present near a stringer, it will experience more deformation. Additionally, the strong strain concentration in the soft layers could decouple parts of the salt body from the main deformation.

  12. Sedimentary provenance in response to Carboniferous arc-basin evolution of East Junggar and North Tianshan belts in the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Fu, Dong; Kusky, Timothy; Ruan, Kunpeng; Zhou, Wenxiao; Zhang, Xionghua

    2018-01-01

    The North Tianshan and East Junggar belts in north Xinjiang, China, are two key terranes for the Paleozoic tectonic reconstruction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their Carboniferous paleogeographic setting and arc-basin relationships remain disputed. To better-constrain these problems, we carried out an investigation on the provenance of Carboniferous sandstones from the Yaomoliang Formation in East Junggar and the Qijiaojing Formation in North Tianshan. Modal and geochemical analyses reveal that the sediments are mainly derived from arc-related terranes. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show distinct differences between the East Junggar and North Tianshan belts. The upper Yaomoliang Formation has a Late Carboniferous depositional age (ca. 315 Ma) with a single peak spectrum of detrital zircon ages, which is similar with zircon ages from the igneous rocks and associated accretionary complexes in East Junggar belt, suggesting that it was probably derived from the East Junggar arc. The samples from the Qijiaojing Formation have Early Carboniferous depositional ages (ca. 330 Ma to 354 Ma). Their complicated detrital zircon age peaks resemble the detrital and igneous zircon ages from the Harlik-Dananhu arc, implying that their source terrane could be the Harlik-Dananhu arc, as revealed by the near-source petrographic and arc-derived geochemical features. In combination with our results and the published data, we suggest two distinctive Carboniferous arc-basin systems, the Kelamaili Ocean-related arc-basin which is characterized by the northward subduction beneath the East Junggar arc, and the Bogda intra-arc basin which evolved from splitting the previous Harlik-Dananhu arc by the rollback of the subducting North Tianshan oceanic plate. The sedimentary provenance evidence reveals that the Kelamaili Ocean has not closed until ca. 315 Ma. The multiple arc-basin systems in North Xinjiang indicate an archipelago-type subduction and accretionary

  13. Pre-Messinian (Sub-Salt Source-Rock Potential on Back-Stop Basins of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Central Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravelis A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek part of the Mediterranean Ridge suggests, in terms of its hydrocarbon potential, further frontier exploration. The geological similarities between its prolific portions, within the Cyprus and Egyptian Exclusive Economic Zones, indicate possible recoverable natural gas reserves in its Greek portion. Nevertheless it lacks of systematic frontier exploration although direct petroleum indicators occur. Active mud volcanoes on the Mediterranean Ridge, still emitting concurrently gas and gas hydrates, have not been yet assessed even though are strongly related to hydrocarbon occurrence worldwide (Caspian Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Western African Basin, Trinidad-Tobago, the Nile Cone. For this reason, the source rock potential of the Late Miocene lacustrine deposits on a backstop basin of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Crete, Greece, was studied. The obtained pyrolysis data indicate that the containing organic matter is present in sufficient abundance and with good enough quality to be regarded as potential source rocks. The observed type III kerogen suggests gas generation potential. Although indications of higher thermal evolution occur the studied rocks suggest low maturation levels. The biogenic gas seeps in the studied research well further demonstrate the regional gas generation potential.

  14. Influence of the Istranca-Rhodope Massifs and strands of the North Anatolian Fault on oil potential of Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coskun, B. [Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    The Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) is an intermontane trough bounded to the north and west by the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs. Recent subsurface studies of the NW portion of the Thrace Basin have led to the identification of two trends in geothermal gradient, both of which are oriented approximately NW-SE (i.e. parallel to the depositional axis of the basin). Geological and geophysical data indicate that, due to the thrust of the Istranca Massif upon the Rhodope Massif, the subsurface temperature may have increased in the northern part of the basin. Other controls were wrench-fault activity of the Splays of the North Anatolian Fault (SNAF) and continuing basinal subsidences. The thermal history of the southern part of the basin was affected by Miocene ophiolitic emplacement to the west in Greece. The presence of a belt of intrabasinal palaeotopography (mainly Palaeozoic rocks) also contributed to increased geothermal gradients in the southern part of the study area. The basin is divisible into northern and southern zones of subsidence, which are separated by the Kuleli-Babaeski High. During the Oligocene, subsidence rates were highest in the northern zone and in the western sector of the southern zone. Later, during the Miocene, basin subsidence was associated with intense tectonic activity of the SNAF and with the emplacement of ophiolites to the west. A map of the top of the oil generation zone, based on TTI values calculated by the Lopatin method, indicates the presence of two maturation zones in the basin ; these were separated by the Late Oligocene Kuleli-Babaeski High. Oil generation in these zones was influenced by rapid subsidence, by a NW-SE oriented wrench fault system associated with the NAF and also by tectonic activity of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs in the study area.

  15. SEISMIC FACIES ANALYSIS ON 2D SEISMIC REFLECTION PROFILE IN BARUNA AND JAYA LINE AT NORTH EAST JAVA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufan Wiguna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two dimension (2D seismic profile of Baruna and Jaya lines at North-East Java Basin show seismic reflector characteristics that can be used to interpret sediment thickness and continuity. Those reflector characteristics that can be applied for seismic facies analysis that represent depositional environment. This study starts from seismic data processing that using Kirchhoff Post Stack Time Migration method which is 2D seismic profile as result. Seismic reflector characterization has been done to both 2D profiles. Seismic reflector characterization was grouped as (i individual reflection, (ii reflection  configuration, (iii reflection termination, (iv external form. Individual reflection characteristics show high and medium amplitude, medium and low frequency, and continuous. Configuration reflection is continuous with parallel and subparallel type. Reflection termination shows onlap, and external form shows sheet drape. Local mound appearance can be interpreted as paleo-reef. Facies seismic anlysis result for this study area is shelf.

  16. Organic matter provenance, palaeoproductivity and bottom water anoxia during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event in the Newfoundland Basin (northern proto North Atlantic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, E.C. van; Reichart, G.-J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Free and sulfur-bound biomarkers in sediments deposited in the northern proto North Atlantic (Newfoundland Basin, ODP Site 1276) during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE-2) were studied. The δ 13C records of phytane and lycopane confirmed the stratigraphic position of the positive

  17. Organic matter provenance, palaeoproductivity and bottom water anoxia during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event in the Newfoundland Basin (northern proto North Atlantic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bentum, E.C.; Reichart, G.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Free and sulfur-bound biomarkers in sediments deposited in the northern proto North Atlantic (Newfoundland Basin, ODP Site 1276) during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE-2) were studied. The delta C-13 records of phytane and lycopane confirmed the stratigraphic position of the

  18. Pleistocene magnetochronology of the fauna and Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin: Significance for environmental and hominin evolution in North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ao, H.; An, Z.; Dekkers, M.J.; Li, Y.; Xiao, G.; Zhao, H.; Qiang, X.

    2013-01-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin of North China (known as the Nihewan Formation) are rich sources of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites and mammalian fossils (known as the Nihewan Fauna sensu lato), which offer an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of early

  19. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    leaf tobacco is by far the most important crop grown and is the economic mainstay of the basin. Farming is found almost entirely in tributary areas...nities for wi.i ire are such species as blackberry (Rubus argutus), Japanese honeyscckle (Lonicera japonica), sa2.;afras (Sassafras albidum), black...and streams. Also, the inorganic nutrients contained in main channel water are exchanged for organic material ( leaf debris) located in the hardwood

  20. Hydro engineering Feasibility Study of Surface Runoff Water Harvesting in Al-Ajeej Basin, North West Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair M. Al-Taiee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydro engineering  characteristics of Al-Ajeej basin which was located within south Sinjar plain north west Iraq was analyzed to predict the possibility of surface runoff harvesting during rainfall season in the upstream sites in this basin using watershed modeling system (WMS. The hydrological feasibility of constructing small dam on Al-Ajeej valley with some preliminary design calculations were presented. The best optimum dam site was selected to be located (3.95 km downstream the confluence of Al-Badee branch with Al-Ajeej valley (35° 46¢ 6² Latitude and Longitude 41° 36¢ 11² having a catchment's area of (3043km2. The proposed dam  height was (12.5 meter with a dam length of (1277m, while the normal storage volume of the reservoir is (38.8 million m3. Construction a dams in such sites characterized by water shortage during all  around the year will give an aid in the sustainable development of such area by increasing  the cultivation lands, the agricultural products and also modify the income of the villagers living  in this area leading to prevent them leaving their lands to other places

  1. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  2. Organic petrology of the Aptian-age section in the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Mississippi, USA: Observations and preliminary implications for thermal maturation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Brett J.; Hackley, Paul C.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Bove, Alana M.; Dulong, Frank T.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a thermal maturity anomaly within the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB) of southern Mississippi, USA, through examination of bitumen reflectance data from Aptian-age strata (Sligo Formation, Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Rodessa Formation). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance investigations conducted in 2011–2012 examined Aptian-age thermal maturity trends across the onshore northern Gulf of Mexico region and indicated that the section in the downdip MISB is approaching the wet gas/condensate window (Ro~1.2%). A focused study in 2012–2013 used 6 whole core, one sidewall core, and 49 high-graded cutting samples (depth range of 13,000–16,500 ft [3962.4–5029.2 m] below surface) collected from 15 downdip MISB wells for mineralogy, fluid inclusion, organic geochemistry, and organic petrographic analysis. Based on native solid bitumen reflectance (Ro generally > 0.8%; interpreted to be post-oil indigenous bitumens matured in situ), Ro values increase regionally across the MISB from the southeast to the northwest. Thermal maturity in the eastern half of the basin (Ro range 1.0 to 1.25%) appears to be related to present-day burial depth and shows a gradual increase with respect to depth. To the west, thermal maturity continues to increase even as the Aptian section shallows structurally on the Adams County High (Ro range 1.4 to > 1.8%). After evaluating the possible thermal agents responsible for increasing maturity at shallower depths (i.e., igneous activity, proximity to salt, variations in regional heat flux, and uplift), we tentatively propose that either greater paleoheat flow or deeper burial coupled with uplift in the western part of the MISB could be responsible for the thermal maturity anomaly. Further research and additional data are needed to determine the cause(s) of the thermal anomaly.

  3. Reconstruction of basal heat flow, surface temperature, source rock maturity, and hydrocarbon generation in salt-dominated dutch basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, H.M.; Echternach, M.S.C.; Witmans, N.; Abdul Fattah, R.

    2012-01-01

    A rapidly growing demand for improved understanding of the Dutch subsurface exists because of the need for alternative energy supplies, such as geothermal energy, as well as for finding and producing more oil and gas in this mature area for petroleum exploration. We use basin modeling to integrate

  4. Marine fungal diversity: a comparison of natural and created salt marshes of the north-central Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allison K; Campbell, Jinx

    2010-01-01

    Marine fungal communities of created salt marshes of differing ages were compared with those of two reference natural salt marshes. Marine fungi occurring on the lower 30 cm of salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus were inventoried with morphological and molecular methods (ITS T-RFLP analysis) to determine fungal species richness, relative frequency of occurrence and ascomata density. The resulting profiles revealed similar fungal communities in natural salt marshes and created salt marshes 3 y old and older with a 1.5 y old created marsh showing less fungal colonization. A 26 y old created salt marsh consistently exhibited the highest fungal species richness. Ascomata density of the dominant fungal species on each host was significantly higher in natural marshes than in created marshes at all three sampling dates. This study indicates marine fungal saprotroph communities are present in these manmade coastal salt marshes as early as 1 y after marsh creation. The lower regions of both plant hosts were dominated by a small number of marine ascomycete species consistent with those species previously reported from salt marshes of the East Coast of USA.

  5. Has iodized salt reduced iodine-deficiency disorders among school-aged children in north-west Iran? A 9-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Saeidlou, Sakineh; Babaei, Fariba; Ayremlou, Parvin; Entezarmahdi, Rasoul

    2017-10-16

    Low iodine intakes are associated with goitre and other iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) that have affected billions of people worldwide. We aimed to assess total goitre rate (TGR) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren between 2007 and 2015, percentage of iodized salt consumption by households, and salt iodine content at production, distribution and household levels in north-west Iran. Design/Setting/Subjects UIC assessed among schoolchildren in nine consecutive years; 240 schoolchildren aged 8-10 years selected by systematic random sampling each year in the West Azerbaijan Province. Median UIC was >100 μg/l in all years. More than 50 % of children had iodine deficiency (UIC≤99 μg/l) in 2010 and 2011, while this rate was approximately 15-35 % in other years. Proportion with UIC below 50 μg/l was <20 % in all years except 2010 and 2011. Excessive UIC (≥300 μg/l) rate was between 5·4 and 27·5 %. TGR decreased from 44 % in 1996 to 7·6 % and 0·4 % in 2001 and 2007, respectively. Regular surveys from 2002 to 2015 showed that 98 % or more of households consumed iodized salt. Iodine level ≥20 ppm was observed in 87·5, 83 and 73 % of salt at production, distribution and household level, respectively (data from national study in 2007). The last national study in 2014 showed that median iodine level in household salt was 27 ppm. Our focused data suggest that the universal salt iodization programme is improving the iodine status of schoolchildren in the West Azerbaijan Province of Iran. Reduction of TGR to less than 5 % in schoolchildren indicates successful elimination of IDD as a major public health problem.

  6. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both

  7. Utah lotus: North American legume for rangeland revegetation in southern Great Basin and Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah lotus (Lotus utahensis Ottley) is a North American leguminous forb that may hold promise for rangeland revegetation in the western USA for diversifying planting mixtures, attracting pollinators, providing high quality forage, and expanding habitats for insects needed by sage grouse chicks. We ...

  8. Petroleum system of the sourth-eastern portion of the Maracaibo basin: Ceuta-North Andean Flank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcano, F.; Boesi, T.; Pirela, B.; Alcala, L.; Violino, R. [Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    The South Eastern portion of the Maracaibo basin encompasses a giant field (Ceuta) that carries ultimate recoverable oil reserves of more than 2.5 billion barrels and areas with little or no drilling. Oil in the area has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments and, in seeps along the North Andean Flank, where oil-source rock correlation based on biomarker fingerprints relates the existing crude to the Cretaceous La Luna source rock. A main tectonic constituent of the area is represented by the Merida arch, controlling the sedimentation until the end of the Cretaceous passive margin. Also, the Middle Eocone rifting and its associated structures have determined important thickness variations of deltaic eocene prograding sediments. A significant sequence boundary is associated to compression, uplifting, erosion or non deposition from the late Eocene to the early Miocene. A gradual tilting towards the southeast developed as a consequence of the Andean foredeep in the southern area. Heat flow field is found to be different from one area to another, as given by estimations taking into account well temperature measurements, rock maturity and the calculation of thermal conductivities of the rock formations as a function of their lithologies, porosities and temperature. Kinetic modelling of the hydrocarbon generation indicates a complex history starting in the northeastern area during the Eocene with the generation of oil and still ongoing nowadays in the north Andean Flank with the generation of gas.

  9. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  10. Using LiDAR datasets to improve HSPF water quality modeling in the Red River of the North Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. P.; Foreman, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Red River of the North Basin (RRB), located in the lakebed of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, comprises one of the flattest landscapes in North America. The topography of the basin, coupled with the Red River's direction of flow from south to north results in a system that is highly susceptible to flooding. The magnitude and frequency of flood events in the RRB has prompted several multijurisdictional projects and mitigation efforts. In response to the devastating 1997 flood, an International Joint Commission sponsored task force established the need for accurate elevation data to help improve flood forecasting and better understand risks. This led to the International Water Institute's Red River Basin Mapping Initiative, and the acquisition LiDAR Data for the entire US portion of the RRB. The resulting 1 meter bare earth digital elevation models have been used to improve hydraulic and hydrologic modeling within the RRB, with focus on flood prediction and mitigation. More recently, these LiDAR datasets have been incorporated into Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model applications to improve water quality predictions in the MN portion of the RRB. RESPEC is currently building HSPF model applications for five of MN's 8-digit HUC watersheds draining to the Red River, including: the Red Lake River, Clearwater River, Sandhill River, Two Rivers, and Tamarac River watersheds. This work is being conducted for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) as part of MN's statewide watershed approach to restoring and protecting water. The HSPF model applications simulate hydrology (discharge, stage), as well as a number of water quality constituents (sediment, temperature, organic and inorganic nitrogen, total ammonia, organic and inorganic phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, and algae) continuously for the period 1995-2009 and are formulated to provide predictions at points of interest within the watersheds, such as observation gages

  11. Tectonic controls of the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) on the geomorphic evolution of the alluvial fans and fan catchments in Erzincan pull-apart basin; Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarp, Gulcan

    2015-02-01

    The Erzincan pull-apart basin is located in the eastern section of the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS). The tectonic evolution of this basin is mostly controlled by strike slip master faults of the NAFS. This study examines the topography-structure relationships in an effort to evaluate the tectonic signatures in the landscape, paying special attention to recent tectonic activity. In the study, the main focus is on the tectonic controls of the NAFS on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans and fan catchments in the Erzincan pull-apart basin. The observations of the amount of tilting of the alluvial fans (β) and its relation with morphometric (Asymmetry Factor (AF), Hypsometric Integral (HI), Fractal analysis of drainage networks (D)) properties of the fan catchments provide valuable information about the tectonic evolution of the basin area. The results of the analyses showed that the alluvial fan and fan catchment morphology in the pull-apart basin are mainly controlled by the ongoing tectonic activity of the NAFS. The fault system in the basin has controlled the accommodation space by causing differential subsidence of the basin, and aggradation processes by causing channel migration, channel incision and tilting the alluvial fans.

  12. From the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin: A lithosphere geo-transect across the Iberian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, A.; Fernandez, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.; Torne, M.; Vergés, J.; Melchiorre, M.; Pedreira, D.; Afonso, J. C.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Díaz, J.; Villaseñor, A.; Pulgar, J. A.; Quintana, L.

    2015-11-01

    A ~ 1000-km-long lithospheric transect running from the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin (W-Mediterranean) is investigated. The main goal is to image the changes in the crustal and upper mantle structure occurring in: i) the North-Iberian margin, whose deformation in Alpine times gave rise to the uplift of the Cantabrian Mountains related to Iberia-Eurasia incipient subduction; ii) the Spanish Meseta, characterized by the presence of Cenozoic basins on top of a Variscan basement with weak Alpine deformation in the Central System, and localized Neogene-Quaternary deep volcanism; and iii) the Betic-Alboran system related to Africa-Iberia collision and the roll-back of the Ligurian-Tethyan domain. The modeling approach, combines potential fields, elevation, thermal, seismic, and petrological data under a self-consistent scheme. The crustal structure is mainly constrained by seismic data whereas the upper mantle is constrained by tomographic models. The results highlight the lateral variations in the topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), suggesting a strong lithospheric mantle strain below the Cantabrian and Betic mountain belts. The LAB depth ranges from 180 km beneath the Cantabrian Mountains to 135-110 km beneath Iberia Meseta deepening again to values of 160 km beneath the Betic Cordillera. The Central System, with a mean elevation of 1300 m, has a negligible signature on the LAB depth. We have considered four lithospheric mantle compositions: a predominantly average Phanerozoic in the continental mainland, two more fertile compositions in the Alboran Sea and in the Calatrava Volcanic Province, and a hydrated uppermost mantle in the North-Iberian Margin. These compositional differences allowed us to reproduce the main trends of the geophysical observables as well as the inferred P- and S-wave seismic velocities from tomography models and seismic experiments available in the study transect. The high mean topography of Iberia can be

  13. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/ .

  14. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  15. A new troodontid theropod, Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay E Zanno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Troodontids are a predominantly small-bodied group of feathered theropod dinosaurs notable for their close evolutionary relationship with Avialae. Despite a diverse Asian representation with remarkable growth in recent years, the North American record of the clade remains poor, with only one controversial species--Troodon formosus--presently known from substantial skeletal remains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a gracile new troodontid theropod--Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov.--from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, USA, representing one of the most complete troodontid skeletons described from North America to date. Histological assessment of the holotype specimen indicates that the adult body size of Talos was notably smaller than that of the contemporary genus Troodon. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Talos as a member of a derived, latest Cretaceous subclade, minimally containing Troodon, Saurornithoides, and Zanabazar. MicroCT scans reveal extreme pathological remodeling on pedal phalanx II-1 of the holotype specimen likely resulting from physical trauma and subsequent infectious processes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Talos sampsoni adds to the singularity of the Kaiparowits Formation dinosaur fauna, which is represented by at least 10 previously unrecognized species including the recently named ceratopsids Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops, the hadrosaurine Gryposaurus monumentensis, the tyrannosaurid Teratophoneus, and the oviraptorosaurian Hagryphus. The presence of a distinct troodontid taxon in the Kaiparowits Formation supports the hypothesis that late Campanian dinosaurs of the Western Interior Basin exhibited restricted geographic ranges and suggests that the taxonomic diversity of Late Cretaceous troodontids from North America is currently underestimated. An apparent traumatic injury to the foot of Talos with evidence of subsequent healing sheds new light on the paleobiology of deinonychosaurians

  16. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  17. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI, and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, the Standardized Water Budget Index (SWBI is constructed based on the difference between areal precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (AET, which can describe the actual water budget but also assess the drought at multiple time scales. Then, sc-PDSI was taken as the reference drought index to compare with multiscalar drought indices at different time scale in Haihe River basin. The result shows that SWBI correlates better with sc-PDSI and the RMSE of SWBI is less than other multiscalar drought indices. In addition, all of drought indices show a decreasing trend in Haihe River Basin, possibly due to the decreasing precipitation from 1961 to 2010. The decreasing trends of SWBI were significant and consistent at all the time scales, while the decreasing trends of other multiscalar drought indices are insignificant at time scale less than 3 months.

  18. Estimating Groundwater Recharge in the Semiarid Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, North Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Jassas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mean annual recharge of Al-Khazir Gomal Basin was estimated as a basis for decision makers regarding the renewability and sustainability of groundwater. For this purpose, two approaches were used: hydrograph analysis and water table fluctuation (WTF. The long-term mean daily stream-flow records of Al-Khazir River (1969–1981 were used to estimate groundwater discharge by base-flow hydrograph separation and displacement recession curve methods. Four base-flow separation methods were used; one is the graphical separation method, and three are automated separation methods included in the web-based Hydrograph Analysis Tool. The annual recharge estimated by WTF was 111.6 mm/y, and the average annual recharge estimated by the four base-flow separation methods was 125.8 mm/y. Estimating recharge by the water table fluctuation method does not incorporate spatial variability contained in the whole watershed, because the specific yield did not represent the entire basin. However, the hydrograph analysis method can give a comprehensive estimation of the net integrated recharge for the entire watershed, which includes different recharge mechanisms. The displacement recession curve method deviates a lot (>30 mm/y from the other methods, which indicates that this method may not be suitable to apply in such large watersheds.

  19. Rubidium, Strontium, Bromide, and Total Iodine Concentrations Consolidate Evidence for Seawater Dissolution of the Jurassic Louann Salt as the Source of the Orca Basin Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijf, J.

    2007-05-01

    A profile of filtered seawater and brine samples was collected in the summer of 2003 from a depth of 1500 m down to the bottom of the anoxic, hypersaline Orca Basin (northern Gulf of Mexico). Using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), these samples were analyzed for alkali cations (Na+, K+, Rb+), alkaline earth cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+), and the major anions chloride (Cl-) and sulfate (SO42-). Major ion concentrations in the brine are consistent with previous studies, confirming that Na plus Cl make up more than 95% of its composition, hence governing its density and hydrodynamic stability. Binary mixing plots across the interface between deep Gulf of Mexico seawater and the anoxic brine are generally linear, but display substantial deviations from conservative behavior at the steepest part of the pycnocline for all analytes except Na, Cl, and Ca. Negative deviations signify localized cation removal by an adsorption or ion-exchange process, probably associated with the dense layers of particles that are trapped there. Especially strong Mg removal may be indicative of dolomitization, whereby the concomitant release of Ca counters its adsorption, resulting in zero net Ca removal. A positive deviation for sulfate is attributed to bacterial sulfide oxidation. Concentrations of Rb, Sr, and Ba in the homogeneous brine, reported here for the first time, are enriched by factors of 1.5, 1.4, and ~9, respectively, with respect to the overlying seawater. Unlike Ca and Sr, Ba concentrations in the brine are clearly controlled by the solubility of its sulfate salt (barite), causing a maximum of 670 nmol/kg at the interface. Several independent lines of evidence, for example downward decreasing salinity gradients in the sediment pore waters, seismic surveys revealing salt exposure on the upper slope, and the discovery of a brine river flowing into the Orca Basin, suggest that the brine is formed outside the basin, most likely by

  20. Changes in total phosphorus concentration in the Red River of the North Basin, 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Akyüz, F. Adnan; Lin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Red River of the North drains much of eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota and flows north into Manitoba, Canada, ultimately into Lake Winnipeg; therefore, water quality is an International concern. With increased runoff in the past few decades, phosphorus flux (the amount of phosphorus transported by the river) has increased. This is a concern, especially with respect to Lake Winnipeg, an important inland fishery and recreational destination. There is pressure at the State and International levels to reduce phosphorus flux, an expensive proposition. Depending on the method (controlling sources, settling ponds, buffer strips), control of phosphorus flux is not always effective during spring runoff. This work represents a first step in developing a causal model for phosphorus flux by examining available data and changes in concentration over time. Total phosphorus concentration data for the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, and at Fargo, North Dakota-Moorhead, Minnesota, were summarized and then analyzed using WRTDS (Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season) to describe total phosphorus changes over time in two analysis periods: 1970-1993 and 1993-2012. Total phosphorus concentration increased in the first period at Emerson, Manitoba, indicating phosphorus was likely being transported to streams during runoff events. A very different pattern occurred at Fargo-Moorhead with declines in concentration, except at high discharge. While concentration continually changes, during the second period it decreased during spring runoff at Emerson and Fargo-Moorhead and during the growing season at Fargo-Moorhead, perhaps because of improved agricultural practices and declines in some uses of phosphorus.

  1. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin North Dakota, 1952-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, Hugh T.; Rosene, Philip G. Scott; Chester, H.

    1968-01-01

    enough to harm fish. Data on alpha and beta particle activities in Devils Lake were insufficient to determine if present activities are less than, equal to, or more than activities before nuclear tests began. Miscellaneous surface waters not in the Devils Lake chain contained dissolved solids that ranged from 239 to 61,200 ppm. The lakes that spill infrequently and have little or no ground-water inflow and outflow generally contain high concentrations of dissolved solids. Salt balance computations for Devils Lake for 1952-60 indicate that a net of as much as 89,000 tons of salt was removed from the bed by the water in some years and as much as 35,000 tons was added to the bed in other years. For the 9-year period, the tons removed exceeded the tons added; the net removed averaged 2.7 tons per acre per year. Pickup of these salts from the bed increased the dissolved solids in the lake water an average of 193 ppm per year. Between 1952 and 1960, 201,000 tons of salt was added to the bed of East Devils Lake, 15,100 tons to the bed of western Stump Lake, and 421,000 tons to the bed of eastern Stump Lake. Laboratory examination of shore and bed material indicated that the shore contained less weight of salt per unit weight of dry, inorganic material than the bed. Calcium and bicarbonate were the chief constituents dissolved from bed material of Devils Lake, whereas sodium and sulfate were the chief constituents dissolved from bed material of East Bay, East Devils Lake, and eastern and western Stump Lakes. Generally, calcium and bicarbonate were the chief constitutents dissolved from shore material of all these lakes. Evidence indicates that not more than 20 percent of the salt that 'disappeared' from the water of Devils Lake west of State Route 20 as the lake altitudes decreased years ago will redissolve if the lake altitude is restored.

  2. Trace elements and organic compounds in sediment and fish tissue from the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Giddings, Elise M.

    2004-01-01

    A study to determine the occurrence and distribution of trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment and in fish tissue was conducted in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program during 1998-99. Streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected concurrently at 11 sites and analyzed for trace-element concentration. An additional four sites were sampled for streambed sediment only and one site for fish tissue only. Organic compounds were analyzed from streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples at 15 sites concurrently.Bed-sediment cores from lakes, reservoirs, and Farmington Bay collected by the NAWQA program in 1998 and by other researchers in 1982 were used to examine historical trends in trace-element concentration and to determine anthropogenic sources of contaminants. Cores collected in 1982 from Mirror Lake, a high-mountain reference location, showed an enrichment of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, tin, and zinc in the surface sediments relative to the deeper sediments, indicating that enrichment likely began after about 1900. This enrichment was attributed to atmospheric deposition during the period of metal-ore mining and smelting. A core from Echo Reservoir, in the Weber River Basin, however, showed a different pattern of trace-element concentration that was attributed to a local source. This site is located downstream from the Park City mining district, which is the most likely historical source of trace elements. Cores collected in 1998 from Farmington Bay show that the concentration of lead began to increase after 1842 and peaked during the mid-1980s and has been in decline since. Recent sediments deposited during 1996-98 indicate a 41- to 62-percent reduction since the peak in the mid-1980s.The concentration of trace elements in streambed sediment was greatest at sites that have been affected by historic mining

  3. Element concentrations in bed sediment of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.A.; Zelt, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical data for bed sediment were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. The primary data set consisted of about 13,000 samples collected during 1974-79 for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Data were available for 50 elements, although not all samples were analyzed for all elements. Element concentrations varied spatially and were associated with geologic settings or ecoregions. Factor analysis indicated three groups of associated elements: factor 1 elements were strongly correlated with basaltic rocks, factor 2 elements were strongly correlated with granitic rocks, and factor 3 elements were strongly correlated with carbonate rocks. Scores for factor 1 were highest for bed-sediment samples associated with volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age in the Absaroka volcanic field and crystalline rocks of Precambrian age in the Beartooth Mountains. Scores for factor 2 were highest for samples associated with volcanic rocks of Quaternary age on the Yellowstone Plateau, crystalline rocks of Precambrian age, and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age in the Wyoming Basin ecoregion. Scores for factor 3 were highest in samples associated with sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age and volcanic rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Descriptive statistics are presented to serve as a baseline for element concentrations in bed sediment associated with eight geologic settings or ecoregions in the study unit. Some of the concentrations of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in bed-sediment samples from areas of crystalline rocks in the Beartooth Mountains and other formations in the western part of the study unit exceeded sediment-quality assessment values associated with toxic effects to aquatic life.

  4. Origin of crude oils in the Jinhu Depression of North Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea Basin, eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiongqi Pang; Zhijun Jin; Zhenglong Xu [Petroleum University (Beijing) (China). Key Laboratories for Petroleum Formation Mechanisms, Chinese Ministry of Education; Maowen Li [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Sumei Li [Petroleum University (Beijing) (China). Key Laboratories for Petroleum Formation Mechanisms, Chinese Ministry of Education; Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Anding Chen [SINOPEC Jiangsu Oilfield Company, Jiangsu (China)

    2003-04-01

    The chemical compositions of 20 crude oils and the extracts of potential source rocks from the Jinhu Depression of the North Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea Basin, eastern China were studied in detail by geochemical methods in order to understand their genetic relationship. The oil samples were collected from the major producing fields in the Western Slope (WS) and the Biandong-Yangjiaba-Minqiao uplift belt (BMY). The rock samples studied, selected after Rock-Eval pyrolysis screening of a large suite of samples, consist of 20 shale samples in the E{sub 2}f{sub 2} member of the Paleocene Funing Formation from the oilfield areas (WS and BMY) and the Sanhe sag all within the Jinhu Depression. Geochemical characteristics indicate only one single family of oils. A number of biomarker features support deposition of the source rocks for these oils under conditions of enhanced salinity/stratified water columns. A wide thermal maturity range for the oils as indicated by sterane isomerization ratios was not substantiated by other maturity parameters. The genetic relationships between the oils and the E{sub 2}f{sub 2} member of the Paleocene Funing Formation present in the deeper parts of the Sanhe and Longgang sags were suggested using a wide range of molecular parameters. Variation in the sterane concentrations in source rocks with different maturity suggests that migrational contamination and/or in-situ extractions of organic matter from caprocks or intra-reservoir shales by mature oils could potentially produce oils with apparent immaturity at the molecular level. Secondary alteration (e.g. biodegradation) of oils in the reservoir could also have a similar effect on the bulk oil compositions. Although we do not discount the possible presence of minor amounts of 'immature oils', exploration focus in the Jinhu Depression, as well as many other rift basins in eastern China, should be on mature oils derived from the deep source kitchens. (author)

  5. Mantle flow, volatiles, slab-surface temperatures and melting dynamics in the north Tonga Arc - Lau Backarc Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S.; Caulfield, J.; Arculus, R. J.; Dale, C. W.; Jenner, F. E.; Pearce, J. A.; Macpherson, C.; Handley, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Fonualei Spreading Centre affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate geochemical changes with increasing depth to the slab in the Lau Backarc Basin. We present H2O and CO2 concentrations and Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf and U-Th-Ra isotope data for selected glasses as well as Hf isotope data from boninites and seamounts to the north of the Tonga Arc. The Pb and Hf isotope data are used to show that mantle flow is oriented to the southwest and that the tear in the northern end of the slab may not extend east as far as the boninite locality. Along the Fonualei Spreading Centre, key geochemical parameters change smoothly with increasing distance from the arc front and increasing slab surface temperatures. The latter may range from 720 to 865 C, based on decreasing H2O/Ce ratios. Consistent with experimental data, the geochemical trends are interpreted to reflect changes in the amount and composition of wet pelite melts or super-critical fluids and aqueous fluids derived from the slab. With one exception, all of the lavas preserve both 238U excesses and 226Ra excesses. We suggest that lavas from the Fonualei Spreading Centre and Valu Fa Ridge are dominated by fluid-fluxed melting whereas those from the East and Central Lau Spreading Centres, where slab surface temperatures exceed ~ 850-900 C, are largely derived through decompression. A similar observation is found for the Manus and East Scotia backarc basins and may reflect the expiry of a key phase such as lawsonite in the subducted basaltic crust.

  6. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  7. [Coupling relationship between water and salt of waters ecosystems in arid zone: a case study in Xinjiang Tarim River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranghui; Fan, Zili; Ma, Yingjie

    2002-02-01

    The pollution of waters ecosystems is caused by natural and artificial factors in Tarim River. Temporal and spatial variation of surface runoff is the main reason for changes of coupling relationship between water and salt. In the end of 1950s, mineralization degree was less than 1.0 g.L-1 from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of Tetema Lake in Tarim River. At present, only in July, August and October, mineralization degree is less than 1.0 g.L-1. During the other months, mineralization degree is more than 3.0 g.L-1 in Alaer Lake. In Qiala (the lower reaches of Tarim River), mineralization degree is more than 1.0 g.L-1 except in March. Moreover, mineralization degree is about 5.0 g.L-1 in July and December. It is showed that annual water quality belongs to the fifth seriously polluted water in Alaer, Xinquman and Yingbazha. Meanwhile, annual water quality in Qiala belongs to the fourth polluted water. In a word, water quality state and hydrological chemistry component are the most obviously indicator for coupling relationship between water and salt in Tarim River.

  8. Investigation of the utility of Gulf Coast salt domes for the storage or disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.D.; Thoms, R.L.; Kupfer, D.H.

    1976-09-30

    Analysis of tectonic, geohydrologic, and cultural data led to the selection of three salt domes (Vacherie, Rayburn's, Prothro) in the North Louisiana Basin and three (Keechi, Mt. Sylvan, Palestine) in the Northeast Texas Basin. Results of the tectonic stability studies (monitoring of dome movement, quaternary, Mesozoic and Tertiary, seismic, corehole in Vacherie) and hydrologic stability studies (numerical modeling, caprock, mine leaks) are discussed in detail and recommendations for further study are given. (DLC)

  9. Statistical Aspects of North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones During the Weather Satellite Era, 1960-2013: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A tropical cyclone is described as a warm-core, nonfrontal, synoptic-scale system that originates over tropical or subtropical waters, having organized deep convection and closed surface wind circulation (counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere) about a well defined center. When its sustained wind speed equals 34-63 kt, it is called a tropical (or subtropical) storm and is given a name (i.e., alternating male and female names, beginning in 1979); when its sustained wind speed equals 64-95 kt, it is called a hurricane (at least in the Eastern Pacific and North Atlantic basin); and when its sustained wind speed equals 96 kt or higher, it is called an intense or major hurricane (i.e., categories 3-5 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale). Although tropical cyclones have been reported and described since the voyages of Columbus, a detailed record of their occurrences extends only from 1851 to the present, with the most reliable portion extending only from about 1945 to the present, owing to the use of near-continuous routine reconnaissance aircraft monitoring flights and the use of satellite imagery (beginning in 1960; see Davis). Even so, the record may still be incomplete, possibly missing at least one tropical cyclone per yearly hurricane season, especially prior to the use of continuous satellite monitoring. In fact, often an unnamed tropical cyclone is included in the year-end listing of events at the conclusion of the season, following post-season analysis (e.g., as happened in 2011 and 2013, each having one unnamed event). In this two-part Technical Publication (TP), statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones are examined for the interval 1960-2013, the weather satellite era. Part 1 examines some 25 parameters of tropical cyclones (e.g., frequencies, peak wind speed (PWS), accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), etc.), while part 2 examines the relationship of these parameters against specific climate-related factors. These studies are

  10. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2017-11-08

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  11. Basin morphology of Lake Donggi Cona, north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, as a combined result of tectonic and climatic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, E.; Diekmann, B.; Kopsch, C.; Hartmann, K.; Wünnemann, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau provides a unique setting to study both active tectonic forces and environmental changes related to monsoon dynamics with its feedback impacts on the global climate system. Tectonic and climatic processes in particular affect the geomorphological system in different, but not always specifiable ways, requiring multi-disciplinary methodical approaches for their differentiation. This contribution is dedicated to the area of Lake Donggi Cona (also called Dongxi Co or Tuosuo), which is a 230 km² open lake system located in the north-eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau. The catchment area is about 3200 km² in size. Tectonically, the lake basin belongs to a series of pull-apart basins associated with the left-lateral Kunlun fault, one of the major suture zones accommodating convergence of the ongoing Indo-Asian collision. Climatically, it is located at the boundary between the East Asian monsoon and Westerlies influence, which is supposed to have shifted repeatedly between higher and lower latitudes during Quaternary time, in concert with global climate fluctuations. These shifts altered the local humidity balance as well as temperature and the glaciation regime and thus, controlled lake level fluctuations and associated sedimentation patterns. During a limno-geological survey, echo depth sounding and shallow seismic sub-bottom profiling were performed to investigate basin morphology below the present lake surface and sediment architecture up to 50 m beneath the lake bottom. A sediment core, which penetrated the uppermost 6 m of the sediment infill, was dated to a basal age of 18 kyr BP by AMS radiocarbon techniques, yielding a record of postglacial environmental history. A supplementary approach of lineation analysis on the base of Landsat7 ETM+ multispectral images, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model and geostatistics helped to define regional tectonic activity at high spatial resolution. In the bathymetric model, a relatively

  12. Identifying hydrological pathways in the north basin of Lake Kivu using stable isotope ratios of meteoric recharge and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagizi, Charles M.; Kasereka, Marcellin M.; Terzerand, Stefan; Cuoco, Emilio; Liotta, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    A rain-gauge network of 12 stations was installed at different altitudes at Nyiragongo volcano (DR Congo) and surroundings and sampled on monthly basis between December 2013 and June 2015 to evaluate the isotopic signature of the meteoric recharge. Additional samples were collected on monthly basis from 5 rivers, 7 springs, 3 profiles in Kabuno bay and 2 others in the Main Basin of Lake Kivu to determine their water isotope compositions (δ18O and δ2H). The precipitation, surface and groundwater δ18O and δ2H values were thereafter used to estimate the groundwater recharge area, surface and groundwater inflow level to Lake Kivu, and for modeling water circulation in the north basin of Lake Kivu. The monthly precipitation isotope composition varied in a large range, whereas mean precipitation-weighed values ranged between -12.39‰ and 6.52‰ for δ2H, and from -4.02‰ to -0.91‰ for δ18O. Monthly values allowed to define a Local Meteoric Water Line of equation δ2H=7.96δ18O + 16.96. Our dataset, the first time series in the Virunga, implies that the δ18O and δ2H of precipitation are predominantly determined by the recycled moisture source area, while their clearly defined seasonality is driven by wind direction and precipitation amount changes. The δ18O, δ2H and deuterium-excess values revealed a convergence zone around Nyiragongo where the N-NE and S-SW trade winds come together. Moisture from the Nile River basin brought by the N-NE originating winds yielded depleted precipitation at local highlands, while that from the Congo River basin brought by the S-SW wind yielded enriched precipitation at lowlands. Rivers and springs monthly are included in the range of monthly precipitation values, and are thus indicative of lack of significant evaporation during aquifer recharge. The mean rivers and springs δ2H and δ18O, and the mean precipitation-weighed values revealed the presence of shallow groundwater recharged between 2100 and 2700m a.s.l., and deep

  13. Female philopatry in coastal basins and male dispersion across the North Atlantic in a highly mobile marine species, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Daniel; Hoelzel, A Rus; Nicholson, Colin; Frantzis, Alexandros; Mesnick, Sarah; Gero, Shane; Whitehead, Hal; Rendell, Luke; Miller, Patrick; De Stefanis, Renaud; Cañadas, Ana; Airoldi, Sabina; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms that determine population structure in highly mobile marine species are poorly understood, but useful towards understanding the evolution of diversity, and essential for effective conservation and management. In this study, we compare putative sperm whale populations located in the Gulf of Mexico, western North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea using mtDNA control region sequence data and 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The Gulf of Mexico, western North Atlantic and North Sea populations each possessed similar low levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity at the mtDNA locus, while the Mediterranean Sea population showed no detectable mtDNA diversity. Mitochondrial DNA results showed significant differentiation between all populations, while microsatellites showed significant differentiation only for comparisons with the Mediterranean Sea, and at a much lower level than seen for mtDNA. Samples from either side of the North Atlantic in coastal waters showed no differentiation for mtDNA, while North Atlantic samples from just outside the Gulf of Mexico (the western North Atlantic sample) were highly differentiated from samples within the Gulf at this locus. Our analyses indicate a previously unknown fidelity of females to coastal basins either side of the North Atlantic, and suggest the movement of males among these populations for breeding.

  14. Statistical Aspects of North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones During the Weather Satellite Era, 1960-2013. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) is part 2 of a two-part study of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones that occurred during the weather satellite era, 1960-2013. In particular, this TP examines the inferred statistical relationships between 25 tropical cyclone parameters and 9 specific climate-related factors, including the (1) Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), (2) Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), (3) Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, (4) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) index, (5) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), (6) NAO index of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), (7) Armagh surface air temperature (ASAT), (8) Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index (GLOTI), and (9) Mauna Loa carbon dioxide (CO2) (MLCO2) index. Part 1 of this two-part study examined the statistical aspects of the 25 tropical cyclone parameters (e.g., frequencies, peak wind speed (PWS), accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), etc.) and provided the results of statistical testing (i.e., runs-testing, the t-statistic for independent samples, and Poisson distributions). Also, the study gave predictions for the frequencies of the number of tropical cyclones (NTC), number of hurricanes (NH), number of major hurricanes (NMH), and number of United States land-falling hurricanes (NUSLFH) expected for the 2014 season, based on the statistics of the overall interval 1960-2013, the subinterval 1995-2013, and whether the year 2014 would be either an El Niño year (ENY) or a non-El Niño year (NENY).

  15. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  16. Microparticles, soil, derived chemical components and sea salt in the Hans Tausen Ice Cap ice core from Peary Island, North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, J.P.; Andersen, M.L.S; Stampe, Mia

    2001-01-01

    to be a result of melt water run-off. Compared to Central Greenland ice cores the Hans Tausen ice is strongly enriched in soluble crustal material from local sources manifested by high concentrations of Ca2+ and nss Mg2+. In the bottom 100 m section our results indicate a loss of Ca2+ and Mg2+ relative to dust...... due to melt water run-off. Sea salt concentrations show little variation with depth, and our results indicate, that the sea salt in Hans Tausen ice is from remote sources. The North Polar Sea has not been a significant source of sea salt in the life time of the Hans Tausen ice cap. All our results...... are consistent with the hypothesis that the Hans Tausen ice cap was formed sometime during the Holocene: It started as a small ice cap of superimposed ice with heavy melting and strong influence of local dust sources. With time the ice cap grew, both horizontally and vertically, the surface got colder with less...

  17. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  18. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  19. Natural radiogenic heat production in the northeastern part of the North German Basin; Natuerliche radiogene Waermeproduktion im Nordostdeutschen Becken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullner, H.A. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The radiogenic heat-production rate is a parameter that affects the thermal structure in the sedimentary cover. The parameter is important to warrant an extensive study. The first results gained in the northeastern part of the North German Basin show values in the range between 2.2 and 2.6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Permian mudstones in the Peckensen borehole and in the Bonese borehole (Altmark area). Comparable results were obtained in mudstones from a {gamma}-ray log measured in the Rheinsberg borehole (Brandenburg area). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung der thermischen Struktur des nordostdeutschen Beckens erfordert Kenntnisse ueber die radiogene Waermeproduktion der in zahlreichen Bohrungen aufgeschlossenen Sedimente. Die erste Ergebnisse eines am GFZ Postdam begonnenen Messprogrammes zeigen Waermeproduktionsraten im Bereich 2,2 bis 2,6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Tonsteinen des Perm in den Bohrungen Peckensen und Bonese (Altmark). Eine vergleichbare Waermeproduktion wurde anhand eines {gamma}-ray-Logs in Tonsteinen in der Bohrung Rheinsberg (Brandenburg) ermittelt. (orig.)

  20. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030 mg/L) and bromide (7.8 mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11 mg/L and Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1 km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that environmental signatures from wastewater spills are persistent and create the potential for long-term environmental health effects.

  1. Development and application of a pollen-based paleohydrologic reconstruction from the lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.; Bernhardt, C.; Brown, R.; Landacre, B.; Townsend, P.

    2011-01-01

    We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment core collected in a tupelo-cypress backswamp indicates centennial-scale fluctuations in forest composition during the last 2400 years. Backswamp vegetation has occupied the site since land clearance began ~300 years ago. Recent dam emplacement affected sedimentation rates, but vegetation changes are small compared with those caused by pre-Colonial climate variability. The occurrence of wetter conditions from ~2200 to 1800 cal. yr BP, ~1100 to 750 cal. yr BP, and ~400 to 250 cal. yr BP may indicate changes in cyclonic circulation patterns related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High and jet stream.

  2. Preliminary Study of the Pozzolanic Activity of Dumped Mine Wastes Obtained from the North Bohemian Basin in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos SOTIRIADIS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dumped raw materials, a tuff and two bentonites, obtained from two mining sites at the North Bohemian basin in the Czech Republic, have been studied in order to evaluate them as pozzolanic admixtures in lime mortars for employment in restoration of cultural heritage objects. After thermal activation (800 °C; 5 h, their pozzolanic properties were compared with those of commercial metakaolin. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction patterns, morphological observations, as well as the Frattini and the modified Chapelle tests were performed. In addition, lime mortars, incorporating the fired materials, were prepared and subjected to simultaneous thermal analysis after a 28-day initial curing (20 ± 1 °C; 60 ± 5 % RH. The results showed that all three materials possess pozzolanic activity. However, when employed in lime mortars they did not result in formation of pozzolanic reaction products. Two methods were proposed to improve their reactivity; grinding to obtain finer particle size and removal of quartz content where necessary.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14864

  3. Governing Change: Land-Use Change and the Prevention of Nonpoint Source Pollution in the North Coastal Basin of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Anne G.

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  4. 3-D geomechanical modelling of a gas reservoir in the North German Basin: workflow for model building and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K.; Henk, A.

    2013-06-01

    The optimal use of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs depends, amongst others, on the local tectonic stress field. For example, wellbore stability, orientation of hydraulically induced fractures and - especially in fractured reservoirs - permeability anisotropies are controlled by the recent in situ stresses. Faults and lithological changes can lead to stress perturbations and produce local stresses that can significantly deviate from the regional stress field. Geomechanical reservoir models aim for a robust, ideally "pre-drilling" prediction of the local variations in stress magnitude and orientation. This requires a~numerical modelling approach that is capable to incorporate the specific geometry and mechanical properties of the subsurface reservoir. The workflow presented in this paper can be used to build 3-D geomechanical models based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and ranging from field-scale models to smaller, detailed submodels of individual fault blocks. The approach is successfully applied to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. The in situ stresses predicted by the geomechanical FE model were calibrated against stress data actually observed, e.g. borehole breakouts and extended leak-off tests. Such a validated model can provide insights into the stress perturbations in the inter-well space and undrilled parts of the reservoir. In addition, the tendency of the existing fault network to slip or dilate in the present-day stress regime can be addressed.

  5. Geochemistry and quality of groundwater of the Yarmouk basin aquifer, north Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2018-01-04

    Quality of groundwater in the Yarmouk basin, Jordan has been assessed through the study of hydrogeochemical characteristics and the water chemistry as it is considered the main source for drinking and agriculture activities in the region. The results of the relationship between Ca 2+  + Mg 2+ versus HCO 3 -  + CO 3 2- , Ca 2+  + Mg 2+ versus total cations, Na +  + K + versus total cations, Cl -  + SO 4 2- versus Na +  + K + , Na + versus Cl - , Na + versus HCO 3 -  + CO 3 2- , Na + versus Ca 2+ , and Na + : Cl - versus EC describe the mineral dissolution mechanism through the strong relationship between water with rocks in alkaline conditions with the release of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , and F - ions in the groundwater for enrichment. Furthermore, evaporation processes, groundwater depletion, and ion exchange contribute to the increased concentration of Na + and Cl - ions in groundwater. Anthropogenic sources are one of the main reasons for contamination of groundwater in the study area and for increasing the concentration of Mg 2+ , Na + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - ions. Results show the quality of groundwater in the study area is categorized as follows: HCO 3 -  + CO 3 2-  > Cl -  > SO 4 2-  > NO 3 -  > F - and Na +  > Ca 2+  > Mg 2+  > K + . In conclusion, the results of TDS, TH, and chemical composition showed that 26% of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for drinking. About 28% of groundwater samples in the study area have a high concentration of Mg 2+ , Na + , and NO 3 - above the acceptable limit. Also, based on high SAR, 10% of the groundwater samples were not suitable for irrigation purposes.

  6. Assessment of sediments in the riverine impoundments of national wildlife refuges in the Souris River Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of

  7. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  8. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

  9. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation and wind waves on salt marsh dynamics in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Grant, William E.; Cairns, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term eustatic sea-level variation has been recognized as a primary factor affecting the hydrological and geomorphic dynamics of salt marshes. However, recent studies suggest that wind waves influenced by atmospheric oscillations also may play an important role in many coastal areas. Although...

  10. A space-time statistical climate model for hurricane intensification in the North Atlantic basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraza, Erik; Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2016-08-01

    Climate influences on hurricane intensification are investigated by averaging hourly intensification rates over the period 1975-2014 in 8° × 8° latitude-longitude grid cells. The statistical effects of hurricane intensity and sea-surface temperature (SST), along with the climatic effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), are quantified using a Bayesian hierarchical model fit to the averaged data. As expected, stronger hurricanes tend to have higher intensification rates, especially over the warmest waters. Of the three climate variables considered, the NAO has the largest effect on intensification rates after controlling for intensity and SST. The model shows an average increase in intensification rates of 0.18 [0.06, 0.31] m s-1 h-1 (95 % credible interval) for every 1 standard deviation decrease in the NAO index. Weak trade winds associated with the negative phase of the NAO might result in less vertical wind shear and thus higher mean intensification rates.

  11. Modeling Tropical Cyclone Induced Inland Flooding at Tar Pamlico River Basin of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qianhong

    preceding Hurricane Dennis, the outlet discharge as a result of Hurricane Floyd would have been as much as 37% lower than that caused by the combined Dennis-Floyd effect. Precipitation during the landfall of Hurricane Floyd (1999) was simulated by using the WRF model with two-way nested domains. The horizontal grid spacing of the inner-most domain is 2 km. The WRF model could reproduce the northeast- southwest oriented narrow and intense band of precipitation that developed just inland of the coast over North Carolina. The distribution pattern of accumulated precipitation is consistent with the observed precipitation pattern. The magnitudes of the simulated precipitation are generally within 30% of the observed values at the weather stations in the study area. The effects of large-scale atmospheric environment on Hurricane Floyd - induced precipitation and flooding have also been investigated. Through a vortex removal technique, Hurricane Floyd vortex was mostly removed to obtain the large-scale atmospheric environmental field at the model initial time. It is shown that the environment-induced precipitation can be as high as 21.5% of total precipitation in domain 3 which covers most of the North Carolina and 7.3% in the focused hydrological study area. Idealized hydrological simulation results demonstrate that without large scale environmental impacts the discharge would have been as much as 10.4% lower at the Tarboro gauge station if assuming TC and synoptic environment interaction is linear. Using simulated precipitation from the WRF, AnnAGNPS model along with Muskingum routing was able to reproduce the hydrograph and total volume of surface runoff at the watershed outlet. This implies that with improved precipitation forecasts from numerical weather prediction models such as WRF, it is possible to make skillful river runoff forecasts using distributed hydrological models.

  12. Nonlinear vegetation cover changes in the North Ethiopian Highlands: Evidence from the Lake Ashenge closed basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanckriet, Sil, E-mail: sil.lanckriet@ugent.be [Department of Geography, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S8), B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Rucina, Stephen [National Museum of Kenya, Earth Science Department, Palynology Section, P.O. Box 40658 00100, Nairobi (Kenya); Frankl, Amaury [Department of Geography, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S8), B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ritler, Alfons [Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Hallerstrasse 10, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Gelorini, Vanessa [Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S8), B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Nyssen, Jan [Department of Geography, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S8), B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation cover changes in African drylands are often thought to result from population growth, social factors and aridification. Here we show that long-term vegetation proxy records can help disentangling these main driving factors. Taking the case of North Ethiopia, we performed an integrated investigation of land cover changes over the last four centuries around the endorheic Lake Ashenge, as derived from pollen analysis and repeat photography complemented with information from historical sources. Pollen and sediment analysis of radiocarbon-dated lake deposits shows a phase of environmental destabilization during the 18th century, after a more stable previous period. This is evidenced by decreases of tree pollen (Juniperus, Olea, Celtis, Podocarpus < 5%), increases in Poaceae (> 40%) and deposition of coarser silt lake sediments (> 70%). Quantitative analysis of 30 repeated landscape photographs around the lake indicates a gradual decline of the vegetation cover since a relative maximum during the mid-19th Century. Vegetation cover declined sharply between the 1950s and the 1980s, but has since begun to recover. Overall, the data from around Lake Ashenge reveal a nonlinear pattern of deforestation and forest regrowth with several periods of vegetation cover change over the past four centuries. While there is forcing of regional drought and the regional land tenure system, the cyclic changes do not support a simplified focus on aridification or population growth. - Highlights: • Vegetation cover changes are often related with population growth or climate • We investigated land cover changes over the last four centuries near Lake Ashenge • Overall, the data reveal a nonlinear pattern of deforestation and forest regrowth.

  13. Analysis of nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, ground water was the source of drinking water to about 52 percent of the population served by public drinking water systems in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit, which includes parts of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. Existing nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water collected in the study unit were compiled and summarized as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program’s objective to describe water-quality conditions in the Nation’s aquifers. Prerequisites for the inclusion of nitrate and volatile organic compound data into this retrospective analysis are that the data set is available in electronic form, the data were collected during 1980-98, the data set is somewhat regional in coverage, and the locations of the sampled sites are known. Ground-water data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System and the Idaho and Utah Public Drinking Water Systems databases were reviewed. Only the most recent analysis was included in the data sets if more than one analysis was available for a site.The National Water Information System data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 480 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.30 milligrams per liter for the 388 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was exceeded in water from 10 of the 200 wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep and in water from 3 of 280 wells greater than 150 feet deep. The Public Drinking Water Systems data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 587 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.12 milligrams per liter for the 548 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded at 1 site and 22 sites had concentrations equal to or greater than 5 milligrams per liter. The types of land use surrounding a well and the well depth were related to measured nitrate

  14. ECOLOGICALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT AND PLANS FOR RESTORING TEREK RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper analyzes the data on contamination of the Terek river basin in the period of 1978-2012. We give assessment to process of self-purification from oil pollution of coastal waters of the Dagestan coast of the Caspian Sea; tracked seasonal and long-term dynamics of the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sea water, calculated an average concentration and load of petroleum hydrocarbons in the seaside area of Terek River. We also present information obtained in the course of fieldwork in Agrakhan Bay. As a result of field research we conducted full hydrochemical analysis of water samples taken at stations, evaluating the degree of water pollution of Agrakhan Bay.Materials and Methodology. We identified features of pollution of the seaside wellhead of Terek River by analyzing the information from the review journals of the state of environment and its pollution, and magazine-yearbooks of marine waters quality by hydrochemical indicators as well as our own data collections and analysis. Agrakhan Bay Research was conducted using modern physical and chemical methods of quantitative chemical analysis. The date was collected on an integrated basis at 16 stations.Results. It was found that anthropogenic load has reached its limits in the Terek basin. The main factor for the destruction of the ecology of Terek River constitutes extremely large number of oil extracting and refining industries in the region. Studies of Agrakhan Bay revealed a high concentration of zinc. We also found a slight excess of maximum permissible concentration of lead and copper in the southern part of the bay.Main conclusion. For the revival of the Terek River it is necessary to optimize the ecological and environmental impacts of activities of enterprises and industries, improve the efficiency of the entire economy of the North Caucasian region. It is crucial to combine environmental, economic, scientific, technical and organizational measures into a single set

  15. The Early Miocene-Early Pliocene Vegetation and Climate Changes at the north to northwest Çankırı -Çorum Basin (Central Anatolian Plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalar, Müge; Kováčová, Marianna; Sezgül Kayseri Ozer, Mine; Utescher, Torsten; Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cosentino, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    The ALErT project targets on climate and tectonic hazards in the densely populated regions in the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP), within the framework of the Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN program, The CAP extends in a wide area in between zone the Aegean extensional zone and Bitlis /Zagros compressional zone. Çankırı Basin (in the middle CAP) is a key to understand aridification plateau interior and it was a deep pelagic Basin from Late Cretaceous -Early Tertiary as a result of the closure of Neo- Tethyan till the Middle Eocene. North to south of the Çankırı Basin; the Plio - Quaternary Deǧim formation (fluvial deposits) consist of massive mudstones and sandstones and it unconformable overlies the Bozkır formation (lacustrine deposits). That is a Messinian succession mainly by a 200 m-thick cyclic sequence of continental gypsum layers, clays and sandy clays in gypsum with different thicknesses crops. Bozkır formation, the lower being the contact with the Süleymanlı formation. It is overlay the Tuǧlu formation with uncomformably, which is an Upper Miocene succession mainly composed of dark grey silty and organic rich clays. Following formation, which outcrops in the northwest of Çankırı basin, is Hançili formation. The unit is covered by grey sediments of the Hançili Formation, showing alternations of channel sandstones and clay stones over 100 m thick in Early - Middle Miocene in the Çankırı basin. In this study, samples were analyzed for biotic proxy data (palynology) to figure the paleo-environmental and paleoclimate changes. Additionally only for Bozkir formation (longest section in the study area) were sampled for geochemical (δ18O - δ13C isotopes analyses and CaCO3) analysis and the rest of the formations were interpreted using the previous study. In the most pollen spectra the herbs and shrubs prevail: in Deǧim formation (50%), in Bozkır formation (75%), in Süleymanlı formation (47%), in Tuǧlu formation (60%) and in Han

  16. Plant-water relationships in the Great Basin Desert of North America derived from Pinus monophylla hourly dendrometer records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    Water is the main limiting resource for natural and human systems, but the effect of hydroclimatic variability on woody species in water-limited environments at sub-monthly time scales is not fully understood. Plant-water relationships of single-leaf pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla) were investigated using hourly dendrometer and environmental data from May 2006 to October 2011 in the Great Basin Desert, one of the driest regions of North America. Average radial stem increments showed an annual range of variation below 1.0 mm, with a monotonic steep increase from May to July that yielded a stem enlargement of about 0.5 mm. Stem shrinkage up to 0.2 mm occurred in late summer, followed by an abrupt expansion of up to 0.5 mm in the fall, at the arrival of the new water year precipitation. Subsequent winter shrinkage and enlargement were less than 0.3 mm each. Based on 4 years with continuous data, diel cycles varied in both timing and amplitude between months and years. Phase shifts in circadian stem changes were observed between the growing season and the dormant one, with stem size being linked to precipitation more than to other water-related indices, such as relative humidity or soil moisture. During May-October, the amplitude of the phases of stem contraction, expansion, and increment was positively related to their duration in a nonlinear fashion. Changes in precipitation regime, which affected the diel phases especially when lasting more than 5-6 h, could substantially influence the dynamics of water depletion and replenishment in single-leaf pinyon pine.

  17. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I M; Skalak, K J; Kent, D B; Engle, M A; Benthem, A; Mumford, A C; Haase, K; Farag, A; Harper, D; Nagel, S C; Iwanowicz, L R; Orem, W H; Akob, D M; Jaeschke, J B; Galloway, J; Kohler, M; Stoliker, D L; Jolly, G D

    2017-02-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7.8mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11mg/L and oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that environmental signatures from wastewater spills are persistent and create the potential for long-term environmental health effects. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  19. Dublin Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, I.D.; C. N. Waters

    2011-01-01

    The Carboniferous rocks of the Dublin Basin extend from the east coast of north Co. Dublin westwards to the River Shannon at Athlone and northwards to the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Longford-Down Massif (see Strogen et al. 1996, fig. 5; Sevastopulo & Wyse Jackson 2001, fig. 10.12; Fig. 21.1). They occur in counties Longford, Westmeath, Meath, north Co. Dublin, north Co. Offaly, north Co. Kildare and south Co. Dublin. Most of the rocks in the region belong to the Mississippia...

  20. The impact of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation on the frequency of spring dust storms over Tarim Basin in northwest China in the past half-century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Huang, Anning; Zhu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Ying

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between the frequency of spring dust storms over Tarim Basin in northwest China and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated by using the observed dust storm frequency (DSF) and the 10 m wind velocity at 36 stations in Tarim Basin and the National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data for the period 1961-2007. The spring DSF (winter NAO) index shows a clear decreasing (increasing) linear trend over 1961-2007. The winter NAO correlates well with the subsequent spring DSF over Tarim Basin on both interannual and interdecadal time scales and its interannual to interdecadal variation plays an important role in the spring DSF. Two possible physical mechanisms are identified. One is related to the large scale anomalous circulations in spring in the middle to high troposphere modulated by the winter NAO, providing the background of dynamical conditions for the dust storm occurrences. The other is related to the shifts in the local horizontal sea level pressure (SLP) gradients and 10 m wind speed, corresponding to changes in the large scale circulations in spring. The decrease in the local 10 m wind speed due to the reduced horizontal SLP gradients over Tarim Basin during the strong winter NAO years contributes to the decline of the DSF in the subsequent spring.

  1. Plant biomass, carbon content, decomposition, and soil greenhouse gas fluxes to support carbon budget development for a created salt marsh in eastern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Burchell, Michael R.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2016-01-01

    These data were collected from a small (14 ha), created salt marsh in Carteret County, North Carolina (34.82 deg. N; 76.61 deg. W). This site was created in 2007 following an engineering plan developed by Dr. Michael Burchell (NC-State University). This data collection was to support the development of a site-specific carbon budget. Data were collected from 2011 to 2013, or approximately 4-6 years post-creation. The data collection specifically funded by the U.S. Geological Survey includes plant carbon biomass, plant above ground biomass, plant below ground biomass, plant decomposition, and soil greenhouse gas fluxes, and these data are being made available. These data represent critical components of the carbon budget, and were previously missing from on-going study efforts focusing on other aspects of on-site carbon cycling. Other components of the carbon budget, for example dissolved and hydrological flux variables, were funded directly by North Carolina State University, and not included here.

  2. A Backarc Basin Origin for the Eocene Volcanic Rocks North of Abbas Abad, East of Shahrud, Northeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Mobasher, K.; Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H.; La Tour, T.

    2008-12-01

    The region in northeastern Iran, bordered by the Miami fault and the Doruneh fault, mainly exposes the Eocene volcanic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks and sporadic outcrops of pre- Jurassic metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and mica-schist. We have divided the volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks into six main units: E1 through the youngest E6. North of Abbas Abad, the Lower Eocene is conglomerate, sandstone, and red shale with lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone at the base, and dacitic lava (E1) at the top. The nummulites give an Early Eocene age for the limestone lenses. The E2 unit includes vesicular basalt, intercalated, intraformational conglomerate, and lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone. E3 is volcanic- sedimentary, and is made of green tuff, tuffite, shale, and nummulite bearing limestone. E4 includes basalt and vesicular trachy-basalt, and E5 is mostly sedimentary, made of tan marl, sandstone, shale, and lenses of Middle Eocene nummulite-bearing limestone. The E6 unit is the most extensive, with at least three levels of nummulite-bearing limestone lenses which give a Middle to Early Eocene age. The volcanic rocks of the E6 unit include few hundred meters of epiclastic to hyaloclastic breccia, with intercalations of lava at the base. These are overlain by four horizons of aphyric olivine basalt and basalt, and phyric trachy-andesite and trachy-basalt. The volume of the aphyric lavas decreases, and that of the phyric lavas increases upsection. The Eocene volcanic sequence is covered by turbidite; the marl washings give an Eocene-Oligocene age range. Chondrite-normalized multi-element plots indicate enrichment of the Eocene Abbas Abad volcanic rocks in the LILE elements, with variable ratios of La/Yb (4.36-19.33) and La/Sm (3.10-7.91). These plots show a gentle slope, and the volcanic rocks in the E1 to E4 units are less enriched than those in the E6 unit, probably reflecting the difference in the original source for the melt. The multi-element plots

  3. Producing landslide susceptibility maps by utilizing machine learning methods. The case of Finikas catchment basin, North Peloponnese, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Ilia, Ioanna; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Papadakis, Michalis; Karimalis, Antonios

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of the present study was to apply two machine learning methods for the production of a landslide susceptibility map in the Finikas catchment basin, located in North Peloponnese, Greece and to compare their results. Specifically, Logistic Regression and Random Forest were utilized, based on a database of 40 sites classified into two categories, non-landslide and landslide areas that were separated into a training dataset (70% of the total data) and a validation dataset (remaining 30%). The identification of the areas was established by analyzing airborne imagery, extensive field investigation and the examination of previous research studies. Six landslide related variables were analyzed, namely: lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to rivers and distance to faults. Within the Finikas catchment basin most of the reported landslides were located along the road network and within the residential complexes, classified as rotational and translational slides, and rockfalls, mainly caused due to the physical conditions and the general geotechnical behavior of the geological formation that cover the area. Each landslide susceptibility map was reclassified by applying the Geometric Interval classification technique into five classes, namely: very low susceptibility, low susceptibility, moderate susceptibility, high susceptibility, and very high susceptibility. The comparison and validation of the outcomes of each model were achieved using statistical evaluation measures, the receiving operating characteristic and the area under the success and predictive rate curves. The computation process was carried out using RStudio an integrated development environment for R language and ArcGIS 10.1 for compiling the data and producing the landslide susceptibility maps. From the outcomes of the Logistic Regression analysis it was induced that the highest b coefficient is allocated to lithology and slope, which was 2.8423 and 1.5841, respectively. From the

  4. Holocene Paleoenvironment of the North-central Great Basin: Preliminary Results from Favre Lake, Northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, S.; Wahl, D.; Wan, E.; Anderson, L.; Wanket, J.; Olson, H.; Lloyd-Davies, T.; Kusler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about Holocene climate variability in north-central Nevada. This study aims to assess changes in watershed vegetation, fire history, lake levels and limnological conditions in order to understand secular to millennial-scale changes in regional climate. Favre Lake (2,899 m a.s.l.; 12 m deep; 7.7 hectares) is a flow-through lake in the northern Ruby Mountains. The primary sources of influent, both of which appear to be intermittent, are Castle Lake (2,989 m a.s.l.) and Liberty Lake (3,077 m a.s.l.). The bedrock of the three lake basins is early Paleozoic marble and Mesozoic granite and metamorphic rocks. Bathymetric maps and temperature, pH, salinity, and conductivity profiles have been generated for Favre Lake. Surface samples and a series of cores were also collected using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The presence of the Mazama ash in the basal sediment (~4 m below the sediment/water interface) indicates the record extends to ~7,700 cal yr B.P. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and loss-on-ignition data indicate that the sediments in the lowest part of the core contain primary and reworked Mazama ash. About 2,000 years ago CaCO3 increased from 2 to 3% of the inorganic sediment. The upper 25 cm of the core are marked by an increase in MS which may indicate increased erosion due to grazing. Between about 7,700 and 6,000 cal yr B.P. the diatom flora is dominated by a diverse assemblage of benthic species. The remainder of the core is dominated by Fragilaria, suggesting that lake level rose and flooded the shelf that surrounds the depocenter of the lake. This is supported by changes in the abundance of the aquatic fern Isoetes. Pinus and Artemisia dominate the pollen record, followed by subordinate levels of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, and Sarcobatus. The late early Holocene (7,700-6,000 cal yr B.P.) is dominated by Pinus which is present in reduced amounts during the middle Holocene (6,000-3,000 cal yr B.P.) and then returns to dominance in

  5. Assessment of water and proppant quantities associated with petroleum production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Varela, Brian A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Engle, Mark A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Martinez, Cericia D.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of water and proppant requirements and water production associated with the possible future production of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Three Forks and Bakken Formations (Late Devonian to Early Mississippian) of the Williston Basin Province in Montana and North Dakota. This water and proppant assessment is directly linked to the geology-based assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources that is described in USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3013.

  6. The lithospheric-scale 3D structural configuration of the North Alpine Foreland Basin constrained by gravity modelling and the calculation of the 3D load distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The North Alpine Foreland Basin is situated in the northern front of the European Alps and extends over parts of France, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. It formed as a wedge shaped depression since the Tertiary in consequence of the Euro - Adriatic continental collision and the Alpine orogeny. The basin is filled with clastic sediments, the Molasse, originating from erosional processes of the Alps and underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions and a Paleozoic crystalline crust. For our study we have focused on the German part of the basin. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state and the load distribution of this region we have constructed a 3D structural model of the basin and the Alpine area using available depth and thickness maps, regional scale 3D structural models as well as seismic and well data for the sedimentary part. The crust (from the top Paleozoic down to the Moho (Grad et al. 2008)) has been considered as two-parted with a lighter upper crust and a denser lower crust; the partition has been calculated following the approach of isostatic equilibrium of Pratt (1855). By implementing a seismic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere-Boundary (LAB) (Tesauro 2009) the crustal scale model has been extended to the lithospheric-scale. The layer geometry and the assigned bulk densities of this starting model have been constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling (BGI, 2012). Afterwards the 3D load distribution has been calculated using a 3D finite element method. Our results show that the North Alpine Foreland Basin is not isostatically balanced and that the configuration of the crystalline crust strongly controls the gravity field in this area. Furthermore, our results show that the basin area is influenced by varying lateral load differences down to a depth of more than 150 km what allows a first order statement of the required compensating horizontal stress needed to prevent gravitational collapse of the system. BGI (2012). The International

  7. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochemistry of an underfilled lake basin in the Puna (north-west Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Kowler, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Depositional models of ancient lakes in thin-skinned retroarc foreland basins rarely benefit from appropriate Quaternary analogues. To address this, we present new stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical analyses of four radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Pozuelos Basin (PB; northwest Argentina) that capture the evolution of this low-accommodation Puna basin over the past ca. 43 cal kyr. Strata from the PB are interpreted as accumulations of a highly variable, underfilled lake system represented by lake-plain/littoral, profundal, palustrine, saline lake and playa facies associations. The vertical stacking of facies is asymmetric, with transgressive and thin organic-rich highstand deposits underlying thicker, organic-poor regressive deposits. The major controls on depositional architecture and basin palaeogeography are tectonics and climate. Accommodation space was derived from piggyback basin-forming flexural subsidence and Miocene-Quaternary normal faulting associated with incorporation of the basin into the Andean hinterland. Sediment and water supply was modulated by variability in the South American summer monsoon, and perennial lake deposits correlate in time with several well-known late Pleistocene wet periods on the Altiplano/Puna plateau. Our results shed new light on lake expansion–contraction dynamics in the PB in particular and provide a deeper understanding of Puna basin lakes in general.

  8. Exhumation of the North Alpine Foreland Basin- Quantitative insights from structural analysis, thermochronology and a new thermal history model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijendijk, Elco; von Hagke, Christoph; Hindle, David

    2016-04-01

    Due to a wealth of geological and thermochronology data the northern foreland basin of the European Alps is an ideal natural laboratory for understanding the dynamics of foreland basins and their interaction with surface and geodynamic processes. We present an unprecedented compilation of thermochronological data from the basin and quantify cooling and exhumation rates in the basin by combining published and new vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission track and U-Th/He data with a new inverse burial and thermal history model. No correlation is obvious between inferred cooling and exhumation rates and elevation, relief or tectonics. We compare derived temperature histories to exhumation estimates based on the retro-deformation of Molasse basin and the Jura mountains, and to exhumation caused by drainage reorganization and incision. Drainage reorganization can explain at most 25% of the observed cooling rates in the basin. Tectonic transport of the basin's sediments over the inclined basement of the alpine foreland as the Jura mountains shortened can explain part of the cooling signal in the western part of the basin. However, overall a substantial amount of cooling and exhumation remains unexplained by known tectonic and surface processes. Our results document basin wide exhumation that may be related to slab roll-back or other lithospheric processes. Uncertainty analysis shows that thermochronometers can be explained by cooling and exhumation starting as early as the Miocene or as late as the Pleistocene. New (U-Th)/He data from key areas close to the Alpine front may provide better constraints on the timing of exhumation.

  9. Prehistory of the Carson Desert and Stillwater Mountains: Environment, Mobility, and Subsistence in a Great Basin Wetland, by Robert L. Kelly, University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 123, Salt Lake City, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Bostwick

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The Great Basin of Western North America is one of the. legendary deserts of the world. This rugged, wide open, and apparently harsh landscape has long served as a backdrop for human drama. Gold seekers and immigrants of the 19th century immortalized the rigors of travelling across the Great Basin on their way to greener grass in California and Oregon. But archaeological research has shown that human occupation of the Great Basin dates back for thousands of years, and ethnographic accounts of Native Americans who lived in this desert have played an important role in the development of concepts of hunter-gatherer subsistence and settlement patterns. It is the Indians of the Great Basin that Julian Steward (1938 studied for his well-known model of sodo-political organiza­tion and evolution (Steward 1955; also see Service 1975, Jesse Jennings (1957 later used Steward's model in his development of the Desert Culture concept, which was widely adapted to other North America deserts.

  10. Surface-water sampling stations, National Water-Quality Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  11. Modeling and assessing the function and sustainability of natural patches in salt-affected agro-ecosystems: Application to tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) in Hetao, upper Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Ramos, Tiago B.; Huang, Quanzhong; Huo, Zailin; Huang, Guanhua

    2017-09-01

    Relatively low-lying zones of natural vegetation within irrigated areas are not only carriers of biodiversity but also dry drainage areas of excess water and salts applied to nearby croplands. It is thus useful to have a correct understanding of the soil water-salt dynamics and plant water use for keeping the sustainability of those natural areas. The HYDRUS-dualKc model that couples the HYDRUS-1D model with the FAO-56 dualKc approach was extended to simulate the eco-hydrological processes in natural patches of Hetao Irrigation District (Hetao), upper Yellow River basin. Field experiments were conducted in a tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) dominated area during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated using the two-year experimental data, and applied to analyze the water and salt dynamics and the tamarisk water consumption for the present situation. Then, various groundwater depth (i.e. the depth from groundwater surface to water table, GWD) scenarios were simulated while considering the fluctuating and constant regimes of GWD changes, as well as variations of the rooting depth. Results indicated that this natural land functioned efficiently as a drainage area for subsurface flow and excess salt from surrounding croplands. However, the present GWDs were too shallow leading to high soil evaporation and severe salt stress. The soil evaporation accounted for 50% of the total evapotranspiration (ETa) while root zone salt storage increased about 50% during growing seasons. On the basis of scenario analysis, an optimum groundwater depth of 140-200 cm with smaller fluctuation was suggested for the growing seasons of natural patches. In addition, tamarisk growth could be largely improved if the roots can grow deeper with water table decline in the future. We demonstrated that monitoring and modeling could be used to support the development of water management strategies in Hetao aimed at conserving water while sustaining local

  12. Hydrology in a Mediterranean mountain environment, the Vallcebre Research basins (North Eastern Spain). IV. Testing hydrological and erosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart, F.; Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Martinez-Carreras, N.

    2009-07-01

    Three modelling exercises were carried out in the Vallcebre research basins in order to both improve the understanding of the hydrological processes and test the adequate of some models in such Mediterranean mountain conditions. These exercises consisted of i) the analysis of the hydrological role of the agricultural terraces using the TOPMODEL topographic index, ii) the parametrisation of TOPMODEL using internal basin information, and iii) a test of the erosion model KINEROS2 for simulating badlands erosion. (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Thermal Evolution of the North-Central Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Jeffrey A.; Scardina, Allan D.; Pilger, Rex H., Jr.

    1984-12-01

    The subsidence history of the North Louisiana Salt Basin, determined from well data, indicates that the region underwent extension during rifting and has since passively subsided due to conductive cooling of the lithosphere. Timing of the rifting event is consistent with opening of the Gulf of Mexico during Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time. Crustal extension by a factor of 1.5 to 2 was computed from "tectonic" subsidence curves. However, data from the early subsidence history are insufficient to distinguish between uniform and nonuniform extension of the lithosphere. The magnitude of extension is in good agreement with total sediment and crustal thicknesses from seismic refraction data in the adjacent Central Mississippi Salt Basin. The temperature distribution within the sediments is calculated using a simple heat conduction model. Temperature and subsidence effects of thermal insulation by overlying sediments are included. The computed temperature distribution is in good agreement with bottom hole temperatures measured in deep wells. Temperature histories predicted for selected stratigraphic horizons within the North Louisiana Salt Basin suggest that thermal conditions have been favorable for hydrocarbon generation in the older stata. Results from a two-dimensional heat conduction model suggest that a probable cause for the early formation of the adjacent uplifts is lateral heat conduction from the basin. Rapid extension of the lithosphere underneath areas with horizontal dimensions of 50-100 km produces extremely rapid early subsidence due to lateral heat conduction. The moderate subsidence rate observed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous suggests slow extension over a long period of time.

  14. Retrodeforming the Sivas Basin (Turkey): Structural style of the central Anatolian basins and their integration in the geodynamic framework of Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2017-04-01

    Anatolia is the result of the amalgamation of Gondwandian microcontinents against Eurasia active margin. These were originally separated by several Neotethyan oceanic domains consumed by north-dipping subductions. Prior to the continental collision, regional convergence resulted in an obduction event, from north to south in Campanian time, which led to the emplacement of ophiolite nappes and ophiolitic mélanges onto the Tauride passive margin. Several sedimentary basins subsequently developed above the former sutures zones recorded the long-lasting geological evolution of the Anatolian domain from Late Cretaceous to Present The Sivas Basin is all together the richest, the most studied and also most complex of the group of Tertiary basins. The Sivas Basin formed above the northern leading edge of the Tauride platform, the Kırşehir micro-continent, the edge of the Pontide arc and the related sutures. Its complex structure is that of a fold-and-thrust belt with syn-orogenic salt tectonics. After the obduction, the Sivas basin recorded a relative quiet tectonic phase from Maastrichtian to Paleocene with basinal pelagic sedimentation and carbonate platform emplacement on its southern edge. Then shortening resumed in the Early Eocene with the development of north-verging thrusts. It is recorded by a coarse clastic input, with conglomeratic deltas fans grading up to basinal turbidites until the Late Eocene. Then the basin is progressively isolated and becomes an isolated foreland in which a thick evaporite formation deposited. Oligocene to Miocene continental clastics deposition was then mainly controlled by halokinesis: minibasin, salt ridges and salt sheets development. A first canopy is attributed to the second pulse of contraction from Late-Oligocene to Middle Miocene. This second stage end with the formation of back-thrust within the Sivas Basin and southward as a passive roof above a pre-salt triangle zone. This study relies both on extensive fieldwork (4 Ph

  15. Late Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the southern Marmara shelf and sub-basins: middle strand of the North Anatolian fault, southern Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Denizhan; Öztürk, Kurultay; Yaltırak, Cenk; Alpar, Bedri; Tur, Hüseyin

    2014-03-01

    Although there are many research studies on the northern and southern branches of the North Anatolian fault, cutting through the deep basins of the Sea of Marmara in the north and creating a series of pull-apart basins on the southern mainland, little data is available about the geometrical and kinematical characteristics of the middle strand of the North Anatolian fault. The first detailed geometry of the middle strand of the North Anatolian fault along the southern Marmara shelf, including the Gemlik and Bandırma Bay, will be given in this study, by a combined interpretation of different seismic data sets. The characteristic features of its segments and their importance on the paleogeographic evolution of the southern shelf sub-basins were defined. The longest one of these faults, the Armutlu-Bandırma segment, is a 75-km long dextral strike-slip fault which connects the W-E trending Gençali segment in the east and NE-SW trending Kapıdağ-Edincik segment in the west. In this context, the Gemlik Bay opened as a pull-apart basin under the control of the middle strand whilst a new fault segment developed during the late Pleistocene, cutting through the eastern rim of the bay. In this region, a delta front forming the paleoshoreline of the Gemlik paleolake was cut and shifted approximately 60 ± 5 m by the new segment. The same offset on this fault was also measured on a natural scarp of acoustic basement to the west and integrated with this paleoshoreline forming the slightly descending topset-foreset reflections of the delta front. Therefore the new segment is believed to be active at least for the last 30,000 years. The annual lateral slip rate representing this period of time will be 2 mm, which is quite consistent with modern GPS measurements. Towards the west, the Bandırma Bay is a rectangular transpressional basin whilst the Erdek Bay is a passive basin under the control of NW-SE trending faults. When the water level of the paleo-Marmara lake dropped down

  16. Lithospheric rheological heterogeneity across an intraplate rift basin (Linfen Basin, North China) constrained from magnetotelluric data: Implications for seismicity and rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yaotian; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jian'en; Zhang, Letian; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang; Liang, Hongda

    2017-10-01

    We take the Linfen Basin, which is the most active segment of the Cenozoic intraplate Shanxi Rift, as an example, showing how to use magnetotelluric data to constrain lithospheric rheological heterogeneities of intraplate tectonic zones. Electrical resistivity models, combined with previous rheological numerical simulation, show a good correlation between resistivity and rheological strength, indicating the mechanisms of enhanced conductivity could also be reasons of reduced viscosity. The crust beneath the Linfen Basin shows overall stratified features in both electrical resistivity and rheology. The uppermost crustal conductive layer is dominated by friction sliding-type brittle fracturing. The high-resistivity mid-crust is inferred to be high-viscosity metamorphic basement being intersected by deep fault. The plastic lower crust show significantly high-conductivity feature. Seismicity appears to be controlled by crustal rheological heterogeneity. Micro-earthquakes mainly distribute at the brittle-ductile transition zones as indicated by high- to low-resistivity interfaces or the high pore pressure fault zones while the epicenters of two giant destructive historical earthquakes occur within the high-resistivity and therefore high-strength blocks near the inferred rheological interfaces. The lithosphere-scale lateral rheological heterogeneity along the profile can also be illustrated. The crust and upper mantle beneath the Ordos Block, Lüliang Mountains and Taihang Mountains are of high rheological strength as indicated by large-scale high-resistivity zones while a significant high-conductivity, lithosphere-scale weak zone exists beneath the eastern margin of the Linfen Basin. According to previous geodynamic modeling works, we suggest that this kind of lateral rheological heterogeneity may play an essential role for providing driving force for the formation and evolution of the Shanxi Rift, regional lithospheric deformation and earthquake activities under the

  17. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  18. Climate change and human occupations in the Lake Daihai basin, north-central China over the last 4500 years: A geo-archeological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lichen; Liu, Yan; Sun, Qianli; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Zhongyuan

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution climate variations since the last 4500 years in the monsoonal-arid transition zone of north-central China were revealed through the integration of proxies from sediment cores in the Lake Daihai basin. Human occupations in the lake basin deduced from archeological findings and historical literatures were then incorporated into the climate sequence to demonstrate the patterns of human responses to the climate changes, and the recent anthropogenic effects. It indicated that: (1) Climate dominated human-environment adaptations prevailed prior to ∼2700 cal yr BP. An amicable climate setting before ∼4100 cal yr BP would facilitate the growth of the Laohushan Culture (LC) in the lake basin, while a pronounced deterioration of water thermal condition after that had led to human exodus and the collapse of the LC. The reduced human activity in the lake basin indicated at ∼3800-3500 cal yr BP and a subsequent cultural blank at ∼3500-2700 cal yr BP, were both in response to the climate and lake level fluctuations during ∼3800-2800 cal yr BP. (2) Transition to a positive human adaptation was seen at ∼2700-1100 cal yr BP, represented by the exploitation of arable land for cultivation and animal husbandry as the lake contracted. (3) An increasing human presence that affected environmental processes became more severe over the last ∼1100 cal yr BP. This was basically due to the ongoing lake shore reclamation for cropping, and more recently heavy metals emissions from fossil fuel combustion and local industries.

  19. Crust and upper-mantle structure of Wanganui Basin and southern Hikurangi margin, North Island, New Zealand as revealed by active source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Stern, T. A.; Lamb, S. L.; Henrys, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Wide-angle reflection and refraction data recorded during the Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE) are used to constrain the crustal P-wave velocity (Vp) structure along two profiles spanning the length and width of Wanganui Basin, located landwards of the southern Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. These models provide high-resolution constraints on the structure and crustal thickness of the overlying Australian and subducted Pacific plates and plate interface geometry. Wide-angle reflections are modelled to show that the subducted oceanic Pacific plate crust is anomalously thick (∼10 km) below southern North Island and is overlain by a ∼1.5-4.0 km thick, low Vp (4.8-5.4 km s-1) layer, interpreted as a channel of sedimentary material, that persists landwards at least as far as Kapiti Island. Distinct near vertical reflections from onshore shots identify a ∼4 km high mound of low-velocity sedimentary material that appears to underplate the overlying Australian plate crust and is likely to contribute to local rock uplift along the Axial ranges. The overriding Australian plate Moho beneath Wanganui Basin is imaged as deepening southwards and reaches a depth of at least 36.4 km. The Moho shape approximately mirrors the thickening of the basin sediments, suggestive of crustal downwarping. However, the observed crustal thickness variation is insufficient to explain the large negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (-160 mGal) centred over the basin. Partial serpentinization within the upper mantle with a concomitant density decrease is one possible way of reconciling this anomaly.

  20. Crust and upper-mantle structure of Wanganui Basin and southern Hikurangi margin, North Island, New Zealand as revealed by active source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Stern, T. A.; Lamb, S. L.; Henrys, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Wide-angle reflection and refraction data recorded during the Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE) are used to constrain the crustal P-wave velocity (Vp) structure along two profiles spanning the length and width of Wanganui Basin, located landwards of the southern Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. These models provide high-resolution constraints on the structure and crustal thickness of the overlying Australian and subducted Pacific plates and plate interface geometry. Wide-angle reflections are modelled to show that the subducted oceanic Pacific plate crust is anomalously thick (˜10 km) below southern North Island and is overlain by a ˜1.5-4.0 km thick, low Vp (4.8-5.4 km s-1) layer, interpreted as a channel of sedimentary material, that persists landwards at least as far as Kapiti Island. Distinct near vertical reflections from onshore shots identify a ˜4 km high mound of low-velocity sedimentary material that appears to underplate the overlying Australian plate crust and is likely to contribute to local rock uplift along the Axial ranges. The overriding Australian plate Moho beneath Wanganui Basin is imaged as deepening southwards and reaches a depth of at least 36.4 km. The Moho shape approximately mirrors the thickening of the basin sediments, suggestive of crustal downwarping. However, the observed crustal thickness variation is insufficient to explain the large negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (-160 mGal) centred over the basin. Partial serpentinization within the upper mantle with a concomitant density decrease is one possible way of reconciling this anomaly.

  1. Structural styles in the Sureste Basins, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Molina, G. [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico); Bally, A.W. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Yucatan Platform bisects the NW-SE Sierra de Chiapas fold belt of SE Mexico at right angle. The outcropping Sierra de Chiapas involves Mesozoic platform carbonates, but its northwestern subsurface continuation involves mostly Mesozoic basinal and slope facies sediments in the Villahermosa folds and their offshore continuation, the Sonda de Campeche folds. The main decollement level for the folds is a middle Jurassic evaporites sequence. The pre-salt basement of the area is poorly defined but estimated to dip from about a depth of 6 Km to the north to 13 km in the south. The fold belt was formed during upper Miocene time and is characterized by bivergent NW-SE striking folds. The amount of shortening is estimated to be in the order of 45 km to 65 km. In the onshore and offshore subsurface the folded belt is orthogonally superposed by a late Neogene growth fault system which soles out near the base of the Neogene. This growth fault system developed on the continental slope and intercepted salt diapirs that probably emanated from the core of deep-seated folds. Much of the salt accumulated farther north in the large allochthonous mass of the Campeche salt domes. (author). 23 refs., 2 figs

  2. The HC potential of pre-Westphalian sediments in the North German basin. A synthesis; Das Kohlenwasserstoff-Potential des Praewestfals im norddeutschen Becken. Eine Synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F.; Krull, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Berlin (Germany).]|[Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It was the aim of the interdisciplinary and interinstitutional research program to investigate the possibilities of HC generation from pre-Westphalian sediments in the North German basin in space and time. Potential source rock horizons exist within all pre-Westphalian structural units in Northern Europe, ranging from Cambrian to the Namurian in age and deposited in different environments. The structural framework of the basement of the North German Permian basin was described, the position of the Variscan outer front newly defined and the maturation history during the Late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cainozoic deciphered. Pyrolysis experiments have shown that HC generation, especially from type III kerogen, is possible even beyond a maturity of 4% Rmax. Detailed geochemical and isotope-geochemical investigations of the natural gases from all North German fields indicate gas contributions from pre-Westphalian sources in special regions (Ems Estuary region, Altmark). By integrating all the results of the study an estimation of the possibilities of pre-Westphalian gas occurrences in Northern Germany could be made and the most promising areas for prospecting have been outlined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe des interdisziplinaeren und interinstitutionellen Forschungsvorhabens war es, die Moeglichkeiten der Kohlenwasserstoff-Bildung aus praewestfalen Sedimenten im Norddeutschen Becken in Raum und Zeit zu erkunden. In allen praewestfalen strukturellen Grosseinheiten Nordeuropas existieren potentielle Muttergesteinshorizonte kambrischen bis namurischen Alters aus unterschiedlichen Ablagerungsmilieus. Das strukturelle Inventar des Untergrundes des norddeutschen Permbeckens, der Verlauf der Variszidenfront in Norddeutschland und die Reifungsgeschichte der praewestfalen Muttergesteine im Verlauf der jungpalaeozoischen, mesozoischen und tertiaeren Entwicklung wurden entschluesselt. Pyrolyseversuche zeigten, dass eine KW-Genese, vor allem fuer Kerogen des Typs III, auch jenseits

  3. Reappraisal of the extinct seal “Phoca” vitulinoides from the Neogene of the North Sea Basin, with bearing on its geological age, phylogenetic affinities, and locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwye, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, “Phoca” vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of “Phoca” vitulinoides is lost. Methods “Phoca” vitulinoides is redescribed. Its phylogenetic position among Phocinae is assessed through phylogenetic analysis. Dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy is used to determine and reassess the geological age of the species. Myological descriptions of extant taxa are used to infer muscle attachments, and basic comparative anatomy of the gross morphology and biomechanics are applied to reconstruct locomotion. Results Detailed redescription of “Phoca” vitulinoides indicates relatively little affinities with the genus Phoca, but rather asks for the establishment of a new genus: Nanophoca gen. nov. Hence, “Phoca” vitulinoides is recombined into Nanophoca vitulinoides. This reassignment is confirmed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouping the genus Nanophoca and other extinct phocine taxa as stem phocines. Biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy expand the known stratigraphic range of N. vitulinoides from the late Langhian to the late Serravallian. The osteological anatomy of N. vitulinoides indicates a relatively strong development of muscles used for fore flipper propulsion and increased flexibility for the hind flipper. Discussion The extended stratigraphic range of N. vitulinoides into the middle Miocene confirms relatively early diversification of Phocinae in the North Atlantic. Morphological features on the fore- and hindlimb of the species point toward an increased use of the fore flipper and greater flexibility of the hind flipper as compared to extant Phocinae, clearly

  4. Reappraisal of the extinct seal “Phoca” vitulinoides from the Neogene of the North Sea Basin, with bearing on its geological age, phylogenetic affinities, and locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Dewaele

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, “Phoca” vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of “Phoca” vitulinoides is lost. Methods “Phoca” vitulinoides is redescribed. Its phylogenetic position among Phocinae is assessed through phylogenetic analysis. Dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy is used to determine and reassess the geological age of the species. Myological descriptions of extant taxa are used to infer muscle attachments, and basic comparative anatomy of the gross morphology and biomechanics are applied to reconstruct locomotion. Results Detailed redescription of “Phoca” vitulinoides indicates relatively little affinities with the genus Phoca, but rather asks for the establishment of a new genus: Nanophoca gen. nov. Hence, “Phoca” vitulinoides is recombined into Nanophoca vitulinoides. This reassignment is confirmed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouping the genus Nanophoca and other extinct phocine taxa as stem phocines. Biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy expand the known stratigraphic range of N. vitulinoides from the late Langhian to the late Serravallian. The osteological anatomy of N. vitulinoides indicates a relatively strong development of muscles used for fore flipper propulsion and increased flexibility for the hind flipper. Discussion The extended stratigraphic range of N. vitulinoides into the middle Miocene confirms relatively early diversification of Phocinae in the North Atlantic. Morphological features on the fore- and hindlimb of the species point toward an increased use of the fore flipper and greater flexibility of the hind flipper as compared to extant

  5. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the thick regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system of Indian Creek basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Smith, Douglas G.; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    1997-01-01

    The Indian Creek Basin in the southwestern Piedmont of North Carolina is one of five type areas studied as part of the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System analysis. Detailed studies of selected type areas were used to quantify ground-water flow characteristics in various conceptual hydrogeologic terranes. The conceptual hydrogeologic terranes are considered representative of ground-water conditions beneath large areas of the three physiographic provinces--Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont--that compose the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis area. The Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study area extends over approximately 142,000 square miles in 11 states and the District of Columbia in the Appalachian highlands of the Eastern United States. The Indian Creek type area is typical of ground-water conditions in a single hydrogeologic terrane that underlies perhaps as much as 40 percent of the Piedmont physiographic province. The hydrogeologic terrane of the Indian Creek model area is one of massive and foliated crystalline rocks mantled by thick regolith. The area lies almost entirely within the Inner Piedmont geologic belt. Five hydrogeologic units occupy major portions of the model area, but statistical tests on well yields, specific capacities, and other hydrologic characteristics show that the five hydrogeologic units can be treated as one unit for purposes of modeling ground-water flow. The 146-square-mile Indian Creek model area includes the Indian Creek Basin, which has a surface drainage area of about 69 square miles. The Indian Creek Basin lies in parts of Catawba, Lincoln, and Gaston Counties, North Carolina. The larger model area is based on boundary conditions established for digital simulation of ground-water flow within the smaller Indian Creek Basin. The ground-water flow model of the Indian Creek Basin is based on the U.S. Geological Survey?s modular finite

  6. Rift magmatism on the Eurasia basin margin: U–Pb baddeleyite ages of alkaline dyke swarms in North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórarinsson, Sigurjón B.; Söderlund, Ulf; Døssing, Arne

    2015-01-01

    indicate that north–south and east–west dykes are coeval. The north–south dykes reflect initial east–west rifting that led to break-up along the Gakkel Ridge and formation of the Eurasia Basin. The east–west dykes reflect local variations in the stress field associated with reactivated Palaeozoic faults...

  7. Deciphering the depositional environment of the laminated Crato fossil beds (Early Cretaceous, Araripe Basin, North-eastern Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ariztegui, Daniel; Lenniger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    bedded, pale to dark lamination. To obtain information on palaeoenvironmental conditions, sample slabs derived from three local stratigraphic sections within the Araripe Basin were studied using high-resolution multiproxy techniques including detailed logging, petrography, mu-XRF scanning and stable...

  8. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  9. 2001 North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program (NCFMP) Lidar: Phase 1A (Neuse, Pasquotank, Tar-Pamlico, White Oak River Basins)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This airborne LiDAR terrain mapping data was acquired January through March 2001. The data were collected for the floodplain mapping program for the state of North...

  10. 2001 North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program (NCFMP) Lidar: Phase 1B (Cape Fear and Lumber River Basins)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This airborne LiDAR terrain mapping data was acquired in the spring of 2001. The data were collected for the floodplain mapping program for the state of North...

  11. Salts slurries using in 'offshore' recent cementation in Campos Basin; Pastas salinas utilizadas em cimentacoes recentes 'offshore' na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Ricardo [BJ Services, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Simao, Cristina Aiex; Sledz, Marcelo [PETROBRAS S.A., RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS has recently begun active drilling on locations where the interest zone is below salt formations, which can be as thick as 2000 meters, formation that may contain mobile salts as taquihydryte. This paper refers to the slurries used on the first well drilled under those conditions and to slurry designs used in other similar wells. The challenge is to avoid the open hole closure by the taquihydryte before the next phase is drilled and cased. In order to do so, it was programmed to use a heavy spacer to maintain the wells stability for at least 30 days, due to hydrostatic pressure. This spacer and the heavy salt slurry (18,5 lb/gal) were used for the first time in Brazil. To cement the production casings, similar formulations were used, although with 15,8 lb/gal density slurries and a minimum of 10% bwow salt (NaCl). On the surface cementing operations, light slurries with sea water, salt, and, silicate and aluminate based additives, were designed and used, followed by the 15,8 lb/gal with 18% bwow salt slurry. Information about the different slurries are presented. (author)

  12. CONSIDERATION ABOUT A CONSERVACIONIST STUDY ABOUT THE MICRO BASINS HYDROGRAPHICS OF THE RIVERS DOS APERTADOS AND TRÊS BOCAS, NORTH OF PARANÁ – BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walquíria Machado

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental planning in hydrographic micro basins may minimize the incidence of environmental impacts as consequence of the human indiscriminate action. The hydrographic basin is worldly recognized as the best unit for handling natural resources. Thus, a methodology for diagnosis of the real situation of natural resources, in a basin, turns to be a necessary tool for the preservation and management of these resources. The identification of the different kinds of predominant vegetables informs, chiefly, about the level of soil protection, since the vegetation is responsible for the protection against the impacts of the raindrops (splash, by the reduction of the speed of surface outflow (runoff, through the increasing of the land ruggedness and greater soil structure constitution that may offer greater resistance to the action of the erosive processes. Besides, the collected data about the covering vegetation generally comes along with the information about the current use of the soil, since they both are strictly related. Several authors have pointed out the importance of geo morphological mappings of environmental planning projects. The use of the cartography and geo morphological information aim to represent the physiography of the landscape,considering the elements identification or environment of transport and accumulation, characterization of the morph genetics processes, and the human action implications. From the environmental point of view, the landforms are factors that influence the local hydrological conditions and specific top climatic. In this sense, the micro basins of Ribeirões dos Apertados and Três Bocas located between the municipalities of Londrina and Arapongas, North of Paraná, though constituted by fertile soils, Nitossolos and Argissolos, present a mainframe of environmental degradation common to other micro basins of the region, or, the lack of banks vegetation, the action of erosive processes, blocking the water

  13. Seventy-five years of vegetation treatments on public rangelands in the Great Basin of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin; Toevs, Gordon R.

    2017-01-01

    On the Ground Land treatments occurring over millions of hectares of public rangelands in the Great Basin over the last 75 years represent one of the largest vegetation manipulation and restoration efforts in the world.The ability to use legacy data from land treatments in adaptive management and ecological research has improved with the creation of the Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL), a spatially explicit database of land treatments conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The LTDL contains information on over 9,000 confirmed land treatments in the Great Basin, composed of seedings (58%), vegetation control treatments (24%), and other types of vegetation or soil manipulations (18%).The potential application of land treatment legacy data for adaptive management or as natural experiments for retrospective analyses of effects of land management actions on physical, hydrologic, and ecologic patterns and processes is considerable and just beginning to be realized.

  14. Focus on the Future: Water Resource Strategies for the Upper Mississippi and Red River of the North Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Minnesota River near Montevideo , Minnesota, was substantially completed by the Works Progress Administration. The project was transferred from the State of... Montevideo Chippewa New Ulm Brown St. Peter Nicollet Springfield Brown Windom Cottonwood A flood control project to protect the principal commercial...basin also depends on timber and tourism for a share of its economic well-being. The importance of this region to domestic (and foreign)’ food

  15. Regional and Local Trends in helium isotopes, basin and rangeprovince, western North America: Evidence for deep permeablepathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-07-15

    Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as {approx}6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent with recent and current volcanic activity. Moving away from these areas, helium isotope ratios decrease rapidly to ''background'' values of around 0.6 Ra, and then gradually decrease toward the east to low values of {approx}0.1 Ra at the eastern margin of the Basin and Range. Superimposed on this general regional trend are isolated features with elevated helium isotope ratios (0.8-2.1 Ra) compared to the local background. Spring geochemistry and local geology indicate that these ''He-spikes'' are not related to current or recent magmatic activity, suggesting that the spikes may reflect either localized zones deep mantle melting or deep permeable pathways (faults) with high vertical fluid flowrates. A detailed study of one of the He-spikes (Dixie Valley and the Stillwater Range Front Fault system), indicates that features with high 3He/4He ratios are confined to the range front normal faults characteristic of the extensional regime in the Basin and Range, suggesting that these faults are deep permeable pathways. However, not all range front fault systems transmit fluids with a mantle signature, implying that not all have deep permeable pathways.

  16. On the Sizes of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones Based on 34- and 64-kt Wind Radii Data, 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    At end of the 2012 hurricane season the National Hurricane Center retired the original HURDAT dataset and replaced it with the newer version HURDAT2, which reformatted the original data and included additional information, in particular, estimates of the 34-, 50, and 64-kt wind radii for the interval 2004-2013. During the brief 10-year interval, some 164 tropical cyclones are noted to have formed in the North Atlantic basin, with 77 becoming hurricanes. Hurricane Sandy (2012) stands out as being the largest individual storm that occurred in the North Atlantic basin during the 2004 -2013 timeframe, both in terms of its 34- and 64-kt wind radii and wind areas, having maximum 34- and 64-kt wind radii, maximum wind areas, and average wind areas each more than 2 standard deviations larger than the corresponding means. In terms of the largest yearly total 34-kt wind area (i.e., the sum of all individual storm 34-kt wind areas during the year), the year 2010 stands out as being the largest (about 423 × 10(exp 6) nmi(exp 2)), compared to the mean of about 174 × 10(exp 6) nmi(exp 2)), surpassing the year 2005 (353 x 10(exp 6) nmi(exp 2)) that had the largest number of individual storms (28). However, in terms of the largest yearly total 64-kt wind area, the year 2005 was the largest (about 9 × 10(exp 6) nmi(exp 2)), compared to the mean of about 3 × 106 nmi(exp 2)). Interesting is that the ratio of total 64-kt wind area to total 34-kt wind area has decreased over time, from 0.034 in 2004 to 0.008 in 2013.

  17. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Wan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Central Hebei Basin (CHB is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeast–southwest direction with an area of >350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedimentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1 and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1 have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41–2.51 and ∼2.5 Ga, respectively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher ΣREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Ybn values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5 mainly contain ∼2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins have εHf (2.5 Ga values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, ∼2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  18. Dynamical Downscaling over the Great Lakes Basin of North America using the WRF Regional Climate Model: The impact of the Great Lakes system on regional greenhouse warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, J.; Peltier, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we investigate the regional climate changes to be expected over the Great Lakes Basin of North America during the next century. Large freshwater systems, such as the Great Lakes, play a key role in determining the climate of their basins and adjacent regions by air mass modification through the exchange of heat and moisture with the atmosphere. Even systems as extensive as the Great Lakes are unresolved in coarse resolution global climate simulations but may be accurately captured in finer-mesh regional simulations by dynamical downscaling. Historical (1979-2001) and future (2050-2060 and 2090-2100) conditions are simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) forced by CCSM3 global simulations. Our analyses are based upon the IPCC SRES A2 and A1B emissions scenarios. A two-step nesting procedure is employed for the purpose of downscaling, in which the first nested WRF model is of North American continental scale at 30 km resolution, whereas the innermost domain at 10 km resolution covers the Great Lakes Basin and the Canadian Province of Ontario. The differences in extreme temperature and precipitation events delivered by the different scales of simulation are discussed. As the WRF model does not currently have an explicit lake component, lake ice and lake surface temperature need to be prescribed in the model. A first set of simulations is performed using climatological 1979-2001) data for lake ice and lake surface temperature. A second set is performed using outputs from the freshwater lake model "FLake" (Mironov, D. V., 2008, COSMO Technical Report, No. 11, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany) forced by atmospheric fields from the global simulations. A third set is performed using an interactive coupling of the lake model FLake with the regional model WRF. Changes in surface temperatures and ice cover, and especially ice-out dates, for the Great Lakes under future atmospheric conditions are discussed. The trends in

  19. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  20. Souris River Basin Project. Saskatchewan, Canada - North Dakota, U.S.A. General Plan Report and Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    water as it enters the United States. Appendix 9 contains North Dakota water quality standards for the Souris River and an analysis of ambient water...conducted ueadr the amebe tty of the Meritage Nesesrees legislacion of Saskatchewan. 4rcbeolotical work directly associated with the flood control

  1. An Archaeological Survey of Selected Portions of the Lower and Middle Sheyenne River Basin in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    along the .beaches of glacial Lake Agassiz in Manitoba (Saylor 1975). The Plano Culture followed and was partially contemporaneous 4 with the Folsom...Culture in parts of the northern Plains. However, no Plano -like artifacts have been recovered in the Sheyenne River basin, and they are not abundant in...60-65, Table 1). Rim decorations consisted of 7.6% cord, 17.7% cord-wrapped rod, 15.2% incised, 12.6% punctate, 29.1% pie crust, 8.9% plain, and 8.9

  2. High-resolution digital elevation model of Mount St. Helens crater and upper North Fork Toutle River basin, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the North Fork Toutle River basin, which drains the northern flank of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, built a sediment retention structure on the North Fork Toutle River in 1989 to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From September 16–20, 2009, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 214 square kilometers (83 square miles) of Mount St. Helens and the upper North Fork Toutle River basin from the sediment retention structure to the volcano's crater. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Final results averaged about five laser last

  3. On the Relationship Between the Length of Season and Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin During the Weather Satellite Era, 1960-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Officially, the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclone season runs from June 1 through November 30 of each year. During this 183-day interval, the vast majority of tropical cyclone onsets are found to occur. For example, in a study of the 715 tropical cyclones that occurred in the North Atlantic basin during the interval 1945-2010, it was found that about 97 percent of them had their onsets during the conventional hurricane season, with the bulk (78 percent) having had onset during the late summer-early fall months of August, September, and October and with none having had onset in the month of March. For the 2014 hurricane season, it already has had the onset of its first named storm on July 1 (day of year (DOY) 182), Arthur, which formed off the east coast of Florida, rapidly growing into a category-2 hurricane with peak 1-minute sustained wind speed of about 90 kt and striking the coast of North Carolina as a category-2 hurricane on July 3. Arthur is the first hurricane larger than category-1 to strike the United States (U.S.) since the year 2008 when Ike struck Texas as a category-2 hurricane and there has not been a major hurricane (category-3 or larger) to strike the U.S. since Wilma struck Florida as a category-3 hurricane in 2005. Only two category-1 hurricanes struck the U.S. in the year 2012 (Isaac and Sandy, striking Louisiana and New York, respectively) and there were no U.S. land-falling hurricanes in 2013 (also true for the years 1962, 1973, 1978, 1981, 1982, 1990, 1994, 2000, 2001, 2006, 2009, and 2010). In recent years it has been argued that the length of season (LOS), determined as the inclusive elapsed time between the first storm day (FSD) and the last storm day (LSD) of the yearly hurricane season (i.e., when peak 1-minute sustained wind speed of at least 34 kt occurred and the tropical cyclone was not classified as 'extratropical'), has increased in length with the lengthening believed to be due to the FSD occurring sooner and the LSD occurring

  4. Evidence for intercontinental parasite exchange through molecular detection and characterization of haematozoa in northern pintails (Anas acuta sampled throughout the North Pacific Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Ramey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence supports wild birds as playing a role in the interhemispheric exchange of bacteria and viruses; however, data supporting the redistribution of parasites among continents are limited. In this study, the hypothesis that migratory birds contribute to the redistribution of parasites between continents was tested by sampling northern pintails (Anas acuta at locations throughout the North Pacific Basin in North America and East Asia for haemosporidian infections and assessing the genetic evidence for parasite exchange. Of 878 samples collected from birds in Alaska (USA, California (USA, and Hokkaido (Japan during August 2011–May 2012 and screened for parasitic infections using molecular techniques, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites were detected in 555 (63%, 44 (5%, and 52 (6% samples, respectively. Using an occupancy modeling approach, the probability of detecting parasites via replicate genetic tests was estimated to be high (ρ > 0.95. Multi-model inference supported variation of Leucocytozoon parasite prevalence by northern pintail age class and geographic location of sampling in contrast to Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites for which there was only support for variation in parasite prevalence by sampling location. Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan. The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites. Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions.

  5. Evidence for intercontinental parasite exchange through molecular detection and characterization of haematozoa in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled throughout the North Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Reed, John A.; Fujita, Go; Scotton, Bradley D.; Casler, Bruce; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Konishi, Kan; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence supports wild birds as playing a role in the interhemispheric exchange of bacteria and viruses; however, data supporting the redistribution of parasites among continents are limited. In this study, the hypothesis that migratory birds contribute to the redistribution of parasites between continents was tested by sampling northern pintails (Anas acuta) at locations throughout the North Pacific Basin in North America and East Asia for haemosporidian infections and assessing the genetic evidence for parasite exchange. Of 878 samples collected from birds in Alaska (USA), California (USA), and Hokkaido (Japan) during August 2011 - May 2012 and screened for parasitic infections using molecular techniques, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites were detected in 555 (63%), 44 (5%), and 52 (6%) samples, respectively. Using an occupancy modeling approach, the probability of detecting parasites via replicate genetic tests was estimated to be high (p ≥ 0.95). Multi-model inference supported variation of Leucocytozoon parasite prevalence by northern pintail age class and geographic location of sampling in contrast to Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites for which there was only support for variation in parasite prevalence by sampling location. Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan. The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites. Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions.

  6. Interaction of water components in the semi-arid Huasco and Limarí river basins, North Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Oyarzún, R.; Reinstorf, F.; Oyarzún, J.; Schirmer, M.; Knöller, K.

    2009-10-01

    For sustainable water resource management in semi-arid regions, sound information is required about interactions between the different components of the water system: rain/snow precipitation, surface/subsurface run-off, groundwater recharge. Exemplarily, the Huasco and Limarí river basins as water stressed river catchments have been studied by isotope and hydrochemical methods for (i) the origin of water, (ii) water quality, (iii) relations of surface and groundwater. Applying the complex multi-isotopic and hydrochemical methodology to the water components of the Huasco and Limarí basins, a differentiation of water components concerning subsurface flow and river water along the catchment area and by anthropogenic impacts are detected. Sulphate and nitrate concentrations indicate remarkable input from mining and agricultural activities along the river catchment. The 2H-18O relations of river water and groundwater of both catchments point to the behaviour of river waters originated in an arid to semi-arid environment. Consequently, the groundwater from several production wells in the lower parts of the catchments is related to the rivers where the wells located, however, it can be distinguished from the river water. Using the hydrological water balance and the isotope mixing model, the interaction between surface and subsurface flows and river flow is estimated.

  7. Depositional environment of a fan delta in a Vistulian proglacial lake (Skaliska Basin, north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woronko Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reconstructed the environment of a fan delta filling the vast end depression of the Skaliska Basin, and its overlying aeolian deposits. The formation of the large fan delta is associated with the presence of an ice-dammed lake functioning during the retreat of the Vistulian Glaciation (MIS 2. The examined material was collected from five boreholes. Sediments were analysed for their granulometric composition and subjected to analyses of frosting and rounding of quartz grains. Grain size analysis showed that the fan delta deposits are built of sand sediments of very low lateral and vertical variability. The fan delta was supplied with fluvioglacial sediments. Accumulation of sediments occurred in shallow water with a very low-gradient slope. The exposed fan delta became a site conducive to aeolian processes after the lake waters fell and the Skaliska Basin depression dried. Dune deposits overlying the fan were affected by short-distance transport so they did not acquire features typical for aeolian deposits.

  8. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  9. Three-dimensional mapping of salt load in the Murray-Darling Basin, 1 Steps in calibration of airborne electromagnetic surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cresswell, R.G.; Dent, D.L.; Jones, G.; Galloway, D.

    2004-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic survey yields a three-dimensional map of ground electrical conductivity. The remotely sensed data are translated into salt load by field and laboratory calibration: drilling, measurement of borehole conductivity, electrical conductivity of 1 : 5 soil¿water extracts

  10. WATER RESOURCES STATUS AND AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT IN CURRENT AND FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR BEAS RIVER BASIN OF NORTH WESTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Aggarwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The water resources status and availability of any river basin is of primary importance for overall and sustainable development of any river basin. This study has been done in Beas river basin which is located in North Western Himalaya for assessing the status of water resources in present and future climate change scenarios. In this study hydrological modelling approach has been used for quantifying the water balance components of Beas river basin upto Pandoh. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC model has been used in energy balance mode for Beas river basin at 1km grid scale. The VIC model has been run with snow elevation zones files to simulate the snow module of VIC. The model was run with National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP forcing data (Tmax, Tmin, Rainfall and wind speed at 0.5degree resolution from 1 Jan. 1999 to 31 Dec 2006 for calibration purpose. The additional component of glacier melt was added into overall river runoff using semi-empirical approach utilizing air temperature and glacier type and extent data. The ground water component is computed from overall recharge of ground water by water balance approach. The overall water balance approach is validated with river discharge data provided by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB from 1994-2014. VIC routing module was used to assess pixel wise flow availability at daily, monthly and annual time scales. The mean monthly flow at Pandoh during study period varied from 19 - 1581 m3/s from VIC and 50 to 1556 m3/sec from observation data, with minimum water flow occurring in month of January and maximum flow in month of August with annual R2 of 0.68. The future climate change data is taken from CORDEX database. The climate model of NOAA-GFDL-ESM2M for IPCC RCP scenario 4.5 and 8.5 were used for South Asia at 0.44 deg. grid from year 2006 to 2100. The climate forcing data for VIC model was prepared using daily maximum and minimum near surface air temperature, daily

  11. Paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic constraints on transverse fault kinematics during basin inversion: The Pamplona Fault (Pyrenees, north Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LarrasoañA, Juan Cruz; ParéS, Josep MaríA.; MilláN, HéCtor; Del Valle, JoaquíN.; Pueyo, Emilio Luis

    2003-12-01

    The Pamplona Fault in the Pyrenees is a major transverse structure that has been classically interpreted as a strike-slip fault. However, lack of consensus concerning the sense of movement casts doubt on its actual kinematics and, as a consequence, its role in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pyrenees remains controversial. In order to assess its kinematics, we have conducted a paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic study focused on the Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks that outcrop around the southern segment of the fault. Restoration of balanced cross sections allows us to examine the present-day spatial relationship of the sedimentary sequences on both sides of the fault and to reconstruct the geometry of the extensional basins formed during Mesozoic rifting episodes in the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenean domains. Paleomagnetic results indicate that no significant tectonic rotations occurred around the fault during Tertiary inversion of the Pyrenees. The lack of tectonic rotations and revaluation of previous hypotheses argues against a strike-slip movement of the fault. We propose a new model in which the Pamplona Fault is treated as a large-scale "hanging wall drop" fault whose kinematics was determined by variations in the geometry and thickness of Mesozoic sequences on both sides of the fault. These variations influenced the geometry of the thrust sheet developed during Tertiary compression. We are unaware of any other transverse fault that has been interpreted in this fashion; thus the Pamplona Fault serves as a case study for the evolution of transverse faults involved in basin inversion processes.

  12. The initiation and tectonic regimes of the Cenozoic extension in the Bohai Bay Basin, North China revealed by numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Qiu, Nansheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study the dynamic aspects of the Cenozoic extension in the Bohai Bay Basin are considered in the context of initial thickness of the crust and lithosphere, tectonic force, strain rate and thermal rheology, which are directly or indirectly estimated from a pure shear extensional model. It is accordingly reasonable to expect that, in the Bohai Bay Basin, the thickness variation could be present prior to the initiation of extension. The extensional deformation is localized by a thickness variation of the crust and lithosphere and the heterogeneity of the initial thickness plays an important role in rifting dynamics. The onset of rifting requires a critical tectonic force (initial tectonic force) to be applied, which then immediately begins to decay gradually. Rifting will only occur when the total effective buoyancy force of the subducting slab reaches a critical level, after a certain amount of subduction taking place. The magnitude of the tectonic force decreases with time in the early phase of rifting, which indicates the weakening due to the increase in geothermal gradient. In order to deform the continental lithosphere within the currently accepted maximum magnitude of the force derived from subducted slab roll-back, the following conditions should be satisfied: (1) the thickness of the continental lithosphere is significantly thin and less than 125 km and (2) the lithosphere has a wet and hot rheology, which provides implications for rheological layering in continental lithosphere. Our results are strongly supported by the ;crème brûlée; model, in which the lower crust and mantle are relatively ductile.

  13. Investigating the effect of plate-mantle interaction in basin creation and associated drainage systems: insights from the North West Shelf of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, S.; Gallagher, S. J.; Moresi, L. N.; Salles, T.; Rey, P. F.; Payenberg, T.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of plate-mantle dynamics on surface topography has increasingly being recognized. This concept is particularly useful for the understanding of the links between plate-mantle dynamics, continental break up and the creation of sedimentary basins and their associated drainage systems. To unravel these links back in time we present an approach that uses numerical models and the geological record. The sedimentary basins of the North West Shelf (NWS) of Australia contain an exceptional record of the Permian to early Cretaceous polyphased rifting of Australia from Greater India, which is in turn associated with the breakup of Gondwana. This record and the relative tectonic quiescence of the Australian Continent since the Late Cretaceous make the NWS a great natural laboratory for investigating the interaction between mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and drainage patterns. Furthermore, as a result of the extensive petroleum exploration and production in the area a uniquely large dataset containing seismic, lithologic, biostratigraphic and detrital zircon information is already available. This study will first focus on augmenting zircon datasets to refine the current conceptual models of paleodrainage systems associated with the NWS. Current conceptual models of drainage patterns suggest the previous existance of large transcontinental rivers that transported sediments from Antarctica and India, rather than from more proximal Australian sources. From a mass-balance point of view this model seems reasonable, as large transcontinental rivers would be required to transport the significant volume of sediments that are deposited in the thick (15km) sedimentary sequences of the NWS. Coupling of geodynamic (Underworld) and landscape-dynamics (Badlands) models will allow us to numerically test the likelihood of this conceptual model and also to present and integrated approach to investigate the link between deep Earth processes and surficial processes.

  14. The age of volcanic tuffs from the Upper Freshwater Molasse (North Alpine Foreland Basin) and their possible use for tephrostratigraphic correlations across Europe for the Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocholl, Alexander; Schaltegger, Urs; Gilg, H. Albert; Wijbrans, Jan; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-07-01

    The Middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments represent the last cycle of clastic sedimentation during the evolution of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. They are characterized by small-scale lateral and temporal facies changes that make intra-basin stratigraphic correlations at regional scale difficult. This study provides new U-Pb zircon ages as well as revised 40Ar/39Ar data of volcanic ash horizons in the Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments from southern Germany and Switzerland. In a first and preliminary attempt, we propose their possible correlation to other European tephra deposits. The U-Pb zircon data of one Swiss (Bischofszell) and seven southern German (Zahling, Hachelstuhl, Laimering, Unterneul, Krumbad, Ponholz) tuff horizons indicate eruption ages between roughly 13.0 and 15.5 Ma. The stratigraphic position of the Unterneul and Laimering tuffs, bracketing the ejecta of the Ries impact (Brockhorizon), suggests that the Ries impact occurred between 14.93 and 15.00 Ma, thus assigning the event to the reversed chron C5Bn1r (15.032-14.870 Ma) which is in accordance with paleomagnetic evidence. We combine our data with published ages of tuff horizons from Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria, Styria, Hungary, and Romania to derive a preliminary tephrochronological scheme for the Middle Miocene in Central Europe in the age window from 13.2 to 15.5 Ma. The scheme is based on the current state of knowledge that the Carpathian-Pannonian volcanic field was the only area in the region producing explosive calc-alkaline felsic volcanism. This preliminary scheme will require verification by more high-quality ages complemented by isotopic, geochemical and paleomagnetic data.

  15. Mantle flow, volatiles, slab-surface temperatures and melting dynamics in the north Tonga arc-Lau back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, John; Turner, Simon; Arculus, Richard; Dale, Chris; Jenner, Frances; Pearce, Julian; MacPherson, Colin; Handley, Heather

    2012-11-01

    The Fonualei Spreading Center affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate geochemical changes with increasing depth to the slab in the Lau back-arc basin. We present H2O and CO2concentrations and Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf and U-Th-Ra isotope data for selected glasses as well as new Hf isotope data from boninites and seamounts to the north of the Tonga arc. The Pb and Hf isotope data are used to show that mantle flow is oriented to the southwest and that the tear in the northern end of the slab may not extend east as far as the boninite locality. Along the Fonualei Spreading Center, key geochemical parameters change smoothly with increasing distance from the arc front and increasing slab surface temperatures. The latter may range from 720 to 866°C, based on decreasing H2O/Ce ratios. Consistent with experimental data, the geochemical trends are interpreted to reflect changes in the amount and composition of wet pelite melts or super-critical fluids and aqueous fluids derived from the slab. With one exception, all of the lavas preserve both238U excesses and 226Ra excesses. We suggest that lavas from the Fonualei Spreading Center and Valu Fa Ridge are dominated by fluid-fluxed melting whereas those from the East and Central Lau Spreading Centers, where slab surface temperatures exceed ˜850-900°C, are largely derived through decompression. A similar observation is found for the Manus and East Scotia back-arc basins and may reflect the expiry of a key phase such as lawsonite in the subducted basaltic crust.

  16. Water-quality trends and basin activities and characteristics for the Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D.A.; Davenport, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system has a total basin area of nearly 31,000 square miles and includes the Neuse, Tar, Pamlico, Roanoke, Chowan, and Alligator Rivers, and the Albemarle, Pamlico, Currituck, Croatan, and Roanoke Sounds. Albemarle Sound receives the greatest freshwater inflow of all the sounds in the estuarine system. Inflow to this sound averages about 13,500 cubic feet per second. Inflow to Pamlico Sound from the Pamlico River averages around 5,400 cubic feet per second, and average inflow into the Neuse River estuary is about 6,100 cubic feet per second. Approximately one-half of the inflow into the system is from ground-water discharge. The Neuse River basin has had the greatest increases in wastewater discharges (650 percent since the 1950's) and had the greatesttotal wastewater discharges of any of the basins in the study area, averaging about 200 million gallons per day in 1988. Wastewater discharges into the Neuse and Tar Rivers were nearly equal to the 7-day, 10-year low flows for these rivers. Land-use data compiled in 1973 for the lower parts of the Neuse River basin and lower part of the Tar-Pamlico River basin indicate that 25 percent of the area was evergreen forest, 25 percent was forested wetlands, 20 percent was cropland and pasture, 12 percent was mixed forest, 10 percent was nonforested wetland, and 4 percent was urban. The amount of nonforested wetland in the part of the study area along the Outer Banks declined 6.5 percent from 1973 to 1983. The numbers of farms and acreage in agricultural use in the study area have declined since the 1920's. A decrease of more than 60 percentin the number of farms was shown between the early 1950's and 1982. Fertilizer sales increased through the 1970's, but declined in the 1980's. Manufacturing employment has increased in the last 30 years, while agricultural employment has decreased. Data from seven stations of the U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network were used to

  17. Understanding Droughts and their Agricultural Impact in North America at the Basin Scale through the Development of Satellite Based Drought Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Hernandez, A.; Lawford, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    Drought is a major constraint severely affecting numerous agricultural regions in North America. Decision makers need timely information on the existence of a drought as well as its intensity, frequency, likely duration, and economic and social effects in order to implement adaptation strategies and minimize its impacts. Countries like Mexico and Canada face a challenge associated with the lack of consistent and reliable in-situ data that allows the computation of drought indicators at resolutions that effectively supports decision makers at the watershed scale. This study focuses on (1) the development of near-real time drought indicators at high resolution utilizing various satellite data for use in improving adaptation plans and mitigation actions at the basin level; (2) the quantification of the relationships between current and historical droughts and their agricultural impacts by evaluating thresholds for drought impacts; and (3) the assessment of the effects of existing water policies, economic subsidies, and infrastructure that affect the vulnerability of a particular region to the economic impacts of a drought. A pilot study area located in Northwest Mexico and known as the Rio Yaqui Basin was selected for this study in order to make comparisons between the satellite based indicators derived from currently available satellite products to provide an assessment of the quality of the products generated. The Rio Yaqui Basin, also referred to as the "bread basket" of Mexico, is situated in an arid to semi-arid region where highly sophisticated irrigation systems have been implemented to support extensive agriculture. Although for many years the irrigation systems acted as a safety net for the farmers, recent droughts have significantly impacted agricultural output, affected thousands of people, and increase the dependence on groundwater. The drought indices generated are used in conjunction with a decision-support model to provide information on drought impacts

  18. On the Current Trend of Tropical Cyclone Activity and the Lengthening of the Tropical Cyclone Season in the North Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    In this TP, the trend in North Atlantic basin TC activity, especially as related to the determination of the length of season (LOS) and its possible association with warming surface-air and sea-surface temperature, is revisited. In particular, examined are: (1) the trend in TC activity for the yearly intervals 1945-1965, 1966-1994, and 1995-2012 for TCs having duration NSD greater or equal to 0.25 day, less than 2 days, greater than or equal to 2 days, greater than or equal to 4 days, and greater than or equal to 8 days; (2) the latitudinal and longitudinal genesis locations of the short-lived TC (defined herein as those TCs having duration NSD less than 2 days) for the three yearly intervals; (3) the first storm day (FSD), last storm day (LSD), and LOS based on TCs having duration NSD greater than or equal to 0.25 day and NSD greater than or equal to 2 days; (4) the relationship between FSD, LSD, and LOS for TCs having duration NSD greater than or equal to 0.25 day and NSD greater than or equal to 2 days; (5) the surface-air and sea-surface temperature, wind, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during the interval 1945-2012; (6) the relationship of FSD, LSD, and LOS against surface-air and sea-surface temperature, wind, and the NAO; (7) the relationship of TC activity against surface-air and sea-surface temperature, wind, and the NAO; and (8) the relationship of TC activity against FSD and LOS. This TP represents an update to an earlier study by Wilson concerning the length of the yearly hurricane season.

  19. Marine vertebrates from the Santonian coastal carbonates of northwestern Germany - a tool for the reconstruction of a Proto- North Sea Basin intertidal dinosaur-exchange bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.; Scheer, Udo

    2015-09-01

    A diverse vertebrate fauna, dominated by shark teeth, is recorded from conglomerates within the limestones of the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Burgsteinfurt Formation of northwestern Germany. The conglomerate beds comprise carbonatic, glauconitic and phosphate nodules, as well as Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous extraclasts. The Burgsteinfurt Formation conglomerates contain fining-upwards parasequences 2-20 cm in thickness, interpreted as tempestite layers within a unit formed by larger-scale Milankovitch Cycles. The presence of the inoceramid Sphenoceramus patootensis and belemnite Gonioteuthis granulata indicate a late Santonian age for the unit. The studied vertebrate fauna from the Weiner Esch locality consists of 20 selachian species (14 macroselachians and 6 microselachians), a few teleosts, rare marine mosasaur remains, and one tooth from a theropod dinosaur. 95% of the vertebrates in the assemblage are depositionally autochthonous, with the remaining material reworked from older underlying Cenomanian-Coniacian (lower Upper Cretaceous) limestones. On the basis of observed sedimentary structures, the scarcity of deep-sea selachians, and the dominance of the Mitsukurinidae (59% of the preserved shark fauna) in the fossil assemblage, the unit is interpreted as a shallow (0-3 metres deep), subtidal, nearshore environment, or even subaerial carbonate-sand islands, located on the southern margin of a submarine swell. The presence of a Santonian theropod in this deposit, and other dinosaur records in northern Germany, together support the interpretation of a short-lived uplift event with strong upwelling influence for the Northwestphalian-Lippe submarine swell north of the Rhenish Massif in the southern Proto- North Sea Basin. A new migration model for dinosaurs moving along carbonate coasts or intertidal zones of shallow carbonate-sand islands in Central Europe is presented, which may explain the scattered distribution of dinosaur remains across Europe in the

  20. Development and preliminary application of a method to assess river ecological status in the Hai River Basin, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Baoqing; Ding, Yuekui; Zhao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The river ecosystem in the Hai River Basin (HRB), an important economic region in China, is seriously degraded. With the aim of river restoration in the HRB, we developed a method to assess the river's ecological status and conducted a preliminary application of the method. The established method was a predictive model, which used macroinvertebrates as indicator organisms. The river's ecological status was determined by calculating the ratio of observed to expected values (O/E). The method included ecoregionalization according to natural factors, and the selection of reference sites based on combinations of habitat quality and macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate taxa included Insecta, Crustacea, Gastropoda, and Oligochaeta, with 39 families and 95 genera identified in the HRB. The HRB communities were dominated by pollution tolerant taxa, such as Lymnaeidae, Chironomus, Limnodrilus, Glyptotendipes, and Tubifex. The average Shannon-Wiener index was 1.40±0.5, indicating a low biodiversity. In the river length of 3.31×10(4) km, 55% of the sites were designated poor, with a bad ecological status. Among nine secondary river systems, Luan and Zi-ya had the best and worst river conditions, respectively. Only 17 reference site groups were selected for river management in the 41 ecoregions examined. This study lays the foundation for river restoration and related research in the HRB, and we anticipate further developments of this novel method. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Multivariate statistical evaluation of heavy metals in the surface water sources of Jia Bharali river basin, North Brahmaputra plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khound, Nayan J.; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of surfacewater sources in the Jia Bharali river basin and adjoining areas of the Himalayan foothills with respect to heavy elements viz. (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) by hydrochemical and multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). This study presents the first ever systematic analysis on toxic elements of water samples collected from 35 different surface water sources in both the dry and wet seasons for a duration of 2 hydrological years (2009-2011). Varimax factors extracted by principal component analysis indicates anthropogenic (domestic and agricultural run-off) and geogenic influences on the trace elements. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 35 surfacewater sources into three statistically significant clusters based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of complex data sets, and in water quality assessment, identification of pollution sources/factors and understanding temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective surfacewater quality management.

  2. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  3. On the significance of nitrification within the euphotic zone of the subpolar North Atlantic (Iceland basin) during summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C.

    2011-11-01

    The oxidation of ammonium to nitrite was investigated within surface waters (< 125 m) of the sub-polar North Atlantic (~ 60°N, 20°W) during late summer 2007. Sampling occurred within a mesoscale eddy dipole system and a definite bias towards waters beneath the euphotic zone as the focus for nitrification was evident. The patchy occurrence of significant nitrification rates within the euphotic zone is interpreted as providing minimal indication for widespread nitrification within surface waters of the sub-polar gyre. However, isolated occurrences of significant nitrification rates within the euphotic zone above the cyclonic eddy were sufficient to account for observed in-situ NO 3-concentrations. It is proposed that the deeper mixed layer associated with the cyclonic eddy enhanced the likelihood of nitrification within the euphotic zone through the vertical displacement of sub-euphotic zone bacterial communities.

  4. Transport of North African dust from the Bodélé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Through long-range transport of dust, the North-African desert supplies essential minerals to the Amazon rain forest. Since North African dust reaches South America mostly during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the dust sources active during winter are the main contributors to the forest. Given that the Bodélé depression area in southwestern Chad is the main winter dust source, a close link is expected between the Bodélé emission patterns and volumes and the mineral supply flux to the Amazon.

    Until now, the particular link between the Bodélé and the Amazon forest was based on sparse satellite measurements and modeling studies. In this study, we combine a detailed analysis of space-borne and ground data with reanalysis model data and surface measurements taken in the central Amazon during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 in order to explore the validity and the nature of the proposed link between the Bodélé depression and the Amazon forest.

    This case study follows the dust events of 11–16 and 18–27 February 2008, from the emission in the Bodélé over West Africa (most likely with contribution from other dust sources in the region the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, to the observed effects above the Amazon canopy about 10 days after the emission. The dust was lifted by surface winds stronger than 14 m s−1, usually starting early in the morning. The lofted dust, mixed with biomass burning aerosols over Nigeria, was transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived over the South American continent. The top of the aerosol layer reached above 3 km, and the bottom merged with the boundary layer. The arrival of the dusty air parcel over the Amazon forest increased the average concentration of aerosol crustal elements by an order of magnitude.

  5. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  6. Effects of plant downtime on the microbial community composition in the highly saline brine of a geothermal plant in the North German Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Anke; Lerm, Stephanie; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-04-01

    The microbial biocenosis in highly saline fluids produced from the cold well of a deep geothermal heat store located in the North German Basin was characterized during regular plant operation and immediately after plant downtime phases. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the dominance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and fermentative Halanaerobiaceae during regular plant operation, whereas after shutdown phases, sequences of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) were also detected. The detection of SOB indicated oxygen ingress into the well during the downtime phase. High 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and dsrA gene copy numbers at the beginning of the restart process showed an enrichment of bacteria, SRB, and SOB during stagnant conditions consistent with higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulfate, and hydrogen sulfide in the produced fluids. The interaction of SRB and SOB during plant downtimes might have enhanced the corrosion processes occurring in the well. It was shown that scale content of fluids was significantly increased after stagnant phases. Moreover, the sulfur isotopic signature of the mineral scales indicated microbial influence on scale formation.

  7. Water-quality characteristics indicative of wastewater in selected streams in the upper Neuse River Basin, Durham and Orange Counties, North Carolina, from 2004 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Gloria M.; Yearout, Matthew S.; Grimes, Barbara H.; Graves, Alexandria K.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Data were collected during three time periods to assess the effects of wastewater treatment and disposal practices on the occurrence of selected contaminants indicative of wastewater in the upper Neuse River Basin, North Carolina. The first phase of data collection, December 2004 to June 2005, and the second phase, April to October 2008, addressed the effects of point and nonpoint sources of wastewater effluent on stream quality during baseflow conditions. Point-source effects were assessed by sampling a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall and sites on the Eno River upstream and downstream from the outfall. Water-quality data suggest that the wastewater treatment plant effluent contributed to increases in concentrations of nitrogen and carbamazepine at the downstream site. Nonpoint source effects were assessed by sampling seven small streams that drained an undeveloped area and residential areas served by either centralized or onsite wastewater treatment systems. Samples were analyzed for inorganic constituents, including nutrients, ions, and metals; organic compounds considered indicative of wastewater contamination; antibiotics, optical brighteners, and fecal coliform bacteria. Hypothesized differences in water quality between the sites with primarily centralized and onsite wastewater treatment were not apparent, likely due to the relatively large heterogeneity of the sites within each category.

  8. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of wells in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of north-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-11-28

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey published an assessment of technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources of the Mississippian Barnett Shale in the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of north-central Texas. Of the two assessment units involved in the overall assessment, one included a roughly equal number of oil wells and gas wells as classified by the U.S. Geological Survey’s standard of gas wells having production greater than or equal to 20,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil and oil wells having production less than 20,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil. As a result, estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) were calculated for both oil wells and gas wells in one of the assessment units. Generally, only gas EURs or only oil EURs are calculated for an assessment unit. These EURs were calculated with data from IHS MarkitTM using DeclinePlus software in the Harmony interface and were a major component of the quantitative resource assessment. The calculated mean EURs ranged from 235 to 2,078 million cubic feet of gas and 21 to 39 thousand barrels of oil for various subsets of wells.

  9. A workflow for building and calibrating 3-D geomechanical models &ndash a case study for a gas reservoir in the North German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K.; Henk, A.

    2013-10-01

    The optimal use of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs depends, amongst other things, on the local tectonic stress field. For example, wellbore stability, orientation of hydraulically induced fractures and - especially in fractured reservoirs - permeability anisotropies are controlled by the present-day in situ stresses. Faults and lithological changes can lead to stress perturbations and produce local stresses that can significantly deviate from the regional stress field. Geomechanical reservoir models aim for a robust, ideally "pre-drilling" prediction of the local variations in stress magnitude and orientation. This requires a numerical modelling approach that is capable to incorporate the specific geometry and mechanical properties of the subsurface reservoir. The workflow presented in this paper can be used to build 3-D geomechanical models based on the finite element (FE) method and ranging from field-scale models to smaller, detailed submodels of individual fault blocks. The approach is successfully applied to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. The in situ stresses predicted by the geomechanical FE model were calibrated against stress data actually observed, e.g. borehole breakouts and extended leak-off tests. Such a validated model can provide insights into the stress perturbations in the inter-well space and undrilled parts of the reservoir. In addition, the tendency of the existing fault network to slip or dilate in the present-day stress regime can be addressed.

  10. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and depositional environment of a lignite-bearing succession at Surkha Mine, Cambay Basin, north-western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Priyanka

    2015-12-01

    successions of the Cambay and Kutch basins correlate well with the present findings.

  11. Impact of extreme oxygen consumption by pollutants on macroinvertebrate assemblages in plain rivers of the Ziya River Basin, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuekui; Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of oxygen depletion on macroinvertebrate community structure in benthic space. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and potential of dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption were investigated simultaneously in the plain rivers of the Ziya River Basin. The degree of DO depletion was represented by sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and DO, chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) in the overlying water. The results showed an all-around hypoxia environment formed, and the values of DO, SOD, CODCr, and NH4 (+)-N were separately 0.11-4.03 mg L(-1), 0.41-2.60 g m(-2) day(-1), 27.50-410.00 mg L(-1), and 1.79-101.41 mg L(-1). There was an abnormal macroinvertebrate assemblage, and only 3 classes, Insecta, Gastropoda, and Oligochaeta, were found, which included 9 orders, 30 families, and 54 genera. The biodiversity was at a low level, and Shannon-Wiener index was 0.00-1.72. SOD, and NH4 (+)-N had major impact on the macroinvertebrate community, and the former had negative effect on most taxa, for instance, Nais, Branchiura, Paraleptophlebia, etc., which were sensitive or had a moderate-high tolerance to pollution. NH4 (+)-N had both positive and negative impacts on benthic animals, for instance, Dicrotendipes, Gomphus, Cricotopus, etc., for the former, and Procladius, Limnodrilus, Hippeutis, etc., for the latter. They all had a moderate-high tolerance to pollution. It is significant to improve DO condition and macroinvertebrate diversity in river harnessing and management.

  12. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project (ver. 1.1, February 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  13. Well-log based prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary successions: a case study from the North German Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    of these methods is the prediction of TC from well logs. We have examined the relationships between TC and standard well-log data (gamma ray, density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index and photoelectric factor) by a theoretical analysis and by using real subsurface data from four boreholes of the North...... are the volume fraction of shale, the matrix hydrogen index and the matrix density. The error of matrix TC prediction is on the order of 4.2 ± 3.2 per cent (carbonates), 7.0 ± 5.6 per cent (evaporites), and 11.4 ± 9.1 per cent (clastic rocks). From the subsurface data, comprising measured TC values (n = 1755......) and well-log data, four prediction equations for bulk TC were developed resembling different lithological compositions. The most valuable input parameters for these predictions are the volume fraction of shale, the hydrogen index and the sonic interval transit time. The equations predict TC with an average...

  14. Vegetation of spoil banks as a reclamation and soil formation factor in the North Bohemian brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, J.; Volf, F.

    1983-01-01

    Vegetation at spoil banks significantly influences soil formation process and positively influences land reclamation. During the initial stage vegetation is most intensive at places with optimum water conditions at slopes and at the top of spoil banks in zones of water accumulation. During the first, second and the third year waste rock weathering causes more intensive plant growth. The following plants are most active at spoil banks in North Bohemia: Atriplex nitens, Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum maritimum, Polygonum aviculare, Senecio viscosus, Tussilago farfara, Acetosella vulgaris and Carduus acanthoides. Three to five years after a spoil bank was formed perennial plants made up the prevailing part of the vegetation. The following plants play a significant role at this stage: Artemisia vulgaris, Cirsium arvense, Calamagrostis epigeios, Tanacetum vulgaris, Elytrigia repens, Melandrium album, Sambucus nigra, Achillea millefolium and Cardaria draba. At this stage grass vegetation also starts: e.g. Dactylis glomerata, Arrhenatherum elatius, Poa pratensis or Festuca pratensis. When a spoil bank already covered by perennial vegetation is reclaimed and the initial vegetation is covered by wastes during levelling, the secondary vegetation should not be treated as a continuation of the initial process but as an independent one. Plants used during the secondary phase of spoil bank reclamation should be characterized by a well developed root system and high humus production. Plants used for land reclamation are characterized. (15 refs.)

  15. Use of GRASP, a finite element program, to model faulted gas reservoir of the southern North Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.A.; Goldwater, M.H.; Taylor, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    This study describes a single-phase, 2-dimensional reservoir simulation program called GRASP (gas reservoir areal simulation program) and its use in modeling gas reservoirs in the southern North Sea. The design of the program is outlined, placing special emphasis on those features which have proved to be of greatest value during its application to various gas fields. These include the ability to describe pressure discontinuities across faults and overlapping gas-bearing strata within the context of a 2-dimensional model. The provision of a network analysis model to describe the surface gathering system allows the program to be used either for history matching or for predicting the future reservoir behavior. In the latter case, facilities are provided which allow the consequences of different operating strategies to be investigated. GRASP has been designed, not as a research tool, but as a practical aid to reservoir analysis. Most published applications of finite element methods have considered only small regular reservoirs. In the present study, particular attention is directed toward the difficulties encountered in designing a program capable of describing large, realistic reservoirs. 14 references.

  16. Structural imprints at the front of the Chocó-Panamá indenter: Field data from the North Cauca Valley Basin, Central Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, F.; Sartori, M.; Neuwerth, R.; Gorin, G.

    2008-11-01

    The northern Andes are a complex area where tectonics is dominated by the interaction between three major plates and accessory blocks, in particular, the Chocó-Panamá and Northern Andes Blocks. The studied Cauca Valley Basin is located at the front of the Chocó-Panamá Indenter, where the major Romeral Fault System, active since the Cretaceous, changes its kinematics from right-lateral in the south to left-lateral in the north. Structural studies were performed at various scales: DEM observations in the Central Cordillera between 4 and 5.7°N, aerial photograph analyses, and field work in the folded Oligo-Miocene rocks of the Serranía de Santa Barbara and in the flat-lying, Pleistocene Quindío-Risaralda volcaniclastic sediments interfingering with the lacustrine to fluviatile sediments of the Zarzal Formation. The data acquired allowed the detection of structures with a similar orientation at every scale and in all lithologies. These families of structures are arranged similarly to Riedel shears in a right-lateral shear zone and are superimposed on the Cretaceous Romeral suture. They appear in the Central Cordillera north of 4.5°N, and define a broad zone where 060-oriented right-lateral distributed shear strain affects the continental crust. The Romeral Fault System stays active and strain partitioning occurs among both systems. The southern limit of the distributed shear strain affecting the Central Cordillera corresponds to the E-W trending Garrapatas-Ibagué shear zone, constituted by several right-stepping, en-échelon, right-lateral, active faults and some lineaments. North of this shear zone, the Romeral Fault System strike changes from NNE to N. Paleostress calculations gave a WNW-ESE trending, maximum horizontal stress, and 69% of compressive tensors. The orientation of σ1 is consistent with the orientation of the right-lateral distributed shear strain and the compressive state characterizing the Romeral Fault System in the area: it bisects the

  17. Late Pennsylvanian depositional cycles and fusulinid zonations for the Salt Creek reef of the Horseshoe Atoll of west Texas - Implications for a sea level curve and regional correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The Salt Creek reef is one of a number of carbonate reef-mound complexes that makes up the Horseshoe Atoll. At least eleven depositional cycles have been delineated from the Strawn Formation (Late Desmoinesian) through the Canyon Limestone (Missourian) to the Cisco Formation (Early Virgilian). A typical cycle consists of a basal unit of intraclastic and skeletal grainstone to dark-gray lime-mudstone with black shale laminations, chert nodules, and scattered crinoid fragments; an intermediary unit of crinoid wackestone and packstone grading up to interbedded skeletal packstone and algal baffle-boundstone; and a capping unit of skeletal and oolitic grainstone. The cycle is bounded by unconformities. These cycles were deposited in a starved basin as a fringing reef-mound complex on an isolated, drowned platform. Nine fusulinid biostratigraphy zones established for the Permian basin are recognized in Salt Creek: one Strawn zone; seven zones in the Canyon, and one in the Cisco. These zones coincide with the eleven major depositional cycles at Salt Creek. The authors have correlated these eleven lithostratigraphic-biostratigraphic units to a series of 14 major transgressive sequences in north Texas and 16 sequences in the mid-continent of North America. These correlations suggest that glacial eustasy is the basic control of these cycles. Differences in the correlation between the cycles may be due to the unique setting of the Salt Creek reef, variations in sea level fluctuations and basin subsidence, or variations in sedimentation rates between carbonate platforms and cratonic shelves with mixed lithologies.

  18. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  19. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  20. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A. Lopez,...

  1. Characteristics of lightning activity in tropical cyclones developed over North Indian Ocean basin during 2010-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalkar, M. R.; Pawar, S. D.; Pradeep Kumar, P.

    2017-05-01

    The characteristics of lightning activity in tropical cyclones (TCs) over North Indian Ocean (NIO) are presented using sample of 21 TCs developed during 2010-2015 using TRMM and World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) datasets along with information from annual reports of Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC), New Delhi. The microphysical features such as Polarization Corrected Brightness Temperature (PCT), attenuation corrected reflectivity factor, Ice Water Path (IWP) play a pivotal role in development of convective systems within TCs. The TCs exhibited systematic variation in lightning flashes per day within 300 km of estimated center during their life cycle irrespective of their severity and flash rate within 300 km of storm center. The lightning flashes ranged from 1 to 3500 flashes per day during pre-cyclone stage, 100 to 8000 flashes per day during cyclone stage and 0 to 4300 flashes per day during post-cyclone stage. The TCs produced maximum flash density in eyewall region (20-40 km) and outer rainband region (200-260 km). The WWLLN recorded 165,512 flashes within 300 km of TC centers during their life cycle. The maximum flashes occurred during cyclone stage followed by pre-cyclone and post-cyclone. The time variation of flash rate for all cyclones was episodic and primarily peaked during late night and early morning hours. The diurnal variation of lightning flashes during TCs due to variation in detection efficiency of WWLLN also controls temporal distribution of lightning activity. During rapid intensification, TCs produced profuse lightning flashes per hour. Episodic lightning flashes per hour occurred during weakening stage and prior to landfall. It is evident that outbreaks of lightning flashes prior to maximum intensity change as manifested in maximum sustained wind speed and fall in estimated central pressure (ECP) indicate potential predictive value of lightning activity for TC intensity change.

  2. LiDAR-Derived Flood-Inundation Maps for Real-Time Flood-Mapping Applications, Tar River Basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Jerad D.; Wagner, Chad R.; Tighe, Kirsten C.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Flood-inundation maps were created for selected streamgage sites in the North Carolina Tar River basin. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data with a vertical accuracy of about 20 centimeters, provided by the Floodplain Mapping Information System of the North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program, were processed to produce topographic data for the inundation maps. Bare-earth mass point LiDAR data were reprocessed into a digital elevation model with regularly spaced 1.5-meter by 1.5-meter cells. A tool was developed as part of this project to connect flow paths, or streams, that were inappropriately disconnected in the digital elevation model by such features as a bridge or road crossing. The Hydraulic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) model, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, was used for hydraulic modeling at each of the study sites. Eleven individual hydraulic models were developed for the Tar River basin sites. Seven models were developed for reaches with a single gage, and four models were developed for reaches of the Tar River main stem that receive flow from major gaged tributaries, or reaches in which multiple gages were near one another. Combined, the Tar River hydraulic models included 272 kilometers of streams in the basin, including about 162 kilometers on the Tar River main stem. The hydraulic models were calibrated to the most current stage-discharge relations at 11 long-term streamgages where rating curves were available. Medium- to high-flow discharge measurements were made at some of the sites without rating curves, and high-water marks from Hurricanes Fran and Floyd were available for high-stage calibration. Simulated rating curves matched measured curves over the full range of flows. Differences between measured and simulated water levels for a specified flow were no more than 0.44 meter and typically were less. The calibrated models were used to generate a set of water-surface profiles for each of the 11 modeled

  3. Population size of snowy plovers breeding in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M.; Lyons, James E.; Andres, Brad A.; T-Smith, Elise Elliot; Palacios, Eduardo; Cavitt, John F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Fellows, Suzanne D.; Maty, Kendra; Howe, William H.; Mellink, Eric; Melvin, Stefani; Zimmerman, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) may be one of the rarest shorebirds in North America yet a comprehensive assessment of their abundance and distribution has not been completed. During 2007 and 2008, 557 discrete wetlands were surveyed and nine additional large wetland complexes sampled in México and the USA. From these surveys, a population of 23,555 (95% CI = 17,299 – 29,859) breeding Snowy Plovers was estimated. Combining the estimate with information from areas not surveyed, the total North American population was assessed at 25,869 (95% CI = 18,917 – 32,173). Approximately 42% of all breeding Snowy Plovers in North America resided at two sites (Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma), and 33% of all these were on wetlands in the Great Basin (including Great Salt Lake). Also, coastal habitats in central and southern Texas supported large numbers of breeding plovers. New breeding sites were discovered in interior deserts and highlands and along the Pacific coast of México; approximately 9% of the North American breeding population occurred in México. Because of uncertainties about effects of climate change and current stresses to breeding habitats, the species should be a management and conservation priority. Periodic monitoring should be undertaken at important sites to ensure high quality habitat is available to support the Snowy Plover population.

  4. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, L M

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables.

  5. Transition from marine deep slope deposits to evaporitic facies of an isolated foreland basin: case study of the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Legeay, Etienne; Lopez, Michel; Bonnel, Cédric; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2017-04-01

    The Sivas Basin, located in the central part of the Anatolian Plateau in Turkey, formed after the closure of the northern Neotethys from Paleocene to Pliocene times. It developed over an ophiolitic basement obducted from the north during the Late Cretaceous. During Paleocene to Eocene times, the onset of the Tauride compression led to the development of a foreland basin affected by north-directed thrusts. The associate general deepening of the basin favored the accumulation of a thick marine turbiditic succession in the foredeep area, followed by a fast shallowing of the basin and thick evaporitic sequence deposition during the late Eocene. We present here the detailed sedimentological architecture of this flysch to evaporite transition. In the northern part of the basin, volcanoclastic turbidites gradually evolved into basinal to prodelta deposits regularly fed by siliciclastic material during flood events. Locally (to the NE), thick-channelized sandstones are attributed to the progradation of delta front distributary channels. The basin became increasingly sediment-starved and evolved toward azoic carbonates and shaly facies, interlayered with organic-rich shales before the first evaporitic deposits. In the southern part of the basin, in the central foredeep, the basinal turbidites become increasingly gypsum-rich and record a massive mega-slump enclosing olistoliths of gypsum and of ophiolitic rocks. Such reworked evaporites were fed by the gravitational collapsing of shallow water evaporites that had previously precipitated in silled piggy-back basins along the southern fold-and-thrust-belt of the Sivas Basin. Tectonic activity that led to the dismantlement of such evaporites probably also contributed to the closure of the basin from the marine domain. From the north to the south, subsequent deposits consist in about 70 meters of secondary massive to fine-grained gypsiferous beds interpreted as recording high to low density gypsum turbidites. Such facies were

  6. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Boumaaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea’s life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm.

  7. Objective Tracking of Tropical Cyclones in the North-West Pacific Basin Based on Wind Field Information only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G. C.; Befort, D. J.; Kruschke, T.

    2016-12-01

    Although only ca. 12% of the global insured losses of natural disasters occurred in Asia, there are two major reasons to be concerned about risks in Asia: a) The fraction of loss events was substantial higher with 39% of which 94% were due to atmospheric processes; b) Asia and especially China, is undergoing quick transitions and especially the insurance market is rapidly growing. In order to allow for the estimation of potential future (loss) impacts in East-Asia, in this study we further developed and applied a feature tracking system based on extreme wind speed occurrences to tropical cyclones, which was originally developed for extra-tropical cyclones (Leckebusch et al., 2008). In principle, wind fields will be identified and tracked once a coherent exceedance of local percentile thresholds is identified. The focus on severe wind impact will allow an objective link between the strength of a cyclone and its potential damages over land. The wind tracking is developed in such a way to be applicable also to course-gridded AOGCM simulation. In the presented configuration the wind tracking algorithm is applied to the Japanese reanalysis (JRA55) and TC Identification is based on 850hPa wind speeds (6h resolution) from 1979 to 2014 over the Western North Pacific region. For validation the IBTrACS Best Track archive version v03r8 is used. Out of all 904 observed tracks, about 62% can be matched to at least one windstorm event identified in JRA55. It is found that the relative amount of matched best tracks increases with the maximum intensity. Thus, a positive matching (hit rate) of above 98% for Violent Typhoons (VTY), above 90% for Very Strong Typhoons (VSTY), about 75% for Typhoons (TY), and still some 50% for less intense TCs (TD, TS, STS) is found. This result is extremely encouraging to apply this technique to AOGCM outputs and to derive information about affected regions and intensity-frequency distributions potentially changed under future climate conditions.

  8. Quantifying the contribution of Long-Range Transport to PM, NOx, and SO2 loadings at a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshita; Sachan, Himanshu; Garg, Saryu; Arya, Ruhani; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Sinha, Baerbel; Sinha, Vinayak

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the climatology of air masses arriving at the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry facility (30.67°N, 76.73°E; 310 m amsl) through 3-day backtrajectories arriving at 20 m above ground level for the period August 2011-November 2012. IISER Mohali is a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin. The trajectories are computed in ensemble mode twice daily with an arrival time of 2:30 pm local time (daytime) and 4:30 am local time (nighttime) using the HYSPLIT 4 model with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's GDAS file as meterological input data. Due to the close proximity of the site to the Himalayan mountain range the trajectory output is found to be very sensitive to the models input data. IISER Air Quality station is located in the IGB at an altitude of 310 m amsl approximately 20 km south west of the Shivalik hills, but the model terrain height for the site in the ensemble run output varies between 200 m amsl and 3500 m amsl for the GDAS dataset and 200 m amsl to 5000 m amsl for the reanalysis dataset. We conclude that the GDAS dataset performs better than than reanalysis dataset for our site and selected only those trajectories from the trajectory ensemble for cluster analysis, for which the terrain height in the model output was 400 m amsl for Shimla (a site located at an altitude of 1000 m amsl in the mountains 60 km north east of Mohali). We subjected the trajectories to hierarchical, and non-hierarchical (K-means) clustering and found that the air mass transport to our station can be characterised by 10 distinct airflow patterns; 3 of which occur only during the monsoon season. For pre-monsoon season (March-June), post-monsoon season (Sept-Nov) and winter season (Dec-Feb), air mass transport to our site is predominantly from the west. Direct transport of north westerly air masses to our site is subdivided into three clusters (slow, medium and rapid) while other clusters are attributed to south westerly air currents

  9. Paleomagnetism of the Paleocene Ghost Rocks, Kodiak Islands, Alaska: Implications for Paleocene Pacific-Basin/North America Plate Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, B. A.; Roeske, S. M.; Gallen, S.; O'Connell, K.

    2008-12-01

    Paleocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Ghost Rocks, part of the Chugach accretionary complex, may provide important constraints for possible paleogeographic models of plate configurations along the NW margin of North America. The Ghost Rocks, along with other Late Cretaceous to E. Eocene units of southern Alaska, contain anomalous near-trench igneous rocks which decrease in age from NW to SE along this margin and record relative motion of a trench-ridge-trench triple junction with respect to the margin. Thick sections of similar-aged volcanic rocks also exist in coastal Washington and Oregon. Two models have been proposed to explain these anomalous volcanic rocks. Moore et al. (1983) ascribes the progression of ages of the TRT rocks to migration of the Chugach terrane past a Kula-Farallon-NA boundary located off of present- day Oregon. Haeussler et al. (2003) call for the existence of two TRT triple junctions, one located off the present-day Oregon margin, the other of which migrated from NW (Sanak) to SE (Baranof) between Paleocene and Eocene time, which requires an intervening oceanic plate (the Resurrection Plate). Our work has included extensive sampling of both volcanic and sedimentary units of the Ghost Rocks, and detailed structural studies. The geological work indicates that much of the Ghost Rocks, particularly the large section containing volcanics at Alitak Bay, is composed of intact blocks bordered by fault zones, with steep upright to locally overturned bedding. The paleomagnetic results have revealed that the majority of the sedimentary rocks have poorly-behaved magnetizations carried by authigenic sulphide minerals. The majority of the igneous rocks (primarily beautiful exposures of basaltic-andesite pillows) have well-defined magnetizations with unblocking temperatures ranging from 450 to 550 C. The sites from Alitak Bay were corrected for vertical-axis rotations by rotating site-specific bedding strikes to agree with an average regional

  10. Hydrogeochemical signatures of thermal springs compared to deep formation water of North Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozau, Elke; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Thermal springs and hot deep formation waters can be used for geothermal energy production. Depending on the chemical composition of the used waters, geothermal power plants have to deal with scaling and corrosion effects. Therefore, the understanding of the hydrogeochemical behaviour of such waters can be helpful to enhance the efficiency of the energy production. This study is comparing hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal springs in the Harz Mountains (North Germany) and deep formation water of the North German Basin. The Harz Mountains consist of uplifted Palaeozoic rocks, whereas the North German Basin consists of sedimentary layers of Permian, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. Volcanic rocks are included in the Permian layers. The thickness of the sedimentary basin varies between 2 km and more than 8 km. The deep aquifers of the North German Basin are mostly not involved in the recent meteoric water cycle. Their waters have contents of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) up to about 400 g/L. Thermal springs of the Harz Mountains are situated close to the main fracture system of the region. These springs are connected to the meteoric water cycle and display lower contents of TDS (Harz Mountains and the North German Basin. The concentrations of calcium, sodium, and chloride differ due to salt dissolution and feldspar transformation (albitisation) in the thermal springs as well as in the deep formation waters. Based on today's knowledge hydrochemical and stratigraphical data from the North German Basin can be used to elucidate the geological origin of the thermal springs in the Harz Mountains. Acknowledgements. The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the State of Lower Saxony and the company Baker Hughes.

  11. Microbial composition in a deep saline aquifer in the North German Basin -microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting geothermal plant operation and the effects of plant downtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-04-01

    The microbial composition in fluids of a deep saline geothermal used aquifer in the North German Basin was characterized over a period of five years. The genetic fingerprinting techniques PCR-SSCP and PCR-DGGE revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of Bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared to warm fluids. Predominating SRB in the cold well probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump, and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to a lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favoured growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. Plant downtime significantly influenced the microbial biocenosis in fluids. Samples taken after plant restart gave indications about the processes occurring downhole during those phases. High DNA concentrations in fluids at the beginning of the restart process with a decreasing trend over time indicated a higher abundance of microbes during plant downtime compared to regular plant operation. It is likely that a gradual drop in temperature as well as stagnant conditions favoured the growth of microbes and maturation of biofilms at the casing and in pores of the reservoir rock in the near wellbore area. Furthermore, it became obvious that the microorganisms were more associated to particles then free-living. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability. Those processes may favourably occur during plant downtime due to enhanced

  12. Side-chain fluorinated polymer surfactants in aquatic sediment and biosolid-augmented agricultural soil from the Great Lakes basin of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shaogang; Letcher, Robert J

    2017-12-31

    Side-chain fluorinated polymer surfactants are the main components of fabric protector sprays and used extensively on furniture and textiles. The composition of these commercial protector products has changed, but there is currently a total dearth of information on these novel fluorinated polymers in the environment. Using a developed analytical approach, two complementary studies examined the distribution of Scotchgard™ fabric protector components in aquatic sediment and in agricultural soils where wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sourced biosolid application occurred, and in samples from sites in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin of North America. The main components in the pre- and post-2002 Scotchgard™ fabric protectors were identified by MS/MS and Q-TOF-MS to contain a perfluorooctane sulfonamide (S1) and perfluorobutane sulfonamide (S2) based side-chain, respectively, and bonded to a polymer backbone. In fifteen sediment samples collected in 2012-2013 from western Lake Erie and Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), S1 was in all sediment samples (0.18 to 461.59ng/g dry weight (d.w.)); S2 was in 80% of the sediment samples (agricultural sites (mean 236.36ng/g d.w.; range 41.87 to 622.46ng/g d.w.), and at concentrations much greater than in the aquatic sediment samples. The concentration of S1 and S2 in soil and sediment samples were also much greater than the total concentration of other per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that were measured. The ratio of S1 concentration versus ∑22PFAS concentration was up to 1616 in sediment samples from Lake Erie. This results helps to explain why known PFASs account for low percentages of the total extractable organic fluorine (EOF) content in sediment. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Neogene sediments of the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo Basin, southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Pedro Tomas

    2003-10-01

    Southeastern Mexico has been affected by regional and local tectonic events. Regional tectonic events are the Gulf of Mexico opening and the lateral movement of micro-plates on the Pacific margin. The local tectonic events are related to salt tectonics. Autochthonous Jurassic salt serves as the detachment level for the main compressional event in the late Miocene. Jurassic salt was allochthonously emplaced in the late Miocene, then partially displaced by a huge quantity of terrigenous sediments during the Plio-Pleistocene. This research is a study of the main geological processes that have influenced the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene sediments in the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo basin known as the Marbella area. Owing to data availability, the project was divided into regional and local studies. The regional study is based on 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data, and the local study is based on a 3D seismic streamer survey. Structural analysis in the regional study permits the recognition of four buried fold belts (Agua Dulce, Catemaco, Marbella, and Marbella Norte) trending roughly NE. These fold belts are the result of tectonic convergence in the pacific margin during late Miocene. The Agua Dulce and Marbella Norte fold belts are separated by an enormous salt withdrawal basin called the Pescadores basin. The Pescadores basin is bounded on the north by a spectacular stepped, counter-regional structure. Beyond the Pescadores basin, a salt mini-basin area is recognized in the upper continental slope. Another important structural element is the Sal Somera canopy in the southern part of the study area. Sedimentation-rate analysis, based on isochore mapping in the local study area, indicates that from SB-2.4 to SB-2.6 Ma, deposition rate peaked with a maximum of 7.5 mm/yr. Regional and local structural restorations show that, in general, the maximum allochthonous salt mobilization was during the Plio-Pleistocene because of the

  14. Petroleum geology and resources of the Amu-Darya basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2004-01-01

    The Amu-Darya basin is a highly productive petroleum province in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (former Soviet Union), extending southwestward into Iran and southeastward into Afghanistan. The basin underlies deserts and semideserts north of the high ridges of the Kopet-Dag and Bande-Turkestan Mountains. On the northwest, the basin boundary crosses the crest of the Karakum regional structural high, and on the north the basin is bounded by the shallow basement of the Kyzylkum high. On the east, the Amu-Darya basin is separated by the buried southeast spur of the Gissar Range from the Afghan-Tajik basin, which is deformed into a series of north-south-trending synclinoria and anticlinoria. The separation of the two basins occurred during the Neogene Alpine orogeny; earlier, they were parts of a single sedimentary province. The basement of the Amu-Darya basin is a Hercynian accreted terrane composed of deformed and commonly metamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. These rocks are overlain by rift grabens filled with Upper Permian-Triassic rocks that are strongly compacted and diagenetically altered. This taphrogenic sequence, also considered to be a part of the economic basement, is overlain by thick Lower to Middle Jurassic, largely continental, coal-bearing rocks. The overlying Callovian-Oxfordian rocks are primarily carbonates. A deep-water basin surrounded by shallow shelves with reefs along their margins was formed during this time and reached its maximum topographic expression in the late Oxfordian. In Kimmeridgian-Tithonian time, the basin was filled with thick evaporites of the Gaurdak Formation. The Cretaceous-Paleogene sequence is composed chiefly of marine clastic rocks with carbonate intervals prominent in the Valanginian, Barremian, Maastrichtian, and Paleocene stratigraphic units. In Neogene time, the Alpine orogeny on the basin periphery resulted in deposition of continental clastics, initiation of new and rejuvenation of old faults, and formation of most structural

  15. Natural factors and mining activity bearings on the water quality of the Choapa basin, North Central Chile: insights on the role of mafic volcanic rocks in the buffering of the acid drainage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Amparo; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Kretschmer, Nicole; Meza, Francisco; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    This contribution analyzes water chemical data for the Choapa basin, North Central Chile, for the period 1980-2004. The parameters considered are As, Cu Fe, pH, EC, SO₄⁻², Cl⁻¹, and HCO[Formula: see text], from samples taken in nine monitoring stations throughout the basin. Results show rather moderate contents of As, Cu, and Fe, with the exception of the Cuncumén River and the Aucó creek, explained by the influence of the huge porphyry copper deposit of Los Pelambres and by the presence of mining operations, respectively. When compared against results obtained in previous researches at the neighboring Elqui river basin, which host the El Indio Au-Cu-As district, a much reduced grade of pollution is recognized for the Choapa basin. Considering the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD)-related Cu contents on the fine fraction of the sediments of both river basins, the differences recorded are even more striking. Although the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit, on the headwaters of the Choapa river basin, is between one and two orders of magnitude bigger than El Indio, stream water and sediments of the former exhibit significantly lower copper contents than those of the latter. A main factor which may explain these results is the smaller degree of H( + )-metasomatism on the host rocks of the Los Pelambres deposit, where mafic andesitic volcanic rocks presenting propylitic hydrothermal alteration are dominant. This fact contrast with the highly altered host rocks of El Indio district, where most of them have lost their potential to neutralize ARD.

  16. Salt marsh dieback in coastal Louisiana: survey of plant and soil conditions in Barataria and Terrebonne basins, June 2000-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Materne, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden and extensive dieback of the perennial marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), which dominates regularly flooded salt marshes along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines, occurred in the coastal zone of Louisiana. The objectives of this study were to assess soil and plant conditions in dieback areas of the Barataria-Terrebonne estuarine system as well as vegetative recovery during and after this dieback event. Multiple dieback sites were examined along 100 km of shoreline from the Atchafalaya River to the Mississippi River during the period from June 2000 through September 2001. The species primarily affected was S. alterniflora; sympatric species such as Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn (black mangrove) and Juncus roemerianus Scheele (needlegrass rush) showed no visible signs of stress. The pattern of marsh dieback was distinctive with greatest mortality in the marsh interior, suggesting a correlation with local patterns of soil chemistry and/or hydrology. Little or no expansion of dieback occurred subsequent to the initial event, and areas with 50 percent or less mortality in the fall of 2000 had completely recovered by April 2001. Recovery was slower in interior marshes with 90 percent or greater mortality initially. However, regenerating plants in dieback areas showing some recovery were robust, and reproductive output was high, indicating that the causative agent was no longer present and that post-dieback soil conditions were actually promoting plant growth. Stands of other species within or near some dieback sites remained largely unchanged or expanded (A. germinans) into the dead salt marsh. The cause of the dieback is currently unknown. Biotic agents and excessive soil waterlogging/high sulfide were ruled out as primary causes of this acute event, although they could have contributed to overall plant stress and/or interacted with the primary agent to cause plant mortality. Our observations over the 15 month study

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  18. Impact of pre- and/or syn-tectonic salt layers in the hangingwall geometry of a kinked-planar extensional fault: insights from analogue modelling and comparison with the Parentis basin (bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, O.; Vendeville, B. C.; Roca, E.

    2012-04-01

    basement is affected by antithetic normal faults that are more or less complex depending on the geometry of the master fault, the lateral flow of the silicone produces salt-cored anticlines, walls and diapirs in the overburden of the hangingwall. The mechanical behavior of the silicone layer as an extensional shear zone, combined with the lateral changes in pressure gradients due to overburden thickness changes, triggered the silicone migration from the half-graben depocenter towards the rollover shoulder. As a result, the accumulation of silicone produces gentle silicone-cored anticlines and local diapirs with minor extensional faults. Upwards fault propagation from the sub-silicone "basement" to the supra-silicone unit only occurs either when the supra- and sub-silicone materials are welded, or when the amount of slip along the master fault is large enough so that the tip of the silicone reaches the junction between the upper and lower panels of the master faults. Comparison between the results of these models with data from the western offshore Parentis Basin (Eastern Bay of Biscay) validates the structural interpretation of this region.

  19. Paleogeographic significance of the Cardium, Potamids and Foraminifera living in intra-continental salt lakes of North Africa (Sahara Quaternary, Egypt Present lakes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaziat, J.-C.

    The widespread Cardium ( Cerastoderma) fauna of Quaternary lakes of the Sahara gave rise to the "Saharian seas" hypothesis. Present Egyptian (Fayum, Siwa) and Algerian Holocene salt lakes show an evolution from a fresh water fauna to a Cardium, Potamids and Foraminifera fauna in spite of their considerable distance from the Mediterranean sea and their altitude above sea level. The inevitable conclusion is that thalassoid or so-called margino-littoral faunas cannot be used as indicative of sea connection, or even proximity, in ancient deposits.

  20. Late quaternary changes in lakes, vegetation, and climate in the Bonneville Basin reconstructed from sediment cores from Great Salt Lake: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John

    2016-01-01

    Sediment cores from Great Salt Lake (GSL) provide the basis for reconstructing changes in lakes, vegetation, and climate for the last ~ 40 cal ka. Initially, the coring site was covered by a shallow saline lake and surrounded by Artemisia steppe or steppe-tundra under a cold and dry climate. As Lake Bonneville began to rise (from ~ 30 to 28 cal ka), Pinus and subalpine conifer pollen percentages increased and Artemisia declined, suggesting the onset of wetter conditions. Lake Bonneville oscillated near the Stansbury shoreline between ~ 26 and ~ 24 cal ka, rose to the Bonneville shoreline by ~ 18 cal ka, and then fell to the Provo shoreline, which it occupied until ~ 15 cal ka. Vegetation changed during this time span, albeit not always with the same direction or amplitude as the lake. The pollen percentages of Pinus and subalpine conifers were high from ~ 25 to 21.5 cal ka, indicating cool and moist conditions during the Stansbury oscillation and for much of the rise toward the Bonneville shoreline. Pinus percentages then decreased and Artemisia became codominant, suggesting drier and perhaps colder conditions from ~ 21 to ~ 15 cal ka, when Lake Bonneville was at or near its highest levels.Lake Bonneville declined to a low level by ~ 13 cal ka, while Pinus pollen percentages increased, indicating that conditions remained cooler and moister than today. During the Younger Dryas interval, the brief Gilbert episode rise in lake level was followed by a shallow lake with a stratified water column. This lake rise occurred as Pinus pollen percentages were declining and those of Artemisia were rising (reflecting increasingly dry conditions), after which Artemisia pollen was at very high levels (suggesting cold and dry conditions) for a brief period.Since ~ 10.6 cal ka lacustrine conditions have resembled those of present-day GSL. Pollen spectra for the period from ~ 10.6 to 7.2 cal ka have low levels of conifer pollen and high (for the

  1. Fluids in the Palaeogene Formation of Gaoyou Sag in the Southern Part of North Jiangsu Basin, China: Evidence for Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, M.; Lou, Z.; Zhu, R.; Jin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gaoyou Sag, lying in the middle of the Dongtai Depression in the North Jiangsu basin, China, has a well developed fault system and is characterised by structurally complicated oil and gas fields. Its oil-water relationship is very complicated. In the present study, we present the distribution of formation water chemistry, crude oil density, formation pressures and fluid potential in the Palaeogene formation of the Gaoyou Sag . The purpose of this article is to: (1) analyse the cause of hydrochemical diversity; (2) identify the flow pattern and evolution; and (3) understand the interplay between the flow of formation water and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. The results showed that large variances in formation water chemistry occur in different oilfields of the Gaoyou Sag (Figure 1) due to dilution by meteoric water recharge, concentration by membrane filtration and complexity of geological structure. The low salinity (mean values from 8.53 g/L to 9.67 g/L) of the formation water and heavy crude oil density (up to 0.94g/cm3) in the Xuchuang oilfield indicate influence from meteoric water infiltration; the deep depression areas are mainly of connate origin. Geofluids in the Xuchuang, Zhenwu and Yang'an oilfields mainly flow vertically through the Zhenwu and Hanliu faults, while geofluids in the Shanian oilfield mainly migrate laterally through the reservoirs and are adjusted vertically along some cutting faults. Palaeo-hydrodynamic evolution had an affinity with the generation, migration, accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons. In the depositional stages of the Dainan and Sanduo formations, formation water was expelled outward and upward from lacustrine mudstones of the deep depression into shallow sands of nearby oilfields, driven by compaction and overpressure. Hydrocarbon migrated with formation water and gathered in appropriate traps, forming primary reservoirs. During the Zhenwu and Sanduo movements, there were tectonic uplifts and the strata

  2. From Source to Sink: Exhumation of the North America Cordillera Revealed by Multi-dating of Detrital Minerals from Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous Sevier Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, C. S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Thomson, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    We sampled twenty-two Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous syn-orogenic conglomerate clasts in proximal units in the Sevier fold-thrust belt and their distal sandstone equivalents up to 300 km east of the thrust front, in Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota. To better constrain depositional ages, these samples were analyzed using detrital zircon U-Pb (DZ U-Pb) geochronology. To identify a thermochronometer that measures source exhumation in the North America Cordillera, both zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology was utilized, on both the conglomerate cobbles and sandstone (detrital) samples. Eleven samples were analyzed with zircon (U-Th)/He; however, discordant ages in the conglomerate cobble samples suggest that this system was not fully reset and never experienced T> ~180 °C in the source stratigraphy during the Sevier orogeny. Eleven other samples are analyzed using apatite fission track thermochronology (AFT); AFT ages are generally similar or older than depositional ages indicating that the detrital ages record source exhumation signals, and that exhumation depth corresponds to T>~120 °C. In order to test whether or not the youngest cooling AFT age population represents a source exhumation signal or a co-magmatic signal we here performed double dating of the detrital AFT samples using apatite U-Pb thermochronology. Maximum depositional ages using DZ U-Pb match existing age controls on basin stratigraphy. Our study shows that AFT is an effective thermochronometer to detect source exhumation for Cretaceous foreland stratigraphy in the western U.S.A. Lag-times (i.e. the difference between the source exhumation age and depositional age) are ~0 to 5 Myr with relatively steady-state to slightly increasing exhumation rates suggesting orogenic growth at this time. The very short lag times also indicate limited to no storage time between source and sink. The AFT lag time of the Early Cretaceous Kelvin Formation is ~5 Myr and represents

  3. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mikoláš; Jiří Varady; Jaroslav Bažant; František Žoček

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB) and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the pas...

  4. Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples

  5. Fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonated and sandstone reservoirs in the fronts and fore-lands of folded chains: the Salt Range case - Poswar (Pakistan); Circulation des fluides et diagenese des reservoirs carbonates et greseux dans les fronts de chaines plissees et leur avant pays: le cas du Salt Range - Poswar (Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchilla, L.

    2003-05-01

    The Salt Range-Poswar Province is located in the western foothills of the Himalayas, in northern Pakistan. It extends over 170 km from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the north to the Salt Range in the south. The Salt Range itself is dominantly an ENE-trending structure, but it comprises also a NNW-trending lateral ramp which connects to the west with the Surghar Range. The Salt Range constitutes the frontal part of a detached allochthonous thrust sheet. The sedimentary cover is indeed entirely detached from its substratum along Infracambrian salt horizons. Palaeozoic to Eocene platform series are well exposed in the hanging wall, whereas Neogene molasse has been extensively under-thrust in the footwall of this large over-thrust. The North Potwar Basin is bordered by the Khari-Murat Ridge and coeval back-thrusts in the south, by the northern flank of the Soan syncline in the southeast, and by the MBT in the north. In addition to Neogene outcrops, it also comprises a number of surface anticlines and thrust fronts along which the Eocene platform carbonates are exposed. The Datta Formation is the main Jurassic oil reservoir in the Potwar Basin. It is a fluvio-deltaic deposit which comprises large porous and permeable channels associated to many-calcareous interbeds. The formations crop out well in both the Nammal and Chichali Gorges. The oil field of Toot, located in the western part of the basin, is producing from this reservoir. The petrographic observations show that diagenesis occurred mainly early and was controlled by the fluvio-deltaic environment. (author)

  6. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  7. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  8. Drainage-area boundaries for selected sampling stations, scale 1:100,000, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  9. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  10. Physical Monitoring of Flow Into and Within Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, T. A.; Naftz, D. L.; Perschon, W. C.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the hydrologic terminus for the eastern part of the Great Basin. As the largest inland waterbody in the Western United States, GSL plays a critical ecologic role for many migratory bird species. In terms of harvest quantity and quality, the brine shrimp (Artemia) fishery of GSL is among the strongest in the world. The characteristic of GSL as a hydrologic sink amplifies anthropogenic activities throughout the basin, most specifically activities that occur along its eastern and southern shores, the urban corridor of the Wasatch Front. In 1959 GSL was divided into north and south parts by a rock-fill railroad causeway. Since then, an extreme density gradient between the north and south part exists as a result of limited conveyance of water from the south part where more than 95 percent of the total freshwater input occurs (Loving, and others, 2000). To date, little is known about the loading and cycling of various chemical constituents associated with human activities including nutrients, selenium, and mercury. Hydroacoustic technology, specifically acoustic Doppler technology, is currently being used to obtain a better physical understanding of GSL. Since 1999, stratified bi-directional discharge has been measured at the causeway breach with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. From these measurements, net flow components to the north and south have been used to assess the movement of water and salt through the causeway. Low hydraulic gradients and variable backwater conditions at the two largest inflows to GSL required the deployment of in-situ acoustic Doppler velocity meters to accurately compute continuous discharge, critical for constituent loading analyses. These discharge records, computed using the index velocity method, show sensitivity to large wind events that can lead to a complete reversal of flow. Velocity profiles acquired during two multi-day water-quality synoptic sampling runs with acoustic Doppler current profilers have

  11. Tectonic control on turbiditic sedimentation: The Late Cretaceous-Eocene successions in the Sinop-Boyabat Basin of north-central Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janbu, Nils Erik

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study: Tectonics is widely recognized by geologists as the single most important factor controlling the development, filling and deformation of sedimentary basins. In general terms, the role of tectonics seems rather ''obvious'' to most geologists, because we know reasonably well as what tectonics ''can do'' as the agent of structural deformation. Therefore, the role of tectonics is often invoked as a kind of ballpark variable - as the obvious cause of ''subsidence'' or ''uplift'' - and seems to some authors even too obvious to mention. Relatively little attempt has been in sedimentological and stratigraphic studies to recognize as to what effects exactly the tectonic activity had on sedimentation in a particular basin. The principal aim of the present study has been to improve our understanding of how tectonic activity can affect deep-water turbiditic sedimentation in a particular basin, including its ''external'' influences (basin geometry, basin-margin configuration, sediment source/supply and relative sea-level change) and ''internal'' effects (basin-floor subsidence, seafloor deformation). Foreland basins are some of the most active tectonically, and the Sinop- Boyabat Basin is a fascinating case of a rift converted into a foreland basin and increasingly deformed. Summary of papers: The main part of the field study, concerned with the sedimentology and facies analysis of the turbiditic succession, is summarized in Papers 1-3, which put special emphasis on the physical character and morphodynamic evolution of the depositional systems and on the tectonic control on their development. Paper 4 focuses on the frequency distribution of bed thickness data collected by detailed logging of various turbiditic assemblages: siliciclastic deposits of nonchannelized currents (lobe and overbank facies); siliciclastic deposits of poorly

  12. Interaction between trench retreat and Anatolian escape as recorded by neogene basins in the northern Aegean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beniest, A.; Brun, J. P.; Gorini, C.; Crombez, V.; Deschamps, R.; Hamon, Y.; Smit, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the North Aegean Sea is studied through the development of three deep basins: the North Aegean Trough, the North Skyros Basin and the Ikaria Basin. Bathymetric data, a 2D seismic dataset and the well-investigated stratigraphic records of the onshore deep basins of northern Greece

  13. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B... Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The meeting on Thursday, February 3, 2011... Lake City TRACON, Salt Lake City ATCT/TRACON, 1201 North 4000 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (801) 325...

  14. The effects of CO2 injection on Geochemistry and Aquifer properties investigated at a hypothetical storage site in the north German basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, B. J.; Li, D.; Benisch, K.; Mitiku, A. B.; Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.

    2012-04-01

    step. The coupled OGS-ECLIPSE software was successfully applied to several benchmarks for validating the data transfer between the different simulators. Furthermore the comparability of multiphase flow and component transport results for the simulators OGS and ECLIPSE was investigated. Besides the different numerical methods used for solving the partial differential equations ECLIPSE uses an upwinding scheme that further damps the results compared to OGS. Thus the benchmarks show a high sensitivity of the CO2 saturation on the vertical model resolution due to the buoyancy effect. Finally the software is applied for a hypothetical CO2 reservoir in the north German basin. The reservoir material is sandstone with about 5 mass percent of calcite as cement and about 10 mass percent of feldspar. The main focus of the simulation is the evaluation of the long term geochemical changes induced due to the dissolution of calcite and their feedback on the multiphase flow field. The area close to the injection well faces only limited affects due to the removal of the water phase. Compared to this minerals dissolve in the surrounding area outside the high CO2 saturation plume. Thus the pore volume increases within that reactive zone.

  15. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  16. CONTRIBUTION TO THE GENESIS OF THERMAL WATER OF THE NORTH-EAST PERIMETER OF THE ZENICA-SARAJEVO BASIN, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferid Skopljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of thermal waters in the northeastern periphery of the Zenica-Sarajevo basin is caused by the geological structure, structural-tectonic and hydrogeological characteristics of the terrain. The genesis had not been fully addressed before. This paper presents the study of the genesis of thermal waters based on the geological structure, structural-tectonic and hydrogeological characteristics of the terrain, and physiochemical and isotopic composition of water. The results provide a new contribution to the structure of this part of the Zenica-Sarajevo basin and create a more realistic foundation for the future research of thermal water in this area.

  17. Limit of Salt in the Gulf Coast [saltlimitg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data provides the approximate limit of Middle Jurassic salt from Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled by T.E. Ewing and R.F....

  18. South American sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  19. Trace Elements in Bed Sediments and Biota from Streams in the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages, North and South Carolina, 1995-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Abrahamsen

    1999-01-01

    Bed-sediment and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of trace elements from 25 sites in the Santee River Basin and coastal drainages study area during 1995-97 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, Sediment trace-element priority-pollutant concentrations were compared among streams draining water-...

  20. Reservoir quality using the routine core analysis data of Abu Roash ;C; in Badr El Din-15 oil field, Abu Gharadig basin, north Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Moataz Kh.; Nooh, Ahmed Z.

    2017-05-01

    The Abu Gharadig basin is one of the most prolific basins in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt. It has attracted the attention of many geologists and geophysicists for oil and gas exploration. This is due to existence of the huge subsurface sedimentary section in the basin which includes important thickness of reservoir rocks. The study area occupies the northwestern part of Abu Gharadig basin between latitudes 29° 45‧ and 30° 05‧ N, and longitudes 27° 30‧ and 28° 10‧ E. The present work deals with the routine core analysis for petrophysical evaluation of the Abu Roash ;C; Member. The available core samples belong to BED 15-3 and BED 15-7 wells in BED 15 oil field. The conventional core analyses include laboratory measurement of density (grain and bulk), helium porosity and permeability (horizontal and vertical). The core analysis data indicate that Abu Roash ;C; Member in BED-15 oil field is characterized by good reservoir quality due to high values of porosity and permeability. The statistical analysis of core data can be used to generate new relations which help to determine one petrophysical parameters in term of other.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  2. Influence of domestic livestock grazing on American Pika (Ochotona princeps) forage and haypiling behavior in the Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    2011-01-01

    In a pilot study, I observed a relationship between domestic livestock grazing and location of American pika (Ochotona princeps) haypiles in the eastern Sierra Nevada and several Great Basin mountain ranges. Where vegetation communities adjacent to talus bases (forefields) were grazed, mean distance from the talus borders to the closest fresh...

  3. A numerical investigation into the ability of the Poisson PDE to extract the mass-density from land-based gravity data: A case study of salt diapirs in the north coast of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    AllahTavakoli, Yahya; Safari, Abdolreza

    2017-08-01

    This paper is counted as a numerical investigation into the capability of Poisson's Partial Differential Equation (PDE) at Earth's surface to extract the near-surface mass-density from land-based gravity data. For this purpose, first it focuses on approximating the gradient tensor of Earth's gravitational potential by means of land-based gravity data. Then, based on the concepts of both the gradient tensor and Poisson's PDE at the Earth's surface, certain formulae are proposed for the mass-density determination. Furthermore, this paper shows how the generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy can be used for enhancing the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, in a real case study, the formulae are applied to 6350 gravity stations located within a part of the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The case study numerically indicates that the proposed formulae, provided by Poisson's PDE, has the ability to convert land-based gravity data into the terrain mass-density which has been used for depicting areas of salt diapirs in the region of the case study.

  4. An assessment to prioritise the critical erosion-prone sub-watersheds for soil conservation in the Gumti basin of Tripura, North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Istak; Das Pan, Nibedita; Debnath, Jatan; Bhowmik, Moujuri

    2017-10-31

    Erosion-induced land degradation problem has emerged as a serious environmental issue across the world. Assessment of this problem through modelling can generate valuable quantitative information for the planners to identify priority areas for proper soil conservation measures. The Gumti River basin of Tripura falls under humid tropical climate and experiences soil erosion for a prolonged period which has turned into a major environmental issue. Increased sediment supply through top soil erosion is one of the major reasons for reduced navigability of this river. Thus, the present study is an attempt to prioritize the sub-watersheds of the Gumti basin by estimating soil loss through the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model. For that purpose, five parameters of the USLE model were processed, computed and overlaid in a GIS environment. The result shows that potential mean annual soil loss of the Gumti basin ranges between 0.03 and 114.08 t ha -1  year -1 . The resultant values of soil loss were classified into five categories considering the minimum and maximum values. It has been identified that low, moderate, high, very high and severe soil loss categories occupy 68.71, 8.94, 5.86, 5.02 and 11.47% of the basin respectively. Moreover, it has been recognised that sub-watersheds like SW7, SW8, SW12, SW21, SW24 and SW29 fall under very high priority class for which mitigation measures are essential. Therefore, the present study recommends mitigation measures through terrace cultivation, as an alternative of shifting cultivation in the hilly areas and through construction of check dams at the appropriate sites of the erosion prone sub-watersheds. Moreover, proper afforestation programmes that have been implemented successfully in other parts of Tripura through the Japan International Cooperation Agency, Joint Forest Management, and National Afforestation Programme should be initiated in the highly erosion-prone areas of the Gumti River basin.

  5. Cetaceans occurrence visual monitoring during seismic survey in the North of Campos Basin; Monitoramento visual de ocorrencia de cetaceos durante o levantamento de dados sismicos no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Karina C.A.; Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the marine biota visual monitoring developed during the seismic survey in the north area of Campos Basin. The monitoring lasted five months, between 14 February and 14 July 2007, reaching, on average, eleven hours and fifty one minutes of sign effort per day. It was conducted by fourteen marine biota catch sign, three for each period of boarding, that took over during all period of the activity. Sixty two cetaceans were registered, eight belonging to suborder Odontoceti and four belonging to suborder Mysticeti. Tursiops truncatus was the predominant species in number of registers, followed by Megaptera novaeangliae. It's important to report that during all seismic activity period there wasn't any cetacean register presenting any behavior disturbance. (author)

  6. Preliminary digital model of ground-water flow in the Madison Group, Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    1976-01-01

    A digital simulation model was used to analyze regional ground-water flow in the Madison Group aquifer in the Powder River Basin in Montana and Wyoming and adjacent areas. Most recharge to the aquifer originates in or near the outcrop areas of the Madison in the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, and most discharge occurs through springs and wells. Flow through the aquifer in the modeled areas was approximately 200 cubic feet per second. The aquifer can probably sustain increased ground-water withdrawals of up to several tens of cubic feet per second, but these withdrawals probably would significantly lower the potentiometric surface in the Madison aquifer in a large part of the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. The Jameson Land basin (east Greenland): a fission track study of the tectonic and thermal evolution in the Cenozoic North Atlantic spreading regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirsten; Bergman, Steven C.; Henk, Bo

    2001-02-01

    The Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermal history of the Jameson Land basin is constrained by new apatite and zircon fission track (FT) data of surface Permian to Jurassic sedimentary rocks. The results show a general regional thermal evolution related to burial to temperatures close to and in excess of the maximum temperatures of the apatite annealing interval (∼125°C) followed by cooling mainly due to Cenozoic uplift and erosion. Faulting and differential movements in the basin generally occurred after cooling below the apatite partial annealing zone (PAZ: ∼75-125°C). However, in the northern part of the basin the data suggest a thicker sediment cover or localized heating related to an earlier fracture zone. Both apatite FT analysis and vitrinite reflectance values reveal a postmature signature for the studied rocks in the northeastern Jameson Land and premature to mature for the western, central and southern Jameson Land rocks with respect to generation of hydrocarbons. The chemical variations of apatite enhance the possibility of recognizing sample positions near maximum temperatures in the PAZ. Furthermore, the Pb-Zn mineralization pattern closely follows the Tertiary maturity trend given by the FT data. The type and distribution of mineralization suggest that it was influenced by the regional thermal evolution of the basin. In the northeast domain, circulating fluids may have overprinted the regional thermal record before ca. 20 Ma. Basaltic dyke and sill intrusions (55-45 Ma) locally caused resetting of apatite FT ages, but generally the direct influence from upper crustal magmatic activity played only a minor role. The thermal evolution in northeast Jameson Land is related to the late tectonic evolution of the Northeast Atlantic involving a change in ridge position at ca. 25 Ma which followed the passage of the proto-Icelandic mantle plume at 63-40 Ma.

  8. Basin evolution at the SW Barents Sea margin and its conjugate off NE Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleide, Jan Inge; Wong, Po Wan; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy; Tsikalas, Filippos; Blaich, Olav A.; Planke, Sverre; Myklebust, Reidun

    2015-04-01

    The SW Barents Sea margin developed from a megashear zone which linked the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Artic Eurasia Basin during the initial Eocene opening. Within the dextral megashear system, a series of deep and narrow basins formed in the SW Barents Sea. These basins formed in response to multiple rift events and rapid differential subsidence. The distribution of salt structures both in the SW Barents Sea and on the conjugate NE Greenland margin reflects the Late Paleozoic basin configuration. Late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting affected all deep basins in the SW Barents Sea (e.g., Bjørnøya, Tromsø, Harstad and Sørvestsnaget basins) as on the mid-Norwegian margin and the conjugate NE Greenland margin. Following rifting, a wide region subsided and was covered by thick Cretaceous strata. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene rifting between Norway and Greenland was taken up within the megashear zone and pull-apart basins formed in the SW Barents Sea and in the Wandel Sea Basin in NE Greenland. Contraction/inversion formed structural highs separating distinct Late Cretaceous depocenters that continued to subside rapidly. The rifting culminated in crustal breakup and accretion of oceanic crust near the Paleocene-Eocene transition. NE Atlantic breakup was accompanied by large-scale igneous activity, which also affected parts of the SW Barents Sea margin. The sheared Senja FZ margin is segmented, each segment having different structural styles reflecting a complex interplay between the geometry of the sheared margin segments and the opening direction. A continental sliver was also cut off the SW Barents Sea margin, now forming the Greenland Ridge which is a protrusion of the NE Greenland margin. The continent-ocean transition is confined within a narrow zone, bounded by a characteristic marginal high along the Senja Fracture Zone. During Eocene, the Harstad and southern Sørvestsnaget basins developed as narrow, elongated, en echelon basins landward of the

  9. Geologic cross section C-C' through the Appalachian basin from Erie County, north-central Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge province, Bedford County, south-central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Crangle, Robert D.; Hope, Rebecca S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lentz, Erika E.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic cross section C-C' is the third in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section C-C' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian basin from north-central Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in south-central Pennsylvania, a distance of approximately 260 miles (mi). This cross section is a companion to cross sections E-E' and D-D' that are located about 50 to 125 mi and 25 to 50 mi, respectively, to the southwest. Cross section C-C' contains much information that is useful for evaluating energy resources in the Appalachian basin. Although specific petroleum systems are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on what is shown on the cross section. Cross section C-C' also provides a general framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section, although the cross section lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank). In addition, cross section C-C' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste or for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  10. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers, 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, P.M.; Smith, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers were analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of trace element contaminants in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. All but 3 of the 22 trace elements that were analyzed were detected. Although all 10 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants were detected in the tissues sampled, they were present in relatively low concentrations. Concentrations of U.S. EPA priority pollutants in Asiatic clams collected in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin are similar to concentrations observed in other NAWQA study units in the southeastern United States. Mercury (a U.S. EPA priority pollutant) was widely detected, being present in 29 of 30 tissue samples, but concentrations did not exceed the FDA action level for mercury of a risk-based screening value for the general public. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams were similar to concentrations in other NAWQA study areas in the Southeast.

  11. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1997-01-01

    The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.During 1980-86, the salt balance changed as a result of record high inflow that averaged 4,627,000 acre-feet annually and modifications made to the conveyance properties of the causeway that included opening a 300-foot-wide breach. In this study, a model developed in 1973 by Waddell and Bolke to simulate the water and salt balance of the lake was revised to accommodate the high water-surface altitude and modifications made to the causeway. This study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Lands and Forestry, updates the model with monitoring data collected during 1980-86. This report describes the calibration of the model and presents the results of simulations for three hypothetical 10-year periods.During January 1, 1980, to July 31, 1984, a net load of 0.5 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the south to the north part of the lake primarily as a result of record inflows. From August 1, 1984, when the breach was opened, to December 31,1986, a net load of 0.3 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the north to the south part of the lake primarily as a result of the breach.For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in the water-surface altitude decreasing from about 4,200 to 4,192 feet, there was a net movement of about 1.0 billion tons of dissolved salt from the south to the north part, and about 1.7 billion tons of salt precipitated in the north part. For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in a rise in water-surface altitude from about 4,200 to 4

  12. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  13. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  14. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South-North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, M.; Li, M. T.; Chen, J.; Finlayson, B.; Chen, D.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, M.; Barnett, J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of the Three Gorges Dam, the South-North Water Transfer Project and other water abstractions on the probability of long-duration salt intrusions into the Yangtze River estuary. Studies of intrusions of saltwater into estuaries are typically constrained by both the short duration of discharge records and the paucity of observations of discharge and salinity. Thus, studies of intrusions of saltwater into estuaries typically seek to identify the conditions under which these intrusions occur, using detailed observations for periods of 20-60 days. The paper therefore first demonstrates a method by which to identify the conditions under which intense intrusions of long-duration occur and then applies that method to analyse the effect of the three projects. The paper constructs a model of the relationship between salinity and discharge and then employs Monte Carlo simulation methods to reconstruct the probability of observing intrusions of differing intensities and durations in relation to discharge. The model predicts that the duration of intrusions with chlorinity ≥ 250 mg L-1 (or ≥ 400 or 500 mg L-1) increases as the number of consecutive days with discharge ≤ 12 000 m3 s-1 (or ≤ 8000 m3 s-1 increases. The model predicts that in 1950-2014, the number of consecutive days with chlorinity ≥ 250 mg L-1 averaged 21.34 yr-1; if the three projects operate according to their normal rules, that average would rise to 41.20 yr-1. For a randomly selected year of discharge history from the period 1950-2014, under normal operating rules for these projects the probability of an intrusion rises from 0.25 (for 30-day intrusions) or 0.05 (for 60-day intrusions) to 0.57 or 0.28, respectively.

  15. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya [Turkey] and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouwen, L.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the relation between the mineralogical composition of salt assemblages and the composition of groundwaters from which these salts precipitated. A comparison was made between salts and waters sampled in the Konya Basin in Turkey and waters sampled in three different regions in

  16. The Late Glacial and Holocene development of vegetation in the area of a fossil lake in the Skaliska Basin (north-eastern Poland inferred from pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołaczek Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in the Skaliska Basin has been reconstructed on the basis of palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating (AMS technique of 6 sites from the late phase of the Bolling- Allerod interstadial complex to modern times. Although the area covers 90 km2, the mosaic character of habitats led to the development of different patterns of vegetation changes during the Late Glacial and Holocene. Only one site located in the eastern part of the Skaliska Basin reflected the ‘pine phase’ of Allerod, and this is the oldest data on vegetation in the Skaliska Basin. Interesting discrepancies were recorded during the Younger Dryas when patches of shrublands with Juniperus were distinct around some of the sites, while steppe with Artemisia was common in others. The beginning of the Holocene brought an expansion of birch-pine forest, but around 9600 cal. BC a cold oscillation took place which was reflected in an increase in birch in the woodlands in the western and eastern part of the Skaliska Basin. In the Preboreal chronozone elm (Ulmus also expanded in the area but its appearance was non-synchronous. The vegetation of the Boreal chronozone was similar in the whole area and the most characteristic feature was the rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana which displaced Betula from the most of its sites. At that time a distinct redeposition of pollen material in the Parchatka river valley was detected which was probably the effect of an increase in fluvial activity of the river (humid oscillation. The following stage of vegetation development was climax woodlands with Tilia cordata, Ulmus, Quercus, Corylus avellana, and Alnus in damp places. At the beginning of the Subboreal chronozone the expansion of Quercus took place, which was subsequently replaced by Picea abies and partly Carpinus betulus. The pattern of Picea abies expansion distinctly presents two maxima which is characteristic of many sites in the north-eastern Poland

  17. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  18. Modified Gulf of California model for South Georgia,north Scotia Ridge, and implications for the Rocas Verdes back-arc basin, southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabaster, T.; Storey, B. C.

    1990-06-01

    New field mapping and an integrated trace element and Nd isotopic study have been undertaken on the Jurassic-Cretaceous Larsen Harbour Complex on the island of South Georgia, recognized as a displaced part of the southern Andes ensialic, autochthonous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. Five basalt groups (Groups I-V) are identified from trace element data; initial Nd isotopic compositions suggest that they are derived from only two sources. Magmas produced during early stages of continental lithospheric attenuation (Groups I-III) were derived by varying degrees of partial melting and fractional crystallization from a large ion lithophile element (LILE)-enriched, low-ɛNd mantle source relative to normal (N)-type mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). Magmas produced during later stages of rifting (Groups IV and V) were, however, derived from a high-ɛNd asthenospheric mantle source similar to N-type MORB, unaffected by earlier LILE enrichment. Our data do not concur with previous suggestions that the Larsen Harbour Complex and, by implication, the Rocas Verdes formed in a supra-subduction-zone setting. On the basis of geologic and geochemical evidence, we favor basin formation along an oblique-slip margin akin to that of the Gulf of California.

  19. Modelling the water mass exchange through navigational channels connecting adjacent coastal basins - application to the Channel of Potidea (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Savvidis

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is the detection of the mechanism of the water mass exchange through a navigational channel connecting two adjacent coastal basins. The research involves the application of a mathematical model in parallel to in-situ measurements. The hydrodynamic circulation in the greater area of the NW Aegean Sea is modeled by means of a barotropic circulation model. Wind, Coriolis and Tide are the main forcings taken into account. The flow through the channel is resolved at a subgrid scale by means of a local open channel flow model. The comparison between field measurements, recorded during a limited period, and the model results supports the model verification. The study is integrated by an operational application of the model under various realistic forcings. The results help to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating the water mass exchange and the consequent interaction between two adjacent connected coastal basins. From the case study of the Potidea channel it is revealed that the water mass exchange under mean wind forcing is of the same order as the one induced by the tidal forcing.

  20. Hydrodynamic characteristics in the Levantine Basin in autumn 2016 - The CINEL experiment (CIrculation and water mass properties in the North-Eastern Levantine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Elena; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Gerin, Riccardo; Hayes, Dan; Gildor, Hezi; Kokkini, Zoi

    2017-04-01

    During the CINEL experiment, currents and thermohaline properties of the water masses in the eastern areas of the Levantine Basin (Mediterranean Sea) were monitored with mobile autonomous systems in October-December 2016. Two gliders were operated together with satellite-tracked drifters and Argo floats to study the complex circulation features governing the dynamics near the coast and in the open sea. Strong mesoscale and sub-basin scale eddies were detected and were crossed several times by the gliders during the experiment. The physical and biogeochemical parameters were sampled, showing peculiar characteristics in some of the mesoscale features and a probable interaction with a persistent coastal current off Israel. The in-situ observations were interpreted in concert with the distribution of tracers (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll) and altimetry data obtained from satellites. Numerical simulations with a high resolution model in which deep profiles of temperature and salinity from gliders were assimilated, were used in near-real time to fine tune the observational array and to help with the interpretation of the local dynamics.

  1. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  2. Assessment of the redistribution of soil carbon using a new index--a case study in the Haihe River Basin, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuhe; Chen, Liding; Zhou, Guangsheng; Sun, Ranhao; Shang, Linyuan; Wang, Shudong

    2014-11-01

    Soil carbon redistribution is an important process in the terrestrial carbon cycle. This study describes a new index, soil carbon redistribution (SCR) index, that can be used to assess long-term soil carbon redistribution at a large watershed scale. The new index is based on the theoretical preconditions that soil carbon redistribution is mainly controlled by vegetation type, precipitation, topography/slope, and soil carbon concentration. The Haihe River Basin served as an example for this analysis. The SCR index was calculated, and a GIS-based map shows its spatial patterns. The results suggested that soil carbon was usually prone to being carried away from mountainous regions with natural vegetation, while it was prone to deposition in the plain and plateau regions with cultivated vegetation. The methods in the paper offer a tool that can be used to quantify the potential risk where soil carbon is prone to being carried away and deposited in a large watershed.

  3. Environmental status of the Jilantai Basin, North China, on the northwestern margin of the modern Asian summer monsoon domain during Marine Isotope Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuxin; Wang, Yongda; Mou, Xuesong; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Fu; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Wenhao; Hui, Zhengchuang; Huang, Xiaozhong; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Two drill cores were obtained from the Jilantai sub-depression (JLT(d)) and the neighboring Dengkou sub-uplift (DK(u)), within a huge, former lake basin in northern China. From an analysis of the lithology and pollen assemblages, combined with radiocarbon dating of extracted pollen and OSL dating of extracted quartz, we concluded the following: JLT(d) was continuously occupied by lakes since 85 ka; however, DK(u), the neighboring sub-uplift, was covered by lakes during 80-74 ka, 50-44 ka, 32.5-27.5 ka and work is needed to understand the environmental significance of the co-existence of lakes and dunes during MIS 3, although a sub-humid climate background during MIS 3 is supported by well-dated geological archives along the western front of the present-day Asian Summer Monsoon domain and its eastern extensional area.

  4. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  5. Methodology of the {sup 137} Cs for the soil erosion and deposition determination in a micro basin from the north of Parana State; Metodologia do {sup 137} Cs para determinacao da erosao e deposicao de solo em uma microbacia do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    1997-12-31

    The measurement of {sup 137} Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. The {sup 137} Cs activity of soil samples, taken from a small basin at the North of Parana, were measured employing a HPGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. Standard oil samples with known concentrations of {sup 137} Cs were prepared for the detection efficiency determination. Soil loss or gain was measured at the top, midslope and low slope regions, for six different transects at the investigated small basin. (author) 47 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Congamond Lakes North Dike (MA 00072), Connecticut River Basin, Southwick, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    laing and discarges about 5 .12.. northeastvard Into tho Visteld River. Ike deSMiW 1s 141trIOWe in soeawI plaese by cuiwerts. TM. poent outlet from the...Detail cost estim"ee tor Culverts at the- railroad crossing and at Feint Grow PAd as m aplat XT an bjn 52re .uvf . ....... Polut Ore And culvert.. Total...34- la ;-" I CROSS SECTION OF BOX CULVERT CONNECTING NORTH POND AND MIDDLE3 IPOND AT POINT GROVE ROAD NO SCALE II I ... I L -- II IlI I -24 III BRUSH AND

  7. Using 14C and 3H to delineate a recharge 'window' into the Perth Basin aquifers, North Gnangara groundwater system, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Karina; Cendón, Dioni I; Pigois, Jon-Philippe; Hollins, Suzanne; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The Gnangara Mound and the underlying Perth Basin aquifers are the largest source of groundwater for the southwest of Australia, supplying between 35 and 50% of Perth's potable water (2009-2010). However, declining health of wetlands on the Mound coupled with the reduction in groundwater levels from increased irrigation demands and drier climatic conditions means this resource is experiencing increased pressures. The northern Gnangara is an area where the Yarragadee aquifer occurs at shallow depths (~50 m) and is in direct contact with the superficial aquifer, suggesting the possibility of direct recharge into a generally confined aquifer. Environmental isotopes ((14)C and (3)H) and hydrochemical modelling were used to assess the presence of a recharge 'window' as well as understand the groundwater residence time within different aquifers. Forty-nine groundwater samples were collected from depths ranging from 11 to 311 m below ground surface. The isotopic variation observed in the superficial aquifer was found to be controlled by the different lithologies present, i.e. quartz-rich Bassendean Sand and carbonate-rich sediments of the Ascot Formation. Rainfall recharge into the Bassendean Sand inherits its dissolved inorganic carbon from the soil CO(2). Organic matter throughout the soil profile is degraded by oxidation leading to anoxic/acidic groundwater, which if in contact with the Ascot Formation leads to enhanced dissolution of carbonates. Hydrochemical mass balance modelling showed that carbonate dissolution could contribute 1-2 mmol kg(-1) of carbon to groundwaters recharged through the Ascot Formation. The corrected groundwater residence times of the Yarragadee aquifer in the northern part of the study area ranged from 23 to 35 ka, while waters in the southeastern corner ranged from sub-modern to 2 ka. Groundwater ages increase with distance radiating from the recharge 'window'. This study delineates a recharge 'window' into the commonly presumed confined

  8. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  9. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  10. Options for salinity mitigation in the Murray-Darling Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schrobback, Peggy; Adamson, David; Quiggin, John

    2008-01-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin faces increasing pressure on water quantity and quality. In 2006-07, salt interception schemes implemented as part of the Murray–Darling Basin Salinity Management strategy removed over 470,000 tonnes of salt from the water supply, reducing the salinity of water flowing to Adelaide by about 200 EC units. However, the costs of salinity mitigation schemes are increasing. With possible continuing declines in average inflows, costs of salinity and salinity mitigation are...

  11. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  12. Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... 4Institute of Molecular Bio Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Accepted 26 March ... cultures of KDML105 rice were exposed to salt stress by placing on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ... Key word: Aromatic rice, osmoprotectant, callus culture, salt stress.

  13. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mikoláš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the past. Further the evaluation of known surrounding abandoned mines aquifer systems, accumulated in the coal seam (underground accumulation of water and the evaluation of the effect of increasing the water level in the Kohinoor II mine, focusing on the enlargement of the central mine aquifers and the evaluation of the effects of changes in the way of pumping on the surrounding coal seam and its mining with continued safe brown coal mining at the nearby Bílina mine, that can be ensured for at least another 25 years.

  14. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

  15. The effects of restricted circulation on the salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1970-1972 water years a net load of dissolved solids of 0.26 billion tons moved from the south to north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, through the causeway of the Southern Pacific Transportation Co. The load loss from the south part during the 1972 water year was only 0.01 billion tons, thus indicating that the salt balance between the two parts of the lake was near equilibrium for inflow conditions such as those of 1972.

  16. Modelling benthic macrofauna and seagrass distribution patterns in a North Sea tidal basin in response to 2050 climatic and environmental scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Anja; Millat, Gerald; Staneva, Joanna; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale spatial distribution patterns of seven macrofauna species, seagrass beds and mixed mussel/oyster reefs were modelled for the Jade Bay (North Sea, Germany) in response to climatic and environmental scenarios (representing 2050). For the species distribution models four presence-absence modelling methods were merged within the ensemble forecasting platform 'biomod2'. The present spatial distribution (representing 2009) was modelled by statistically related species presences, true species absences and six high-resolution environmental grids. The future spatial distribution was then predicted in response to expected climate change-induced ongoing (1) sea-level rise and (2) water temperature increase. Between 2009 and 2050, the present and future prediction maps revealed a significant range gain for two macrofauna species (Macoma balthica, Tubificoides benedii), whereas the species' range sizes of five macrofauna species remained relatively stable across space and time. The predicted probability of occurrence (PO) of two macrofauna species (Cerastoderma edule, Scoloplos armiger) decreased significantly under the potential future habitat conditions. In addition, a clear seagrass bed extension (Zostera noltii) on the lower intertidal flats (mixed sediments) and a decrease in the PO of mixed Mytilus edulis/Crassostrea gigas reefs was predicted for 2050. Until the mid-21st century, our future climatic and environmental scenario revealed significant changes in the range sizes (gains-losses) and/or the PO (increases-decreases) for seven of the 10 modelled species at the study site.

  17. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  18. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Salt Lake City Class B surface area and the Hill Air Force Base (AFB) Class D airspace area. This... north and south through the Salt Lake Valley over Interstate 15. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  19. Trace Elements concentration and distribution across the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, G. G.; Goni, I. B.; Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Banks, M. L.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Lake Chad, which is the largest Lake in West Africa, is situated between the latitude 12 ½ and 14 ½ north and longitude 130 east of the Southern fringe of the Sahara Desert. About 25 % of the Lake Chad lies within Nigeria, while the Republic of Cameroon, Chad and Niger share the rest of it. Lake Chad is completely landlocked and has no outlets; therefore loss of water is mainly through high rates of evaporation unlike similar Lakes in other parts of the World. The Lake Chad waters are fresh and of good quality with very low salt content which makes it suitable for irrigated agriculture. This study was carried out from upper stream to lower stream leading from Kano to the Damaturu region which is one of several water bodies that supply Lake Chad. Soil samples were collected from over seventy five sites and analyzed for ten Trace Elements(Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn,Fe, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Cr) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-OES. Assessment and Monitoring of Trace Elements concentrations are vital because they impact environment and can affect the human healthy. Since little is known about the Trace Elements status in Lake Chad Basin. The result in this study provides baseline information on the distribution and concentration of Trace Elements along the Lake Chad Basin.

  20. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David M.; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5-10.2 cal ka BP; 10-9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column - a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  1. Bionomics of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex erraticus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Falls Lake basin, North Carolina: seasonal changes in abundance and gonotrophic status, and host-feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L C; Prior, S; Apperson, C S; Irby, W S

    1993-07-01

    Larval and adult Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (sensu lato) and Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab) were collected at Falls of the Neuse Lake (Falls Lake) in North Carolina from May 1985 to December 1986. Adult mosquitoes were aspirated weekly from shelters in woodlands adjacent to larval sampling sites. An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. erraticus comprised > 95% of the total number of mosquitoes collected. An. quadrimaculatus adults exhibited vernal and autumnal peaks of abundance during both years. Cx. erraticus adults exhibited several peaks of abundance in summer and early fall of both years. An. quadrimaculatus initiated blood feeding in May and April 1985 and 1986, respectively. Only unfed females were found in late fall and winter. Cx. erraticus initiated blood feeding earlier than An. quadrimaculatus. In 1985, approximately 25% of the females in the first collection in May contained a blood meal, whereas in 1986, approximately 10% of the females in the first collection in April were blood fed. Females of both species ceased blood feeding in late fall. Larvae were sampled on a weekly basis from lake edge, flood plain, and creek edge habitats. Generally, An. quadrimaculatus larvae were most abundant in lake edge and flood plain habitats, whereas Cx. erraticus larvae were most abundant in the creek edge habitat. The population dynamics of An. quadrimaculatus were associated with seasonal changes in the level of Falls Lake. In 1985 and 1986, the level of Falls Lake gradually declined from May to mid-August until heavy rainfall caused a 1-m rise in lake level. Populations of An. quadrimaculatus larvae and adults increased significantly following the rise in the level of Falls Lake. In contrast, the abundance of larval and adult Cx. erraticus decreased with rising lake levels in late August. Water level management should be an effective method for controlling populations of An. quadrimaculatus but not for Cx. erraticus. Blood-fed mosquitoes were tested to identify bloodmeal

  2. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota—Species of conservation concern: Chapter D in Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Symstad, Amy J.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Mushet, David M.; Larson, Diane L.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Tangen, Brian A.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2017-09-28

    The ecosystems of the Williston Basin provide direct and indirect benefits to society. These benefits include carbon sequestration, flood control, nutrient rich soils for agricultural productivity, and habitat for wildlife. This chapter’s main focus is on the effects of energy development on species that occupy the ecosystems in the Williston Basin. We compiled a list of documented species of conservation concern that are of most interest to Federal regulators and resource managers. Species of concern were either listed as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act or listed by States as species of concern in Natural Heritage Program checklists or State Wildlife Action Plans. All told, we determined that 357 species of concern likely occupy the Williston Basin. These species represented seven different taxonomic groups: plants (native and nonnative), terrestrial invertebrates, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, and fish and mussels.We reviewed the existing scientific information pertaining to potential effects of energy development on these taxonomic groups. Currently, little is known about the abundance and distribution of many of these species. But some information exists that may be useful in predicting the potential effects of energy development on certain taxonomic groups. Most of this information has been developed through scientific research focused on effects to mammal and bird populations. Effects to other taxonomic groups seems to be understudied. In general, it seems that disturbances and modifications associated with development have the potential to negatively affect a wide range of species; however, many studies produce uncertain results because they are not designed to compare populations before and after energy development takes place. Most of these studies also do not monitor resources over multiple years and thus cannot detect population trends. Likewise, there are few examples of landscape-scale assessments of the

  3. Pyroclasts Key to Age and Use of Meter-Size Granite Basins, Sierra Nevada, CA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. G.; Gorden, M. A.; Sisson, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    More than 1000 meter-size granite basins at more than 220 sites occur in a 240-km-long belt from Lake Isabella north to the San Joaquin River on the west slope of the southern Sierra Nevada. The circular basins are carved in granitic outcrops at an average elevation of 1950 m. They range in volume from 40 to 1400 liters, median 130 liters. The basins display features compatible with a man-made origin, but required enormous, sustained labor to excavate. Until now their apparent purpose was believed to be some aspect of food preparation (Moore, Gorden, Robinson, Moring, 2008). About 120 km north of this belt a separate cluster of more than 350 similar granite basins occurs near a rare salt spring. They were clearly made by Indians to contain saline water to produce salt by evaporation (Moore and Diggles, 2009). An early study identified rhyolitic volcanic ash in the bottom of many basins in Sequoia National Park at both Giant Forest and at Redwood Meadow 13 km ESE (Stewart, 1929). That ash is unavailable, having been removed in recent time. Subsequent study of meadowland soils identified two ash layers in the region from explosive eruptions in the Mono Lake area: Tephra 1 and Tephra 2 (Wood, 1977). Later work indicates that Tephra 1 was erupted from the Glass Creek vent of the Inyo Craters (Miller, 1985) and that its refined age by tree-ring techniques is AD 1350 (Millar, King, Westfall, Alden, Delany, 2006). A fossil forest killed by Tephra 1 differs from modern forests in that it grew in the warmer climate of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP)--a period when drought conditions prevailed at lower elevations (Stine, 1994; Millar et al, 2006). In July 2010 ash was discovered near the bottom of a pristine granite basin (TUL-496) in a remote area of Giant Sequoia National Monument 14.5 km NW of Giant Forest. High-beam-current electron microprobe analyses of pumice glasses give Zr 145-420 ppm, homogeneous within lapilli, and correlated with MgO and CaO concentrations. The

  4. Reinterpretation of the tectonics and formation of the Pernambuco Plateau Basin, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, Murray; Jones, Stephen M.; Dunkley Jones, Tom; Reston, Timothy; Barbosa, Antonio; Biondo, Vanessa; Mort, Haydon P.

    2017-04-01

    The continental margin from Alagoas to Natal represents arguably the most frontier region for exploration on the Brazillian margin. High quality seismic data was not collected in the region for many decades as it was believed that only a few kilometers of sediment existed, and thus there was no exploration potential. Here we present the results of work done as part of an IODP virtual site survey. The work has resulted in a total reinterpretation of the basin structure and tectonics, including finding sediment filled half grabens holding up to 8km thick stratigraphic sections. The two deepest grabens likely represent rift jumps during breakup, which may imply different age sediments in the different grabens. The basin is also found to contain a sizable salt accumulation, previously uninterpreted due to hard overlying carbonates hampering seismic imaging. This salt can be seen to have been highly mobile in the past, and has developed into kilometer scale diapirs flanked by typical rollover anticlines. For the first time we show the basin has all the elements needed for a working petroleum system, with the exception a source rock - which cannot be speculated on further as the basin is undrilled. However source rock sequences are present in the Alagoas basin to the south, and recent released seep data show evidence for both biogeneic and thermogenic seeps over the plateau basin, which could also signal source rock presence. We present seismic and potential fields data, including forward potential fields models and seismically derived crustal stretching and thinning estimates, to show that the half grabens terminate abruptly at the latitude of the Pernambuco Shear Zone, a major crustal scale Precambrian shear zone. Onshore boreholes, well away from the deep seismically imaged half grabens offshore, find crystalline basement to drop away rapidly across the shearzone, revealing a third graben to terminate at the shear zone. We interpret this as that the preexisting

  5. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  6. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  7. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  8. 3D imaging of vents and sand injectites produced by Lower Cretaceous hydrothermal activity in the southern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien

    for the latest (onlaps on the vents, bended reflections, igneous intrusion dating from well cutting). Vents formation and subsequent fluidized sandstone injection and expulsion are interesting from petroleum exploration perspective. Most of the vents punctured through basins primary source rock – the Posidonia...... shales. The breaching most probably created new pathways for fluid migration, connecting the source with the overlaying sandstone units with sand injectites /fracturation around the pipes. Sand injections in the vents could serve as both migration route and reservoir units, under the condition......Within the Jurassic Broad Forteen Basin (North Sea), 31 vents built of 58 smaller structures have recently been recognized within a seismic cube thanks to seismic attribute analysis. Within the surveyed volume, well cuttings from Zeichstein salt structures contain nephelinic basalts dating of 100...

  9. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  10. Origin and permeability of deep ocean salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, M.; Rueslåtten, H.

    2009-04-01

    Large, buried salt bodies occur in numerous offshore rift-related sedimentary basins, worldwide. For most practical purposes, the conventional evaporite (solar evaporation of seawater) theory is adequate for explaining these occurrences. However, a new model for their formation has now been published (Hovland et al., 2006; 2007, 2008). This model relies on the properties of supercritical water, a fluid which does not dissolve salt (within specific temperature and pressure ranges). The model predicts that some of the large volumes of salt occurring underground in the Red Sea and also in the Mediterranean Sea, formed by forced hydrothermal circulation of seawater down to depths where it became superctical (i.e., temperatures above 405°C, and pressures above 300 bars). Thus, salt precipitated under-ground and filled up cracks and crevices and also formed massive accumulations, which partly flowed upwards as dense, hot brines, precipitating more solid salts upon cooling. In addition, Holness and Lewis (1997) have shown experimentally that salt bodies subjected to high pressures and elevated temperatures, acquire a permeability comparable to sand. This is because the crystalline structure of salt (halite) attains dihedral angles between salt crystals less than 60° at higher temperatures and pressures, allowing water to form continuous strings around all salt crystals. This allows hot dense brines to migrate through the salt. Thus, the salt may act as conduits for flow of brines and salt slurries from previously accumulated salt in the subsurface. If these brines reach the sea floor, they can also form brine-pools and layered salt bodies on the sea floor. An IODP Pre-proposal (No. 741-pre) is now actively promoting drilling some targets in order of checking out this new theory against the conventional evaporite model. It is hoped that European scientists will take up this question and actively promote drilling into salt bodies, for example in the Red Sea (The

  11. Folding and fracturing of rock adjacent to salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Mark G.

    2017-04-01

    When John Ramsay wrote his groundbreaking book in 1967, deformation around salt diapirs was not something he covered. At the time, most geologists considered diapirs to form due to density inversion, rising through thick overlying strata due to buoyancy. In doing so, salt was thought to shove aside the younger rocks, shearing and fracturing them in drag folds and supposedly producing "salt gouge". Even after it was realized that the majority of diapirs spend most of their history growing at or just beneath the surface, the relative rise of salt and sinking of minibasins were (and are) still thought by many to be accommodated in part by shear and fracturing of rocks in a collar zone around the salt. There are two arguments against this model. The first is mechanical: whereas halite behaves as a viscous fluid, even young sediment deforms as a brittle material with layer anisotropy. Thus, the salt-sediment interface is the outer margin of an intrasalt shear zone caused by viscous drag against the diapir margin. The velocity of salt flow decreases dramatically toward the edge of the diapir, so that the outermost salt effectively doesn't move. Hence, no shear or fracturing is expected in surrounding strata. The second and more important argument is that empirical field data do not support the idea of drag folds and associated deformation. Certainly, strata are typically folded and thinned adjacent to diapirs. However, stratal upturn is generated by monoclinal drape folding of the diapir roof over the edge of the rising salt, and thinning is caused by deposition onto the bathymetric highs formed by the diapirs, often supplemented by roof erosion and slumping. Halokinetic sequences observed in numerous salt basins (e.g., Paradox Basin, La Popa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, Sivas Basin, Zagros Mountains, Kuqa Basin) contain no diapir-parallel shear zones and minimal thinning and fracturing caused by diapir rise. Even megaflaps, in which strata extend for kilometers up the sides

  12. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

  13. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense

  14. The impacts of mega discoveries of oil and natural gas in the pre-salt Santos Basin: Brazil 2000 - 2030 - 2050; Os impactos das mega descobertas de oleo e gas natural no pre-sal da Bacia de Santos: Brasil 2000 - 2030 - 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Raymundo Ruy; Reis, Lucio Eduardo Solano [Universidade da Amazonia (GEPEE/UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Nucleo de Socio-economia. Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Economicas Energeticas], e-mail: ruybahia@uol.com.br, e-mail: lereis2000@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a follow-up of four papers presented at the V CBPE 2006 e XI CBE 2006 updating the investment needs to expand the electric energy (EE) Offer. Such analysis revealed an hydro matrix over cost investments of 293 bi US$ (10bi US$/year) as compared to the hydro thermo matrix. Such data proof the unviability to supply the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions demand with Amazonian hydroelectricity. Furthermore, evaluations about the impacts of the huge underestimate volumes of proved reserves of oil and NG of 20 Gboe from the Projects Tupi, Carioca and Parati and Jupiter discoveries are limited to a small geographic area of 15,000 sqkm (122 x 122 km) that is only 9 percent of the Pre-Salt total area of 160,000 sqkm supporting the hypothesis of 160 Gboe for the ultimate ROR for both Campos and Pre-Salt Basins plus all others exploratory fronts offshore and onshore. In this probable case the mid-points of oil and NG will migrate to the 2070 year. Under these circumstances either scenarios will support the oil and NG self-sufficiencies for those regions Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions, up to the 2050 year and probably extended to the 2070 year. The estimated volume of the potential proved reserve NG Jupiter Project is also underestimate but large enough (7,0 Gboe = 1,100 billion of cubic meter= Gmc) to supply 80 percent (80 GW) of the total 101 GW expansion offer of EE up to the 2030 year. Finally there is not a single good reason to justify the supply the EE demand of the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions with the unviable Amazonian hydroelectricity. (author)

  15. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins in Brazil and Angola/Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, P. A.; Strozyk, F.; Back, S.

    2013-12-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  16. Using InSAR Remote Sensing Technology to Analyze 3 Basin Aquifer Recharge Areas in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilovsky, D.; Rucker, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Land subsidence due to pumping-induced groundwater decline has been well documented in alluviual basins in southern Arizona. Beginning in 2002, satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) began to document post-1992 subsidence across these basins. Several basin aquifer recharge projects using water delivered by the Central Arizona Project (CAP) also began in the early 2000s. Reversal of land subsidence (elastic rebound) associated with recharge is evident in InSAR results across these basins. Projects with rebound documented using InSAR include the Tonopah Desert Recharge Project (permitted 150,000 [ac-ft/yr] starting in 2006) located 40 miles west of Phoenix, and the Hieroglyphic Mountains Recharge Project (permitted 35,000 ac-ft/yr starting in 2003) located several miles north of McMicken Dam in the West Salt River Valley. The Superstition Mountains Recharge Project (ultimate permitting of 85,000 ac-ft/yr, completed in 2011), located at Queen Creek in the East Salt River Valley, has also begun to develop a clear InSAR signature feature. Groundwater level index wells up to several miles downstream from these recharge facilities have indicated groundwater level recoveries of about 70 to 200 feet in the time corresponding to the InSAR studies. Resulting elastic rebound of ground surface elevations due to reduction of effective stresses in the compressible basin alluvium is a function of the effective stress change, the basin alluvium elastic moduli, and the thickness of the effected compressible basin alluvium. The areas and magnitudes of effective stress unloading are indicated from the rebound documented using InSAR. The volumes of aquifer recharge are anticipated to be related to the volumes of InSAR-derived rebound. It is also anticipated that estimates of large-scale horizontal hydraulic conductivity may be approximately verified by areas of ground surface rebound, and gradients driving groundwater flow may be inferred from magnitudes of

  17. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (``D``) Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ``D`` pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels.

  18. Structural styles and depositional history of North and South Padre Island, OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    North and South Padre Island OCS areas were studied using 2-D seismic reflection data, check shot data, well logs and paleontological reports. Six salt structures occur beneath the present shelf edge. Shale occurs in over-pressured ridges beneath fault footwalls. We found that growth faults in the study area are similar in style to that of growth faults in the Brazos OCS area. However, they differ in maximum expansion periods. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above an over-pressured shale ridge. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) formed due to a large sediment influx that forced salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene due to further salt withdrawal We defined five depositional sequences from the Miocene (18.0, 16.3, 13.4, 10.5, and 6.2 Ma). Nine mini-basins are in the study area and they are connected by three main sediments pathways. Mechanism of the basin formation is controlled by the nature of depocenter shift. Depocenters formed by salt withdrawal and sediment influx do not shift. On the other hand, depocenters shift is controlled by fault expansion and sediment influx. We generated five stratigraphic cross-sections using detailed well log correlation to show the sand and shale sequences. Discontinuities in these sequences are common due to subsidence and the large number of faults in the study area. Presence of faults and shale bodies may cause formation of structural traps.

  19. Late Permian topography at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin: Paleogeography inferred from 3D seismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Rasmussen, Jens A.

    2013-04-01

    The Top Pre Zechstein (TPZ) surface in the North Sea Basin is often mapped because it reveals the total basement tectonics in the area. In areas where Zechstein salt is present halokinetic processes, differential subsidence, and Mesozoic faulting however significantly alter the TPZ surface. The study area is located at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin in the eastern North Sea at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. This area occurs approximately at the pinch-out line of the late Permian Zechstein salt and constitutes an excellent theater illustrating a range of salt-related problems. The TPZ surface is characterized by an overall NNW-ward dip defining the northern flank of the RFH and is transected by a set of NNW-SSE striking faults, and a E-W striking set of minor faults. Salt structures in the northern part of the study area introduce velocity pull-up (artefacts) at the TPZ surface and furthermore cause intense faulting of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover sediments. Pronounced isolated topographic highs similar to hills can be observed in the southern part of the study area where no to very little Zechstein evaporites are present. In the central part where Zechstein evaporites are present, small topographic highs similar to ridges can be observed at the footwall crest of minor faults. The Zechstein evaporites generally onlap towards the south in the study area but in the transitional zone around the hills, onlap from all directions onto the hills is observed. This suggests that the hills reflect paleo-topography developed during sub-aerial exposure before and perhaps during the deposition of the Zechstein sediments. The internal reflections within the hills show that they are composed of southward dipping sediments and very evident erosional truncations can be observed. The hills are aligned parallel to the major E-W strik