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Sample records for salmonellosis

  1. Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Exercise Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Salmonellosis KidsHealth > For Teens > Salmonellosis Print A A A ... such as turtles, lizards, and iguanas). What Is Salmonella Infection? Salmonella infection, or salmonellosis , is a foodborne illness ...

  2. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...... properties, physiology, classification, and nomenclature. Thereafter, the epidemiology of the organism is introduced, including the routes of transmission. Finally, the disease salmonellosis, the virulence mechanisms, and the occurrence in different types of food are described....

  3. [Major salmonellosis in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovonou, A; Adoukonou, T; Sanni, A; Gandaho, P

    2011-12-01

    Although salmonellosis is a common endemo-epidemic disease in Benin, there is a paucity of data about it. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the incidence of major salmonellosis requiring hospitalizaton and to describe its epidemiological, clinical, and serologic features as well as treatment and outcome. Consecutive cases observed at the Medical Department of Parakou University Hospital in Benin between January 1, 2005 and December 31 2007 were included. Salmonellosis was defined on the basis of clinical and serological criteria. Among the 2,520 patients hospitalized during the study period, salmonellosis was diagnosed in 135 (5.4% [95% CI 4.5%-6.3%]). Highest incidences were observed in January, July, October and November. The main symptoms were headache, fever, fatigue and abdominal pain. The Salmonella typhi serotype was identified in 94.8% of patients. Two patients presented co-infection, i.e., Salmonella typhi with paratyphi A in one case and Salmonella typhi with paratyphi B in the other. Fluoroquinolones were used for treatment in 79.3% of patients. Outcome was favorable in 62.2%. The main complications were,typhoid digestive perforation in 11.1%, and gastrointestinal bleeding in 8.1%. The mortality rate was 4.4% (n=6). These data are consistent with previous reports in the literature and confirm the frequency and severity of salmonellosis in Benin.

  4. Turtle-associated human salmonellosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.; Romkens, TE; Hekker, TA; Smulders, Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    A patient who bred exotic turtles as a hobby presented with 2 episodes of severe diarrhea, the second of which was proven to be caused by turtle-associated salmonellosis that was contracted during treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor. The literature about reptile-associated salmonellosis is

  5. Salmonellosis Control: Estimated Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Tanya

    1987-01-01

    Salmonellosis, a common human intestinal disorder primarily caused by contaminated meats and poultry, attacks an estimated two million Americans annually. Using a cost of illness approach, the medical costs and productivity losses alone were estimated to cost around one billion dollars in 1987. If pain and suffering, lost leisure time, and chronic disease costs could be quantified, the estimate would increase significantly. Other procedures for calculating the value of life could either raise...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis to Shigellosis - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis to Shigellosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rubella to Salmonellosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  10. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314417818

    2009-01-01

    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions

  11. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, van M.G.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions associated with susceptibility to salmonellosis. Genomic DNA from pig reference populations with differences in susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as quantified by spleen and liver bacterial colonization at day 7

  12. [Epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in Vojvodina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Vladimir; Stefanović, Slavica; Durić, Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella infections are the most common food-born diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Epidemics of salmonellosis occur after eating improperly cooked contaminated foods. A descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyse epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in Vojvodina in the period 1978-2003. During this period there were 26,851 cases of salmonellosis (mean annual incidence of 51.1/100,000 and mean annual mortality of 0.9/100,000). Mean annual case fatality ratio during this period was 0.1%. The specific incidence was highest in 12-24 month-old children (251/100,000), and lowest in the oldest age group (13.9/100,000). Lethality was highest in children younger than 1 year, and persons older than 50 years (84%). The number of cases registered in food-born epidemics makes 41.7% of all registered cases. A mayority of 772 registered epidemics were small epidemics among families, relatives and friends. The great epidemics with large number of infected persons were due to an industrial bakery with 1713 ill persons and a public restaurant with 311 ill persons during the 80's. An epidemic was due to sandwiches from an industrial bakery distributed through the whole territory of Vojvodina with the highest incidence of salmonellosis in 1987 (137.7/100,000). The most common serotype was S. Enteritidis (69.7%), but 68 more serotypes were isolated. The most common cause of epidemics were eggs and egg products (76.2%). Salmonella spp. was isolated from food in small number of epidemics (less than 20%), because epidemics were discovered usually 2 or 3 days after their beginning.

  13. Salmonellosis in a captive heron colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1974-01-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium was one of several factors responsible for losses among young herons being held at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The infection was demonstrated in five black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), three common egrets (Casmerodius albus), two little blue herons (Florida caerulea), one cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), one snowy egret (Leucophoyx thula) and one Louisiana heron (Hydranassa tricolor). The disease was characterized by emaciation, focal liver necrosis, and frequently by a caseo-necrotic enteritis.

  14. Salmonellosis as still present environmental hazards to humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kłapeć

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis are zoonotic illnesses caused by Salmonella, with the exception of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi ABC. The article presents epidemiological and epizootiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland and Europe. Salmonella reservoirs are domestic and wild animals, domestic and wild birds, rodents, fertilizer, soil, the sick or carriers. The predominant and original reservoir of zoonotic Salmonella is poultry in Poland and the world. Prevailing last epidemic serotype is Salmonella Enteritidis. In Poland over the past decade the number of cases of salmonellosis has dropped down. Epidemiological standing of salmonellosis is unsatisfactory and requires further monitoring.

  15. Mortality in captive elk from salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Besser, T E; Lonning, S M

    2001-04-01

    Salmonella typhimurium DT104 infections of captive elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves resulted in mortality in eight of 13 affected calves. Salmonellosis in these elk calves was characterized by diarrhea, fever, lethargy, inappetence and depression, and death usually ensued within 72 hr of initial clinical signs. Affected calves did not respond to antibiotic and fluid therapy. The source of the bacteria likely was one or more of the calves when they were captured in the wild at less than 5 days of age. In our captive holding facility, the disease spread quickly and was difficult to control. Phage typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic sensitivity testing, and plasmid profiles determined that this Salmonella sp. strain was the epidemic strain common to cattle, sheep and humans.

  16. The threat of salmonellosis to commercial poultry production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The threat of salmonellosis to commercial poultry production in Adamawa state, Nigeria. A Garba, BM Bolajoko, IJ Barde, A Ahmed, I Sa'adatu, I Agang, AS Abdullahi, HA Bakan, UA Turaki, A Abdurrahman, JN Goji ...

  17. Salmonellosis and the GI Tract: More than Just Peanut Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianflone, Nancy F. Crum

    2009-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S., causing approximately 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats. However, almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of over 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the U.S. occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and a variety of immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis; however, bacteremia, endovascular, and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, with antibiotic therapy reserved among persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and among consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis. PMID:18627657

  18. Salmonellosis and the gastrointestinal tract: more than just peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2008-08-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing about 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats, but almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of more than 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis, but bacteremia and endovascular and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, and antibiotic therapy is reserved for persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis.

  19. Salmonellosis and the GI Tract: More than Just Peanut Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Cianflone, Nancy F. Crum

    2008-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S., causing approximately 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats. However, almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of over 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infec...

  20. Salmonellosis as still present environmental hazards to humans and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Kłapeć; Maria Stroczyńska-Sikorska

    2011-01-01

    Salmonellosis are zoonotic illnesses caused by Salmonella, with the exception of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi ABC. The article presents epidemiological and epizootiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland and Europe. Salmonella reservoirs are domestic and wild animals, domestic and wild birds, rodents, fertilizer, soil, the sick or carriers. The predominant and original reservoir of zoonotic Salmonella is poultry in Poland and the world. Prevailing la...

  1. Host-pathogen interaction in invasive Salmonellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K de Jong

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica infections result in diverse clinical manifestations. Typhoid fever, caused by S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, is a bacteremic illness but whose clinical features differ from other Gram-negative bacteremias. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serovars cause self-limiting diarrhea with occasional secondary bacteremia. Primary NTS bacteremia can occur in the immunocompromised host and infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent studies on host-pathogen interactions in Salmonellosis using genome sequencing, murine models, and patient studies have provided new insights. The full genome sequences of numerous S. enterica serovars have been determined. The S. Typhi genome, compared to that of S. Typhimurium, harbors many inactivated or disrupted genes. This can partly explain the different immune responses both serovars induce upon entering their host. Similar genome degradation is also observed in the ST313 S. Typhimurium strain implicated in invasive infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Virulence factors, most notably, type III secretion systems, Vi antigen, lipopolysaccharide and other surface polysaccharides, flagella, and various factors essential for the intracellular life cycle of S. enterica have been characterized. Genes for these factors are commonly carried on Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs. Plasmids also carry putative virulence-associated genes as well as those responsible for antimicrobial resistance. The interaction of Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs with Toll-like receptors (TLRs and NOD-like receptors (NLRs leads to inflammasome formation, activation, and recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, most notably interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ. The gut microbiome may be an important modulator of this immune response. S. Typhimurium usually causes a local intestinal immune

  2. Host–Pathogen Interaction in Invasive Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Hanna K.; Parry, Chris M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections result in diverse clinical manifestations. Typhoid fever, caused by S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. Paratyphi A, is a bacteremic illness but whose clinical features differ from other Gram-negative bacteremias. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars cause self-limiting diarrhea with occasional secondary bacteremia. Primary NTS bacteremia can occur in the immunocompromised host and infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent studies on host–pathogen interactions in Salmonellosis using genome sequencing, murine models, and patient studies have provided new insights. The full genome sequences of numerous S. enterica serovars have been determined. The S. Typhi genome, compared to that of S. Typhimurium, harbors many inactivated or disrupted genes. This can partly explain the different immune responses both serovars induce upon entering their host. Similar genome degradation is also observed in the ST313 S. Typhimurium strain implicated in invasive infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Virulence factors, most notably, type III secretion systems, Vi antigen, lipopolysaccharide and other surface polysaccharides, flagella, and various factors essential for the intracellular life cycle of S. enterica have been characterized. Genes for these factors are commonly carried on Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs). Plasmids also carry putative virulence-associated genes as well as those responsible for antimicrobial resistance. The interaction of Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) leads to inflammasome formation, activation, and recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, most notably interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ. The gut microbiome may be an important modulator of this immune response. S. Typhimurium usually causes a local intestinal immune response

  3. Systemic porcine salmonellosis: A potential zoonosis and cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cholerasuis are potentially zonootic pathogens that cause porcine salmonellosis; a disease associated with economic losses worldwide. Presence of this disease in pigs in Kenya is largely unknown. Two, 11-week old pig carcasses presented for necropsy to the Department of ...

  4. Allergic reactions in salmonellosis depends on the Serotype of pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkrtchyan, M.S.; Zakaryan, М. K.; Mnatsakanyan, А. А.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal infectious diseases remain a serious problem for the health care. In many countries, especially in Armenia, the most common intestinal infection is salmonellosis, which is caused by various serotypes of Salmonella. It is the most common causative agent of food-borne diseases. Although...

  5. Review of egg-related salmonellosis and reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, Salmonella Enterica subsp. enterica is one of the most commonly reported causes of foodborne illness in humans. Contaminated food products of animal origin, particularly egg and egg products are frequently implicated in outbreaks of human salmonellosis. Salmonella Enteritidis is frequently...

  6. Necrotizing hepatitis associated with enteric salmonellosis in an alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the feces of an alpaca suffering anorexia and weight loss. Multifocal necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis consistent with bacterial infection was found in the liver biopsies. Enteric salmonellosis may be associated with milder physical and clinicopathological changes in camelids than in other large animal species. PMID:15144106

  7. Animal Models for Salmonellosis: Applications in Vaccine Research

    OpenAIRE

    Higginson, Ellen E.; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis remains an important cause of human disease worldwide. While there are several licensed vaccines for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, these vaccines are generally ineffective against other Salmonella serovars. Vaccines that target paratyphoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars are very much in need. Preclinical evaluation of candidate vaccines is highly dependent on the availability of appropriate scientific tools, particularly animal models. Many different animal models exi...

  8. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Salmonellosis in Gyeongju, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Seok-Ju; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Lee, Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A salmonellosis outbreak occurred within a community of Gyeongju residents who ingested catered food from a wedding in June 2009. We aimed to epidemiologically investigate the probable vehicle of the infection. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 34 local residents who ingested the wedding food. Results Among the 34 residents, 31 (91.2%) reported symptoms of infection after eating the food. Among all of the wedding foods, pan-fried foods were highly associated with...

  9. Extraintestinal Salmonellosis in the Immunocompromised: An Unusual Case of Pyomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeraraghavan Meyyur Aravamudan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infection can cause a wide range of presentations, predominantly gastrointestinal but occasionally with cardiovascular or other extraintestinal manifestations. The diagnosis of extraintestinal salmonellosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and should be considered in patients with deep-seated abscesses especially if they are immunocompromised. We present a case of salmonella causing gastroenteritis complicated by an intramuscular abscess of the left leg. With prompt recognition and multidisciplinary management, the patient recovered with no serious sequela.

  10. Sources of human non-typhoid salmonellosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC de Freitas Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a worldwide disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Currently, there are over 2,500 identified serovars of Salmonella. A reduced number of these serovars, about eighty, are implicated in most animals and human diseases. Most cases of salmonellosis in humans are associated with the consumption of contaminated food products such as beef, pork, poultry meat, eggs, vegetables, juices and other kind of foods. It may also be associated with the contact between humans and infected pet animals. Therefore, the chain of human salmonellosis is very complex and in most cases the origin of the infection is difficult to establish. The use of antimicrobial agents to treat and to prevent bacterial infections in humans and animals, as well as as growth promoters in animal production, has favoured the selection and transference of resistance genes between different bacteria, including Salmonella serovars. Many studies have confirmed the role of foods of animal origin as a source of multi drugresistant Salmonella serovars. For this reason, continuous surveillance of these pathogens along the food chain together with the responsible use of antimicrobial agents is necessary.

  11. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Lutful Kabir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases.

  12. Animal contact as a source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoelzer, Karin; Moreno Switt, Andrea Isabel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    .... Most human salmonellosis cases are foodborne, but each year infections are also acquired through direct or indirect animal contact in homes, veterinary clinics, zoological gardens, farm environments...

  13. Schistosoma-associated chronic septicemic salmonellosis: evolution of knowledge and immunopathogenic mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira; Carlos Eduardo Tosta; Aluízio Prata

    2009-01-01

      Chronic septicemic salmonellosis is an individualized clinical entity characterized by prolonged fever with enlargement of the liver and spleen that occurs in Schistosoma-infected individuals who...

  14. Reptile-associated salmonellosis in Minnesota, 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, T; Bender, J B; Smith, K; Leano, F; Scheftel, J

    2015-05-01

    Reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) occurs when Salmonella is transmitted from a reptile to a human. This study describes the epidemiology of RAS in Minnesota during 1996-2011. All Minnesotans with confirmed Salmonella infections are reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). Case patients are interviewed about illness characteristics and risk factors, including foods eaten, drinking and recreational water exposures, contact with ill people, and animal contact. Willing RAS case patients can submit stool from the reptile for culture. Serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtype of Salmonella isolates from reptiles and case patients are compared. Of 8389 sporadic (not associated with an outbreak) non-typhoidal salmonellosis case patients in Minnesotans during 1996-2011, 290 (3.5%) reported reptile exposure. The median age of case patients with reptile exposure was 11 years, 31% were under the age of 5 years and 67% were under the age of 20 years; 50% were female. The median illness duration was 8 days; 23% required hospitalization. The most commonly reported reptile exposures were lizard (47%), snake (20%), turtle (19%) and a combination of reptile types (14%). Eighty-four per cent of isolates from case patients who reported reptile exposure were Salmonella enterica subspecies I. The three most common serotypes were Typhimurium (15%), Enteritidis (7%) and subspecies IV serotypes (7%). Of 60 reptiles testing positive for Salmonella, 36 (60%) yielded the same Salmonella serotype as the human isolate. Twenty-six of 27 reptile isolates that were subtyped by PFGE were indistinguishable from the human isolate. Of these, 88% were subspecies I; the most common serotypes were Enteritidis (12%), Typhimurium (8%), and Bareilly (8%). RAS accounts for approximately 3.5% of salmonellosis cases in Minnesota, primarily affecting children. The majority of isolates from case patients and reptiles belonged to Salmonella subspecies I, suggesting that

  15. [Current epidemiological status of salmonellosis of humans in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, H; Rabsch, W; Liesegang, A

    1994-02-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi B have special epidemiological significance. However, the enteritis caused by Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium dominates. A complex typing of these serovars is the prerequisite for both, an effective surveillance of salmonellosis and the detection of occurring replacements and variations of the pathogens. The increasing occurrence of Salmonella in spices since 1993 is epidemiologically remarkable. In this connection, serotypes such as Salmonella javiana, S. rubislaw, and monophasic, KCN-positive serovars dominate. The transmission route man-man is of no special epidemiological importance at present in Germany.

  16. Identification of protective antigens for vaccination against systemic salmonellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eBumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent medical need for improved vaccines with broad serovar coverage and high efficacy against systemic salmonellosis. Subunit vaccines offer excellent safety profiles but require identification of protective antigens, which remains a challenging task. Here, I review crucial properties of Salmonella antigens that might help to narrow down the number of potential candidates from more than 4000 proteins encoded in Salmonella genomes, to a more manageable number of 50-200 most promising antigens. I also discuss complementary approaches for antigen identification and potential limitations of current pre-clinical vaccine testing.

  17. 78 FR 61365 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated... entitled ``Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts... of the risk of human salmonellosis associated with the consumption of tree nuts. We are taking this...

  18. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Salmonellosis in Gyeongju, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Ju Yoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA salmonellosis outbreak occurred within a community of Gyeongju residents who ingested catered food from a wedding in June 2009. We aimed to epidemiologically investigate the probable vehicle of the infection.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study on 34 local residents who ingested the wedding food.ResultsAmong the 34 residents, 31 (91.2% reported symptoms of infection after eating the food. Among all of the wedding foods, pan-fried foods were highly associated with the diarrheal attack rate. On bacteriological examination, Salmonella species were detected in the pan-fried foods among the leftover foods and in 17 of the 31 stool specimens from the cases. There were five different types of pan-fried foods, but the onset of symptoms was independent of the ingredients used. We found that the pan-fried food was prepared at a food store in Seoul and that eggs were a common ingredient.ConclusionsThe major cause of the salmonellosis in this population was presumed to be the pan-fried food prepared with contaminated eggs. These food items might have been partially undercooked because of their irregular shape, which allowed the Salmonella species to survive and multiply before ingestion.

  19. Salmonellosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1997 to 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costalunga Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. was the major cause of reported foodborne diseases in the last years in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, South of Brazil. Epidemiological data on salmonellosis, occurred in the period of 1997 to 1999 and supplied by the Division of Sanitary Surveillance (DVS/RS, were analysed according to the following factors: total number of confirmed outbreaks, number of people involved, outbreaks incidence according to the period of the year, age and sex of involved people, food vehicle, food storage conditions, local where the disease occurred, and possible causes of the outbreaks. The results indicated that 8217 people were involved, and 1557 had to be hospitalized. The highest number of outbreaks occurred during springtime and the principal age group affected was between 16 and 50 years. The most common food vehicle was salad prepared with homemade mayonnaise (42.45%. The principal causes of salmonellosis were raw-materials not submitted to regulatory inspection (22.92%, mainly eggs, and foods maintained at room temperature for more than 2 hours (20.55%. The majority of the outbreaks occurred in private homes (43.70% and commercial food establishments (25.21%.

  20. Animal Models for Salmonellosis: Applications in Vaccine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Ellen E; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M

    2016-09-01

    Salmonellosis remains an important cause of human disease worldwide. While there are several licensed vaccines for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, these vaccines are generally ineffective against other Salmonella serovars. Vaccines that target paratyphoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars are very much in need. Preclinical evaluation of candidate vaccines is highly dependent on the availability of appropriate scientific tools, particularly animal models. Many different animal models exist for various Salmonella serovars, from whole-animal models to smaller models, such as those recently established in insects. Here, we discuss various mouse, rat, rabbit, calf, primate, and insect models for Salmonella infection, all of which have their place in research. However, choosing the right model is imperative in selecting the best vaccine candidates for further clinical testing. In this minireview, we summarize the various animal models that are used to assess salmonellosis, highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and discuss their value in vaccine development. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of salmonellosis in Gyeongju, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seok-Ju; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Lee, Kwan

    2014-05-01

    A salmonellosis outbreak occurred within a community of Gyeongju residents who ingested catered food from a wedding in June 2009. We aimed to epidemiologically investigate the probable vehicle of the infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 34 local residents who ingested the wedding food. Among the 34 residents, 31 (91.2%) reported symptoms of infection after eating the food. Among all of the wedding foods, pan-fried foods were highly associated with the diarrheal attack rate. On bacteriological examination, Salmonella species were detected in the pan-fried foods among the leftover foods and in 17 of the 31 stool specimens from the cases. There were five different types of pan-fried foods, but the onset of symptoms was independent of the ingredients used. We found that the pan-fried food was prepared at a food store in Seoul and that eggs were a common ingredient. The major cause of the salmonellosis in this population was presumed to be the pan-fried food prepared with contaminated eggs. These food items might have been partially undercooked because of their irregular shape, which allowed the Salmonella species to survive and multiply before ingestion.

  2. Positive association between ambient temperature and salmonellosis notifications in New Zealand, 1965-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Emma; Hales, Simon; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Baker, Michael G

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the temporal relationship between the monthly count of salmonellosis notifications and the monthly average temperature in New Zealand during the period 1965-2006. A negative binomial regression model was used to analyse monthly average ambient temperature and salmonellosis notifications in New Zealand between 1965 and 2006. A 1°C increase in monthly average ambient temperature was associated with a 15% increase in salmonellosis notifications within the same month (IRR 1.15; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.24). The positive association found in this study between temperature and salmonellosis notifications in New Zealand is consistent with the results of studies conducted in other countries. New Zealand is projected to experience an increase in temperature due to climate change. Therefore, all other things being equal, climate change could increase salmonellosis notifications in New Zealand. This association between temperature and salmonellosis should be considered when developing public health plans and climate change adaptation policies. Strategically, existing food safety programs to prevent salmonellosis could be intensified during warmer periods. As the association was strongest within the same month, focusing on improving food handling and storage during this time period may assist in climate change adaptation in New Zealand. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Avian tuberculosis and salmonellosis in a whooping crane (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, R.K.; Thoen, C.O.; Duncan, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The whooping crane has been the subject of intensive scientific study and management because it is an endangered species and has high public interest. Programs have been developed to identify critical habitat, to increase production through captive breeding, and in recent years, to use sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) as surrogate parents in establishing new populations of wild whooping cranes. Only a few reports describing diseases and parasites in wild whooping cranes appear in the literature because opportunities to secure specimens are limited for this rare, protected bird (for review, see Carpenter and Derrickson, In Proc. International Crane Workshop of 1983, Bharatur, India, in press). Avian tuberculosis and concurrent salmonellosis in a wild whooping crane are described in this case report.

  4. Bayesian Source Attribution of Salmonellosis in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, K; Fearnley, E; Hocking, H; Raupach, J; Veitch, M; Ford, L; Kirk, M D

    2016-03-01

    Salmonellosis is a significant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, and rates of illness have increased over recent years. We adopt a Bayesian source attribution model to estimate the contribution of different animal reservoirs to illness due to Salmonella spp. in South Australia between 2000 and 2010, together with 95% credible intervals (CrI). We excluded known travel associated cases and those of rare subtypes (fewer than 20 human cases or fewer than 10 isolates from included sources over the 11-year period), and the remaining 76% of cases were classified as sporadic or outbreak associated. Source-related parameters were included to allow for different handling and consumption practices. We attributed 35% (95% CrI: 20-49) of sporadic cases to chicken meat and 37% (95% CrI: 23-53) of sporadic cases to eggs. Of outbreak-related cases, 33% (95% CrI: 20-62) were attributed to chicken meat and 59% (95% CrI: 29-75) to eggs. A comparison of alternative model assumptions indicated that biases due to possible clustering of samples from sources had relatively minor effects on these estimates. Analysis of source-related parameters showed higher risk of illness from contaminated eggs than from contaminated chicken meat, suggesting that consumption and handling practices potentially play a bigger role in illness due to eggs, considering low Salmonella prevalence on eggs. Our results strengthen the evidence that eggs and chicken meat are important vehicles for salmonellosis in South Australia. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Source Attribution of Human Salmonellosis: An Overview of Methods and Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Vieira, Antonio R.; Hald, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the burden of foodborne salmonellosis is challenging. It requires identification of the most important food sources causing disease and prioritization of effective intervention strategies. For this purpose, a variety of methods to estimate the relative contribution of different sources...... not attribute salmonellosis to produce, outbreak data in several countries suggest that exposure to raw vegetables is also an important source. International travel was also a consistently important exposure in several studies. Still, the relative contribution of specific sources to human salmonellosis varied...... substantially between studies. Although differences in data inputs, methods, and the point in the food system where attribution was estimated contribute to variability between studies, observed differences also suggest regional differences in the epidemiology of salmonellosis....

  6. Avian wildlife mortality events due to salmonellosis in the United States, 1985-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A.J.; Saito, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella spp. has long been recognized in avian wildlife, although its significance in causing avian mortality, and its zoonotic risk, is not well understood. This study evaluates the role of Salmonella spp. in wild bird mortality events in the United States from 1985 through 2004. Analyses were performed to calculate the frequency of these events and the proportional mortality by species, year, month, state, and region. Salmonellosis was a significant contributor to mortality in many species of birds; particularly in passerines, for which 21.5% of all mortality events involved salmonellosis. The proportional mortality averaged a 12% annual increase over the 20-yr period, with seasonal peaks in January and April. Increased salmonellosis-related mortality in New England, Southeastern, and Mountain-Prairie states was identified. Based on the results of this study, salmonellosis can be considered an important zoonotic disease of wild birds. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable...

  8. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  9. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  10. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthirathne, Thilini Piushani; Ross, Kirstin; Fallowfield, Howard; Whiley, Harriet

    2017-03-22

    Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  11. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  12. [Reptile-associated salmonellosis as an important epidemiological problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Aleksandra

    2014-11-17

    of food poisoning. One of the reservoirs of Salmonella are reptiles, which are increasingly kept as pets. Most reptiles are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella. These strains, isolated from reptiles, can cause serious infections, especially in infants, young children and people with immunodeficiencies. The disease called reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) may manifest with bloody diarrhea, meningitis, and arthritis, and consequently can cause bacteremia and sepsis. Among the strains described in the literature, Salmonella strains possessing the O48 antigen are an important group. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella O48 contains sialic acid (NeuAc) in an O-specific-chain. LPS containing NeuAc exhibits antigenic similarity to antigens found in the human body, including blood serum, and therefore is correlated with the occurrence of the dangerous phenomenon of molecular mimicry. Bacteria containing NeuAc in their outer structures can evade the immunological response of the host, which significantly increases their virulence. Most data about RAS come from the USA, but in recent years cases from European countries are more frequent in the literature. Unfortunately, the occurrence of RAS in Poland has not been monitored so far. There is also no campaign to inform the public about the health risks connected with contact of people with reptiles.

  13. Risk factors for invasive reptile-associated salmonellosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M; Relly, Christa; Hug, Martina; Wittenbrink, Max M; Berger, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) in children has been reported primarily due to direct contact with turtles, but recently also due to indirect contact with more exotic reptiles, causing disease in infants. To evaluate risk factors for RAS, we reviewed the RAS cases published in the literature since 1965. A case was defined as a child ≤18 years of age with an epidemiological link by identification of Salmonella enterica in cultures from both the affected child and the exposed reptile. We identified a total of 177 otherwise healthy children (median age 1.0 years, range 2 days to 17.0 years). RAS manifested mainly with gastrointestinal disease, but 15% presented with invasive RAS, including septicemia, meningitis, and bone and joint infection. The children with invasive RAS were significantly younger than children with noninvasive disease (median age 0.17 and 2.0 years, preptiles other than turtles, including iguanas, bearded dragons, snakes, chameleons, and geckos. Children exposed to those latter reptiles usually kept indoors were younger than children exposed to turtles mostly kept outdoors (preptiles, other than turtles, kept indoors is associated with RAS at younger age and more invasive disease. This finding is helpful for recognizing or even preventing invasive RAS in young infants that are at highest risk.

  14. A Bayesian approach to quantify the contribution of animal-food sources to human salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Vose, D.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2004-01-01

    Based on the data from the integrated Danish Salmonella surveillance in 1999, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each of the major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. The model was set up to calculate the number of domestic and sporadic cases caused...... salmonellosis was also included. The joint posterior distribution was estimated by fitting the model to the reported number of domestic and sporadic cases per Salmonella type in a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The number of domestic and sporadic cases was obtained by subtracting...... sources to human salmonellosis has proved to be a valuable tool in risk management in Denmark and provides an example of how to integrate quantitative risk assessment and zoonotic disease surveillance....

  15. Source attribution of human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosos using a systematic review of studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    . Identifying the most important sources of human disease is essential for prioritizing food safety interventions and setting public health goals. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic infections of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis have been published. These studies investigate a variety of potential...... or statistical analysis of data, and conclusions. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for human sporadic salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, we performed a SR of case-control studies and meta-analysis of the obtained results. From 1,295 identified references, 132 passed...... the relevance screening, 73 passed the quality assessment stage, and data was extracted from 72. Of these studies, 34 investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis and 37 focused on campylobacteriosis. Heterogeneity between the studies and possible sources of bias were assessed. Information on exposures...

  16. Climate change, extreme events and increased risk of salmonellosis in Maryland, USA: Evidence for coastal vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengsheng; Shaw, Kristi S; Upperman, Crystal R; Blythe, David; Mitchell, Clifford; Murtugudde, Raghu; Sapkota, Amy R; Sapkota, Amir

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Patterns of salmonellosis have been linked to weather events. However, there is a dearth of data regarding the association between extreme events and risk of salmonellosis, and how this risk may disproportionately impact coastal communities. We obtained Salmonella case data from the Maryland Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (2002-2012), and weather data from the National Climatic Data Center (1960-2012). We developed exposure metrics related to extreme temperature and precipitation events using a 30 year baseline (1960-1989) and linked them with county-level salmonellosis data. Data were analyzed using negative binomial Generalized Estimating Equations. We observed a 4.1% increase in salmonellosis risk associated with a 1 unit increase in extreme temperature events (incidence rate ratio (IRR):1.041; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.013-1.069). This increase in risk was more pronounced in coastal versus non-coastal areas (5.1% vs 1.5%). Likewise, we observed a 5.6% increase in salmonellosis risk (IRR:1.056; CI:1.035-1.078) associated with a 1 unit increase in extreme precipitation events, with the impact disproportionately felt in coastal areas (7.1% vs 3.6%). To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence showing that extreme temperature/precipitation events-that are expected to be more frequent and intense in coming decades-are disproportionately impacting coastal communities with regard to salmonellosis. Adaptation strategies need to account for this differential burden, particularly in light of ever increasing coastal populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    to the responsible sources, compare methods and results, and make recommendations on which approach to choose to answer specific risk management questions. The work is based on six manuscripts. In the first manuscript, concepts and terminology on source attribution are presented, and the remaining manuscripts...... investigating risk factors for human salmonellosis and 37 focusing on campylobacteriosis. We estimated that eating undercooked chicken, travelling abroad and eating raw eggs are the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, whereas travelling abroad, daily contact with a pet and eating undercooked chicken...

  18. Child morbidity of salmonellosis and the level of resistance of clinical isolates of salmonella to antibacterial preparations in saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to study the dynamics of the incidence of salmonellosis children in St. Petersburg and phenotypic resistance of clinical isolates of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium to antibiotics in recent years. Materials and methods. The incidence of salmonellosis children studied according to the report for the first nine months of Rospotrebnadzor in 2013–2014. Incidence of salmonellosis in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections caused by pathogens in children hospitalized in the Department of intestinal infections in 2013–2014, studied according to annual reports. Antibiotic sensitivity was studied 86 Salmonella isolates (S. Enteritidis strain 64 and strain 22 S. Typhimurium, isolated from patients in children 2010–2014. Used the method of serial microdilution broth. Salmonella isolates were divided into sensitive, resistant, intermediate sensitivity to antibiotics. The Results. Analysis of the incidence of salmonellosis children of St. Petersburg has revealed its decline in 2014 (109.2 compared to 2013 (123,9 but relatively long-term average level was an increase in incidence (107,6. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. In hospitalized children in the structure of bacterial intestinal infections detected Excess of share of salmonellosis in 2014 (36,9±3,4% compared to 2013 (24,5±2,4%; p <0,01. A reduction in the frequency sensitivity of S. Enteritidis to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime and chloramphenicol. Compared to S. Enteritidis S. Typhimurium isolates were more resistant to ceftazidime and ampicillin, but more sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion. Morbidity of salmonellosis in recent years characterized by a relatively long-term average increase of the level. In the structure of salmonellosis in children prevailed salmonellosis Group D. There was a reduction of sensitivity S. Enteritidis isolates to cephalosporins new generations, and S. Typhimurium isolates

  19. Dissemination of clonal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates causing salmonellosis in Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, M. I.; Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Ramsamy, Veemala D.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is one of the leading causes of salmonellosis in Mauritius, where it has also been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. However, little is known about its molecular epidemiology in the country. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate...

  20. Control of a Non-foodborne Outbreak of Salmonellosis: Day Care in Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorba, Terence, L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    In this study of a salmonellosis outbreak at a day care center an analysis of five variables revealed that the disease was transferred person to person or by a continuing common source. Successful preventive measures included instruction in proper handwashing and diaper changing procedures and isolation of the infected children. (VM)

  1. Outbreak of Salmonellosis associated with beef jerky--New Mexico, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-27

    In February 1995, the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) was notified of cases of salmonellosis in two persons who had eaten beef jerky. An investigation by the New Mexico Environment Department determined that these cases were associated with beef jerky processed at a local plant. An investigation by NMDOH identified 91 additional cases. This report summarizes the investigation of this outbreak.

  2. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM LEVELS OF CYTOKINES AND TOTAL IgE IN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT AGE WITH SALMONELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Zheleznikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The serum levels of cytokines and total IgE in 113 children with salmonellosis were tested in ELISA. It was established, that severe course of infection in chidren up to 4 years of age is associated with low level of IL-10, and after 4 years of age with IFNγ deficit. Low level of total IgE is the marker of severe salmonellosis too, particularly in children up to 4 years of age.

  3. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, John B; Knox, Kimberly; Harris, Maureen; Newstein, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.

  4. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Fournier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.

  5. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    , although they vary to some extent in order of importance. The forth approach applied for source attribution of human foodborne disease was an analysis of data from outbreak investigations. The method used data from investigations of Salmonella and Campylobacter outbreaks reported in European countries......, and analysis of data from outbreak investigations. All methods present advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of each depends on the public health questions being addressed. The overall aim of this thesis was to apply different approaches to attribute human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis...... present the source attribution approaches applied to Salmonella and Campylobacter. The methods were applied to different populations and time periods, and different models attributed illness in Denmark, in Europe or globally. Two microbial subtyping approaches were applied to attribute human salmonellosis...

  6. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, John B.; Knox, Kimberly; Harris, Maureen; Newstein, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region. PMID:25821613

  7. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    in 2005 and 2006, provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Reporting of the causative vehicles of outbreaks was not harmonized between and within countries, and therefore we organized the implicated foods in mutually exclusive food categories based on the implicated simple foods (i.e. foods......Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important...... availability, in the coverage of surveillance systems, in the subtypes causing reported disease, and in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in each country. A comparative exposure assessment approach was applied to attribute human salmonellosis in Denmark. The model investigated exposure through 25 foodborne...

  8. [Burden of salmonellosis and shigellosis in four departments of Guatemala, 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sheilee L; Jarquin, Claudia; Morales, Ana Judith; Morales, Melissa; Valenzuela, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Estimate the burden of disease from Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in four departments of Guatemala in 2010. Burden of disease study based on document analysis of published population surveys, laboratory files, and surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (SIGSA) in four departments of Guatemala: Huehuetenango, Jutiapa, Quetzaltenango, and Santa Rosa, in 2010. Information was supplemented by a laboratory survey. Burden of disease was estimated using methodology adapted by the World Health Organization from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance data yielded 72 salmonellosis and 172 shigellosis cases. According to population surveys, the percentage of the population that consults health services for diarrhea is 64.7% (95% CI: 60.6%-68.7%) in Quetzaltenango and 61.0% (95% CI: 56.0%-66.0%) in Santa Rosa. In the 115 laboratories that answered the survey (72.8% response rate), 6 051 suspected samples were collected for stool culture and 3 290 for hemoculture; 39.4% and 100.0% of them were processed, respectively. In all, 85 Salmonella spp. and 113 Shigella spp. strains were isolated. For each reported case of salmonellosis and shigellosis, it was estimated that 40 cases are not reported in Quetzaltenango, 55 in Huehuetenango, 345 in Santa Rosa, and 466 in Jutiapa. Estimated burden of disease ranged from 5 to 2 230 cases per 100 000 population for salmonellosis and from 60 to 1 195 cases per 100 000 population for shigellosis. Salmonellosis and shigellosis are a major public health problem in the departments studied and in Guatemala. Burden of disease from these pathogens is higher than that reported by SIGSA.

  9. Estimating the true incidence of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in the European Union, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, A. H.; Ivarsson, S.; Lofdahl, M.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the true incidence of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in the European Union (EU) in 2009. The estimate was based on disease risks of returning Swedish travellers, averaged over the years 2005-2009, and anchored to a Dutch population-based study on incidence and aetiology of gast...... and 11 800/100 000 population and was significantly correlated with the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in laying hens....

  10. Investigating a large outbreak of salmonellosis in the US involving fresh produce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M. A.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Fresh produce is an important part of a healthy diet. However, produce is susceptible to contamination with pathogens. Identifying the food vehicle responsible for an outbreak is critical to minimizing the public health and economic impacts of an outbreak. Identifying the food vehicle and its sou...... source may also help prevent future outbreaks. The case study describes an especially challenging investigation of an outbreak of salmonellosis that occurred in the US in 2008....

  11. Climate variations and salmonellosis in northwest Russia: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grjibovski, A M; Bushueva, V; Boltenkov, V P; Buzinov, R V; Degteva, G N; Yurasova, E D; Nurse, J

    2013-02-01

    Associations between monthly counts of all laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis in Arkhangelsk, northern Russia, from 1992 to 2008 and climatic variables with lags 0-2 were studied by three different models. We observed a linear association between the number of cases of salmonellosis and mean monthly temperature with a lag of 1 month across the whole range of temperatures. An increase of 1 °C was associated with a 2·04% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·25-3·84], 1·84% (95% CI 0·06-3·63) and 2·32% (95% CI 0·38-4·27) increase in different models. Only one of the three models suggested an increase in the number of cases, by 0·24% (95% CI 0·02-0·46) with an increase in precipitation by 1 mm in the same month. Higher temperatures were associated with higher monthly counts of salmonellosis while the association with precipitation was less certain. The results may have implications for the future patterns of enteric infections in northern areas related to climate change.

  12. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in the smallholder pig value chains in urban of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Unger, Fred; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Grace, Delia; Tran-Thi, Ngan; Barot, Max; Pham-Thi, Ngoc; Makita, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    To quantify salmonellosis risk in humans through consumption of boiled pork in urban Hung Yen Province, Vietnam, using a quantitative microbial risk assessment. We collected 302 samples along the pork value chain in Hung Yen between April 2014 and February 2015. We developed a model in @Risk, based on microbiological, market, and household surveys on cooking, cross-contamination and consumption, and conducted sensitivity analysis. Salmonella prevalence of pen floor swabs, slaughterhouse carcasses and cut pork were 33.3, 41.7 and 44.4%, respectively. The annual incidence rate of salmonellosis in humans was estimated to be 17.7% (90% CI 0.89-45.96). Parameters with the greatest influence risk were household pork handling practice followed by prevalence in pork sold in the central market. Wide confidence interval in the incidence estimate was mainly due to the variability in the degree of reduction in bacteria concentration by cooking, and pork consumption pattern. The risk of salmonellosis in humans due to boiled pork consumption appears to be high. Control measures may include improving the safety of retailed pork and improving household hygiene.

  13. Salmonellosis and Related Risk Factors in Broiler Flocks in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of foodborne pathogens is essential to control infectious diseases; Salmonella spp. is referred to as the most common causative agent of foodborne illnesses. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in broiler flocks in Mazandaran province, north of Iran and find the potential risk factors including: age, size of flock, strain, season, vaccination program and use of antibiotics. Materials and Methods: From March 2012 to December 2013, a total of 50 flocks were selected in slaughterhouse and 20 cloacal samples were collected from each flock. Every five samples were pooled and investigated for Salmonella spp. using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Thirteen flocks out of 50 (26% were positive for Salmonella species. Chances of Salmonella spp. detection was higher in flocks with lower age (P = 0.41. Increasing flock population was associated with increased chance of Salmonella spp. isolation (P = 0.21. The risk of salmonellosis in broiler flocks was increased when no antibiotics were given to day-old chicks. There was no significant difference (P = 0.30 in the prevalence of salmonellosis among different broiler strains. Conclusions: In the current study, six risk factors were assessed for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler flocks. Some of these factors contributed to the risk of salmonellosis in broiler flocks.

  14. A multi-country approach for attributing human salmonellosis to animal reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo

    in order to extrapolate results to countries with less data availability, as a first step to perform source attribution of Salmonella in a more global perspective. Cases of foodborne salmonellosis in humans were attributed to travel, outbreaks and four animal reservoirs, namely pigs, broilers, turkeys...... estimated to be the most important source of human salmonellosis at EU level, with 48.1% (95% Credibility Interval (CI) 47.5 – 48.8%) of cases, followed by pigs (29.6%, 95% CI 28.9-30.3%). Turkeys and broilers were estimated to be less important sources of Salmonella, contributing with 4.4% (95% CI 4...... attributed to laying hens, 56.9% of cases attributed to broilers, 30.4% of turkeys and 28.3% of cases attributed to pigs, for which the main serovar was S. Typhimurium (63.1% of cases attributed to this source). Country-specific results show laying hens as the most important source of salmonellosis in 13...

  15. Epidemiological evidence that garden birds are a source of human salmonellosis in England and Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available The importance of wild bird populations as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens is well established. Salmonellosis is a frequently diagnosed infectious cause of mortality of garden birds in England and Wales, predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage types 40, 56(v and 160. In Britain, these phage types are considered highly host-adapted with a high degree of genetic similarity amongst isolates, and in some instances are clonal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, however, demonstrated minimal variation amongst matched DT40 and DT56(v isolates derived from passerine and human incidents of salmonellosis across England in 2000-2007. Also, during the period 1993-2012, similar temporal and spatial trends of infection with these S. Typhimurium phage types occurred in both the British garden bird and human populations; 1.6% of all S. Typhimurium (0.2% of all Salmonella isolates from humans in England and Wales over the period 2000-2010. These findings support the hypothesis that garden birds act as the primary reservoir of infection for these zoonotic bacteria. Most passerine salmonellosis outbreaks identified occurred at and around feeding stations, which are likely sites of public exposure to sick or dead garden birds and their faeces. We, therefore, advise the public to practise routine personal hygiene measures when feeding wild birds and especially when handling sick wild birds.

  16. Salmonellosis in garden birds in Scotland, 1995 to 2008: geographic region, Salmonella enterica phage type and bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycott, T W; Mather, H A; Bennett, G; Foster, G

    2010-04-03

    Salmonellosis was diagnosed in garden birds from 198 incidents in Scotland between September 1995 and August 2008. Salmonellosis was essentially a disease of finches in the north of Scotland, but in the south of Scotland it was also a problem in house sparrows. Almost all of the incidents were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium phage types 40 or 56/variant, but regional variation in phage types was observed. In the north of Scotland, one phage type (DT 40) predominated, but in the south of Scotland two phage types were commonly isolated (DTs 40 and 56/variant, with the latter the more common of the two phage types). This regional difference was statistically significant for salmonellosis in greenfinches, chaffinches and 'other garden birds', but not for house sparrows. Different temporal patterns for different species of bird and different phage types were also observed within regions. These findings suggest that the epidemiology of salmonellosis in garden birds varies depending on the phage type of Salmonella and the species of garden bird, with additional regional differences depending on the wild bird populations and the phage types of Salmonella in circulation. An awareness of these differences will help when formulating guidelines aimed at reducing the impact of salmonellosis in garden birds.

  17. Human and animal salmonellosis in Scotland associated with environmental contamination, 1973-79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, W.J.; Forbes, G.I.; Paterson, G.M.; Sharp, J.C.

    1981-06-27

    Twenty-six incidents of salmonellosis occurring in Scotland between 1973 and 1979 and attributed to environmental pollution are reviewed. The apparent sources of pollution were sewage effluent (10 incidents), septic tank effluent (eight), sewage sludge (three), seagulls (three) and abattoir effluents (two). Cattle were the species predominantly affected. Human infection was primary in three incidents and was secondary to bovine infection in another four. Thirteen salmonella serotypes were recovered from infected humans or animals and 17 during related environmental investigations. The factors causing pollutions and possible control measures are discussed.

  18. Occurrence of swine salmonellosis in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs concurrently infected with porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Tomohide; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ito, Noriko; Nakane, Takashi

    2006-04-01

    Fourteen diseased pigs from four farms in which there had been an outbreak of salmonellosis were investigated. Granulomatous inflammation with depletion of lymphocytes was observed in the swollen lymph nodes in these pigs. Antigens to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were immunolabeled in the lesions along with detection of viral DNA as PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, antigens to porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were immunodetected in the lungs and Salmonella Choleraesuis was isolated from the affected pigs. The nine salmonellosis affected pigs, five (55.6%) with salmonellosis and PMWS concurrently infected with PRRSV were much higher than those infected with salmonellosis and PMWS (22.2%) or with salmonellosis and PPPRV (22.2%).

  19. What does the food handler in the home know about salmonellosis and food safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charmaine; Gauci, Andrew Amato

    2005-05-01

    Food-borne illness causes a significant burden of disease globally. The majority of confirmed cases of food-borne illness in Malta are caused by salmonellosis. Detailed case investigations by the Disease Surveillance Unit, Malta, revealed that most of the notified cases of infectious intestinal disease are most likely to be due to poor food safety practices in the home. Consumer awareness studies have shown that, in general, consumers are aware of the recommended food safety precautions, yet still adopt high-risk behaviours. Three focus groups and a small case control group were formed to gather information on local consumer knowledge and attitudes towards safe food handling in the home. The responses from the three focus groups were analysed and grouped into general themes. The information obtained from these results was then used to plan a local food safety health promotion strategy. The results show that individuals who had been exposed to salmonellosis, or who had a dependant who had been exposed, had developed a higher level of food safety knowledge and awareness. Variations between knowledge and self-reported practices make it apparent that persons have to be convinced that food safety measures are effective before they take action to change their behaviour. In conclusion, consumer education strategies need to emphasise the burden of illness, making safe food handling meaningful to consumers. Continuous reinforcement of the messages may be effective in empowering the consumer to foster behaviour change.

  20. Outbreaks of salmonellosis in Minnesota (1998 through 2006) associated with frozen, microwaveable, breaded, stuffed chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk E; Medus, Carlota; Meyer, Stephanie D; Boxrud, David J; Leano, Fe; Hedberg, Craig W; Elfering, Kevin; Braymen, Craig; Bender, Jeffrey B; Danila, Richard N

    2008-10-01

    From 1998 through 2006, four outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with raw, frozen, microwaveable, breaded, prebrowned, stuffed chicken products were identified in Minnesota. In 1998, 33 Salmonella Typhimurium cases were associated with a single brand of Chicken Kiev. In 2005, four Salmonella Heidelberg cases were associated with a different brand and variety (Chicken Broccoli and Cheese). From 2005 to 2006, 27 Salmonella Enteritidis cases were associated with multiple varieties of product, predominately of the same brand involved in the 1998 outbreak. In 2006, three Salmonella Typhimurium cases were associated with the same brand of product involved in the 2005 Salmonella Heidelberg outbreak. The outbreak serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtype of Salmonella were isolated from product in each outbreak. In these outbreaks, most individuals affected thought that the product was precooked due to its breaded and prebrowned nature, most used a microwave oven, most did not follow package cooking instructions, and none took the internal temperature of the cooked product. Similar to previous salmonellosis outbreaks associated with raw, breaded chicken nuggets or strips in Canada and Australia, inadequate labeling, consumer responses to labeling, and microwave cooking were the key factors in the occurrence of these outbreaks. Modification of labels, verification of cooking instructions by the manufacturer, and notifications to alert the public that these products contain raw poultry, implemented because of the first two outbreaks, did not prevent the other outbreaks. Microwave cooking is not recommended as a preparation method for these types of products, unless they are precooked or irradiated prior to sale.

  1. Salmonellosis associated with mass catering: a survey of European Union cases over a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, A; Aquilanti, L; Clementi, F

    2016-10-01

    Salmonella spp. is the causative agent of a foodborne disease called salmonellosis, which is the second most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection in the European Union (EU). Although over the years the annual number of cases of foodborne salmonellosis within the EU has decreased markedly, in 2014, a total of 88 715 confirmed cases were still reported by 28 EU Member States. The European Food Safety Authority reported that, after the household environment, the most frequent settings for the transmission of infection were catering services. As evidenced by the reviewed literature, which was published over the last 15 years (2000-2014), the most frequently reported causative agents were Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium serovars. These studies on outbreaks indicated the involvement of various facilities, including hospital restaurants, takeaways, ethnic restaurants, hotels, in-flight catering, one fast-food outlet and the restaurant of an amusement park. The most commonly reported sources of infection were eggs and/or egg-containing foods, followed by meat- and vegetable-based preparations. Epidemiological and microbiological studies allowed common risk factors to be identified, including the occurrence of cross-contamination between heat-treated foods and raw materials or improperly cleaned food-contact surfaces.

  2. Salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States due to fresh produce: sources and potential intervention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene B; Nutt, J D; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne Salmonella spp. is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States each year. Traditionally, most cases of salmonellosis were thought to originate from meat and poultry products. However, an increasing number of salmonellosis outbreaks are occurring as a result of contaminated produce. Several produce items specifically have been identified in outbreaks, and the ability of Salmonella to attach or internalize into vegetables and fruits may be factors that make these produce items more likely to be sources of Salmonella. In addition, environmental factors including contaminated water sources used to irrigate and wash produce crops have been implicated in a large number of outbreaks. Salmonella is carried by both domesticated and wild animals and can contaminate freshwater by direct or indirect contact. In some cases, direct contact of produce or seeds with contaminated manure or animal wastes can lead to contaminated crops. This review examines outbreaks of Salmonella due to contaminated produce, the potential sources of Salmonella, and possible control measures to prevent contamination of produce.

  3. Clinical features of human salmonellosis caused by bovine-associated subtypes in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Hoelzer, Karin; Root, Timothy P; Siler, Julie D; McGuire, Suzanne M; Wright, Emily M; Zansky, Shelley M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patient symptoms and case outcomes that were more likely to occur as a result of Salmonella infections caused by bovine-associated subtypes (isolates that matched contemporary bovine isolates from New York by serovar and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern), as compared to salmonellosis caused by non-bovine-associated subtypes. Data were collected in 34 counties of New York that comprise the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) catchment area of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program. Patients with specimen collection dates between March 1, 2008 and March 1, 2010 were included. Symptoms and outcomes of 40 cases infected with bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes were compared to those of 379 control-cases infected with Salmonella isolates that were not bovine-associated. Cases were significantly more likely to have invasive salmonellosis (odds ratio, 3.8; p-value=0.02), after adjusting for age group, gender, and race. In addition, there was a marginal association between case status and the presence of blood in the stool (p-value=0.1) while ill. These findings might have implications for patient management, as a history of consuming undercooked foods of bovine origin or having direct contact with cattle in the few days prior to illness could be useful for suggesting a more proactive diagnostic approach as well as close monitoring for the need to implement more aggressive therapy.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in the association between temperature and salmonellosis in NZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Hales, Simon; Kirk, Martyn; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P

    2016-04-01

    Modelling the relationship between weather, climate and infectious diseases can help identify high-risk periods and provide understanding of the determinants of longer-term trends. We provide a detailed examination of the non-linear and delayed association between temperature and salmonellosis in three New Zealand cities (Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch). Salmonella notifications were geocoded to the city of residence for the reported case. City-specific associations between weekly maximum temperature and the onset date for reported salmonella infections (1997-2007) were modelled using non-linear distributed lag models, while controlling for season and long-term trends. Relatively high temperatures were positively associated with infection risk in Auckland (n=3,073) and Christchurch (n=880), although the former showed evidence of a more immediate relationship with exposure to high temperatures. There was no significant association between temperature and salmonellosis risk in Wellington. Projected increases in temperature with climate change may have localised health impacts, suggesting that preventative measures will need to be region-specific. This evidence contributes to the increasing concern over the public health impacts of climate change. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Reptile-associated salmonellosis in children aged under 5 years in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dan; Oshin, Femi

    2015-04-01

    To determine the proportion of Salmonella cases in children aged reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) and to compare the severity of illness. To analyse all cases of salmonellosis reported to public health authorities in children aged under 5 years in the South West of the UK from January 2010 to December 2013 for reptile exposure, age, serotype, hospitalisation and invasive disease. 48 of 175 (27%) Salmonella cases had exposure to reptiles. The median age of RAS cases was significantly lower than non-RAS cases (0.5 vs 1.0 year). RAS cases were 2.5 times more likely to be hospitalised (23/48) compared with non-RAS cases (25/127; p=0.0002). This trend continued in cases aged under 12 months, with significantly more RAS cases hospitalised (19/38) than non-RAS cases (8/42; p=0.003). Significantly more RAS cases had invasive disease (8/48: 5 bacteraemia, 2 meningitis, 1 colitis) than non-RAS cases (4/127: 3 bacteraemia, 1 meningitis). Reptile exposure was found in over a quarter of all reported Salmonella cases in children under 5 years of age. RAS is associated with young age, hospitalisation and invasive disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Contribution of Avian Salmonella enterica Isolates to Human Salmonellosis Cases in Constantine (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgroud, Rachid; Granier, Sophie A.; Marault, Muriel; Kerouanton, Annaëlle; Lezzar, Abdesslem; Bouzitouna-Bentchouala, Chafia; Brisabois, Anne; Millemann, Yves

    2015-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation was carried out on one hundred Salmonella isolates from broiler farms, slaughterhouses, and human patients in the Constantine region of Algeria, in order to explore the contribution of avian strains to human salmonellosis cases in this region over the same period of time. The isolates were characterized by phenotypic as well as genotypic methods. A large variety of antimicrobial resistance profiles was found among human isolates, while only seven profiles were found among avian isolates. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR), Insertion Sequence 200-PCR (IS200-PCR), and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in the allocation of the isolates to 16, 20, and 34 different profiles, respectively. The 3 genotyping methods led to complementary results by underlining the clonality of some serovars with the diffusion and persistence of a single clone in the Constantine area as well as stressing the polymorphism present in isolates belonging to other serovars, indicating the diversity of potential reservoirs of nontyphoidal Salmonella. Altogether, our results seem to indicate that nontyphoidal avian Salmonella may play an important role in human salmonellosis in the Constantine region. PMID:26543858

  7. Contribution of Avian Salmonella enterica Isolates to Human Salmonellosis Cases in Constantine (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Elgroud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological investigation was carried out on one hundred Salmonella isolates from broiler farms, slaughterhouses, and human patients in the Constantine region of Algeria, in order to explore the contribution of avian strains to human salmonellosis cases in this region over the same period of time. The isolates were characterized by phenotypic as well as genotypic methods. A large variety of antimicrobial resistance profiles was found among human isolates, while only seven profiles were found among avian isolates. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR, Insertion Sequence 200-PCR (IS200-PCR, and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE resulted in the allocation of the isolates to 16, 20, and 34 different profiles, respectively. The 3 genotyping methods led to complementary results by underlining the clonality of some serovars with the diffusion and persistence of a single clone in the Constantine area as well as stressing the polymorphism present in isolates belonging to other serovars, indicating the diversity of potential reservoirs of nontyphoidal Salmonella. Altogether, our results seem to indicate that nontyphoidal avian Salmonella may play an important role in human salmonellosis in the Constantine region.

  8. 78 FR 42963 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ..., macaroni, and noodle products and dry blended foods in prevention of microbial and parasitic hazards... consumption, and recalls emphasize the need to assess the risk of salmonellosis associated with tree nuts... Control and Prevention). Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Enteritidis Infections Linked to Turkish...

  9. Avian Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial genus Salmonella is responsible for economically significant acute and chronic poultry diseases and is a leading public health threat via the contamination of poultry meat and eggs. Significant government and industry resources are invested in testing and control efforts to control Sal...

  10. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90% were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes. Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of

  11. Risk Factors for Human Salmonellosis Originating from Pigs, Cattle, Broiler Chickens and Egg Laying Hens: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  12. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important...... present the source attribution approaches applied to Salmonella and Campylobacter. The methods were applied to different populations and time periods, and different models attributed illness in Denmark, in Europe or globally. Two microbial subtyping approaches were applied to attribute human salmonellosis...... in 2005 and 2006, provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Reporting of the causative vehicles of outbreaks was not harmonized between and within countries, and therefore we organized the implicated foods in mutually exclusive food categories based on the implicated simple foods (i.e. foods...

  13. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    of case-control studies collected and analysed studies of sporadic campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis published throughout the world in the last two decades. The objective of the study was to identify the most important risk factors for the two diseases. Data was extracted from 71 studies, 34...... in 2005 and 2006, provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Reporting of the causative vehicles of outbreaks was not harmonized between and within countries, and therefore we organized the implicated foods in mutually exclusive food categories based on the implicated simple foods (i.e. foods...... recommendations on how to choose one or more source attribution methods to address different risk management problems. For this purpose, a “source attribution tool-box” based on the experiences from this PhD was developed....

  14. Contaminated roof-collected rainwater as a possible cause of an outbreak of salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplan, J P; Deen, R D; Swanston, W H; Tota, B

    1978-10-01

    Roof-collected rainwater is a common water source in subtropical regions and has not been associated with human illness. In Trinidad, the West Indies, a church group, attending a rural camp, developed gastrointestinal illness, caused by Salmonella arechevalata. This rare serotype was isolated from stool specimens of campers, foods eaten at the camp, and a water tap, which was supplied by a storage tank of roof-collected rainwater. The surface of the roof, used as water catchment, was covered with bird faeces. It is postulated that rainwater, falling on the roof, washed off animal excrement which contained S. arechevalata and led to the outbreak of salmonellosis through camper ingestion of contaminated food and water.

  15. Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Hessarek in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Roser; Porrero, M Concepción; Serrano, Emmanuel; Marco, Ignasi; García, María; Téllez, Sonia; Domínguez, Lucas; Aymí, Raül; Lavín, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We investigated two mortality events in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Catalonia, northeastern Spain in 2009 and 2010. Both episodes occurred in late February to mid-March during the spring migration. Salmonellosis produced by the serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Hessarek (S. Hessarek) was identified as the cause of death in both episodes. Poor body condition, marked splenomegaly, and microscopic disseminated intravascular coagulation with numerous intravascular and tissular bacteria were the most consistent findings. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for epidemiologic typing of the S. Hessarek isolates. Two clusters were discernible, that are possibly related, with a similarity of 82.8%. Analysis comparing pectoral muscle and subcutaneous fat scores from the Song Thrushes that died from S. Hessarek with those from healthy Song Thrushes from nearby areas during 2009 and 2010 suggest that poor body condition was associated with the S. Hessarek infection.

  16. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    sources of the pathogen and estimate the relative contribution of each source to the burden of human disease. A variety of methods to attribute human illness to specific sources is available, including microbial subtyping, comparative exposure assessment, analysis of studies of sporadic infections......, and analysis of data from outbreak investigations. All methods present advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of each depends on the public health questions being addressed. The overall aim of this thesis was to apply different approaches to attribute human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis...... to the responsible sources, compare methods and results, and make recommendations on which approach to choose to answer specific risk management questions. The work is based on six manuscripts. In the first manuscript, concepts and terminology on source attribution are presented, and the remaining manuscripts...

  17. Characterisation of a resource population of pigs screened for resistance to salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diemen, P M; Kreukniet, M B; Galina, L; Bumstead, N; Wallis, T S

    2002-09-25

    The degree of resistance to Salmonella choleraesuis infection in a reference family purposely bred to map resistance genes was assessed. Aspects of the innate and specific immune system were studied to find a parameter that might predict the resistance of pigs to salmonellosis. The family was bred from commercial full-sister pairs of F1-gilts and four boars. One boar (G398) was identified as breeding susceptible offspring, and one boar (G402) as breeding resistant offspring on the basis of pyrexial responses and numbers of Salmonella in liver and spleen post mortem. The other two boars were classified as 'possible resistant' (Y2008) and 'unknown' (Y6101) respectively. Functional differences in immune cells (neutrophils and lymphocytes) between the offspring of G398 and G402 were detected. The most resistant piglets had a higher number of circulating neutrophils and better polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) function, but a lower mitogenic response of lymphocytes both pre- and post-infection and a lower antibody response. Between the offspring groups of Y2008 and Y6101 no differences were found in the number of viable Salmonella in liver and spleen at post mortem or in immune cell function, however, the survival rate of these offspring groups was clearly different. Twenty three percent of the Y2008-offspring and 33% of the Y6101-offspring reached the predetermined humane clinical endpoint before the end of the experiment. Our findings suggest a role for several inherited immunological traits, including PMN function and lecithin-induced mitogenic proliferation, which appear to influence resistance to salmonellosis.

  18. Dissemination of clonal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates causing salmonellosis in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issack, Mohammad I; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Ramsamy, Veemala D; Svendsen, Christina A; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is one of the leading causes of salmonellosis in Mauritius, where it has also been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. However, little is known about its molecular epidemiology in the country. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the clonality and source of Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius by studying human, food, and poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration determination. Forty-nine isolates collected between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed, including 25 stool isolates from foodborne illness outbreaks and sporadic gastroenteritis cases, four blood isolates, one postmortem colon isolate, 14 food isolates, and five poultry isolates. All isolates were pansusceptible to the 16 antibiotics tested, except for two isolates that were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Overall characterization of the isolates by PFGE digested with XbaI and BlnI resulted in eight different patterns. The largest of the clusters in the composite dataset consisted of 20 isolates, including two raw chicken isolates, four poultry isolates, and nine human stool isolates from two outbreaks. A second cluster consisted of 18 isolates, of which 12 originated from human blood and stool samples from both sporadic and outbreak cases. Six food isolates were also found in this cluster, including isolates from raw and grilled chicken, marlin mousse, and cooked pork. One poultry isolate had a closely related PFGE pattern. The results indicate that one clone of Salmonella Typhimurium found in poultry has been causing outbreaks of foodborne illness in Mauritius and another clone that has caused many cases of gastrointestinal illness and bacteremia in humans could also be linked to poultry. Thus, poultry appears to be a major reservoir for Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius. Initiating on-farm control strategies and measures against future dissemination may

  19. Clinical Manifestations of Nontyphoid Salmonellosis in Children Younger than 2 Years Old—Experiences of a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fei Huang

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of nontyphoid salmonellosis are more severe in younger children <2 years of age than older children. Local susceptibility patterns could serve as a guide for the prescription of antibiotics by clinicians.

  20. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-08-25

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (corresponding to 11 cases) in 1988 to a maximum of 9.3% (93 cases) in 2013. There was a significant increasing trend in reptile-associated salmonellosis cases (+ 19% annually) and a shift towards adulthood in the age groups at highest risk, while the proportion of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases among those up to four years-old decreased by 4% annually and the proportion of cases aged 45 to 74 years increased by 20% annually. We hypothesise that these findings may be the effect of the increased number and variety of reptiles that are kept as pets, calling for further attention to the issue of safe reptile-human interaction and for reinforced hygiene recommendations for reptile owners. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  1. A Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Arising from the Consumption of Pecans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farakos, Sofia M Santillana; Pouillot, Régis; Johnson, Rhoma; Spungen, Judith; Son, Insook; Anderson, Nathan; Davidson, Gordon R; Doren, Jane M Van

    2017-09-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was conducted to assess the risk of human salmonellosis acquired from consumption of pecans in the United States. The model considered the potential for Salmonella survival, growth, and recontamination of pecans from the sheller to the consumer, including steps such as immersion in water, drying, conditioning, cracking, partitioning, and storage. Five theoretical microbial reduction treatment levels (1 to 5 log CFU) were modeled. Data from the 2010 to 2013 surveys by the National Pecan Shellers Association were used for initial prevalence and contamination levels. The impacts of atypical situations in the pecan production system were also evaluated. Higher initial contamination levels, recontamination during processing, and a delay in drying postconditioning were the modeled atypical situations. The baseline model predicted a mean risk of salmonellosis in the United States from consumption of in-shell and shelled pecans processed by cold conditioning with no microbial reduction treatment and no further home cooking as 1 case per 775,193 servings (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1 case per 1,915,709 to 178,253 servings). This predicted risk per serving was estimated as a mean of 529 cases of salmonellosis per year (95% CI: 213 to 2,295 cases). Hot conditioning for shelled pecans and microbial reduction treatment of both shelled and in-shell pecans had a significant impact on the predicted mean risk of illness. Assuming 77% of the shelled pecans sold at retail (i.e., 80% of the retail supply) received hot conditioning, the mean estimated salmonellosis cases per year from consumption of in-shell and shelled pecans uncooked at home was 203 (95% CI: 81 to 882 cases) if no additional microbial reduction treatment were applied. The predicted risk of illness per serving was higher for all atypical situations modeled compared with the baseline model, and delay in drying had the greatest impact on risk.

  2. Genetic control of resistance to salmonellosis and to Salmonella carrier-state in fowl: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignal Alain

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is a frequent disease in poultry stocks, caused by several serotypes of the bacterial species Salmonella enterica and sometimes transmitted to humans through the consumption of contaminated meat or eggs. Symptom-free carriers of the bacteria contribute greatly to the propagation of the disease in poultry stocks. So far, several candidate genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to carrier state or to acute disease have been identified using artificial infection of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis or S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains in diverse genetic backgrounds, with several different infection procedures and phenotypic assessment protocols. This diversity in experimental conditions has led to a complex sum of results, but allows a more complete description of the disease. Comparisons among studies show that genes controlling resistance to Salmonella differ according to the chicken line studied, the trait assessed and the chicken's age. The loci identified are located on 25 of the 38 chicken autosomal chromosomes. Some of these loci are clustered in several genomic regions, indicating the possibility of a common genetic control for different models. In particular, the genomic regions carrying the candidate genes TLR4 and SLC11A1, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and the QTL SAL1 are interesting for more in-depth studies. This article reviews the main Salmonella infection models and chicken lines studied under a historical perspective and then the candidate genes and QTL identified so far.

  3. An outbreak of salmonellosis associated with duck prosciutto at a Northern Territory restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Anthony Dk; Morton, Claire N; Heath, Joshua Ni; Lim, Justin A; Schiek, Anninka I; Davis, Stephanie; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2017-03-31

    In June 2015, an outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among people who had eaten at a restaurant in Darwin, Northern Territory over 2 consecutive nights. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of diners who ate at the restaurant on 19 and 20 June 2015. Diners were telephoned and a questionnaire recorded symptoms and menu items consumed. An outbreak case was defined as anyone with laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium PT9 (STm9) or a clinically compatible illness after eating at the restaurant. Environmental health officers inspected the premises and collected food samples. We contacted 79/83 of the cohort (response rate 95%); 21 were cases (attack rate 27%), and 9 had laboratory confirmed STm9 infection. The most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (100%), abdominal pain (95%), fever (95%) and nausea (95%). Fifteen people sought medical attention and 7 presented to hospital. The outbreak was most likely caused by consumption of duck prosciutto, which was consumed by all cases (OR 18.6, CI 3.0-∞, P < 0.01) and was prepared on site. Salmonella was not detected in any food samples but a standard plate count of 2 x 107 colony forming units per gram on samples of duck prosciutto demonstrated bacterial contamination. The restaurant used inappropriate methodology for curing the duck prosciutto. Restaurants should consider purchasing pre-made cured meats, or if preparing them on site, ensure that they adhere to safe methods of production.

  4. Salmonella-Typhimurium phage types from human salmonellosis in denmark 1988 to 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Gaarslev, K.

    1994-01-01

    A total of 989 isolates of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from cases of human salmonellosis were investigated by phage typing, The isolates comprised all isolates recovered during the month of August in each of the years from 1988 to 1993. Phage typing assigned 82.......6% of the strains to 36 different definitive types, 11.9% of the strains belonged to types of unknown lysis pattern (RDNC), and 5.5% could not be typed by the phages used (NT). Three phage types (12, 66 and 110) made up approximately 50% of the isolates in each of the years investigated. During the period...... in question these types showed major changes in prevalence: phage type 12 increased from 4.0% in 1988 to a maximum of 55.2% in 1992, and phage type 66 and phage type 110 were reduced from 40.1% and 27.8% to a minimum of 3.9% and 4.8% in 1993 and 1992, respectively. The increasing prevalence of phage type 12...

  5. Outbreack of salmonellosis after family party at locality of Puente Aranda, Bogota DC, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foodborne Diseases (FBD outbreaks occur every day worldwide, being salmonellosis their most common cause. On the epidemiologic week 44-2010, “Hospital del Sur ESE” received a notification on a FBD during a familiy gathering in a house of the Puente Aranda locality (Bogota – Colombia and executed an outbreak investigation to enforce control actions and to offer indications. Methods: Descriptive outbreak confirmation study of a probable FBD by Salmonella according to the symptoms and case definition. A house visit, exposed epidemiologic inquiry and stool cultures. Data were included and analysed with Epi-Info 3.5.1® using absolute, relative, central trend and dispersion measurements. Results: Of 28 people, 27 (96% ate the suspicious food – chicken rice; 2 (7,4% were hospitalized, 8 (29,8% needed attention at urgency ward. Attack rate was 59,3% for women, 40,4% for men; the most affected people by age was 1-4 year (18,8%; incubation period was 9 to 30 hours; all exposed suffered vomit, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and headaches; three stool samples were positive for Salmonella spp. Conclusions: A FBD by Salmonella spp. was confirmed; main source was –possibly- poor food manipulation and conservation. It is necessary to intensify information-education-communication actions related to food preparation, consumption and preservation.

  6. Antibacterial efficacy of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) an indigenous medicinal plant against experimental murine salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, M; Sharad, K S; Shehbaz, A; Saleemuddin, M

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of ashwagandha [Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae; root and leaves)], an Indian traditional medicinal plant against pathogenic bacteria. Both aqueous as well as alcoholic extracts of the plant (root as well as leaves) were found to possess strong antibacterial activity against a range of bacteria, as revealed by in vitro Agar Well Diffusion Method. The methanolic extract was further subfractionated using various solvents and the butanolic sub-fraction was found to possess maximum inhibitory activity against a spectrum of bacteria including Salmonella typhimurium. Moreover, in contrast to the synthetic antibiotic (viz. chloramphenicol), these extracts did not induce lysis on incubation with human erythrocytes, advocating their safety to the living cells. Finally, the antibacterial efficacy of the extracts isolated from plant (both root and leaves) was determined against experimental salmonellosis in Balb/C mice. Oral administration of the aqueous extracts successfully obliterated salmonella infection in Balb/C mice as revealed by increased survival rate as well as less bacterial load in various vital organs of the treated animals.

  7. Assessing interventions by quantitative risk assessment tools to reduce the risk of human salmonellosis from fresh minced pork meat in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Messens, W; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Van der Stede, Y; Daube, G

    2009-11-01

    The risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat in Belgium was assessed via a modular risk model covering pork meat production from lairage to human consumption. The main goal of the model was to give concrete options to reduce effectively the risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat. These options (scenarios) were elaborated with reference to the international situation and the literature to give concrete and realistic possibilities for improving the microbiological quality of pork meat and to reduce the number of human salmonellosis cases per year in Belgium. The model estimates 15,376 cases of human salmonellosis per year in Belgium due to the consumption of minced pork meat. The results of the scenarios showed that the risk of human salmonellosis could be significantly reduced by efforts all along the pork meat production chain but also by efforts made by consumers. The responsibility of food business operators for the pork meat production chain is high in relation to the microbiological quality of meat delivery, especially at the slaughterhouse. Consumers also need to be aware of good hygiene practices during preparation of the meat at home. Cross-contamination with raw food can be avoided by changing the habits and the behavior of the household cook. The results of these scenarios would be useful for the food business operators involved in the pork meat chain and for public health authorities.

  8. Bovine salmonellosis in Northeast of Iran: Frequency, genetic fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Hessam A.; Seifi, Hesam A.; Rad, Mehrnaz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate serovar and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp isolated from healthy, diseased and necropsied cows and calves in this observational study. Methods Nineteen isolates recovered from feces and tissues of salmonellosis-affected animals of two commercial farms in north-east of Iran. In second part of the study, the two farms were sampled 4 times with an interval of 2 month. The samples included calves' feces, adult cows' feces, feeds, water, milk filters, and milk fed to calves. Five Salmonella were isolated from 332 fecal samples collected from calves and peri-parturient cows. No Salmonella was recovered from water, feed, milk filers and milk fed to calves. Results Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequently isolate among all sero-groups. S. Dublin was only accounted for 8% (two out of 24) of isolates. Isolated Salmonella strains were used for the ERIC PCR DNA fingerprinting assay. Our results grouped Salmonella isolates into 3 clusters, suggesting that specific genotypes were responsible for each sero-group of Salmonella. The results also revealed diversity among Salmonella isolates in cluster III (sero-group B). Eighteen out of 19 Salmonella spp. were resistant to oxytetracycline. Five isolates out of 19 showed more than one drug resistance. Multi-drug resistance was seen only among Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Enrofloxacin was the most susceptible antibiotic against all isolates in this study. Conclusion The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhimurium should be of great concern to the public. No correlation between ERIC fingerprinting and resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates was found, which indicates resistance to antimicrobial agents was not related to specific genetic background. PMID:24144122

  9. Risk factors associated with sporadic salmonellosis in adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, D; Dreesman, J; Campe, A; Kreienbrock, L; Pulz, M

    2013-02-01

    In order to identify and assess recent risk factors for sporadic human infections with Salmonella enterica, we conducted a case-control study in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data collection was based on standardized telephone interviews with 1017 cases and 346 controls aged >14 years. Odds ratios were calculated in single-factor and multi-factor analyses for Salmonella cases and two different control groups, i.e. population controls and controls with rotavirus infection. Multi-factor analysis revealed associations between sporadic Salmonella infections for two exposures by both sets of controls: consumption of raw ground pork [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·27-4·44] and foreign travel (aOR 2·12, 95% CI 1·00-4·52). Other exposures included consumption of food items containing eggs (aOR 1·43, 95% CI 0·80-2·54), consumption of chicken meat (aOR 1·77, 95% CI 1·26-2·50), outdoor meals/barbecues (aOR 3·96, 95% CI 1·41-11·12) and taking gastric acidity inhibitors (aOR 2·42, 95% CI 1·19-4·92), all were significantly associated with respect to one of the two control groups. The impact of consuming food items containing eggs or chicken meat was lower than expected from the literature. This might be a consequence of Salmonella control programmes as well as increased public awareness of eggs and chicken products being a risk factor for salmonellosis. Efforts to reduce Salmonella infections due to raw pork products should be intensified.

  10. Salmonellosis outbreak due to chicken contact leading to a foodborne outbreak associated with infected delicatessen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedican, Erin; Miller, Ben; Ziemer, Brian; LeMaster, Pam; Jawahir, Selina; Leano, Fe; Smith, Kirk

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Starting in June 2007, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Montevideo cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns resulted in the identification of an outbreak associated with contact with chickens purchased from a single hatchery. Nine Minnesota cases from May through August 2007 were part of this outbreak. Cases with the outbreak PFGE pattern of Salmonella Montevideo continued to occur in Minnesota after August, but none of these cases reported chicken contact. The majority of these cases resided in the same town in rural Minnesota. Routine interviews revealed that all cases from these counties purchased groceries from the same local grocery store, with two specifically reporting consuming items from the grocery store delicatessen in the week before illness. As a result, an investigation into the delicatessen was initiated. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all delicatessen employees, and food and environmental samples were collected. None of the employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms, but the outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Montevideo was identified from stool from two food workers. Food and environmental samples collected tested negative for Salmonella. One of the positive employees reported having chickens at home, but the animals did not test positive for Salmonella. The positive food workers were excluded from work until they had two consecutive negative stool cultures for Salmonella. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission thereafter. This was an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections that began as an animal-contact-associated outbreak which subsequently resulted in a foodborne outbreak associated with infected food workers. These outbreaks illustrate the complex epidemiology of salmonellosis.

  11. Contributor factors for the occurrence of salmonellosis during preparation, storage and consumption of homemade mayonnaise salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Elias, Susana; Varela Tomasco, Paula; Ortiz Alvarenga, Verônica; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of practices adopted for preparation, storage and consumption of homemade mayonnaise salad (HMS) as contributor factors for the occurrence of salmonellosis. A total of 493 individuals answered a questionnaire composed of demographic and socioeconomic questions and, preparing, storage and consumption practices of HMS. The level of good hygiene practices (GHP) of respondents was calculated using Good Practice and Outbreak Prevention Indexes. The consumer behavior and the correlation between practices were performed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). 75% of respondents consume HMS, being 43% of interviewers doing this at least once per month. HMS was prepared from 30min to 1h before being served by 46% of individuals, it remaining for 30min to 1h at room temperature during the meal by 63% of people. Furthermore, 51% of respondents left the HMS container open or improperly closed, which may lead to cross-contamination. Most respondents (66%) stated reuse the HMS for less than one day (44%), at once (76%). 77% of participants declared that they prepare HMS, being only 7% preparing HMS without eggs. The majority (51%) used a cooked and a raw egg yolk. In addition, 75% of the cases showed raw eggs in recipe. The Weighted Good Practice Index, Weighted Outbreak Prevention Index and Weighted Harmonic Outbreak Prevention Index were 63%, 62% and 27% of participants, respectively. The MCA gathered the participants into two groups one commits various errors and other commits few errors on GHP. Thus, a consumer would probably perform multiple either good or bad practices simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outbreak of salmonellosis linked to live poultry from a mail-order hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffga, Nicholas H; Barton Behravesh, Casey; Ettestad, Paul J; Smelser, Chad B; Rhorer, Andrew R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Comstock, Nicole A; Bidol, Sally A; Patel, Nehal J; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Keene, William E; Gomez, Thomas M; Hopkins, Brett A; Sotir, Mark J; Angulo, Frederick J

    2012-05-31

    Outbreaks of human salmonella infections are increasingly associated with contact with live poultry, but effective control measures are elusive. In 2005, a cluster of human salmonella Montevideo infections with a rare pattern on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (the outbreak strain) was identified by PulseNet, a national subtyping network. In cooperation with public health and animal health agencies, we conducted multistate investigations involving patient interviews, trace-back investigations, and environmental testing at a mail-order hatchery linked to the outbreak in order to identify the source of infections and prevent additional illnesses. A case was defined as an infection with the outbreak strain between 2004 and 2011. From 2004 through 2011, we identified 316 cases in 43 states. The median age of the patient was 4 years. Interviews were completed with 156 patients (or their caretakers) (49%), and 36 of these patients (23%) were hospitalized. Among the 145 patients for whom information was available, 80 (55%) had bloody diarrhea. Information on contact with live young poultry was available for 159 patients, and 122 of these patients (77%) reported having such contact. A mail-order hatchery in the western United States was identified in 81% of the trace-back investigations, and the outbreak strain was isolated from samples collected at the hatchery. After interventions at the hatchery, the number of human infections declined, but transmission continued. We identified a prolonged multistate outbreak of salmonellosis, predominantly affecting young children and associated with contact with live young poultry from a mail-order hatchery. Interventions performed at the hatchery reduced, but did not eliminate, associated human infections, demonstrating the difficulty of eliminating salmonella transmission from live poultry.

  13. [Salmonellosis outbreaks and the size and role of the Chilean State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Alberto; Acosta, Gerardo; Dabanch, Jeannette; Perret, Cecilia; Torres, Marisa; López, Javier; Jofré, Leonor; Weitzel, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    During year 2011 two outbreaks of Salmonella infection captured media attention in the Metropolitan Area (MA) in Chile: one of typhoid fever associated to Salmonella serotype Typhi, and the other, of gastroenteritis related to Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, both with decreasing or stable rates in the previous years. The aim of this work is to analyze probable causes of their reemergence. Several government websites were searched looking for epidemiological data. Typhoid fever rates have declined to current values of 1 case per 100.000 habitants, a decreased associated to improvements in the human development index. The typhoid outbreak was associated to a predominant clone within the MA. The only risk factor identified was consumption of raw vegetables acquired in open fairs, but without identifying a common source. Despite improvements in disease notification and molecular epidemiology capabilities, this outbreak is coincidental with a reduced number of food inspection visits in the MA, probably explained by the limited personnel available for this task. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, rates have increased twice since 1998 (5.3 to 10.7 per 100.000 habitants) with an important increase in the number of outbreaks linked to this agent (7 to 31 annual outbreaks) since year 2005. Persistence of this problem is probably associated to the low surveillance of poultry farms made by the Chilean state, to the absence of a cold chain during collection, distribution and selling of eggs, and to the lack of an educational program directed to the population. The recent regulation that bans home-made mayonnaise in restaurant or fast food stores is an important advance that requires further evaluation. The persistence and reemergence of different kind of Salmonellosis in Chile suggests chronic problems on the size and role of the Chilean state regarding food safety.

  14. Ethnoveterinary application of Morinda citrifolia fruit puree on a commercial heifer rearing facility with endemic salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, V J; De Wolfe, T J; Paulus, T J; Xu, J; Cai, J; Keuler, N S; Godbee, R G; Peek, S F; McGuirk, S M; Darien, B J

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that Morinda citrifolia (noni) puree modulates neonatal calves developmental maturation of the innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, the effect of noni puree on respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI), health in preweaned dairy calves on a farm with endemic salmonellosis was examined. Two clinical trials were conducted whereby each trial evaluated one processing technique of noni puree. Trials 1 and 2 tested noni versions A and B, respectively. Puree analysis and trial methods were identical to each other, with the calf as the experimental unit. Calves were designated to 1 of 3 treatment groups in each trial and received either: 0, 15 or 30 mL every 12 hr of noni supplement for the first 3 weeks of life. Health scores, weaning age, weight gain from admission to weaning, and weaned by 6 weeks, were used as clinical endpoints for statistical analysis. In trial 1, calves supplemented with 15 mL noni puree of version A every 12 hr had a higher probability of being weaned by 6 weeks of age than control calves (P = 0.04). In trial 2, calves receiving 30 mL of version B every 12 hr had a 54.5% reduction in total medical treatments by 42 days of age when compared to controls (P = 0.02). There was a trend in reduced respiratory (61%), and GI (52%) medical treatments per calf when compared to controls (P = 0.06 and 0.08, respectively). There were no differences in weight gain or mortality for any treatment group in either trial.

  15. Highly suspected cases of salmonellosis in two cats fed with a commercial raw meat-based diet: health risks to animals and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Magarotto, Jacopo; Serraino, Andrea; Piva, Silvia

    2017-07-24

    Feeding raw meat-based diets (RMBD) to companion animals raises public health concerns for both animals and humans. While considerable attention has been paid to bacterial contamination of commercial pet food, few literature studies have investigated foodborne disease in companion animals. Salmonellosis is reported to be infrequent in cats but no known data or studies estimating feline salmonellosis are available or large-scale epidemiological studies assessing Salmonella risk factors. Two highly suspected cases of salmonellosis in two cats fed with a commercial frozen poultry RMBD are presented, for the first time from the same household. The clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and follow-up are reported and the zoonotic implications are discussed. This case highlights the health risks posed to both animals and owners by feeding RMBD to pets, and suggests that these risks should be considered by veterinary practitioners.

  16. THE USE OF THE SPECIFIC ANTI-SALMONELLA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM HEN EGGS, IN SALMONELLOSIS PROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The administration of increased doses of antibodies in groups experimentallyinfected with Salmonella gallinarum, in order to record the efficiency of theiradministration in salmonellosis prophylaxis was the aim of our research. When alow infection dose, 1x107 CFU Salmonella gallinarum, was used theadministration of IgY polyclonal antibodies as immunoglobulin extract, or evenyolk administration had a protective effect against germs invasion. This effect wasnot recorded when a 10 folds higher dose was administered (1x108 CFU. Theprophylactic effect of the administration of polyclonal antibodies is demonstrated.

  17. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2015-01-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period...... from 2007 to 2009, were mainly obtained from studies and reports published by the European Food Safety Authority. Availability of food sources for consumption was derived from trade and production data from the European Statistical Office. Results showed layers as the most important reservoir of human...

  18. Understanding the effects of intermittent shedding on the transmission of infectious diseases: example of salmonellosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahodny, Glenn E; Gautam, Raju; Ivanek, Renata

    2017-12-01

    A number of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases are characterized by intermittent infectiousness of infected hosts. However, it is unclear whether intermittent infectiousness must be explicitly accounted for in mathematical models for these diseases or if a simplified modelling approach is acceptable. To address this question we study the transmission of salmonellosis between penned pigs in a grower-finisher facility. The model considers indirect transmission, growth of free-living Salmonella within the environment, and environmental decontamination. The model is used to evaluate the role of intermittent fecal shedding by comparing the behaviour of the model with constant versus intermittent infectiousness. The basic reproduction number, [Formula: see text], is used to determine the long-term behaviour of the model regarding persistence or extinction of infection. The short-term behaviour of the model, relevant to swine production, is considered by examining the prevalence of infection at slaughter. Comparison of the two modelling approaches indicates that neglecting the intermittent pattern of infectiousness can result in biased estimates for [Formula: see text] and infection prevalence at slaughter. Therefore, models for salmonellosis or similar infections should explicitly account for the mechanism of intermittent infectiousness.

  19. Ensuring safety of home-produced eggs to control salmonellosis in Poland: lessons from an outbreak in September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielicka-Hardy, A; Zarowna, D; Szych, J; Madajczak, G; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-11-22

    Implementation of control measures in line with European Commission regulations has led to a decrease in salmonellosis in the European Union since 2004. However, control programmes do not address laying hens whose eggs are produced for personal consumption or local sale. This article reports an investigatxion of a salmonellosis outbreak linked to home-produced eggs following a family event held in a farm in September 2011 near Warsaw, Poland. In the outbreak, 34 people developed gastroenteritis symptoms. Results from a cohort study indicated a cake, prepared from raw home-produced eggs, as the vehicle of the outbreak. Laboratory analysis identified Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in stool samples or rectal swabs from 18 of 24 people and in two egg samples. As no food items remained, we used phage typing to link the source of the outbreak with the isolated strains. Seven S. Enteritidis strains analysed (five from attendees and two from eggs) were phage type 21c. Our findings resulted in culling of the infected laying hens and symptomatic pigeons housed next to the hens. Salmonella poses as a public health problem in Poland: control measures should not forget home-produced eggs, as there is a risk of infection from their consumption.

  20. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Knegt, L V; Pires, S M; Hald, T

    2015-04-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period from 2007 to 2009, were mainly obtained from studies and reports published by the European Food Safety Authority. Availability of food sources for consumption was derived from trade and production data from the European Statistical Office. Results showed layers as the most important reservoir of human salmonellosis in Europe, with 42·4% (7 903 000 cases, 95% credibility interval 4 181 000-14 510 000) of cases, 95·9% of which was caused by S. Enteritidis. In Finland and Sweden, most cases were travel-related, while in most other countries the main sources were related to the laying hen or pig reservoir, highlighting differences in the epidemiology of Salmonella, surveillance focus and eating habits across the European Union.

  1. The importance of an early alert from the Microbiology Laboratory and multidisciplinary collaboration during a suspected salmonellosis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Anesi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed food-borne diseases. The increasing complexity and globalization of the food industry are causing an increase of some of these large-scale food-borne illnesses, thus there is a need for improvements in public health signal detection and communication streams between laboratories and regulatory agencies. The aim of this study is to show how the early reporting of salmonellosis cases directly from the Laboratory of Microbiology to the Local Health Service Infectious Diseases Office along with the prompt response of the ASL, and the rapid involvement of the Local Veterinary Prevention Department resulted in an improved individuation and investigation of a suspected food-borne outbreak with anomalous manifestation. Materials and methods. From August to November 2014 the early warning from the Laboratory of Microbiology regarding Salmonella spp. isolates with the identical serogroup and antibiotic resistance phenotype, allowed for prompt identification of a food-borne infection. Results and conclusions. The genotyping analysis suggested that over the period considered there was more than a single monophasic Salmonella typhimurium isolate: one responsible for the sporadic cases that occurred in September and October, and another in November.

  2. Turmeric Bioprocessed with Mycelia from the Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Protects Mice Against Salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of an extract from bioprocessed Lentinus edodes mycelial liquid culture supplemented with turmeric (bioprocessed Curcuma longa extract [BPCLE]) against murine salmonellosis. The BPLCE extract from the bioprocessed mycelia of the Salmonella Typhimurium into murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, elimination of intracellular bacteria, and elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Dietary administration of BPCLE activated leukocytes from the mice infected with Salmonella through the intraperitoneal route. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cytokines produced by splenocytes from infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology showed that dietary administration of BPCLE protected against necrosis of the liver resulting from a sublethal dose of Salmonella. In addition, the treatment (1) extended the lifespan of lethally infected mice, (2) suppressed the invasion of Salmonella into human Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, (3) increased excretion of the bacterium in the feces, (4) suppressed the translocation of the Salmonella to internal organs, and (5) increased total immunoglobulin A in both serum and intestinal fluids. BPCLE protected the mice against salmonellosis via cooperative effects that include the upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction, prevention of translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelial cells, and increased immunoglobulin A production in serum and intestinal fluids.

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of On‐Farm and Abattoir Interventions in Reducing Pig Meat–Borne Salmonellosis within E.U. Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Andrew A.; Simons, Robin L.; Swart, Arno N.

    2016-01-01

    of the risk assessment was to assess the effectiveness of interventions implemented on‐farm and at the abattoir in reducing human cases of pig meat–borne salmonellosis, and how the effects of these interventions may vary across E.U. Member States. Two case study Member States have been chosen to assess...

  4. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Organic Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders Implicated in a Foodborne Salmonellosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber, Sandeep; Swist, Eleonora; Oudit, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of sprouted chia and flax seed powders, no data have been reported on their intrinsic physicochemical properties and background microflora. Here, we report the moisture content, water activity, pH, and fatty acid methyl ester and bacteriological profiles of 19 sprouted chia and flax seed samples, 10 of which were associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis in Canada and the United States. The physicochemical parameters of the Salmonella-positive samples did not differ significantly from those of the negative samples. However, the higher Enterobacteriaceae and coliform levels on the contaminated powders were associated with the presence of Salmonella. Enumeration of Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN) method revealed concentrations ranging from 1 MPN per 3 g of powder to 1 MPN per 556 g of powder. The results of this study demonstrate that low numbers of Salmonella may be linked to foodborne outbreaks.

  5. Evaluation of underreporting of salmonellosis and shigellosis hospitalised cases in Greece, 2011: results of a capture-recapture study and a hospital registry review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonellosis and shigellosis are mandatorily notifiable diseases in Greece. Underreporting of both diseases has been postulated but there has not been any national study to quantify it. The objective of this study was to: a) estimate underreporting of hospitalised cases at public Greek hospitals in 2011 with a capture-recapture (C-RC) study, b) evaluate the accuracy of this estimation, c) investigate the possible impact of specific factors on notification rates, and d) estimate community incidence of both diseases. Methods The mandatory notification system database and the database of the National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella and Shigella (NRLSS) were used in the C-RC study. The estimated total number of cases was compared with the actual number found by using the hospital records of the microbiological laboratories. Underreporting was also estimated by patients’ age-group, sex, type of hospital, region and month of notification. Assessment of the community incidence was based on the extrapolation of the hospitalisation rate of the diseases in Europe. Results The estimated underreporting of salmonellosis and shigellosis cases through the C-RC study was 47.7% and 52.0%, respectively. The reporting rate of salmonellosis significantly varied between the thirteen regions of the country from 8.3% to 95.6% (median: 28.4%). Age and sex were not related to the probability of reporting. The notification rate did not significantly differ between urban and rural areas, however, large university hospitals had a higher underreporting rate than district hospitals (p-value salmonellosis and 58.4% for shigellosis. The predicted community incidence of salmonellosis ranged from 312 to 936 and of shigellosis from 35 to 104 cases per 100,000 population. Conclusions Underreporting was higher than that reported by other countries and factors associated with underreporting should be further explored. C-RC analysis seems to be a useful tool for the assessment of the

  6. Safety and protective effectiveness of two strains of Lactobacillus with probiotic features in an experimental model of salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Raphael S; Silva, Lilian C S; Souza, Tássia C; Lima, Maurício T; de Oliveira, Nayara L G; Vieira, Leda Q; Arantes, Rosa M E; Miyoshi, Anderson; Nicoli, Jacques R; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Alvaro C

    2014-08-26

    Two strains of Lactobacillus, previously isolated from bovine faeces and tested in vitro for properties desired in probiotics, were evaluated for their in vivo effectiveness in protecting against experimental salmonellosis. L. salivarius L38 and L. acidophilus L36 previously demonstrated the ability to successfully colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice and stimulate the immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa. L38- or L36-feeding showed no detrimental effect on the general health indicators and did not induce changes in normal architecture of liver and small intestine, indicating that the use of these strains is apparently safe. In control animals fed L38 strain, several cytokines had augmented mRNA levels that can be associated with a homeostatic state of intestinal mucosa, while L36 had less diverse regulation. IgA production and secretion in the intestinal lumen induced by infection was abrogated by pretreating with both lactobacilli. In addition, liver and small intestine histological scores and, translocation of Salmonella cells to liver and spleen, indicated that these strains did not confer protection against the infection. So, the IL-12:IL-18àIFN-g axis, essential for an effective immune response against Salmonella, was not favored with L38 or L36 strains. However, increased expression of IL-10 in different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of L38-fed animals is indicative of anti-inflammatory effect to be explored furthermore.

  7. Safety and Protective Effectiveness of Two Strains of Lactobacillus with Probiotic Features in an Experimental Model of Salmonellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael S. Steinberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Lactobacillus, previously isolated from bovine faeces and tested in vitro for properties desired in probiotics, were evaluated for their in vivo effectiveness in protecting against experimental salmonellosis. L. salivarius L38 and L. acidophilus L36 previously demonstrated the ability to successfully colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice and stimulate the immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa. L38- or L36-feeding showed no detrimental effect on the general health indicators and did not induce changes in normal architecture of liver and small intestine, indicating that the use of these strains is apparently safe. In control animals fed L38 strain, several cytokines had augmented mRNA levels that can be associated with a homeostatic state of intestinal mucosa, while L36 had less diverse regulation. IgA production and secretion in the intestinal lumen induced by infection was abrogated by pretreating with both lactobacilli. In addition, liver and small intestine histological scores and, translocation of Salmonella cells to liver and spleen, indicated that these strains did not confer protection against the infection. So, the IL-12:IL-18àIFN-g axis, essential for an effective immune response against Salmonella, was not favored with L38 or L36 strains. However, increased expression of IL-10 in different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of L38-fed animals is indicative of anti-inflammatory effect to be explored furthermore.

  8. Effects of antimicrobial use in agricultural animals on drug-resistant foodborne salmonellosis in humans: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Kristi L; McCrackin, M A; Galloway, Ashley M; Poole, Ann Z; Salgado, Cassandra D; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2017-02-11

    Controversy continues concerning antimicrobial use in food animals and its relationship to drug-resistant infections in humans. We systematically reviewed published literature for evidence of a relationship between antimicrobial use in agricultural animals and drug-resistant meat or dairy-borne non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans. Based on publications from the United States (U.S.), Canada, and Denmark from January 2010 to July 2014, 858 articles received title and abstract review, 104 met study criteria for full article review with 68 retained for which data are presented. Antibiotic exposure in both cattle and humans found an increased likelihood of Salmonella colonization, whereas in chickens, animals not exposed to antibiotics (organic) were more likely to be Salmonella positive and those that had antibiotic exposure were more likely to harbor antimicrobial resistant Salmonella organisms. In swine literature, only tylosin exposure was examined and no correlation was found among exposure, Salmonella colonization, or antimicrobial resistance. No studies that identified farm antimicrobial use also traced antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella from farm to fork.

  9. Spread of a Major Clone of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in Poultry and in Salmonellosis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karen Apellanis; Furian, Thales Quedi; de Souza, Sara Neves; Tondo, Eduardo César; Streck, André Felipe; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; de Souza Moraes, Hamilton Luiz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are among the most important agents of foodborne diseases all over the world. Human Salmonella outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of poultry products (meat and eggs), and one of the most prevalent serotypes associated with these products is Salmonella Enteritidis. Brazil is one of the most important poultry exporters in the world. In southern Brazil, three closely related clones of Salmonella Enteritidis have been responsible for the majority of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks over the past decade. However, until now, there has been little information regarding the clonal relationship among the Brazilian Salmonella strains of avian origin and those involved in foodborne outbreaks. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to complete the molecular characterization of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from poultry and food sources involved in Salmonella outbreaks. PCR ribotyping was performed to discriminate the strains into different ribotype profiles according to the banding pattern amplification. This technique was able to differentiate the Salmonella Enteritidis strains into two banding patterns: R2 and R4. R2 accounted for 98.7% of the strains. DNA sequencing of the 600-bp fragment, present in all ribotypes, was applied to confirm this result. The sequences generated showed high levels of similarity, ranging from 99.7 to 100%, and were grouped into a single cluster. These results suggest that there is a clonal relationship among the Salmonella Enteritidis strains responsible for several salmonellosis outbreaks and the strains collected from poultry sources.

  10. Avian morbidity and mortality from botulism, aspergillosis, and salmonellosis at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Windingstad, R.M.; Siegfried, L.M.; Duncan, R.M.; Cook, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    During the summers of 1981 and 1982, studies were conducted at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, Long Island, New York, to determine whether annual water-level drawdowns used to create shorebird habitat also led to the occurrence of avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C). Low levels of morbidity and mortality from avian botulism occurred on the two ponds throughout both summers, but there was no apparent relationship between the occurrence or rates of botulism losses and drawdowns of the ponds. Botulism also occurred throughout both summers on other areas of the refuge. Botulinal toxin was found in fly larvae associated with avian carcasses, including birds that did not die from botulism. Toxin was not found in other samples of aquatic biota in the ponds, although it was demonstrated in a single sample of decomposing sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca) in Jamaica Bay. Aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) and salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.) were also frequently-diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality. We believe that botulinal toxin present in carcasses of birds dying from botulism, or produced postmortem in birds dying from other causes, on the two ponds and other areas in Jamaica Bay were a major source of botulinal toxin. Toxin could be ingested by birds through direct scavenging on carcasses, or by consumption of toxic fly larvae associated with carcasses. Diligent carcass pickup at the two ponds is recommended to reduce mortality from avian botulism.

  11. Risk factors associated with sporadic salmonellosis in children: a case-control study in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, D; Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study based on 884 laboratory-confirmed sporadic Salmonella cases reported to the German infectious disease notification system. For controls, we recruited 510 rotavirus cases via the same system. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed separately for children aged 0-3 years and 4-14 years. In both age groups, the highest odds ratios (OR) were found for raw ground pork consumption [0-3 years: OR 8·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·4-30·8; 4-14 years: OR 4·5, 95% CI 1·1-19]. Further risk factors were exposure to animals (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·1-2·1), consumption of poultry (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1-2·1), food items containing eggs (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1-2) and black pepper (OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1-3·5) in children aged 0-3 years, and consumption of uncooked pork sausage (OR 3·6, 95% CI 1·4-9·3) in children aged 4-14 years. This study highlights the significance of raw pork products ('Mett' in German) as risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis in children in Germany.

  12. An epidemic of salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium DT160 in wild birds and humans in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, M R; Connolly, J H; Fenwick, S G; Mackereth, G F; Leyland, M J; Rogers, L E; Haycock, M; Nicol, C; Reed, C E M

    2002-10-01

    This study reports an outbreak of salmonellosis due to S. Typhimurium DT160 which caused extensive mortality in wild birds and enteric disease in humans in New Zealand during the winter and spring months of the year 2000. Necropsies were performed and microbiological examinations undertaken on wild birds from populations in which mass mortality was reported, and on captive indigenous birds which died suddenly during the winter and spring of 2000. Affected tissues were examined histologically and isolates of S. Typhimurium were phage typed and examined using pulsedfield gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates of S. Typhimurium obtained from cases of human enteric disease which occurred during these months were phage typed, examined using PFGE and compared with the bird isolates. Central and northern areas of the South Island and the southern North Island were worst affected with die-offs of several hundreds of sparrows and other birds reported in rural areas. Mortalities reached a peak in winter (July-August) 2000 and decreased to small numbers during the spring and early summer. The birds usually died of an acute septicaemia with multifocal necrotising lesions in the liver and spleen. Human cases throughout the country increased gradually over the same period. Isolates from birds, livestock and humans examined using PFGE were indistinguishable from one another. This strain of Salmonellahas emerged as a major cause of septicaemia in wild birds in New Zealand. Because of the close association between house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and humans, the organism also poses a serious zoonotic risk. The possibility that the infection may spread to involve indigenous species needs investigation.

  13. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Ikuno, Alice A.; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Jakabi, Miyoko; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health. PMID:25351537

  14. Systemic concentrations of short chain fatty acids are elevated in salmonellosis and exacerbation of familial Mediterranean fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna eKtsoyan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota-produced short chain fatty acids (SCFAs play an important role in the normal human metabolism and physiology. Although the gradients of SCFAs from the large intestine, where they are largely produced, to the peripheral blood as well as the main routes of SCFA metabolism by different organs are known well for the healthy state, there is a paucity of information regarding how these are affected in disease. In particular, how the inflammation caused by infection or autoinflammatory disease affect the concentration of SCFAs in the peripheral venous blood. In this work, we revealed that diseases caused either by infectious agents (two Salmonella enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium or by the exacerbation of an autoinflammatory disease, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, both result in a significantly elevated systemic concentration of SCFAs. In the case of salmonellosis the concentration of SCFAs in peripheral blood was significantly and consistently higher, from five- to 20-fold, compared to control. In the case of FMF, however, a significant increase of SCFAs in the peripheral venous blood was detected only in the acute phase of the disease, with a lesser impact in remission. It seems counterintuitive that the dysbiotic conditions, with a reduced number of gut microorganisms, produce such an effect. This phenomenon, however, must be appraised within the context of how the inflammatory diseases affect the normal physiology. We discuss a number of factors that may contribute to the leak and persistence of gut-produced SCFAs into the systemic circulation in infectious and autoinflammatory diseases.

  15. The effect of clinical outbreaks of salmonellosis on the prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding among dairy cattle in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Elton, Mara; Gröhn, Yrjo T; McDonough, Patrick L; Siler, Julie D

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding is higher in dairy herds with clinical outbreaks of disease, as compared to herds with subclinical infections only. Data were collected prospectively from dairy herds throughout New York that had at least 150 lactating cows and that received clinical service from participating veterinarians. After enrollment, Salmonella surveillance consisted of both environmental screening and disease monitoring within the herd. Herds positive by either environmental or fecal culture were sampled during three visits to estimate the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella. We characterized isolates by serovar and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Among 57 enrolled herds, 44 (77%) yielded Salmonella-positive samples during the study period; 27 (61%) of the positive herds had Salmonella isolated from environmental samples only, and 17 (39%) had one or more laboratory-confirmed clinical cases. The within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding ranged from 0 to 53%. Salmonella Cerro was the predominant serovar, accounting for 56% of all isolates. Antimicrobial resistance ranged from zero to nine drugs, and 14 (32%) of the positive farms generated multidrug-resistant isolates. Herds with laboratory-confirmed clinical cases had a higher prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding than herds that only generated positive environmental samples, as estimated by a Poisson regression model (prevalence ratio, 2.7; p = 0.01). An association between dairy herd outbreaks of salmonellosis and a higher prevalence of asymptomatic shedding should help guide strategies for reducing the public health threat of Salmonella, as the ability to recognize high-risk herds by clinical laboratory submissions presents an obvious opportunity to maximize food safety at the preharvest level. This is in contrast with other foodborne zoonotic pathogens, such as Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which

  16. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9% and nalidixic acid (16.9%. No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  17. A national outbreak of Salmonella serotype Tennessee infections from contaminated peanut butter: a new food vehicle for salmonellosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Anandi N; Hoekstra, Mike; Patel, Nehal; Ewald, Gwen; Lord, Cathy; Clarke, Carmen; Villamil, Elizabeth; Niksich, Katherine; Bopp, Cheryl; Nguyen, Thai-An; Zink, Donald; Lynch, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella serotype Tennessee is a rare cause of the estimated 1 million cases of salmonellosis occurring annually in the United States. In January 2007, we began investigating a nationwide increase in Salmonella Tennessee infections. We defined a case as Salmonella Tennessee infection in a patient whose isolate demonstrated 1 of 3 closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and whose illness began during the period 1 August 2006 through 31 July 2007. We conducted a case-control study in 22 states and performed laboratory testing of foods and environmental samples. We identified 715 cases in 48 states; 37% of isolates were from urine specimens. Illness was associated with consuming peanut butter more than once a week (matched odds ratio [mOR], 3.5 [95% confidence interval {95% CI}, 1.4-9.9]), consuming Brand X peanut butter (mOR, 12.1 [95% CI, 3.6-66.3]), and consuming Brand Y peanut butter (mOR, 9.1 [95% CI, 1.0-433]). Brands X and Y were produced in 1 plant, which ceased production and recalled products on 14 February 2007. Laboratories isolated outbreak strains of Salmonella Tennessee from 34 Brands X and Y peanut butter jars and 2 plant environmental samples. This large, widespread outbreak of salmonellosis is the first linked to peanut butter in the United States; a nationwide recall resulted in outbreak control. Environmental contamination in the peanut butter plant likely caused this outbreak. This outbreak highlights the risk of salmonellosis from heat-processed foods of nonanimal origin previously felt to be low risk for Salmonella contamination.

  18. Sporadic salmonellosis in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2011-2013: raw ground pork consumption is associated with Salmonella Typhimurium infections and foreign travel with Salmonella Enteritidis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Ziehm, D; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis, for each notified case four randomly selected population controls matched for age, sex and geographical region were interviewed via self-administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analysis of 285 matched pairs revealed significant associations for raw ground pork consumption [odds ratio (OR) 6·0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·8-20·1], taking antacids (OR 5·8, 95% CI 1·4-24·5), eating meat outside the home (OR 5·7, 95% CI 2·2-14·6) and daily changing or cleaning of dishcloth (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·2-3·9). Animal contact and ice cream consumption were negatively associated with salmonellosis (OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·2-1 and OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·1-0·6, respectively). S. Typhimurium infections were significantly associated with raw ground pork consumption (OR 16·7, 95% CI 1·4-194·4) and S. Enteritidis infections with having travelled abroad (OR 9·7, 95% CI 2·0-47·3). Raw egg consumption was not a risk factor, substantiating the success of recently implemented national control programmes in the poultry industry. Unexpectedly, hygienic behaviour was more frequently reported by cases, probably because they overestimated their hygiene precautions retrospectively. Although animal contact might enhance human immunocompetence, underreporting of salmonellosis by pet owners could have occurred. Eating raw pork products is the major risk factor for sporadic human S. Typhimurium infections in Lower Saxony.

  19. Investigation of an outbreak of human salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica ssp enterica serovar Infantis by use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1996-01-01

    been tentatively traced back to a single pig slaughterhouse. A total of 135 isolates from various sources produced 21 different PFGE patterns with the restriction endonuclease XbaI. All human isolates from the outbreak belonged to a single type, the 'EPI-type', whereas human isolates recovered before......Analysis of chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to investigate an outbreak of human salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) involving more than 500 registered human cases. The outbreak had...

  20. Ascertaining the relationship between Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- by MLVA and inferring the sources of human salmonellosis due to the two serovars in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Barrucci, Federica; Cortini, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    The current picture of human salmonellosis shows Salmonella Typhimurium and S. 4,[5],12:i:- as the most common serovars in Italy. The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic relationship between these serovars, as well as to test the possibility of inferring sources of human salmonello......The current picture of human salmonellosis shows Salmonella Typhimurium and S. 4,[5],12:i:- as the most common serovars in Italy. The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic relationship between these serovars, as well as to test the possibility of inferring sources of human...

  1. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  3. Characterization of the Human Risk of Salmonellosis Related to Consumption of Pork Products in Different E.U. Countries Based on a QMRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Barfoed, Kristen; Swart, Arno N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the European Food Safety Authority's wish to assess the reduction of human cases of salmonellosis by implementing control measures at different points in the farm‐to‐consumption chain for pork products, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed. The model...... simulated the occurrence of Salmonella from the farm to consumption of pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage, respectively, and a dose‐response model was used to estimate the probability of illness at consumption. The QMRA has a generic structure with a defined set of variables, whose...... of lack of information for different variables was assessed by rerunning the model with alternative, more extreme, values. Out of the large number of uncertain variables, only a few of them have a strong influence on the probability of illness, in particular those describing the preparation at home...

  4. Salmonella enterica Serotype Napoli is the First Cause of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis in Lombardy, Italy (2010-2014), and Belongs to Typhi Subclade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huedo, Pol; Gori, Maria; Zolin, Anna; Amato, Ettore; Ciceri, Giulia; Bossi, Anna; Pontello, Mirella

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Napoli (S. Napoli) is currently emerging in Europe and particularly in Italy, where in 2014 it caused a large outbreak associated with elevated rates of bacteremia. However, no study has yet investigated its invasive ability and phylogenetic classification. Here, we show that between 2010 and 2014, S. Napoli was the first cause of invasive salmonellosis affecting 40 cases out of 687 (invasive index: 5.8%), which is significantly higher than the invasive index of all the other nontyphoidal serotypes (2.0%, p < 0.05). Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of an invasive isolate revealed that S. Napoli belongs to Typhi subclade in clade A, Paratyphi A being the most related serotype and carrying almost identical pattern of typhoid-associated genes. This work presents evidence of invasive capacity of S. Napoli and argues for reconsideration of its nontyphoidal category.

  5. Salmonellosis and charter tourism: epidemiology and trends of imported human cases to Norway from the Canary Islands and Thailand, 1994-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberland, K E; Nygård, K; Aavitsland, P

    2012-09-01

    More than 70% of reported human Salmonella infections in Norway are infected abroad. The Canary Islands and Thailand are two of the most popular charter tourist destinations for Norwegians. Using surveillance data for the years 1994-2008, and denominator data on travel to the Canary Islands 2000-2008 and to Thailand 1997-2008, we present the epidemiology and trends of Salmonella infections in Norwegian tourists to these destinations. We found a declining trend in risk of salmonellosis in tourists returning from the Canary Islands, and a change in serovar distribution in travellers to Thailand with more S. Enteritidis infections, similar to that observed in Western European countries. The use of denominator data is important when studying risk of travel-related disease, as surveillance data tend to reflect travel activity more than the risk. Infections among tourists do not always affect the local residents and therefore may not be detected by local public health authorities. Sharing knowledge on the epidemiology of infections in tourists could be useful for observation of changes in trends in the countries visited, and in future outbreak investigations.

  6. Application of Bayesian techniques to model the burden of human salmonellosis attributable to U.S. food commodities at the point of processing: adaptation of a Danish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuanfa; Hoekstra, Robert M; Schroeder, Carl M; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Ong, Kanyin Liane; Hartnett, Emma; Naugle, Alecia; Harman, Jane; Bennett, Patricia; Cieslak, Paul; Scallan, Elaine; Rose, Bonnie; Holt, Kristin G; Kissler, Bonnie; Mbandi, Evelyne; Roodsari, Reza; Angulo, Frederick J; Cole, Dana

    2011-04-01

    Mathematical models that estimate the proportion of foodborne illnesses attributable to food commodities at specific points in the food chain may be useful to risk managers and policy makers to formulate public health goals, prioritize interventions, and document the effectiveness of mitigations aimed at reducing illness. Using human surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Salmonella testing data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service's regulatory programs, we developed a point-of-processing foodborne illness attribution model by adapting the Hald Salmonella Bayesian source attribution model. Key model outputs include estimates of the relative proportions of domestically acquired sporadic human Salmonella infections resulting from contamination of raw meat, poultry, and egg products processed in the United States from 1998 through 2003. The current model estimates the relative contribution of chicken (48%), ground beef (28%), turkey (17%), egg products (6%), intact beef (1%), and pork (salmonellosis and food safety decision-making in more than one country. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  7. A imunidade na febre tifoide. II. Antigenos e resposta imune nas salmoneloses sistemicas Immunity in typhoid fever. II. Antigens and immune response in systemic salmonellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Moreira Milhomem

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados dos trabalhos acumulados a partir do início do século permitem concluir que, apesar de numerosos progressos e estudos dos pontos de vista químico, imunoquímico, genético e biológico, o (s antígeno (s responsável (is pela imunidade nas salmoneloses sistêmicas ainda não está (ao definido (s. As mais diversas preparações têm sido propostas como possiveis imunogenos, bem como uma ampla variedade de modelos experimentais e de métodos de avaliação da resposta imune. Em relacao ao primeiro aspecto, sendo a Salmonella typhi, em condições naturais, um patógeno exclusivo do homem, os resultados obtidos em animais de laboratório frequentemente não se correlacionaram com os obtidos em seres humanos. Salienta-se que a pesquisa da resposta imune tem sido limitada na maioria das vezes a avaliação do titulo de aglutininas para os antigenos O, H e Vi; ou a testes de proteção passiva ou ativa em camundongos. A imunidade celular tem sido definida, principalmente por testes cutâneos, com preparações de natureza proteica, de composição variável e estrutura quimica mal-definida. Todos os dados revistos levam a conclusão de que até o presente, ignora-se o, ou os mecanismos de imunoproteção nas salmoneloses sistemicas.The results of the work done from the beginning of the century up to the present were reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large amount of available knowledge on the chemistry, immunological, antigenic, and biological aspects of the antigens of Salmonella, was not sufficient to determine which antigen(s accounted for immune protection on systemic salmonellosis. Data accumulated on numerous and diversified preparations being used as immunogens, as well as on several experimental models and different methods of studying the immune response. In relation to Salmonella typhi, given that this microorganism is an exclusive natural pathogen only for man, the results of protection obtained with laboratory

  8. Risk Assessment of Salmonellosis from Consumption of Alfalfa Sprouts and Evaluation of the Public Health Impact of Sprout Seed Treatment and Spent Irrigation Water Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhuan; Pouillot, Régis; Santillana Farakos, Sofia M; Duret, Steven; Spungen, Judith; Fu, Tong-Jen; Shakir, Fazila; Homola, Patricia A; Dennis, Sherri; Van Doren, Jane M

    2018-01-16

    We developed a risk assessment of human salmonellosis associated with consumption of alfalfa sprouts in the United States to evaluate the public health impact of applying treatments to seeds (0-5-log10 reduction in Salmonella) and testing spent irrigation water (SIW) during production. The risk model considered variability and uncertainty in Salmonella contamination in seeds, Salmonella growth and spread during sprout production, sprout consumption, and Salmonella dose response. Based on an estimated prevalence of 2.35% for 6.8 kg seed batches and without interventions, the model predicted 76,600 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15,400-248,000) cases/year. Risk reduction (by 5- to 7-fold) predicted from a 1-log10 seed treatment alone was comparable to SIW testing alone, and each additional 1-log10 seed treatment was predicted to provide a greater risk reduction than SIW testing. A 3-log10 or a 5-log10 seed treatment reduced the predicted cases/year to 139 (95% CI 33-448) or 1.4 (95% CI SIW testing, a 3-log10 or 5-log10 seed treatment reduced the cases/year to 45 (95% CI 10-146) or SIW coverage was less complete (i.e., less representative), a smaller risk reduction was predicted, e.g., a combined 3-log10 seed treatment and SIW testing with 20% coverage resulted in an estimated 92 (95% CI 22-298) cases/year. Analysis of alternative scenarios using different assumptions for key model inputs showed that the predicted relative risk reductions are robust. This risk assessment provides a comprehensive approach for evaluating the public health impact of various interventions in a sprout production system. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Assessing the Effectiveness of On-Farm and Abattoir Interventions in Reducing Pig Meat-Borne Salmonellosis within E.U. Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew A; Simons, Robin L; Swart, Arno N; Kelly, Louise; Hald, Tine; Snary, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    As part of the evidence base for the development of national control plans for Salmonella spp. in pigs for E.U. Member States, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment was funded to support the scientific opinion required by the EC from the European Food Safety Authority. The main aim of the risk assessment was to assess the effectiveness of interventions implemented on-farm and at the abattoir in reducing human cases of pig meat-borne salmonellosis, and how the effects of these interventions may vary across E.U. Member States. Two case study Member States have been chosen to assess the effect of the interventions investigated. Reducing both breeding herd and slaughter pig prevalence were effective in achieving reductions in the number of expected human illnesses in both case study Member States. However, there is scarce evidence to suggest which specific on-farm interventions could achieve consistent reductions in either breeding herd or slaughter pig prevalence. Hypothetical reductions in feed contamination rates were important in reducing slaughter pig prevalence for the case study Member State where prevalence of infection was already low, but not for the high-prevalence case study. The most significant reductions were achieved by a 1- or 2-log decrease of Salmonella contamination of the carcass post-evisceration; a 1-log decrease in average contamination produced a 90% reduction in human illness. The intervention analyses suggest that abattoir intervention may be the most effective way to reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. However, a combined farm/abattoir approach would likely have cumulative benefits. On-farm intervention is probably most effective at the breeding-herd level for high-prevalence Member States; once infection in the breeding herd has been reduced to a low enough level, then feed and biosecurity measures would become increasingly more effective. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Characterization of the Human Risk of Salmonellosis Related to Consumption of Pork Products in Different E.U. Countries Based on a QMRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigre, Håkan; Barfoed, Kristen; Swart, Arno N; Simons, Robin R L; Hill, Andrew A; Snary, Emma L; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    In response to the European Food Safety Authority's wish to assess the reduction of human cases of salmonellosis by implementing control measures at different points in the farm-to-consumption chain for pork products, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed. The model simulated the occurrence of Salmonella from the farm to consumption of pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready-to-eat sausage, respectively, and a dose-response model was used to estimate the probability of illness at consumption. The QMRA has a generic structure with a defined set of variables, whose values are changed according to the E.U. member state (MS) of interest. In this article we demonstrate the use of the QMRA in four MSs, representing different types of countries. The predicted probability of illness from the QMRA was between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 10 million per serving across all three product types. Fermented ready-to-eat sausage imposed the highest probability of illness per serving in all countries, whereas the risks per serving of minced meat and pork chops were similar within each MS. For each of the products, the risk varied by a factor of 100 between the four MSs. The influence of lack of information for different variables was assessed by rerunning the model with alternative, more extreme, values. Out of the large number of uncertain variables, only a few of them have a strong influence on the probability of illness, in particular those describing the preparation at home and consumption. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Evaluation of the impact on human salmonellosis of control measures targeted to Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in poultry breeding using time-series analysis and intervention models in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, E; Watier, L; Espie, E; Weill, F-X; De Valk, H; Desenclos, J-C

    2008-09-01

    In France, salmonellosis is the main cause of foodborne bacterial infection with serotypes Enteritis (SE) and Typhimurium (ST) accounting for 70% of all cases. French authorities implemented a national control programme targeting SE and ST in poultry and eggs from October 1998 onwards. A 33% decrease in salmonellosis has been observed since implementation. We designed an evaluation of the impact of this control programme on SE and ST human infections in France. Using monthly Salmonella human isolate reports to the National Reference Centre we defined two intervention series (SE and ST) and one control series comprising serotypes not know to be associated with poultry or eggs. The series, from 1992 to 2003, were analysed using autoregressive moving average models (ARMA). To test the hypothesis of a reduction of SE and ST human cases >0 after the programme started and to estimate its size, we introduced an intervention model to the ARMA modelling. In contrast to the control series, we found an annual reduction of 555 (95% CI 148-964) SE and of 492 (95% CI 0-1092) ST human infections, representing respectively a 21% and 18% decrease. For SE, the decrease occurred sharply after implementation while for ST, it followed a progressive decrease that started early in 1998. Our study, suggests a true relation between the Salmonella control programme and the subsequent decrease observed for the two targeted serotypes. For ST, however, the decrease prior to the intervention may also reflect control measures implemented earlier by the cattle and milk industry.

  12. Perforation due to ileocaecal salmonellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, PJ

    2002-01-01

    A 54-year old male patient was admitted with a tentative diagnosis of biliary pancreatitis. After 3 days, he developed an acute abdomen with a pneumoperitoneum. A laparotomy was performed : multiple perforations of the terminal ileum and a necrotic gallbladder were found. A right hemicolectomy with

  13. Genomic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Characterizes Strain Diversity for Recent U.S. Salmonellosis Cases and Identifies Mutations Linked to Loss of Fitness under Nitrosative and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Hillary S; Matamouros, Susana; Hager, Kyle R; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Rohmer, Laurence; Radey, Matthew C; Weiss, Eli J; Kim, Katie B; Jacobs, Michael A; Sims-Day, Elizabeth H; Yue, Min; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Schifferli, Dieter M; Manning, Shannon D; Walson, Judd L; Miller, Samuel I

    2016-03-08

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common S. enterica serovars associated with U.S. foodborne outbreaks. S. Typhimurium bacteria isolated from humans exhibit wide-ranging virulence phenotypes in inbred mice, leading to speculation that some strains are more virulent in nature. However, it is unclear whether increased virulence in humans is related to organism characteristics or initial treatment failure due to antibiotic resistance. Strain diversity and genetic factors contributing to differential human pathogenicity remain poorly understood. We reconstructed phylogeny, resolved genetic population structure, determined gene content and nucleotide variants, and conducted targeted phenotyping assays for S. Typhimurium strains collected between 1946 and 2012 from humans and animals in the United States and abroad. Strains from recent U.S. salmonellosis cases were associated with five S. Typhimurium lineages distributed within three phylogenetic clades, which are not restricted by geography, year of acquisition, or host. Notably, two U.S. strains and four Mexican strains are more closely related to strains associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa than to other North American strains. Phenotyping studies linked variants specific to these strains in hmpA and katE to loss of fitness under nitrosative and oxidative stress, respectively. These results suggest that U.S. salmonellosis is caused by diverse S. Typhimurium strains circulating worldwide. One lineage has mutations in genes affecting fitness related to innate immune system strategies for fighting pathogens and may be adapting to immunocompromised humans by a reduction in virulence capability, possibly due to a lack of selection for its maintenance as a result of the worldwide HIV epidemic. Nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteria cause an estimated 1.2 million illnesses annually in the United States, 80 million globally, due to ingestion of

  14. Genomic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Characterizes Strain Diversity for Recent U.S. Salmonellosis Cases and Identifies Mutations Linked to Loss of Fitness under Nitrosative and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary S. Hayden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common S. enterica serovars associated with U.S. foodborne outbreaks. S. Typhimurium bacteria isolated from humans exhibit wide-ranging virulence phenotypes in inbred mice, leading to speculation that some strains are more virulent in nature. However, it is unclear whether increased virulence in humans is related to organism characteristics or initial treatment failure due to antibiotic resistance. Strain diversity and genetic factors contributing to differential human pathogenicity remain poorly understood. We reconstructed phylogeny, resolved genetic population structure, determined gene content and nucleotide variants, and conducted targeted phenotyping assays for S. Typhimurium strains collected between 1946 and 2012 from humans and animals in the United States and abroad. Strains from recent U.S. salmonellosis cases were associated with five S. Typhimurium lineages distributed within three phylogenetic clades, which are not restricted by geography, year of acquisition, or host. Notably, two U.S. strains and four Mexican strains are more closely related to strains associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa than to other North American strains. Phenotyping studies linked variants specific to these strains in hmpA and katE to loss of fitness under nitrosative and oxidative stress, respectively. These results suggest that U.S. salmonellosis is caused by diverse S. Typhimurium strains circulating worldwide. One lineage has mutations in genes affecting fitness related to innate immune system strategies for fighting pathogens and may be adapting to immunocompromised humans by a reduction in virulence capability, possibly due to a lack of selection for its maintenance as a result of the worldwide HIV epidemic.

  15. A Polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against salmonellosis through upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-03-19

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, it did, however, stimulate uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages incubated with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts drastically increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection BPP extract-treated cells showed lower bacterial counts than the vehicle (saline phosphate pH 7.4 buffer, PBS)-treated control. BPP elicited altered morphology and markedly elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression in the infected macrophage cells. BPP also activated leukocytes in S. Typhimurium-infected mice, as determined by spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in mice sera. ELISA analysis on cytokine production by Th1 and Th2 immune cells from splenocytes of infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of the following Th1 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that BPP, administered daily through an intraperitoneal (ip) or oral route, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespan of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) was significantly extended by ip injection or oral administration of the BPP without side effects. These results suggest that the activity of BPP against bacterial infection in mice occurs mainly through the activation of macrophage-mediated immune response resulting from augmented Th1 immunity. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health and further

  16. Host-Pathogen Interaction in Invasive Salmonellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Hanna K.; Parry, Chris M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections result in diverse clinical manifestations. Typhoid fever, caused by S. enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. Paratyphi A, is a bacteremic illness but whose clinical features differ from other Gram-negative bacteremias. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars cause

  17. The role of Public Health Laboratory in the problem os salmonellosis in São Paulo, Brazil O Laboratório de Saúde Pública no problema da salmonelose no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Taunay

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available From 1950 to 1990 a total of 45,862 strains (31,517 isolates from human sources, and 14,345 of non-human origin were identified at Instituto Adolfo Lutz. No prevalence of any serovars was seen during the period 1950-66 among human sources isolates. Important changing pattern was seen in 1968, when S. Typhimurim surprisingly increased becoming the prevalent serovar in the following decades. During the period of 1970-76, S. Typhimurium represented 77.7% of all serovars of human origin. Significant rise in S. Agona isolation as well as in the number of different serovars among human sources strains were seen in the late 70' and the 80's. More than one hundred different serovars were identified among non-human origin strains. Among serovars isolated from human sources, 74.9%, 15.5%, and 3.7% were recovered from stool, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures, respectively. The outbreak of meningitis by S. Grumpensis in the 60's, emphasizes the concept that any Salmonella serovars can be a cause of epidemics, mainly of the nosocomial origin. This evaluation covering a long period shows the important role of the Public Health Laboratory in the surveillance of salmonellosis, one of the most frequent zoonosis in the world.No período de 1950-90 foram identificadas 45.862 cepas de Salmonella, sendo 31.517 provenientes de infecções humanas e 14.345 de materiais de origem não humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as alterações ocorridas quanto à freqüência dos sorotipos isolados neste período. No período 1950-66, não houve predomínio evidente de nenhum sorotipo; entretanto, no período 1970-76, com início em 1968, a S. Typhimurium passou a ser o sorotipo predominante, representando 77,7% dos sorotipos isolados. Observou-se um aumento significativo da S. Agona, bem como de uma grande variedade de sorotipos. Quanto às salmonelas de origem não humana, chama a atenção o grande número (mais de 100 de sorotipos. Quanto aos sorotipos

  18. Efficacy of florfenicol and intravenous fluid therapy for treatment of experimental salmonellosis in newborn calves Eficácia do florfenicol e da fluidoterapia parenteral no tratamento da salmonelose experimental em bezerros neonatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of florfenicol associated or not to intravenous fluid therapy for treatment of Salmonella Dublin-infected calves was determined. Twenty-four healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into four groups, with six animals each: control (group 1; infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and not treated (group 2; infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and treated with florfenicol (group 3; and infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and treated with florfenicol associated to fluid therapy (group 4. All animals were submitted to physical examination just before inoculation and every 24 hours, during seven days after experimental infection. Rectal swabs and blood samples were collected for Salmonella Dublin isolation and pH and blood electrolytes determination. The experimental infection with Salmonella Dublin induced clinical signs of salmonellosis, such as diarrhea and fever, and caused reduction in blood concentrations of pH, sodium, potassium and chlorides. The treated calves showed good clinical recovery, and the group treated with antibiotic in combination to fluid therapy presented a faster and more efficient correction of the hydro-electrolyte balance.Avaliou-se a eficácia terapêutica do florfenicol associado ou não à fluidoterapia intravenosa no tratamento de bezerros infectados experimentalmente com Salmonella Dublin. Foram utilizados 24 bezerros sadios da raça Holandesa com 10 a 15 dias de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais, constituídos por seis animais cada: controle (grupo 1; infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin e não tratado (grupo 2; infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin e tratado com florfenicol (grupo 3; e infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin (grupo 4 e tratado com florfenicol associado à fluidoterapia. Todos os animais foram submetidos ao exame físico logo antes da inoculação e a cada 24 horas, durante sete dias após a infec

  19. Prospective investigation of cryptic outbreaks of Salmonella agona salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J P; Barnett, B J; del Rosario, L; Williams, K; Barth, S S

    1998-10-01

    The number of Salmonella agona isolates reported annually in Texas from 1992 through 1994 ranged from 14 to 21. An increase in incidence of S. agona infections was noted in the fall of 1995. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis identified prospectively two possible cryptic outbreaks caused by an indistinguishable strain which was isolated from 18 of 59 patients who were culture positive from March through December 1995. These 18 patients had onset of illness from 20 May through 3 October 1995. Eight individuals resided in the Austin area, eight resided in San Antonio, and two resided in Houston; none had attended a common social gathering or owned common pets. Six patients in San Antonio and one patient from Houston recalled eating food items from the same Mexican food restaurant in San Antonio. S. agona organisms with the same PFGE profile were isolated from machacado, an air-dried, raw beef product prepared at the restaurant. The machacado had been shredded in a kitchen blender which was the probable source for cross-contamination of other food items. Five patients in Austin reported eating at a popular Mexican food restaurant in Austin. Improperly prepared machacado also may have been served at the Austin restaurant; however, sufficient quantities of machacado were not available for analysis. PFGE was essential in determining whether the cases constituted outbreaks and was invaluable in guiding the epidemiological investigation.

  20. Prospective Investigation of Cryptic Outbreaks of Salmonella agona Salmonellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeffery P.; Barnett, Ben J.; del Rosario, Lemuel; Williams, Karen; Barth, Suzanne S.

    1998-01-01

    The number of Salmonella agona isolates reported annually in Texas from 1992 through 1994 ranged from 14 to 21. An increase in incidence of S. agona infections was noted in the fall of 1995. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis identified prospectively two possible cryptic outbreaks caused by an indistinguishable strain which was isolated from 18 of 59 patients who were culture positive from March through December 1995. These 18 patients had onset of illness from 20 May through 3 ...

  1. Risk of Salmonellosis Associated with Consumption of Chocolate in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres-Vitela, Ma. Refugio; Escartin, Eduardo F; Castillo, Alejandro

    1995-01-01

    .... was investigated in retail wrapped and nonwrapped solid chocolate in Guadalajara, Mexico. Previously, the efficiency of preenrichment and enrichment methods to isolate low numbers of Salmonella in chocolate was compared...

  2. [An experimental study of the efficacy of enterosorbents in salmonellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L G; Grigor'ev, A V; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Koval'chuk, V K; Alekseenko, E P

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of enterosorbents (polymethylsiloxane used as enterosgel and activated charcoal) has been studied in experiments on white rats infected with low virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain N 79. As shown in this study, the use of sorbents normalizes the morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium of the small intestine and decreases the degree of Salmonella colonization of the parietal layer in the lumen of the small intestine, causing the destruction of some adsorbed bacteria.

  3. An outbreak of salmonellosis amongst holidaymakers in Madeira, July 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, B; McCann, R; Stewart, D

    1989-04-01

    In July 1988, 20 of 49 tourists from Northern Ireland became ill with gastrointestinal symptoms while on holiday in Madeira and four were admitted to hospital. Salmonella enteritidis was subsequently isolated from eight members of the party. Epidemiological investigations implicated fried and/or scrambled eggs as the vehicle of infection.

  4. An outbreak of salmonellosis amongst holidaymakers in Madeira, July 1988.

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, B; McCann, R.; Stewart, D.

    1989-01-01

    In July 1988, 20 of 49 tourists from Northern Ireland became ill with gastrointestinal symptoms while on holiday in Madeira and four were admitted to hospital. Salmonella enteritidis was subsequently isolated from eight members of the party. Epidemiological investigations implicated fried and/or scrambled eggs as the vehicle of infection.

  5. Salmonellosis in passerine birds in Maryland and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1973-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for a die-off of evening grosbeaks (Hesperiphona vespertina) at Elkins, West Virginia, and was isolated from a pine siskin (Spinus pinus) collected at the site of a die-off near Baltimore, Maryland.

  6. Avaliação epidemiológica de surtos de salmonelose ocorridos no período de 1999 a 2008 no Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Epidemiological data of salmonellosis outbreaks occured between 1999 and 2008 in Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bill Mikito Kottwitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dados epidemiológicos de doenças de origem alimentar no Brasil são escassos. No Paraná, são poucas as informações sobre a prevalência dos sorovares e fagotipos de Salmonella envolvidos em surtos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer o perfil epidemiológico dos surtos de salmonelose notificados no Estado do Paraná entre janeiro de 1999 e dezembro de 2008. Neste período ocorreram 286 surtos nos quais 5.641 pessoas foram expostas, 2.027 (35,9% manifestaram sintomas da doença e 881 (16,3% foram hospitalizadas. Cinquenta e dois municípios do Paraná (13,0% notificaram surtos de salmonelose. Alimentos à base de ovos, carnes e derivados e produtos classificados como alimentos variados foram, respectivamente, associados a 45,0; 34,8 e 20,2% dos surtos. O sorovar prevalente foi Enteritidis, encontrado em 87,8% das cepas isoladas de pacientes e em 80,6% das cepas provenientes dos alimentos envolvidos nos surtos. Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 foi o fagotipo predominante, porém foi observada maior prevalência de PT9 a partir de 2003. Do total de surtos analisados, 49,7% estiveram associados a reuniões familiares. Esse fato sugere que as ações da Vigilância Sanitária devem assumir um caráter educativo, tanto para trabalhadores de estabelecimentos comerciais quanto para manipuladores domésticos.Epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in Brazil are scarce. In Paraná State, there is little information on the prevalence of Salmonella serovars and fagotypes involved in outbreaks. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological data of salmonellosis outbreaks notified in Paraná State between January 1999 and December 2008. During the study period, 286 Salmonella outbreaks occurred and a total of 5,641 people were exposed, 2,027 (35.9% became ill, and 881 (16.3% were hospitalized. Fifty-two cities (13.0% in Paraná notified Salmonella outbreaks. Eggs and egg products, meat and meat products and other foods were

  7. Economic impact of a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis: cost-benefit of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Sockett, P N; Gill, O N

    1989-05-06

    The recognition and investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning in 1982 due to chocolate contaminated with Salmonella napoli enabled the food that carried the salmonella to be identified and four fifths of the implicated consignment of chocolate to be withdrawn. The economic benefits of prompt intervention in the outbreak have been assessed. The cost of the outbreak was over 0.5 pounds m. It is estimated that five deaths were prevented by the intervention and that 185 admissions to hospital and 29,000 cases of S napoli enteritis were avoided. This successful investigation yielded a 3.5-fold rate of return to the public sector and a 23.3-fold return to society on an investment in public health surveillance. A methodology is described that can be used to estimate the benefits of early intervention in outbreaks of foodborne illness and topics for further research are suggested. It is concluded that public health authorities and industry have much to gain by collaborating in the research into the design of cost effective programmes to prevent foodborne infections.

  8. Bovine salmonellosis in Northeast of Iran: Frequency, genetic fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessam A. Halimi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhimurium should be of great concern to the public. No correlation between ERIC fingerprinting and resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates was found, which indicates resistance to antimicrobial agents was not related to specific genetic background.

  9. The Impact of Deoxynivalenol on Pigeon Health: Occurrence in Feed, Toxicokinetics and Interaction with Salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Haesendonck, Roel; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-1,466 μg/kg). Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of DON in pigeons (30.4%), which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3α-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 ± 17% versus 74 ± 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations.

  10. A Syst-OMICS Approach to Ensuring Food Safety and Reducing the Economic Burden of Salmonellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Salmonella Syst-OMICS consortium is sequencing 4,500 Salmonella genomes and building an analysis pipeline for the study of Salmonella genome evolution, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Metadata, including phenotypic as well as genomic data, for isolates of the collection are provided through the Salmonella Foodborne Syst-OMICS database (SalFoS, at https://salfos.ibis.ulaval.ca/. Here, we present our strategy and the analysis of the first 3,377 genomes. Our data will be used to draw potential links between strains found in fresh produce, humans, animals and the environment. The ultimate goals are to understand how Salmonella evolves over time, improve the accuracy of diagnostic methods, develop control methods in the field, and identify prognostic markers for evidence-based decisions in epidemiology and surveillance.

  11. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    transmission routes and 18 direct contact routes in the overall Danish population and in four risk groups. The risk groups (RGs) encompassed (1) people consuming raw cow milk or unpasteurized dairy products, (2) people consuming raw goat milk and unpasteurised goat and sheep products, (3) people having daily...

  12. Avoidance of antibiotic administration to Campylobacter enterocolitis mimicking severe salmonellosis by clinical and laboratory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ning; Chen, Chih-Jen; Tang, Kuo-Shu; Huang, Fu-Chen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the clinical and laboratory features of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis in children and formulate a risk scoring system (with receiver-operating characteristic curve) to facilitate early decision making and avoid antibiotic overuse in C. jejuni enterocolitis. Between January 2008 and December 2011, children (age enterocolitis and NTS enterocolitis in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical features and laboratory data were collected for analysis and a risk calculation score is created for the identification of Campylobacter infections. A total of 309 cases of C. jejuni enterocolitis and 496 cases of NTS enterocolitis were enrolled. Compared with Salmonella group clinically, the Campylobacter group had older age (81.06 ± 50.65 vs. 32.70 ± 34.88 months, p Campylobacter group had higher level of white blood cell count (11 208 ± 4380 vs. 9095 ± 3598 cell/mm3, p Campylobacter enterocolitis. When three criteria were fulfilled, Campylobacter enterocolitis was highly suspected and antibiotic could be withheld even when C-reactive protein is high and before stool culture results are known. When four criteria were fulfilled, antibiotic usage was absolutely unnecessary. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Using Outbreak Data for Source Attribution of Human Salmonellosis and Campylobacteriosis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Vigre, Håkan; Makela, Pia

    2010-01-01

    % of campylobacteriosis cases were attributed to chicken. Results also revealed regional differences in the relative importance of specific sources. We assessed the method to be of limited value to attribute human campylobacteriosis due to the limited number of outbreaks. Nevertheless, the presented source attribution......Salmonella and Campylobacter are the most important bacterial causes of foodborne illness in Europe. To identify and prioritize food safety interventions, it is important to quantify the burden of human foodborne illness attributable to specific sources. Data from outbreak investigations...... are observed at the public health endpoint and can therefore be a direct measure of attribution at the point of exposure. An analysis or summary of outbreak investigations is useful for attributing illnesses to foods, but often the implicated foods in reported outbreaks are complex foods, containing several...

  14. Epidemic of salmonellosis in passerine birds in Switzerland with spillover to domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, S; Pewsner, M; Hüssy, D; Hächler, H; Ryser Degiorgis, M-P; von Hirschheydt, J; Origgi, F C

    2013-07-01

    A die-off of passerine birds, mostly Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus), occurred in multiple areas of Switzerland between February and March 2010. Several of the dead birds were submitted for full necropsy. Bacteriological examination was carried out on multiple tissues of each bird. At gross examination, common findings were light-tan nodules, 1 to 4 mm in diameter, scattered through the esophagus/crop. Histologically, a necroulcerative transmural esophagitis/ingluvitis was observed. Bacterial cultures yielded Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. At the same time, 2 pet clinics reported an unusual increase of domestic cats presented with fever, anorexia, occasionally dolent abdomen, and history of presumed consumption of passerine birds. Analysis of rectal swabs revealed the presence of S. Typhimurium in all tested cats. PFGE (pulsed field electrophoresis) analysis was performed to characterize and compare the bacterial isolates, and it revealed an indistinguishable pattern between all the avian and all but 1 of the feline isolates. Cloacal swabs collected from clinically healthy migrating Eurasian siskins (during autumn 2010) did not yield S. Typhimurium. The histological and bacteriological findings were consistent with a systemic infection caused by S. Typhimurium. Isolation of the same serovar from the dead birds and ill cats, along with the overlapping results of the PFGE analysis for all the animal species, confirmed a spillover from birds to cats through predation. The sudden increase of the number of siskins over the Swiss territory and their persistency during the whole winter of 2009-2010 is considered the most likely predisposing factor for the onset of the epidemic.

  15. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    sources of the pathogen and estimate the relative contribution of each source to the burden of human disease. A variety of methods to attribute human illness to specific sources is available, including microbial subtyping, comparative exposure assessment, analysis of studies of sporadic infections...... to the responsible sources, compare methods and results, and make recommendations on which approach to choose to answer specific risk management questions. The work is based on six manuscripts. In the first manuscript, concepts and terminology on source attribution are presented, and the remaining manuscripts...... to be the Salmonella serotypes with highest impact on the number of reported cases. The 3D model achieved more robust estimates of the proportion subtype-related factors that describe the ability of different Salmonella subtypes to cause disease and, consequently, of the proportion of disease attributed to each source...

  16. Localization to chicken chromosome 5 of a novel locus determining salmonellosis resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariana, P.; Barrow, P.A.; Cheng, H.H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Negrini, R.; Bumstead, N.

    2001-01-01

    Clear genetic differences in the susceptibility of chickens to visceral infection by Salmonella have been observed and it has been possible to identify resistant and susceptible lines of inbred chickens. We report here the results of experiments to map directly the gene(s) controlling this trait in

  17. Enteric salmonellosis disrupts the microbial ecology of the murine gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barman, Melissa; Unold, David; Shifley, Kathleen; Amir, Elad; Hung, Kueichun; Bos, Nicolaas; Salzman, Nita

    The commensal microbiota protects the murine host from enteric pathogens. Nevertheless, specific pathogens are able to colonize the intestinal tract and invade, despite the presence of an intact biota. Possibly, effective pathogens disrupt the indigenous microbiota, either directly through

  18. Emergence and clonal dissemination of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causing salmonellosis in Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, Mohammad I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytiae-Trees, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: For decades, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been among the most prevalent serovars reported worldwide. However, it was rarely encountered in Mauritius until 2007; since then the number of non-typhoidal Salmonella serogroup O:9 (including serovar Enteritidis) increased. ...

  19. Induction of circulating tumor necrosis factor cannot be demonstrated during septicemic salmonellosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, J E; Voirol, M J; Kolly, C; Gobet, D; Martinod, S

    1990-02-01

    The concentration of tumor necrosis factor in the circulation of calves, which were infected with Salmonella typhimurium and exhibited septicemia as indicated by clinical signs and blood culture, was measured with a radioimmunoassay. These levels were compared with those in calves before infection and in other calves that had received an intravenous dose of gram-negative endotoxin. The tumor necrosis factor levels measured in samples taken during septicemia were not different from those in samples from infected nonsepticemic calves or samples from calves before infection. In contrast, the levels of tumor necrosis factor rose rapidly in calves after treatment with endotoxin by intravenous injection.

  20. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    investigated the role of non-food routes of transmission (e.g. direct contact with animals and environmental transmission), and results showed that routes other than foodborne should be considered when identifying and prioritizing control measures to prevent and reduce the human incidence. Finally......Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important....... In addition, the developed model can be applied to data with a lower discriminatory power (e.g. only serotyping information), which is the only data available in many countries, and thus can be used in several countries throughout the world. In the second approach, the original model as described by Hald et...

  1. A large outbreak of human salmonellosis traced to a local pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, H C; Codd, A A; Mackay, V E; Rowe, B; Mitchell, E

    1993-04-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium definitive type (DT) 193 affecting 206 persons occurred in July and August 1989 in a small town in northern England. A descriptive study suggested that cold meats including pork from a butcher's shop in the town were vehicles of infection. An analytical study of a cohort attending a function in the town showed a significant association between illness and consumption of cold roast pork supplied by the butcher's shop (P = 0.00000004). S. typhimurium DT 193 with the same antibiotic resistance pattern (to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines) as the outbreak strain, and possessing a single plasmid of 80 MDa was isolated from samples of meat bought from the shop and implicated in illness, and from samples of pig faeces taken from the farm supplying the shop. It was concluded that inadequate processing of infected pork meat at the shop may have contributed to this outbreak but that cross contamination also played an important part in transmission. Control measures included a temporary closure of the shop and subsequent implementation of a detailed protocol for meat processing and monitoring of all procedures at the shop.

  2. A large outbreak of human salmonellosis traced to a local pig farm.

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, H. C.; Codd, A. A.; Mackay, V. E.; Rowe, B.; Mitchell, E.

    1993-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium definitive type (DT) 193 affecting 206 persons occurred in July and August 1989 in a small town in northern England. A descriptive study suggested that cold meats including pork from a butcher's shop in the town were vehicles of infection. An analytical study of a cohort attending a function in the town showed a significant association between illness and consumption of cold roast pork supplied by the butcher's shop (P = 0.00000004). S. typhimurium DT 193...

  3. Evaluating the effects of a message on attitude and intention to eat raw meat: Salmonellosis prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trifiletti, Elena; Crovato, Stefania; Capozza, Dora; Visintin, Emilio Paolo; Ravarotto, Licia

    2012-01-01

    .... The prevention message proved to be very effective. First, it changed the attitude toward raw or rare meat, which after having read the prevention message was evaluated less positively and more negatively...

  4. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important...... direct contact with farm animals, and (4) children visiting a petting zoo. Results suggest that individuals belonging to the risk groups were more exposed than the overall population, specifically (in presented order) individuals from RG1 with between 5 and 14 years of age, and other age categories...... investigated the role of non-food routes of transmission (e.g. direct contact with animals and environmental transmission), and results showed that routes other than foodborne should be considered when identifying and prioritizing control measures to prevent and reduce the human incidence. Finally...

  5. An outbreak of food-borne salmonellosis linked to a bread takeaway shop in Ben Tre City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Huu Vo

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Stuffed bread was the likely vehicle of the outbreak. The laboratory testing capacity for serotypes of Salmonella should be strengthened in Vietnam. Food-handler training in basic food safety measures should be improved.

  6. Salmonellosis cases caused by a rare Salmonella Enteritidis PT6c associated with travel to Bulgaria, June-July 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, P; Parmakova, K; Siitonen, A; Asseva, G; Kauko, T; Kojouharova, M; Kantardjiev, T

    2009-02-26

    In June 2008 an outbreak of gastroenteritis was registered in Sunny Beach resort situated on the Black Sea coast in Bulgaria, affecting 14 employees of a hotel, five of whom tested positive for Salmonella Enteritidis. During June-July 2008 four sporadic S. Enteritidis cases were also reported and two of them were foreign tourists. In the same period S. Enteritidis cases connected with travel to Bulgaria were reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) from Finland, United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Norway. We describe a study performed to find out relatedness between Bulgarian and Finnish S. Enteritidis isolates using phage typing (PT) and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen S. Enteritidis isolates from Bulgaria and 195 from Finland (including 28 from travellers to Bulgaria) were phage typed. Within Bulgarian isolates four different PTs were found and PT6c with eight strains was predominant. Nineteen out of 28 strains isolated from the Finns visiting Bulgaria belonged also to PT6c. PFGE typing (with one enzyme) of all S. Enteritidis PT6c strains (8 Bulgarian and 19 Finnish isolates) showed indistinguishable PFGE profile. The typing results thus demonstrated a link between Bulgarian and Finnish S. Enteritidis isolates. We conclude that S. Enteritidis PT6c was the cause of salmonella outbreak in Sunny Beach and was exported to Finland, and likely to the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden and Germany.

  7. Source attribution of human salmonellosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic......-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating...

  8. Characterization of an unusual Salmonella phage type DT7a and report of a foodborne outbreak of salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettini, A A; Saccardin, C; Ramon, E; Longo, A; Cortini, E; Dalla Pozza, M C; Barco, L; Guerra, B; Luzzi, I; Ricci, A

    2014-10-17

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12,i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium and its occurrence has markedly increased in several European countries in the last ten years. In June 2011, an outbreak of Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- was reported among attendees of a wedding reception in the North-East of Italy. The source of this outbreak was identified as a cooked pork product served during the wedding reception. All Salmonella isolates from humans and the contaminated pork products were identified as Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and phage typed as DT7a. Afterwards, the farm where the pigs were raised was identified and sampled, and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from swine fecal samples. Despite the difference in serovar, these Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were also phage typed as DT7a. In the present study, Salmonella isolates from animals, humans and pork products during the outbreak investigation were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeats Analysis (MLVA), and resistance patterns, aiming to identify the most suitable subtyping methods to characterize isolates associated with this outbreak. In addition, a collection of epidemiologically unrelated strains of Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and Salmonella Typhimurium sharing the same phage type (DT7a) was similarly characterized in order to investigate their genetic relationship. This study provides a first snapshot of a rare Salmonella phage type, DT7a, associated with both Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, the study demonstrated that in this specific context MLVA could be a reliable tool to support outbreak investigations as well as to assess the genetic relatedness among Salmonella isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Subtype specific risk factor analyses for sporadic human salmonellosis: a case-case comparison in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, D; Dreesman, J; Rabsch, W; Fruth, A; Pulz, M; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A

    2013-07-01

    With the intention to deepen the knowledge of the vertical transmission of particular subtypes of Salmonella enterica from "the stable to the table" a case1-case2 analysis in Lower Saxony, Germany, was conducted. The data collection was based on standardised telephone interviews with 1741 Salmonella case persons. Single-factor-analyses revealed statistically significant associations between S. Typhimurium infections and animal keeping (odds ratio (OR): 1.4; 95%-Confidence-interval (CI): 1.2-1.7), especially rodents (OR 1.5; CI 1.2-2.1), and with consumption of meat (OR 1.9; CI 1.3-2.8), raw ground pork (OR 3.0; CI 2.1-4.2) and uncooked pork sausage (OR 2.1; CI 1.6-2.9). The S. Typhimurium phage type DT 104 was associated most with consumption of uncooked pork sausage (OR 3.6; CI 1.3-8.5). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed the associations between S. Typhimurium infection and consumption of raw ground pork and with animal contact. The results circumstantiate the assumption of raw pork products still being a relevant source for S. Typhimurium infections in Germany. Therefore, it is recommended to intensify efforts to reduce salmonella infections caused by raw pork products. S. Enteritidis infection was associated statistically significantly with travelling abroad (OR 2.1; CI 1.6-3.3), consumption of raw tomatoes (OR 1.8; CI 1.5-2.1), dried herbs (OR 2.1; CI 1.0-1.8), and undercooked eggs (OR 1.3; CI 1.1-1.6) compared with other serovars. These results were confirmed in multiple logistic regression analyses, as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Turmeric bioprocessed with mycelia from the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom lentinus edodes (agaricomycetes) protects mice against salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes and the spice tumeric (Curcuma longa) have both been reported to have health-promoting properties. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of a bioprocessed Lentinus edodes liquid mushroom mycelia culture supplemented with turmeric ...

  11. A large outbreak of salmonellosis associated with sandwiches contaminated with multiple bacterial pathogens purchased via an online shopping service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Angela S; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liu, Yu-Lun; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2014-03-01

    Food sold over the internet is an emerging business that also presents a concern with regard to food safety. A nationwide foodborne disease outbreak associated with sandwiches purchased from an online shop in July 2010 is reported. Consumers were telephone interviewed with a structured questionnaire and specimens were collected for etiological examination. A total of 886 consumers were successfully contacted and completed the questionnaires; 36.6% had become ill, with a median incubation period of 18 h (range, 6-66 h). The major symptoms included diarrhea (89.2%), abdominal pain (69.8%), fever (47.5%), headache (32.7%), and vomiting (17.3%). Microbiological laboratories isolated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella Virchow, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from the contaminated sandwiches, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Virchow from the patients, and Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus from food handlers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping suggested a common origin of Salmonella bacteria recovered from the patients, food, and a food handler. Among the pathogens detected, the symptoms and incubation period indicated that Salmonella, likely of egg origin, was the probable causative agent of the outbreak. This outbreak illustrates the importance of meticulous hygiene practices during food preparation and temperature control during food shipment and the food safety challenges posed by online food-shopping services.

  12. Pathogen update: Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2013-01-01

    - Introduction - Incidence and burden of human salmonellosis - Epidemiology and disease transmission in humans - Classification and subtypes - Tracing the sources of human salmonellosis – source attribution - Discussion on sources to human salmonellosis - References...

  13. 21 CFR 558.115 - Carbadox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bacterial swine enteritis (salmonellosis or necrotic enteritis caused by Salmonella choleraesuis); increased... dysentery); control of bacterial swine enteritis (salmonellosis or necrotic enteritis caused by Salmonella...

  14. 78 FR 44878 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ...-associated salmonellosis in humans, especially in young children. The regulations provide that viable turtle... spread of turtle- associated salmonellosis, especially to young children. These other alternatives...

  15. Application of Bayesian Techniques to Model the Burden of Human Salmonellosis Attributable to U.S. Food Commodities at the Point of Processing: Adaptation of a Danish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chuanfa; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Schroeder, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models that estimate the proportion of foodborne illnesses attributable to food commodities at specific points in the food chain may be useful to risk managers and policy makers to formulate public health goals, prioritize interventions, and document the effectiveness of mitigations...... aimed at reducing illness. Using human surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Salmonella testing data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service's regulatory programs, we developed a point...

  16. 78 FR 44915 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... of turtle-associated salmonellosis in humans, especially in young children. The regulations provide... regulations, which were enacted to prevent the spread of turtle-associated salmonellosis, especially to young...

  17. Integrative Analysis of Salmonellosis Outbreaks in Israel 1999-2012 Revealed an Invasive S. enterica Serovar 9,12:l,v:- and Endemic S. Typhimurium DT104 strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica is the leading etiologic agent of bacterial foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Methods. Laboratory-based statistical surveillance, molecular and genomics analyses were applied to characterize Salmonella outbreaks pattern in Israel. 65,087 Salmonella isolates reported to the National ...

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of salmoneilosis in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Vladimir; Stefanović Slavica; Đurić Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Salmonella infections are the most common food-born diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Epidemics of salmonellosis occur after eating improperly cooked contaminated foods. Material and methods A descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in Vojvodina in the period 1978-2003. Results During this period there were 26 851 cases of salmonellosis (mean annual incidence of 51.1/100 000 and mean annual mortality of 0....

  19. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bitsch, V.

    1995-01-01

    samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from all stalled animals in 10 herds with recent (0.5, resulting in herd sensitivity of 1.0 and herd specificity...

  20. Karakterisering van de zuurgevoeligheid van Salmonella typhimurium faagtype DT104

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge R; van Leusden FM; Dufrenne JB; Ritmeester WS; Delfgou-van Asch EHM; van Pelt W; LBG

    1999-01-01

    Het aantal gevallen van salmonellosis in Nederland veroorzaakt door Salmonella typhimurium faagtype DT104 is toegenomen van 10 in 1985 tot 163 in 1997 (10% van alle gevallen van salmonellosis). De stam lijkt zijn oorsprong te hebben in het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Daar wordt inmiddels 20% van alle

  1. Download

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and to some extent Ruptured egg yolk in the older birds. There was annual increase of Salmonellosis from as low as 14 cases in 2007 to 38 cases in 2009. Salmonellosis appeared to be a threat to commercial poultry production in Adamawa. State and indeed Nigeria in General. Salmonella spp. infection from the hatchery ...

  2. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on a quantitative estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This assessment relates the percentage of broiler-associated human salmonellosis cases to different Salmonella prevalences in broiler flocks in the European Union. It considers the contribution and relevance of different Salmonella serovars found in broilers to human salmonellosis. The model......-SAM model) employes data from the EU Baseline Surveys and EU statutory monitoring on Salmonella in animal-food sources, data on incidence of human salmonellosis and food availability data. It is estimated that around 2.4%, 65%, 28% and 4.5% of the human salmonellosis cases are attributable to broilers......, laying hens (eggs), pigs and turkeys respectively. Of the broiler-associated human salmonellosis cases, around 42% and 23% are estimated to be due to the serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis respectively, while other serovars individually contributed less than 5%. Different scenarios...

  3. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 30 from a Single Almond Orchard over a 5-Year Period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uesugi, Aaron R; Danyluk, Michelle D; Mandrell, Robert E; Harris, Linda J

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 was isolated from drag swabs of 17 61-ha almond orchards on three farms linked to an outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of raw almonds...

  4. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA) USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How Can Salmonella Infections Be Diagnosed? Diagnosing salmonellosis requires testing a ...

  5. Acalculous cholecystitis in malaria: Complication or accomplice?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (3). AAC has been described in patients in association with a number of conditions like trauma, burns, abdominal surgery, prolonged parenteral nutrition and infections. Common infections associated with AAC include dengue fever, salmonellosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, staphylococcal infection , isospora sp, cyclospora.

  6. ENZYME-LINKED-IMMUNOSORBENT-ASSAY FOR SCREENING OF MILK SAMPLES FOR SALMONELLA-TYPHIMURIUM IN DAIRY HERDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wedderkopp, A.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the ability of an antibody-specific, O antigen-based ELISA to document Salmonella typhimurium herd infections by screening of milk samples. Three cattle populations, 20 herds with no history of salmonellosis, 8 herds with history of S typhimurium epsiodes within the previous 7...... months, and 220 herds of unknown disease status, were tested. A herd was considered ELISA positive if at least 5% of the cows had OD values > 0.3. Among the 20 herds without history of salmonellosis, only 2 herds were ELISA positive, whereas all 8 herds with a known history of salmonellosis were ELISA...... positive (herd specificity, 0.9 and herd sensitivity, 1.0). A sig nificant correlation (P salmonellosis. It was concluded that ELISA testing of individual milk sam ples can be used for surveillance...

  7. Proceedings of the DOD Symposium on Evolution of Military Medical Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-16

    endemic for Escherichia coli diarrheas, various enteric viruses, typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, salmonellosis, shigellosis, giardiasis, and...by their use, escaped septicemia , and had rapid recoveries.”14 Besides their efficiency, the maggots also excrete allantoin, a chemical compound

  8. Frequency and duration of fecal shedding of Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium by experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are leading sources of human salmonellosis, but S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium are also egg-associated pathogens. The management practices and housing facilities characterizing different systems for housing commercial egg flocks can influence Salmonell...

  9. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indirect contact between reptiles (turtles, iguanas, other lizards, snakes) and infants or immunocompromised persons. Don't work ... help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety ...

  10. The use of risk assessment to support control of Salmonella in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    Despite the effectivity of control measures in the past decade, domestic pork was estimated to be the most important food source for salmonellosis in Denmark in 2014 (Anonymous 2015). Therefore, there is a continued focus on the identification of effective intervention measures in the pig and pork...... of salmonellosis for the Danish population. The results of these projects illustrate how quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) can be applied to support the control of Salmonella in pork....

  11. A Review of Salmonella and Squamates (Lizards, Snakes and Amphisbians): Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Gardner, Michael G; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-08-22

    Globally, there has been an increase in squamates (particularly lizards and snakes) being kept as pets. Additionally, urban spread has resulted in greater human encroachment and interaction with the natural habitat of wild squamates. A potential consequence of increasing human interaction with squamates is the increased potential for disease transfer. This review collates the literature describing clinical salmonellosis cases that were definitively linked to a squamate through testing of the animal and population-based studies which investigate the risk of salmonellosis linked to pet squamates. It was demonstrated that although squamate-acquired salmonellosis accounted for a small percentage of total cases, children under five were at greatest risk, with the clinical manifestations tending to be more severe. In many cases, it was noted that the patient was unaware of the risks associated with keeping squamates and did not practice proper hand hygiene after handling the animals or cleaning cages. This highlights the need for more education focused on informing the general public of ways to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from pet squamates. There is also the need for future research into the role of wild squamates in the spread of human salmonellosis, both directly and indirectly through cross contamination.

  12. Human health implications of Salmonella-contaminated natural pet treats and raw pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Rita; Reid-Smith, Richard; Weese, J Scott

    2006-03-01

    Human salmonellosis occurs mainly as a result of handling or consuming contaminated food products, with a small percentage of cases being related to other, less well-defined exposures, such as contact with companion animals and natural pet treats. The increasing popularity of raw food diets for companion animals is another potential pet-associated source of Salmonella organisms; however, no confirmed cases of human salmonellosis have been associated with these diets. Pets that consume contaminated pet treats and raw food diets can be colonized with Salmonella organisms without exhibiting clinical signs, making them a possible hidden source of contamination in the household. Pet owners can reduce their risk of acquiring Salmonella organisms by not feeding natural pet treats and raw food diets to their pets, whereas individuals who investigate cases of salmonellosis or interpret surveillance data should be aware of these possible sources of Salmonella organisms.

  13. Seroreactivity of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen in comparison with lipopolysaccharide antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bell, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The IgG seroreaction of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen (SEF14) was compared with that against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sera from 23 dairy herds (n = 205) from an island with no occurrence of salmonellosis, four herds (n = 303) with recent outbreaks of S....... dublin and four herds (n = 168) with recent outbreaks of S. typhimurium, were tested in a SEF14-ELISA, S. dublin LPS (0:1, 9, 12) ELISA and S. typhimurium LPS (0:1, 4, 5; 12) ELISA. At a cut-off OD of 0.5, only one of the animals tested from the salmonellosis-free island showed significant seroreaction...... of salmonellosis, increasing the predictive value of serology....

  14. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    to specific sources and allows for the estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The number of human cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal......-food sources, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. National-surveillance serotyping data from 1998 to 2007 were applied to the model. Results suggested that the relative contribution of the sources to salmonellosis varied during the 10 year period, and that eggs are the most important source....... The proportion of cases attributed to an unknown source varied substantially between years. We conclude that this is valid approach to attribute salmonellosis in Japan, and that and improved dataset would substantially improve results. This is the first indication of the relative contribution of different foods...

  15. Acute gastroenterocolitis caused by Salmonella Chester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajda Keber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Turtles are common as pets and represent a known reservoir for salmonellosis. There are few epidemic outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to ingestion of undercooked turtle meat described in the literature. A few cases of pet turtle borne infection and infection due to aquarium water contamination have been described. We present cases of two female patients hospitalized due to acute gastroenterocolitis caused by Salmonella Chester and the epidemiological report of events related to the infection outbreak. The infection was transmitted from the water of a private aquarium with two pet turtles.

  16. Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum: addressing fundamental questions in bacteriology sixty years on from the 9R vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Sixty years on from Smith's seminal work on Fowl Typhoid vaccines, there is renewed interest in experimental avian salmonellosis and in particular the use of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum as a tool to understand key features of bacterial evolution and host adaptation. In this short review we outline some of the recent advances in avian salmonellosis research that have coupled both the power of whole genome analysis and new tools to understand the host response to existing experimental infection models. These approaches are underpinning a fundamental understanding of Salmonella biology relevant to both the chicken and other avian and mammalian species.

  17. An Approach to Cluster EU Member States into Groups According to Pathways of Salmonella in the Farm‐to‐Consumption Chain for Pork Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pedersen, Ulrik Bo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the project as the cluster analysis was to in part to develop a generic structured quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) model of human salmonellosis due to pork consumption in EU member states (MSs), and the objective of the cluster analysis was to group the EU MSs...... the MSs. The cluster solutions were validated internally using statistic measures and externally by comparing the clustered MSs with an estimated human incidence of salmonellosis due to pork products in the MSs. Finally, each cluster was characterized qualitatively using the centroids of the clusters....

  18. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal - Vol 21, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths and their predisposing factors in different poultry management systems; Haromaya, Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Salmonella Gallinarum 9R strain vaccine against Salmonella strains isolated from cases suspected of salmonellosis ...

  19. SINET.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dangers of listeriosis or salmonellosis from fresh 'Ergo' must not be underestimated. It was, thus, recommended to inoculate boiled milk with a three day old 'Ergo' to ensure the nutritious quality and wholesomeness of. 'Ergo'. Mohammed Abdella et al. (1996) studied survival and growth of Salmonella during the making of ...

  20. Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts protect infected mice against Salmonella typhimurium induced liver damage and mortality by activation of innate immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of four extracts from the fruitbody of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Hot water extract, HWE; Microwave/50% ethanol extract, MWE; Acid extract, ACE; and Alkaline extract, AKE) against murine salmonellosis. The extracts had no...

  1. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foodborne bacterial diseases are a serious challenge to human and animal health. Salmonella is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen and the etiologic agent of salmonellosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2016 to April 2016 on small scale and large scale dairy farms in and around Modjo town, Ethiopia.

  2. Supplemental invasion of Salmonella from the perspective of Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Critical to the development of Salmonellosis in humans is the interaction of the bacterium with the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Traditional scientific reasoning held type III secretion system (T3SS) as the virulence factor responsible for bacterial invasion. In this ...

  3. ectoparasites of local scavenging chickens of central ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    disease (ND), coccidiosis, salmonellosis, chronic respiratory disease (CRD) and nutritional deficiencies. .... observers as to the damage caused by air sac mites. Some are of the opinion that they are particularly harmless ... Comparative studies of external parasites and gastro– intestinal helminths of chickens kept under di f-.

  4. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences - Vol 4, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood Leucocyte Count Patterns in Relation to Salmonella Agglutinins among Patients with Salmonellosis in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Allium Sativum Linn on the Intestinal Motility of the Rabbit · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal isolates of salmonella and shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis and Shigellosis coupled with increased levels of multidrug resistances are public health problems, especially in developing countries. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of fecal Salmonella and Shigella spp and its antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted on ...

  6. Multiple antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species are the causative agents of various disease complexes in poultry such as colibacillosis, fowl typhoid, pullorum disease and salmonellosis. Some strains of E. coli and Salmonella spp. have been shown to be resistant to multiple antibiotics. We carried out a bacteriological ...

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Salmonella Isolates from Gondar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis is a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Moreover, Salmonella species are becoming resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials in most parts of the world. Nevertheless, studies on Salmonella are limited in Ethiopia. The aim of this paper is, therefore to determine the antibiotic ...

  8. 1997-2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolated from food animals, slaughterhouse personnel and retail meat products in Ethiopia: 1997-2002. Bayleyegn Molla, Daniel Alemayehu , Woubit Salah. Abstract. “Background: Foods of animal origin are considered to be the major sources of. foodbome salmonellosis. A periodic surveillance of the sources, distribution ...

  9. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human

  10. Number of Salmonella on Chicken Breast Filet at Retail Level and Its Implications for Public Health Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straver, J.M.; Janssen, A.F.W.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van T.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the number of Salmonella on chicken breast filet at the retail level and to evaluate if this number affects the risk of salmonellosis. From October to December 2005, 220 chilled raw filets (without skin) were collected from five local retail outlets in The

  11. Enquete sero-epidemiologique sur la tuberculose, la brucellose, la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey on tuberculosis, brucellosis, bovine infectious rhinotracheitis, toxoplasmosis and abortive salmonellosis has been carried out in Brazilian breeds (Gyr and Gyrolando) introduced in Burkina Faso. The study has concerned two livestock system : The modern system with two herds located in Koubri and Loumbila ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goji, JN. Vol 8, No 1&2 (2010) - Articles The threat of salmonellosis to commercial poultry production in Adamawa state, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1595-093X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  13. CHAPTER IV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-13

    Nov 13, 2014 ... known to cause salmonellosis in broiler chickens (Ribeiro et al., 2007; Van Immerseel et al., 2009). Growth performance parameters in broilers may be regarded as indication of the severity of S. Typhimurium infection. Body weight gain was found to decrease from 14% to 33%, and feed conversion ratio to ...

  14. Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteriditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Engel, B.; Knapen, van F.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Urlings, B.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in chickens is a problem because poultry meat is recognized as a source of human salmonellosis. Fermented feed has characteristics like a high number of lactobacilli and high concentration of lactic acid, which could make chickens less susceptible for infection with

  15. Effect van plaagdierbestrijding op Toxoplasma gondii infecties bij enkele probleembedrijven in de welzijnsvriendelijke varkenshouderij = Effect of rodent control on Toxoplasma gondii infections in animal friendly pig farms with a rodent problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Meerburg, B.G.; Jongert, E.; Craeye, de S.

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an underestimated food borne zoönoses with a human disease burden that probably equals salmonellosis. Modern pig production systems have led to a disappearance of Toxoplasma infections, but a reemergence has recently been observed on animal friendly pig farms. This project

  16. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mauritius Linked to Consumption of Marlin Mousse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, M. I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lun, P. L. K.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first outbreak of salmonellosis caused by consumption of contaminated marlin mousse. Between 29 October and 5 November 2008, at least 53 persons developed diarrheal illness, all with a history of eating marlin mousse. Salmonella spp. that did not produce gas from glucose was isolated...

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella on tomato surfaces using chlorine dioxide gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes have been implicated in fourteen outbreaks of salmonellosis in the U.S. since 1996. Previous research in our laboratory has documented the inadequacy of washing processes to inactivate and/or remove microorganisms on tomatoes, including human pathogens, due to biofilm formation and inacces...

  18. Epidemiology of bacterial zoonoses in Nigeria | Adesiji | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper dicusses the epidemiology and epizootiology of bacterial zoonotic diseases in Nigeria. Six diseases are discussed including anthrax, brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, campylobacteriosis leptospirosis, salmonellosis and tetanus. All axcept anthrax are enzootic and endemic in the country, and have been ...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of controlling Salmonella in the pork chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Backus, G.B.C.; Beek, van P.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Pork is one of the sources of food-borne salmonellosis in humans. In this paper, the cost-effectiveness of different control scenarios against Salmonella in the stages finishing, transport, lairage and slaughtering is explored. A stochastic simulation model was used for the epidemiological analysis

  20. Sources and distribution of Salmonella serotypes isolated from food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolated from food animals, slaughterhouse personnel and retail meat products in Ethiopia: 1997-2002. Bayleyegn Molla, Daniel Alemayehu , Woubit Salah. Abstract. “Background: Foods of animal origin are considered to be the major sources of. foodbome salmonellosis. A periodic surveillance of the sources, distribution ...

  1. Metagenomic analysis of the bovine hindgut from Salmonella Kentucky and Cerro-shedding dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from dairy cows that appear asymptomatic. Although they are not major contributors to the salmonellosis burden, these serovars have been implicated in human clinical cases in recent years. To...

  2. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with

  3. An Administrator’s Guide for Animal Facilitated Therapy Programs in Federal Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    have indicated that changes in life-style may reduce the effects of many chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer , coronary heart disease, and...not detect the zoonotic diseases, such as: Psittacosis, rabies, toxoplasmosis , leptospirosis, or salmonellosis, which all may be transmitted to man

  4. Differential Attachment to and Subsequent Contamination of Agricultural Crops by Salmonella enterica▿

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, Jeri D.; Liang, Anita; Narm, Koh-Eun

    2008-01-01

    U.S. salmonellosis outbreaks have occurred following consumption of tomato and cantaloupe but not lettuce. We report differential contamination among agricultural seedlings by Salmonella enterica via soil. Members of the family Brassicaceae had a higher incidence of outbreak than carrot, lettuce, and tomato. Once they were contaminated, phyllosphere populations were similar, except for tomato. Contamination differences exist among tomato cultivars.

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peek, SF. Vol 10, No 1 (2013) - Articles Ethnoveterinary Application of Morinda Citrifolia Fruit Puree on a Commercial Heifer Rearing Facility with Endemic Salmonellosis Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  6. Surface decontamination technologies for enhancing safety and shelf life of cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloupes have been implicated in six outbreaks of salmonellosis that resulted in over 800 cases and two deaths in the U.S. since 1990. A recent multi-state outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection in the U.S. resulting in at least 146 illnesses and 30 deaths in 2011 came from contaminated ca...

  7. Barriers to adoption of measures to control salmonella in pigs in the UK: A stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Frewer, L.J.; Marier, E.; Armstrong, D.; Cook, A.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella infection in pigs may enter the pork chain and thus contribute to human salmonellosis. In 2002 the British Pig Executive (BPEX) launched the Zoonosis Action Plan (ZAP). ZAP is a monitoring scheme based on detecting antibodies to salmonella infection in meat juice sampled from pigs after

  8. The dromedary camel; a review on the aspects of history, physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fast developing sport of camel racing has the potential of becoming an industry that will further enrich the economy and promote tourism in some Arab countries. The camel is also known to be susceptible to diseases like antrax, surra, helminthosis, salmonellosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, pasturellosis, paratuberculosis, ...

  9. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fo Wong, Lo D.M.A.; Hald, T.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Swanenburg, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production

  10. drug resistant strains of Salmonella enterica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : The emergence of strains of S.enterica with multiple drug resistance (MDR) is of great concern worldwide.The extracts of flowers of Thonningia sanguinea are used in traditional medicine in Ivory Coast to treat diarrhoeal diseases including salmonellosis. Previous studies had shown inhibition of the MDR strain ...

  11. Toxoplasma-safe meat: close to reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the centennial of the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii was celebrated. However, toxoplasmosis is still seen as a neglected and underreported disease, despite having a disease burden similar to that of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Human vaccines are not available and current

  12. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the world’s leading cause of food borne salmonellosis and illness in people is linked strongly to its contamination of eggs produced by otherwise healthy appearing hens. Salmonella Enteritidis is noted for generating exceptional strain heterogeneity despite having a clonal ...

  13. Salmonella serovars from humans and other sources in Thailand, 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Pornreongwong, S.; Pulsrikarn, C.

    2004-01-01

    We serotyped 44,087 Salmonella isolates from humans and 26,148 from other sources from 1993 through 2002. The most common serovar causing human salmonellosis in Thailand was Salmonella enterica Weltevreden. Serovars causing human infections in Thailand differ from those in other countries and seem...

  14. Phage types of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from production animals and humans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1994-01-01

    S. Typhimurium is one of the 2 most common salmonella serotypes causing human salmonellosis in Denmark. In order to illustrate the significance of different production animals as a source of infection, 1461 isolates were characterized by phage typing. The isolates originated from human patients...

  15. Salmonella Typhimurium metabolism affects virulence in the host – A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-fresno, Ana; Olsen, John Elmerdhahl

    2018-01-01

    invasive salmonellosis, and during long term asymptomatic colonization of the host. It also points to the limitations in our current knowledge, most notably that most studies have been carried out with few well-characterized laboratory strains, that we do not know how much the in vivo metabolism differs...

  16. A longitudinal study of Salmonella enterica infections in high- and low-seroprevalence finishing swine herds in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wolf, P.J.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Wolbers, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    samples were tested in an indirect ELISA and by bacteriological culturing, respectively. In high-seroprevalence herds a positive Salmonella status was an indication of a long-term problem and the status was relatively stable over time. The herds experiencing clinical salmonellosis were not necessarily...

  17. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium Highly Successful Outbreak Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Litrup, Eva; Larsson, Jonas T.

    2011-01-01

    Three large clusters of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark in 2008 and 2009 were defined by multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). One of these proved to be the hereto largest Danish cluster of salmonellosis with 1446 cases. Two smaller clusters with a total of 197...

  18. Development and comparison of a generic multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis with PFGE for typing of Salmonella entericasubsp. enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Aims Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica causes salmonellosis in humans and animals. Serovar specific multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is widely used for Salmonella surveillance; however, isolates have to be serotyped prior to MLVA typing and only the most common...

  19. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production...

  20. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica...

  1. Reappearance of Salmonella serovar Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte; Löfström, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a porcine adapted serovar which may cause serious outbreaks in pigs. Here we describe outbreaks of salmonellosis due to S. Choleraesuis in four Danish pig farms in 2012–2013 by clinic, serology, and microbiology and compare the isolates to those...

  2. Practical considerations on surveillance of Salmonella serovars other than Enteritidis and Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenaar, J. A.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Carrigue-Mas, J.

    2013-01-01

    of serovars that are principally reported from the regions and are most probably associated with local reservoirs. In most countries of the world, no formal surveillance systems for human salmonellosis are in place and data are limited to ad hoc studies. Data on animals, food and animal feed are even more...

  3. Salmonella osteomyelitis by sickle cell anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, H.; Tran, V.T.; Boeckmann, U.

    1985-10-01

    Case report of a 28 year old black sickle cell anemia patient with salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius. Aside from sickle cell anemia patients this skeletal complication of enteric salmonellosis is an extreme rarity. Description of the typical roentgenological features includes intracortical fissures and sequestration.

  4. Risk factors for clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Wilpshaar, H.; Frankena, K.; Bartels, C.; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Risk factors for outbreaks in 1999 of clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on dairy farms were studied in a matched case–control study with 47 case farms and 47 control farms. All 47 case farms experienced a clinical outbreak of salmonellosis which was confirmed

  5. Herd-level diagnosis for Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Dublin infection in bovine dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Barkema, H.W.; Schans, van de J.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Verhoeff, J.

    2002-01-01

    Herd-level sensitivities of bacteriological and serological methods were compared in 79 bovine dairy herds, recently infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. All farms experienced clinical signs of salmonellosis for the first time and had no history of vaccination against

  6. Causes of death in swine in Jos Area of Plateau State | Osiyemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial diseases caused deaths in 84.68 per cent of dead pigs recorded in piggeries of Jos Area of Plutenu State. Of the hucteriul diseases the most prevalent were colihacillosis, erysipelas, oedema disease, pneumonias and salmonellosis. But deaths in 9.68 per cent were due to non-infectious causes. Ascariasis and ...

  7. Microbiological Quality of Street-Vended Foods and Ready-To

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    sampled at point sale. PHLS, Communicable Disease and. Public Health, vol. 3, number 3. Sago, S.K., Little, C.L., Ward, L., Gillespie, I.A., Mitchel,. T.L. (2003). Microbiological study of ready-to-eat salad vegetables from retail establishments uncovers a national outbreak of salmonellosis. Journal of Food Protection 66(3):.

  8. Ethnoveterinary Application of Morinda Citrifolia Fruit Puree on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnoveterinary Application of Morinda Citrifolia Fruit Puree on a Commercial Heifer Rearing Facility with Endemic Salmonellosis. ... In trial 1, calves supplemented with 15 mL noni puree of version A every 12 hr had a higher probability of being weaned by 6 weeks of age than control calves (P = 0.04). In trial 2, calves ...

  9. Effect of oil and dry roasting of peanuts at various temperatures and times on survival of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of outbreaks of salmonellosis since 2006 associated with the consumption of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter have increased concerns about this food and the associated processing methods. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the level of Salmonella reduction associated with o...

  10. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Salmonella Gallinarum 9R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial diseases of poultry causing heavy economic losses. Though it can be prevented through vaccination, regular monitoring of the protective efficacy of the vaccine against field outbreaks is essential since antigenically dissimilar serovars may evolve compromising the ...

  11. Microscopy is More Reliable than Questionnaire-based Methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paratyphoid fever, salmonellosis, cholera and bacterial meningitis) [12, 13]. However, a combination of symptoms and signs, including a rapid rise in temperature with subsequent perspiration, splenomegaly and regular intermittent fever with alternations of paroxysms in one or two days, show some specificity for a malaria.

  12. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 5, Number 8, December 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    incidence, active duty servicemembers, US Armed Forces, 1998 days of entering active service (n=9), and those with concurrent diagnoses of gestational ...fever - - - 0 1 0 - - - Salmonellosis 6 9 67 2 4 50 - - - Shigellosis 0 1 0 0 1 0 - - - Syphilis 1 2 50 0 1 0 - - - Tetanus - - - 1 1 100

  13. European Food Safety Authority, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Helle; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Helwigh, Birgitte

    The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have analysed the information on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 submitted by 27 European Union Member States. In 2009, 108,614 salmonellosis cases in humans were reported and...

  14. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars in milk and cheese in Mansoura city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hussein El-Baz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of Salmonella in milk and cheese samples in Mansoura, Egypt, indicating that the dairy products can act as potential sources of Salmonella infection. Thus, appropriate hygienic measures are suggestive for combating Salmonellosis in Egypt. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 45-51

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xu, J. Vol 10, No 1 (2013) - Articles Ethnoveterinary Application of Morinda Citrifolia Fruit Puree on a Commercial Heifer Rearing Facility with Endemic Salmonellosis Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 5 (2015) - Articles Preventing effect on diet-induced obesity of water-extract from masson pine pollen on mice. Abstract PDF.

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McGuirk, SM. Vol 10, No 1 (2013) - Articles Ethnoveterinary Application of Morinda Citrifolia Fruit Puree on a Commercial Heifer Rearing Facility with Endemic Salmonellosis Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  17. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnoveterinary Application of Morinda Citrifolia Fruit Puree on a Commercial Heifer Rearing Facility with Endemic Salmonellosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. VJ Brooks, TJ De Wolfe, TJ Paulus, J Xu, J Cai, NS Keuler, RG Godbee, SF Peek, SM ...

  18. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  19. Salmonella Isolates in the Introduced Asian House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) with Emphasis on Salmonella Weltevreden, in Two Regions in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Randall R; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Abarca, Juan G; Porras, Laura P

    2015-09-01

    The Asian house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus has been widely introduced in Costa Rica and tends to establish in human settlements. Some studies in other invaded countries have suggested that this gecko plays a significant role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis and it is of value to public health. To our knowledge, no studies have examined Salmonella from this species in Costa Rica. Therefore, we collected 115 geckos from houses in two Costa Rican regions. We examined gut contents for Salmonella through microbiological analysis. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were sent to a reference laboratory for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was also conducted with the main Salmonella isolates of zoonotic relevance in Costa Rica. H. frenatus was found in 95% of the houses surveyed. Salmonella was isolated in 4.3% of the samples, and four zoonotic serovars were detected. None of the isolates were resistant to the antibiotics most frequently used for salmonellosis treatment in Costa Rica. All Salmonella isolates from the lower gut of H. frenatus are associated with human salmonellosis. Pulsotypes from Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden were identical to the only clone previously reported from human samples in Costa Rica. Molecular typing of Salmonella Weltevreden suggested that H. frenatus harbors a serovar of public health importance in Costa Rica. Results demonstrated that H. frenatus plays a role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis in two regions of Costa Rica. However, more detailed epidemiological studies are needed to understand better the role of the Asian house gecko with human salmonellosis, especially caused by Salmonella Weltevreden, and to quantify its risk in Costa Rica accurately.

  20. [Protracted nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis LT 8/7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, A; Hiller, P; Desai, S; Feier, B; Habermann, F; Baumann, A; Dreesman, J; Beyrer, K; Pulz, M; von Benten, K; Malorny, B; Rabsch, W; Stark, K

    2008-11-01

    In spring 2007a cluster of nosocomial salmonellosis cases, culture confirmed for SALMONELLA Enteritidis lysotype (LT) 8/7, occurred in a Wolfsburg hospital. An outbreak investigation was initiated to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak and to identify and control the possible sources. A multidisciplinary outbreak team was formed including members from hospital hygiene and local, state and national health and veterinarian authorities. Active surveillance was set up in the hospital to find new cases. A retrospective case control study was conducted to identify possible risk factors for disease. Hospital workers and food samples were tested for the pathogen and positive isolates were typed. Between calendar weeks 4 and 24 of the year 2007, a total of 28 patients with a median age 66 years had nosocomial salmonellosis culture confirmed for SALMONELLA Enteritidis LT 8/7. In food samples from February, the same Salmonella lysotype was isolated in 4 different food samples. SALMONELLA Enteritidis LT 8/7 was also identified in stool samples from 5 kitchen personnel. The case control study indicated antacida therapy (odds ratio: 5.5, 95 % CI 1.2 - 26.0) as a risk factor for nosocomial salmonellosis among patients. No particular diet was associated with an increased risk of disease. This nosocomial salmonellosis outbreak was characterised by prolonged duration and a low infection rate among patients. The epidemiological investigation suggests that the origin of the outbreak was food that was probably associated with a contamination in the hospital kitchen. Furthermore, kitchen staff could, as carriers, have contributed to a low-level contamination of various foods for a long period. The intermittent occurrence of the cases is best explained by a low level of contaminated food which primarily led to clinical symptoms among especially vulnerable persons (older patients with antacida therapy). Considering the unusual progression of this outbreak, hospitals should initiate

  1. Antimicrobial activity of sweet basil and thyme against salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in egg-based pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is known as one of the most common pathogenic bacteria causing salmonellosis in humans. Raw materials of animal origin (eggs, chicken meat are frequent vectors that transmit this bacterium. Since eggs are used for the production of pasta, due to insufficient thermal treatment during pasta drying, they can be a potential risk to consumer health. Different essential oils of herbs can be used to reduce present pathogenic microorganisms. This paper compares a decrease in the number of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (D ATCC 13076 and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks of salmonellosis in egg-based pasta under the influence of thyme and sweet basil essential oils. The results indicate that the utilized oils were more effective against the epidemic strain than the ATCC strain. In addition, thyme oil caused a more significant inhibition of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis during the production process.

  2. Using surveillance and monitoring data of different origins in a Salmonella source attribution model: a European Union example with challenges and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Knegt, L V; Pires, S M; Hald, T

    2015-04-01

    Microbial subtyping approaches are commonly used for source attribution of human salmonellosis. Such methods require data on Salmonella in animals and humans, outbreaks, infection abroad and amounts of food available for consumption. A source attribution model was applied to 24 European countries, requiring special data management to produce a standardized dataset. Salmonellosis data on animals and humans were obtained from datasets provided by the European Food Safety Authority. The amount of food available for consumption was calculated based on production and trade data. Limitations included different types of underreporting, non-participation in prevalence studies, and non-availability of trade data. Cases without travel information were assumed to be domestic; non-subtyped human or animal records were re-identified according to proportions observed in reference datasets; missing trade information was estimated based on previous years. The resulting dataset included data on 24 serovars in humans, broilers, laying hens, pigs and turkeys in 24 countries.

  3. The “Decline and Fall” of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable changes in the epidemiology of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis have occurred in the United Kingdom over the last century. Between 1981 and 1991, the incidence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in the United Kingdom rose by >170%, driven primarily by an epidemic of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4, which peaked in 1993. Measures introduced to control this epidemic included legislation, food safety advice, and an industry-led vaccination program in broiler-breeder and laying poultry flocks. The incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis has been falling since 1997, and levels of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 have fallen to preepidemic levels and have stayed low. The temporal relationship between vaccination programs and the reduction in human disease is compelling and suggests that these programs have made a major contribution to improving public health. PMID:23166188

  4. The "decline and fall" of nontyphoidal salmonella in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sarah J

    2013-03-01

    Remarkable changes in the epidemiology of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis have occurred in the United Kingdom over the last century. Between 1981 and 1991, the incidence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in the United Kingdom rose by >170%, driven primarily by an epidemic of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4, which peaked in 1993. Measures introduced to control this epidemic included legislation, food safety advice, and an industry-led vaccination program in broiler-breeder and laying poultry flocks. The incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis has been falling since 1997, and levels of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 have fallen to preepidemic levels and have stayed low. The temporal relationship between vaccination programs and the reduction in human disease is compelling and suggests that these programs have made a major contribution to improving public health.

  5. Rectal stenosis in pigs associated with Salmonella Typhimurium and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rectal stricture is an acquired annular fibrous constriction of the rectum that results from a variety of chronic necrotizing enteric diseases. In pigs, it is in most cases a sequel of Salmonella infection. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a known pathogen causing immunosuppression in pigs worldwide. PCV2 infected pigs may be predisposed to salmonellosis. In this report, rectal stenosis was observed in 160 pigs from a herd that experienced an outbreak of enteric salmonellosis over a 4-month period. Distension of the abdominal wall and diarrhea were the main clinical signs observed. Five animals were analyzed showing annular cicatrization of the rectal wall 5.0-7.0 cm anterior to the anorectal junction and Salmonella-positive immunostaining in the large intestine. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from fragments of the large intestine. Porcine circovirus type 2 antigen was observed in the mesenteric lymph-node in 4 pigs and in the large intestine in 3 pigs.

  6. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium associated with rodents purchased at retail pet stores--United States, December 2003-October 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-06

    During 2004, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) Public Health Laboratory notified CDC about the isolation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from ill hamsters from a Minnesota pet distributor. This report describes two of the first identified human cases associated with this outbreak, summarizes the multistate investigation of human S. Typhimurium infections associated with exposure to rodents (e.g., hamsters, mice, and rats) purchased at pet stores, and highlights methods for reducing Salmonella transmission from pet rodents to their owners. This is the first documented salmonellosis outbreak associated with pet rodents. Findings demonstrate that the handling of pet rodents is a potential health risk, especially for children. Public health practitioners should consider pet rodents a potential source of salmonellosis.

  7. An outbreak of multiple serotypes of salmonella in New Zealand linked to consumption of contaminated tahini imported from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Shevaun; Thornley, Craig; Wilson, Maurice; Dufour, Muriel; Sexton, Kerry; Miller, Jim; King, Grant; Bell, Stephen; Bandaranayake, Don; Mackereth, Graham

    2014-11-01

    A widespread salmonellosis outbreak linked to consumption of hummus made from contaminated tahini imported from Turkey occurred in New Zealand in November 2012. This article summarizes the outbreak detection, investigation, and control. The New Zealand Enteric Reference Laboratory alerted public health units regarding a cluster of 11 persons with Salmonella Montevideo infection identified from different regions of the North Island of New Zealand. A multiagency outbreak investigation commenced to determine the source of illness and prevent further transmission. Salmonellosis is a notifiable disease in New Zealand. Outbreak cases were identified through routine salmonellosis notifications, and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to identify common exposures. Clinical and food isolates were initially characterized by serotyping and then further typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE profiles were sent to PulseNet and international alerts were posted. The scope of the investigation widened to include persons with either Salmonella Maastricht and Salmonella Mbandaka infection following detection of these serotypes in tahini epidemiologically linked to laboratory-confirmed cases. All three of the tahini-associated serotypes were detected in people who had consumed tahini, and these were found to have PFGE profiles indistinguishable from the tahini isolates. Twenty-seven salmonellosis cases infected with at least one of the three tahini-associated Salmonella serotypes were detected between September 1 and December 31, 2012; of these, 16 (59%) cases (12 with Salmonella Montevideo, 3 with Salmonella Mbandaka, and 1 with Salmonella Maastricht infection) had PFGE patterns indistinguishable from the outbreak profile. The investigation led to a trade withdrawal and consumer recall for tahini sesame paste from the consignment and products containing this tahini. The outbreak ceased following the recall. The importer of the implicated tahini was

  8. Application of Molecular Approaches for Understanding Foodborne Salmonella Establishment in Poultry Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ricke, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellosis in the United States is one of the most costly foodborne diseases. Given that Salmonella can originate from a wide variety of environments, reduction of this organism at all stages of poultry production is critical. Salmonella species can encounter various environmental stress conditions which can dramatically influence their survival and colonization. Current knowledge of Salmonella species metabolism and physiology in relation to colonization is traditionally based on studies ...

  9. “SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE CHOLERAESUIS, A RARE PATHOGEN – REPORT OF TWO CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa R; Sunanda A; Usha S; Sara S; Shashikant H.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is well known clinical en tity. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis, septicemia and meningitis caused by different nontyphoidal salmonellae have been reported in the past. S. choleraesuis is the hig hly swine adapted serotype of salmonella causing swine paratyphoid. It is extremely invasive and may be isolated from other animals, including man. We report two cases of S. cholerasuis infections, o ne in electric burn wound and the ...

  10. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 12,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    committee consisted E. co~i, CZoatridium dificiZe, Campylobacter of Dr. Herman W. Wan Landuyt, St. John’s jejuni , cholera, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis...causative agents identification of other disease agents of diarrhea . With full implementation and offer exciting uses for newly expanding of the WHO...disease mechanisms for and diarrhea by enterotoxigenic E. coi the design of new prophylactic or thera- in an infant rabbit model. peutic agents, he

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Whiley; Beverley Clarke; Kirstin Ross

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not h...

  12. Salmonella Interaction with and Passage through the Intestinal Mucosa: Through the Lens of the Organism

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within t...

  13. [The microbiological aspects of using enterosorbents in acute intestinal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L G

    1993-07-01

    We observed 60 patients with acute Flexner's dysentery and salmonellosis. Complex treatment included enterosorbents; enterosgel, activated carbon and polyfepan. The results showed that co-administration of enterosgel as compared to that of activated carbon and polyfepan resulted in more vigorous elimination of pathogens. In patients with acute dysentery enterosgel when used at the background of nitroflurane therapy potentiated the latter. Enterosorbents improved also body resistance in enteric infections.

  14. Public health and pork and pork products: regional perspectives of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1997-01-01

    An ambitious programme to eliminate pork as an important source of human salmonellosis was initiated in Denmark in 1993 by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. The programme comprises control of feedmills, breeding and multiplying herds, slaughter herds and slaughter plants, as well a...... demonstrated in 3% of slaughter pigs, though the importance of pork as a source of infection is probably very low. Denmark is officially free from Brucella abortus, B. melitensis and Mycobacterium bovis....

  15. Salmonella typhimurium infections associated with a community college microbiology laboratory--Maine, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    On May 2, 2013, a case of salmonellosis was reported to the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The patient reported symptoms of diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and nausea, after attending a community college microbiology laboratory class. A second case was reported on May 8. Epidemiologic interviews conducted with both patients indicated common exposure at a community college, including one patient specifically naming the other patient.

  16. Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

  17. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojuan Yang; Qingping Wu; Jumei Zhang; Jiahui Huang; Weipeng Guo; Shuzhen Cai

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used t...

  18. Gene co-expression network analysis identifies porcine genes associated with variation in Salmonella shedding

    OpenAIRE

    Kommadath, Arun; Bao, Hua; Arantes, Adriano S.; Plastow, Graham S; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Bearson, Shawn MD; Luo Guan, Le; Stothard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a gram-negative bacterium that can colonise the gut of humans and several species of food producing farm animals to cause enteric or septicaemic salmonellosis. While many studies have looked into the host genetic response to Salmonella infection, relatively few have used correlation of shedding traits with gene expression patterns to identify genes whose variable expression among different individuals may be associated with differences in ...

  19. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey R Hartford; Wills Robert; Kirkpatrick Tasha B; Howe Kevin; Karsi Attila; Lawrence Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler pro...

  20. Mass mortality of eurasian tree sparrows (Passer Montanus) from Salmonella typhimurium dt40 in Japan, winter 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Katsumi; Kubo, Midori; Une, Yumi; Kato, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Asakawa, M; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis in wild passerines caused mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Hokkaido, Japan, 2005-06; however, the etiology was poorly understood. In winter 2008-09, sparrow mortality again occurred in Hokkaido, and 202 deaths in 100 incidents at 94 sites were reported. We conducted a comprehensive investigation to evaluate the cause and impact on sparrow populations. We collected 26 carcasses at 13 sites, including a zoological park. In addition, Salm...

  1. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.

    2006-01-01

    serotypes isolated from animal feed and/or food-producing animals based on their detection in humans; a semiquantitative ranking of serotypes by the apparent differences in their public health impact; and an estimate of the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis that can be attributed...... through the consumption of Danish pork and beef. We concluded that more than 90% of serotypes have the potential, if they occur in feedstuffs, for infecting humans via production animals or foods of animal origin....

  2. [Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection presenting as a retrocecal mass in an 8-year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle Mbou, V; Vu Thien, H; Thuilleux, G; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Grand d'Esnon, A; Coulomb, A

    2010-11-01

    Minor salmonellosis is due to Gram-negative bacilli, which usually cause enterocolitis with potentially severe complications. We report on a case of a clinically uncommon presentation of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection in an 8-year-old child who presented with acute abdominal pain. We discuss clinically uncommon presentations of salmonella disease in children, as well as its pathology and radiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. DNA-Based diagnostic tests for Salmonella strains targeting hilA, agfA, spvC and sef Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunafl, C.; Keul, A. L.; Flonta, M.; Cristea, M.

    2009-07-01

    Salmoneleae are invasive enteropathogens of humans and animals. During the past decade, a dramatic increase in the occurrence of Salmonella spp infections was principally responsible for the rise of food-borne salmonellosis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the, hilA, agfA, spvC, sef, gene amplification by PCR as a specific method for detection of Salmonella strains. (Author)

  4. Audouin's gull, a potential vehicle of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella Agona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antilles, Noelia; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup

    2015-01-01

    as those being used to treat severe salmonellosis in humans. Whole genome sequencing revealed the strain being multilocus sequence type ST13, and eight resistance genes (aadA2, aadB, bla(CTX-M-9), bla(DHA-1), qnrA1, tetA, sul1 and dfrA16) belonging to seven antimicrobial classes were confirmed, as well...

  5. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 4, Number 5, July/August 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Valley Fever 0 0 0 Guillain - Barre Syndrome 1 2 3 RMSF 0 3 3 H. influenzae, inv. 1 0 1 Rubella 0 0 0 Heat exhaustion 3 38 41 Salmonellosis 35 55...and nausea. He had been diagnosed with a viral syndrome by his unit’s medics and treated with aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen without relief...e.g., chemoprophylaxis), diagnostic evaluations (e.g. differential diagnoses), and treatments (e.g., antibiotic resistance) inherently depend on

  6. Using surveillance and monitoring data of different origins in a Salmonella source attribution model: a European Union example with challenges and proposed solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2015-01-01

    , requiring special data management to produce a standardized dataset. Salmonellosis data on animals and humans were obtained from datasets provided by the European Food Safety Authority. The amount of food available for consumption was calculated based on production and trade data. Limitations included...... information was estimated based on previous years. The resulting dataset included data on 24 serovars in humans, broilers, laying hens, pigs and turkeys in 24 countries....

  7. phoP, SPI1, SPI2 and aroA mutants of Salmonella Enteritidis induce a different immune response in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Elsheimer-Matulova, Marta; Varmuzova, Karolina; Kyrova, Kamila; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rahman, Masudur; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Poultry is the most frequent reservoir of non-typhoid Salmonella enterica for humans. Understanding the interactions between chickens and S. enterica is therefore important for vaccine design and subsequent decrease in the incidence of human salmonellosis. In this study we therefore characterized the interactions between chickens and phoP, aroA, SPI1 and SPI2 mutants of S. Enteritidis. First we tested the response of HD11 chicken macrophage-like cell line to S. Enteritidis infection monitorin...

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SALMONELLA IN PIGS PRE-HARVEST ON SALMONELLA HUMAN HEALTH COSTS AND RISK FROM PORK

    OpenAIRE

    Gay Y. Miller; Liu, Xuanli; Paul E. McNamara; Barber, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonellosis in people is a costly disease, much of it occurring because of food associated exposure. We develop a farm-to-fork model which estimates the pork associated Salmonella risk and human health costs. This analysis focuses on the components of the pork production chain up to the point of producing a chilled pork carcass. Sensitivity and scenario analysis show that changes that occur in Salmonella status during processing are substantially more important for human health risk and hav...

  9. Structure Prediction of Outer Membrane Protease Protein of Salmonella typhimurium Using Computational Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Tabassum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium, a facultative gram-negative intracellular pathogen belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae, is the most frequent cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. PgtE gene product, outer membrane protease emerges important in the intracellular phases of salmonellosis. The pgtE gene product of S. typhimurium was predicted to be capable of proteolyzing T7 RNA polymerase and localize in the outer membrane of these gram negative bacteria. PgtE product of S. enterica and OmpT of E. coli, having high sequence similarity have been revealed to degrade macrophages, causing salmonellosis and other diseases. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was not available through Protein Data Bank (PDB creating lack of structural information about E protein. In our study, by performing Comparative model building, the three dimensional structure of outer membrane protease protein was generated using the backbone of the crystal structure of Pla of Yersinia pestis, retrieved from PDB, with MODELLER (9v8. Quality of the model was assessed by validation tool PROCHECK, web servers like ERRAT and ProSA are used to certify the reliability of the predicted model. This information might offer clues for better understanding of E protein and consequently for developmet of better therapeutic treatment against pathogenic role of this protein in salmonellosis and other diseases.

  10. Detection of Salmonella human carriers in Colombian outbreak areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Restrepo, Hernán; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Diaz-Rodríguez, Sergio; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-03-31

    Salmonellosis, a zoonotic and foodborne disease, is a public health problem in developing countries. With the aim of identifying human carriers of Salmonella, a survey was performed in five regions of Colombia with reported salmonellosis outbreaks. The general population and cholecystectomy surgical patients were included in this study. Stool samples from 667 volunteers and gallbladder bile samples from 199 surgical patients were examined. Detection of Salmonella from cultured stool and bile samples was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multiplex PCR and biochemical and serological tests were performed to identify the serovars of the isolates. Nine (1.35%) stool samples were positive for Salmonella: two S. Newport, two S. Anatum, one S. Sinstorf, and four Salmonella spp. A total of 11 gallbladder bile samples were positive: S. Enteritidis was isolated from 3 bile cultures (1.5%), and 8 samples (4%) were positive for Salmonella spp. Our results show the presence of Salmonella carriers in the inhabitants of regions with reported outbreaks and suggest that these carriers are potential sources of infection in endemic and epidemic cases. Carriers also suggest Salmonella zoonotic transmission, since broiler and beef cattle are hosts to the Salmonella serotypes isolated. It is important to establish the source of infection in regions where salmonellosis is endemic in order to control transmission.

  11. A Multischool Outbreak Due to Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli Associated with Elevated Rates of Hospitalizations and Bacteremia, Milan, Italy, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huedo, Pol; Gori, Maria; Amato, Ettore; Bianchi, Roberta; Valerio, Edgardo; Magnoli, Luigi; Pontello, Mirella

    2016-08-01

    A multischool outbreak of salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli was investigated in the province of Milan from October to November 2014, following an increase in school absenteeism coinciding with two positive cases. Epidemiological studies detected 47 cases in four primary schools: 46 children and 1 adult woman (51.4% males and 48.6% females, median age 8.9). From these, 14 cases (29.8%) were severe and resulted in hospitalization, including 6 children (12.8%) who developed an invasive salmonellosis. The epidemic curve revealed an abnormally long incubation period, peaking 1 week after the first confirmed case. Twenty-five available isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showing an identical pattern. The isolate belongs to ST474, an ST composed exclusively of Salmonella Napoli human strains isolated in France and Italy. Antibiotic resistance analysis showed resistance to aminoglycosides, correlating with the presence of the aminoglycoside resistance gene aadA25 in its genome. Trace-back investigations strongly suggested contaminated ham as the most likely food vehicle, which was delivered by a common food center on 21 October. Nevertheless, this ingredient could not be retrospectively investigated since it was no longer available at the repository. This represents the largest Salmonella Napoli outbreak ever reported in Italy and provides a unique scenario for studying the outcome of salmonellosis caused by this emerging and potentially invasive nontyphoidal serotype.

  12. Factors Associated with Sequelae of Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluwaseun B; Pearce, Madison; van Hecke, Oliver; Roberts, Nia; Collins, Dylan R J; Violato, Mara; McCarthy, Noel; Perera, Rafael; Fanshawe, Thomas R

    2017-02-01

    Despite the significant global burden of gastroenteritis and resulting sequelae, there is limited evidence on risk factors for sequelae development. We updated and extended previous systematic reviews by assessing the role of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and symptom severity in the development of sequelae following campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. We searched four databases, including PubMed, from 1 January 2011 to 29 April 2016. Observational studies reporting sequelae of reactive arthritis (ReA), Reiter's syndrome (RS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following gastroenteritis were included. The primary outcome was incidence of sequelae of interest amongst cases of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. A narrative synthesis was conducted where heterogeneity was high. Of the 55 articles included, incidence of ReA (n=37), RS (n=5), IBS (n=12) and GBS (n=9) were reported following campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis. A pooled summary for each sequela was not estimated due to high level of heterogeneity across studies (I2>90%). PPI usage and symptoms were sparsely reported. Three out of seven studies found a statistically significant association between antibiotics usage and development of ReA. Additional primary studies investigating risk modifying factors in sequelae of GI infections are required to enable targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Selected Bacterial Infections Associated with the Use of Animal Waste in Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. Health concerns could arise from exposure to pathogens and excess nitrogen associated with this form of pollution. The objective was to collect and analyze health data related to selected bacterial infections associated with the use of animal waste in Louisiana. An analysis of adverse health effects has been conducted based on the incidence/prevalence rates of campylobacteriosis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, salmonellosis and shigellosis. The number of reported cases increased during the summer months. Analysis of health data showed that reported disease cases of E. coli O157:H7 were highest among Caucasian infants in the 0-4 year old age category and in Caucasian children in the 5-9 year old age category. Fatalities resulting from salmonellosis are low and increases sharply with age. The number of reported cases of shigellosis was found to be higher in African American males and females than in Caucasians. The high rate of identification in the younger population may result from the prompt seeking of medical care, as well as the frequent ordering of stool examination when symptoms become evident among this group of the population. The association with increasing age and fatality due to salmonellosis could be attributed to declining health and weaker immune systems often found in the older population. It is concluded that both animal waste and non-point source pollution may have a significant impact on human health.

  14. Salmonella Virchow and Salmonella Weltevreden in a random survey of the Asian house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, in houses in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Zak; Thomas, Annette; Melrose, Wayne; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow is the most common cause of invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis in North Queensland, particularly in infants, but the zoonotic source is unknown. This study aimed at determining (i) the prevalence of the introduced Asian house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, in houses in North Queensland and (ii) whether they were a potential source of Salmonella Virchow. Asian house geckos were collected in a random survey of houses in Townsville, North Queensland. Gut contents underwent microbiological analysis within 2  h of removal using both direct plating and enrichment broth methods. Any organism found to be a presumptive Salmonella spp. was then sent to a reference lab for confirmation of genus/species, serotyping, and phage typing if indicated. One hundred Asian house geckos were collected from 57 houses. Geckos were present in 100% of houses surveyed, and prevalence of Salmonella in large intestinal contents was 7% (95% confidence interval 2, 12%). Three serotypes were found: Virchow (phage type 8), Weltevreden, and an untypable subspecies 1 serotype 11:-:1,7. Since Salmonella Virchow (phage type 8) is associated with invasive disease, the introduced Asian house gecko may play a significant role in the epidemiology of sporadic salmonellosis in places invaded by these peridomestic reptiles. These results justify more detailed epidemiological studies on the role of the Asian house gecko in sporadic salmonellosis and development of evidence-based strategies to decrease this potential zoonotic hazard.

  15. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. in duck eggs on sale at retail or from catering in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M; Jorgensen, F; Willis, C; McLauchlin, J; Elviss, N; Aird, H; Fox, A; Kaye, M; Lane, C; de Pinna, E

    2016-11-01

    Since 2010, human salmonellosis outbreaks in the UK have been detected as associated with the consumption of duck eggs. Little data are available on the rate of occurrence of Salmonella in duck eggs. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in duck eggs on sale and from catering in England during 2011, particularly those from small-scale production. All samples were collected independently of human salmonellosis outbreak investigations. Composite samples of 6-10 eggs (shells and contents were examined separately) were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. using the ISO 6579:2002 method. Salmonella spp. was recovered from two of 145 samples (1·4%). In one sample, Salmonella Typhimurium DT 8 was isolated from the shells while Salm. Typhimurium DT 8 and Salm. Typhimurium DT30 were isolated from the contents. Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 was isolated from the egg shells only in the second contaminated sample. This study provides baseline data for risk assessors, regulators and the food industry and may be helpful in communicating risks associated with the consumption of this product as well as evaluating risk management options to control food safety including vaccination of ducks. Human salmonellosis outbreaks in England and Northern Ireland due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 have been identified as associated with the consumption of duck eggs since 2010. This study has shown that Salmonella spp. was detected in 1·4% of ducks egg samples providing baseline data for risk assessors, regulators and the food industry. This may be helpful in communicating risks associated with the consumption of this product as well as evaluating risk management options to control food safety including vaccination of ducks. © 2016 Crown copyright. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Climate variability, weather and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand: time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluating the influence of climate variability on enteric disease incidence may improve our ability to predict how climate change may affect these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between regional climate variability and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand. METHODS: Associations between monthly climate and enteric diseases (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis were investigated using Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA models. RESULTS: No climatic factors were significantly associated with campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, with similar predictive power for univariate and multivariate models. Cryptosporidiosis was positively associated with average temperature of the previous month (β =  0.130, SE =  0.060, p <0.01 and inversely related to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI two months previously (β =  -0.008, SE =  0.004, p <0.05. By contrast, salmonellosis was positively associated with temperature (β  = 0.110, SE = 0.020, p<0.001 of the current month and SOI of the current (β  = 0.005, SE = 0.002, p<0.050 and previous month (β  = 0.005, SE = 0.002, p<0.05. Forecasting accuracy of the multivariate models for cryptosporidiosis and salmonellosis were significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: Although spatial heterogeneity in the observed patterns could not be assessed, these results suggest that temporally lagged relationships between climate variables and national communicable disease incidence data can contribute to disease prediction models and early warning systems.

  17. Characterisation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from wild birds in northern England from 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pinna Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that a number of serovars of Salmonella enterica may be isolated from wild birds, and it has been suggested that wild birds may play a role in the epidemiology of human and livestock salmonellosis. However, little is known about the relationship between wild bird S. enterica strains and human- and livestock- associated strains in the United Kingdom. Given the zoonotic potential of salmonellosis, the main aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. enterica infections in wild birds in the north of England and, in particular, to determine if wild bird isolates were similar to those associated with disease in livestock or humans. Results Thirty two Salmonella enterica isolates were collected from wild birds in northern England between February 2005 and October 2006, of which 29 were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium; one S. Newport, one S. Senftenberg, and one isolate could not be classified by serotyping. Further analysis through phage typing and macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that wild passerine deaths associated with salmonellosis were caused by closely-related S. Typhimurium isolates, some of which were clonal. These isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, capable of invading and persisting within avian macrophage-like HD11 cells in vitro, and contained a range of virulence factors associated with both systemic and enteric infections of birds and mammals. However, all the isolates lacked the sopE gene associated with some human and livestock disease outbreaks caused by S. Typhimurium. Conclusion The wild bird isolates of S. enterica characterised in this investigation may not represent a large zoonotic risk. Molecular characterisation of isolates suggested that S. Typhimurium infection in wild passerines is maintained within wild bird populations and the causative strains may be host-adapted.

  18. Salmonella meningitis and septicaemia in an non-immunocompromised adult, associated with a cluster of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 14b, Ireland, November 2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OhAiseadha, C O

    2010-01-01

    We report a fatal case of meningitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b in a middle-aged man who had no history or findings to suggest he was immunocompromised. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Salmonella meningitis in an adult in Ireland, and the first case of meningitis in an adult caused by phage type 14b. This case was associated with a nationwide cluster of salmonellosis which is still under investigation at the time of writing.

  19. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...... to estimate the burden of human disease attributable to pets and to identify risk behaviours facilitating transmission, and (3) education of those in charge of pets, animal caretakers, veterinarians and human medical healthcare practitioners on the potential zoonotic risks associated with exposure to pets...

  20. The attribution of human infections with antimicrobial resistant Salmonella bacteria in Denmark to sources of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M. A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2007-01-01

    that of resistant isolates, which in turn was higher than that of susceptible isolates. This may be due to quinolone-resistant isolates having a higher ability to survive food processing and/or cause disease. This study showed domestic food to be the most important source of Salmonella infections in Denmark......Based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance in 2000-2001, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Domestic food products accounted for 53.1% of all cases, mainly caused...

  1. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella among humans in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andoh, Linda Aurelia; Ahmed, Shabana; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a public health problem worldwide and particularly in Africa with high disease burden. This study characterized Salmonella isolates from humans in Ghana to determine serovar distribution, phage types, and antimicrobial resistance. Further, the clonal...... related to patterns of poultry isolates obtained in a previous study in Ghana. Conclusions Cephalosporin resistance is uncommon among Salmonella from humans in Ghana. Poultry may be an important source of human salmonellosis. There is an urgent need for the implementation of routine surveillance...... of antimicrobial use and bacterial resistance among humans in Ghana....

  2. [The incidence of Salmonella in the chorizos that are retailed in Acapulco, Guerrero].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Pérez, L A; Abarca Mateos, C

    1991-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are one of the most serious health problems in the Mexican Republic, and salmonellosis is one of the most prominent therein. With the objective of finding out how chorizos function as carriers of this disease, samples were taken from stores and supermarkets in Acapulco, Guerrero. 221 samples were collected to investigate the presence of Salmonella. These were biochemically examined by means of established techniques from Mexico's Secretary of Health. The results, which are in agreement with other authors, show a contamination of 40.7%.

  3. High occurrence and unusual serotype diversity of non-typhoidal Salmonella in non-clinical niches, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Campos, J; Mourão, J; Ribeiro, T G; Novais, C; Peixe, L

    2017-04-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella is an important burden, particularly in developing countries of the African region. We report for the first time in Angola, a sub-Saharan African country with commercial/travel relationships with Europe, an unexpectedly high occurrence of Salmonella (n = 12/63, 19%) from a high diversity of sources, particularly farm and wild animals. The detection of diverse serotypes (n = 12), involving putative new S. enterica subsp. salamae serotypes, is also of note, reinforcing the need for a comprehensive surveillance in Angola critical to identify animal/food/environmental sources of salmonellosis with impact on animal health, local people, tourists and exported products.

  4. [Biological agents in animal breeding: an ancient but still relevant risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellere, F; Cucchi, I; Somaruga, C; Brambilla, G; Colosio, C

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural activities expose workers to biological risk, due to the close contact that could occur with pathogens' reservoirs, such as soil, animals, manure and animal products. The paper describes factors that have contributed on the reduction or eradication of zoonoses, such as brucellosis, salmonellosis and bovine tuberculosis (monitoring and prevention of animal infectious diseases, industrialization and mechanization of agricultural activities), and on the other hand the emergence of new risks and new diseases (adaptability of microorganisms, generation of new strains, antibiotic resistance, dissemination of vectors). The role of Occupational Medicine in the prevention of zoonoses is discussed.

  5. A Review of Rabbit Diseases in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013. The review will highlight the viral infection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, bacterial disease of colibacillosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, staphylococcosis and listeriosis and parasitic infection of coccidiosis and mange.

  6. Pneumonia associated with Salmonella spp. infection in a cat receiving cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, C; Palermo, G; Greco, M F; Corrente, M; Piseddu, E; Auriemma, E; Zini, E

    2014-10-01

    Salmonellosis is uncommon in cats, usually affects the gastrointestinal tract or skin, and can be fatal. This report describes a domestic shorthair cat with severe pneumonia caused by Salmonella spp. without accompanying gastrointestinal or skin manifestations, in which previous administration of cyclosporine may have played a permissive role in its development. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as follow-up are described from diagnosis until complete recovery. This unusual presentation serves to alert practitioners to consider Salmonella spp. as a possible cause of lung disease in cats, especially if immunocompromised.

  7. SENSITIVITY TO ANTIBIOTICS AMONG STRAINS OF SALMONELLA CURRENT, WHICH CIRCULATES IN THE PAST 10 YEARS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Bubalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main results of the sensitivity to antibiotics on S. Typhimurium, S. strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and rare groups that circulate in Ukraine last 10 years were described. The unifying disc-fusion method determined the sensitivity of Salmonella strains to several antibiotics. Resistance to antibiotics of strains of Salmonella was caused by the lack of effective influence of drugs on salmonellosis. The obtained results revealed antibiotics with a strong antimicrobial action and a narrow focus on strains of Salmonella.

  8. Multidrug-resistance and presence of class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, circulating in Armenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedrakyan, Anahit M.; Arakelova, K. A.; Zakaryan, Magdalina K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was detection of class 1 integrons and their contribution to the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes in strains of subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis. S. Enteritidis strains (n = 29) were isolated from patients with salmonellosis at “Nork” Clinical Hospital of Infectious...... Diseases, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. High prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotypes was revealed and isolates with MDR phenotypes which are rare in the S. Enteritidis serotype were observed. Class 1 integrons were detected in 27,6% of isolates, with the prevalence of a variable region of 1000...

  9. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic......, conventional outdoor and indoor finishing pig herds in a Danish survey with participation of 34 herds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 30 to 50 pigs per herd before and after transport to slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. Further meat juice samples were collected from...

  10. Typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul: an outbreak investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Christensen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    recovered from production animals. Presence of the O:5 factor and absence of plasmids in human and porcine isolates pointed to pork as the source of infection, whereas human isolates and all Danish isolates from turkeys had the same ribotype, indicating that turkey was the infection source. A possible......During the summer of 1993 an outbreak of human salmonellosis caused by Salmonella serovar Saintpaul occurred in Denmark. A total of 35 isolates originating from pigs, turkeys and imported foodstuffs, and 10 human isolates were compared following their characterization by agglutination of the O:5...

  11. AVALIAÇÃO SOROLÓGICA DE Parainfluenzavirus Tipo 1, Salmonella spp., Mycoplasma spp. E Toxoplasma gondii EM AVES SILVESTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Marietto Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease, salmonellosis and mycoplamosis are the most important infectious diseases in poultry. Toxoplamosis is a common disease in urban environment. The present study investigated serologic evidence of these diseases in captive and wildlife birds, with rapid plate agglutination test, haemagglutination inhibition test, and modified agglutination test. In a total of 117 blood serum samples, 20 showed the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Salmonella spp. antibodies. Amazona aestiva was the specie with the highest number of positive individuals (13/20. We also verified the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in birds of prey from Mivalgo chimachima and Rupornis magnirostris species.

  12. One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J

    2011-09-01

    Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses.

  13. Survival and Growth of Epidemically Successful and Nonsuccessful Salmonella enterica Clones after Freezing and Dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Karoline; Aabo, Søren; Birk, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The spread of epidemically successful nontyphoidal Salmonella clones has been suggested as the most important cause of salmonellosis in industrialized countries. Factors leading to the emergence of success clones are largely unknown, but their ability to survive and grow after physical stress may...... contribute. During epidemiological studies, a mathematical model was developed that allowed estimation of a factor (q) accounting for the relative ability of Salmonella serovars with different antimicrobial resistances to survive in the food chain and cause human disease. Based on this q-factor, 26...

  14. [Epidemiologic study of 2 S. typhimurium outbreaks using plasmid fingerprints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Breer, C; Schopfer, K

    1989-04-05

    An outbreak of salmonellosis in an old people's home is reported. The infectious agent, S. typhi-murium, was isolated not only from several inmates but also from sick cows of the farm belonging to the home, in animal feed, from employees of the local butcher's shop, and finally in sludge from the local sewage plant. Plasmid analysis provided evidence of a common origin for the isolated S. typhi-murium strains. The incriminated strains harboured, together with two low-molecular-weight plasmids, a plasmid of approximately 50 Mdal, which was also demonstrated in some other S. typhi-murium strains isolated from clinical cases in the area around St. Gallen.

  15. [Concerning changes of oral cavity mucous tunic in acute enteric infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, B P; Sorokina, A A

    2008-01-01

    The authors represented the results of oral cavity stomatological examination in 171 patients with acute enteric infection (AEI): shigellosis, salmonellosis etc in dynamics of disease. These patients had first diagnosed inflammatory changes of oral cavity mucous tunic: catarrhal gingivitis, catarrhal and benign migratory glossitis, aphthous stomatitis with submandibular lymphadenitis. These changes were accompanied by aggravation of herpetic infection or its debut, candidosis. Lesions of oral cavity mucous tunic in patients with AEI are particular manifestation of infectious process. In acute period patients with AEI have to be examined by stomatologist.

  16. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...... of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.......Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples......% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica...

  17. [Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks: a review of the routes that favor bacterial presence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M Laura; Paiva, Analía; Tornese, Mariela; Chianelli, Sabrina; Troncoso, Alcides

    2008-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes serious invasive illness, mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and neonates. L. monocytogenes primarily causes abortion, septicaemia or infections of the central nervous systems. Listeriosis outbreaks have mostly been linked to consumption of raw milk or cheese made of unpasteurized milk. Previous outbreaks of listeriosis have been linked to a variety of foods especially processed meats (such as hot dogs, deli meats, and páté). The public health importance of listeriosis is not always recognized, particularly since listeriosis is a relatively rare disease compared with other common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. However, because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to foodborne illness: second after salmonellosis. Changes in the manner food is produced, distributed and stored have created the potential for widespread outbreaks involving many countries. The pasteurization of raw milk, which destroys L. monocytogenes, does not eliminate later risk of L. monocytogenes contamination in dairy products. Extensive work has been ongoing in many countries during the last decade to prevent outbreaks and decrease the incidence of listeriosis. A marked reduction has occurred in its incidence in some of these countries during the 1990s, suggesting a relationship between preventive measures and reduction on human cases listeriosis.

  18. Apparent seroprevalence of Salmonella spp. in harp seals in the Greenland Sea as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschfalk, A; Folkow, L; Rud, H; Denzin, N

    2002-10-01

    An indirect ELISA was developed as a possible tool for surveillance of the seroprevalence of Salmonella spp. in harp seals. This species is hunted for human consumption and thus transmission of disease to humans cannot be excluded. To cover a broad spectrum of serogroups, a mixture of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of S. typhimurium and S. choleraesuis was used as the antigen in this pilot study. Chicken anti-harp-seal immunoglobulin horseradish peroxidase conjugate served as the immunoconjugate. Sera from four captive harp seals, which were Salmonella culture-negative and had no clinical or historical evidence of salmonellosis, were used as negative controls. After immunization with an inactivated S. typhimurium vaccine, further sera from these seals were used as positive controls, as no serum from naturally infected animals was available. Serum samples from 93 harp seals caught in the Greenland sea in 1999 were examined, and anti-Salmonella antibodies were found in the samples from two individuals (seroprevalence 2.2%). Although Salmonella has been isolated from other pinniped species, this is the first documentation of Salmonella-seropositive harp seals. This study contributes to the evaluation of the importance of salmonellosis in arctic marine mammals and thus to the prevention of potential outbreaks of this important zoonosis.

  19. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  20. Multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections linked to live poultry from agricultural feed stores and mail-order hatcheries, United States 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C. Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Live poultry-associated salmonellosis is an emerging public health issue in the United States. Public and animal health officials collaborated to investigate one of the largest (356 cases, 39 states of these outbreaks reported to date. A case was defined as illness in a person infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium with illness onset between 1 March and 22 October 2013. The median patient age was seven years (range: <1–87 years; 58% of ill persons were children ≤10 years, 51% were female, 25% were hospitalized; 189 (76% of 250 patients reported live poultry exposure in the week before illness; and 149 (95% of 157 reported purchasing live poultry from agricultural feed stores. Traceback investigations identified 18 live poultry sources, including 16 mail-order hatcheries. Environmental sampling was conducted at two mail-order hatcheries. One (2.5% of 40 duplicate samples collected at one hatchery yielded the outbreak strain. Live poultry are an important source of human salmonellosis, particularly among children, highlighting the need for educational campaigns and comprehensive interventions at the mail-order hatchery and agricultural feed store levels. Prevention and control efforts depend on a One Health approach, involving cooperation between public and animal health officials, industry, health professionals, and consumers.

  1. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial efficacy of Lactobacilli against enteropathogenic infection of Salmonella typhi: In-vitro and in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaya, Basem; Hamzawy, Mohamed A; Khalil, Mahmoud A F; Tawkol, Wael M; Sabit, Hussein

    2015-12-01

    Salmonellosis-induced diarrhea, is one of the commonest cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. Using of probiotics is viewed as a promising means for reducing the pathogenic loads of bacterial infection. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy of isolated lactobacillus strains against the enteropathogenic effect of S. Typhi. Different Lactobacillus strains were isolated from 13 dairy products. Their antimicrobial activities were tested against different bacterial strains. Six groups of CD1 mice were treated for 8 days as follows: group (1) untreated control; group (2) was challenged with single inoculation S. typhi, and groups (3) and (4) were treated with Lactobacillus plantarum (LA5) or Lactobacillus paracsi (LA7) for 7 days, respectively. Groups (5) and (6) were challenged with S. typhi, and then treated with either LA5 or LA 7 for 7 days, respectively. Isolated Lactobacillus showed antimicrobial activity against wide range of bacterial strains. Salmonellosis showed high widal titer, induced significant disturbance of TNF and IL-1β, while sever changes of the histological patterns of the intestinal villi and hepatocytes have been illustrated. LA5 or LA7 succeeded to eradicate typhoid infection, restore the values of inflammatory cytokines to typical levels of control group, and improve histological pictures of intestinal and hepatic tissues. It can be concluded that lactobacilli are promising candidate in protection and eradication against bacterial infection induced by S. Typhi due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Wild-Caught and Farm-Reared Amphibians are Important Reservoirs of Salmonella, A Study in North-East Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Poonlaphdecha, S

    2017-03-01

    The role of amphibians as Salmonella reservoirs has not been as well studied as in reptiles, where the literature is abundant. Recent outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with exotic pet frogs have occurred in United States. Frog farming and wild frog harvesting have increased the international trade in these species. This necessitates a better understanding of the risk of salmonellosis transmission from amphibians to humans. We explored the presence of Salmonella in amphibians (frogs and toads) in Thailand, where farmed and wild frogs as well as toads are present. These live animals are easily found in the local markets and are used as food. Exportation of frog meat from Thailand is common. During March-June 2014, ninety-seven frogs were collected from several habitats, including frog farms, urban areas and protected natural areas. The collected amphibians were tested for the presence of Salmonella. The overall prevalence of Salmonella was 69.07% (90.00% in farm animals, 0% in urban area animals and 44.83% in protected area animals). Eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated: subsp. diarizonae ser. 50:k:z, Hvittingfoss, Muenchen, Newport, Stanley, Thompson, Panama and Wandsworth. Six of the identified serovars, Hvittingfoss, Newport, Panama, Stanley, Thompson and Wandsworth, have been detected in humans in Thailand. According to our results, amphibians are reservoirs of Salmonella and can be a public health concern when used as a source of protein for humans. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Characterization of Resistance Genes and Plasmids from Outbreaks and Illness Clusters Caused by Salmonella Resistant to Ceftriaxone in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folster, Jason P; Grass, Julian E; Bicknese, Amelia; Taylor, Julia; Friedman, Cindy R; Whichard, Jean M

    2017-03-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, quickly identifying the source of these infections can be difficult, and source identification is a crucial step in preventing additional illnesses. Although most infections are self-limited, invasive salmonellosis may require antimicrobial treatment. Ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, is commonly used for treatment of salmonellosis. Previous studies have identified a correlation between the food animal/retail meat source of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella and the type of resistance gene and plasmid it carries. In this study, we examined seven outbreaks of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections, caused by serotypes Typhimurium, Newport, Heidelberg, and Infantis. All isolates were positive for a plasmid-encoded bla CMY gene. Plasmid incompatibility typing identified five IncI1 and two IncA/C plasmids. Both outbreaks containing bla CMY -IncA/C plasmids were linked to consumption of cattle products. Three of five outbreaks with bla CMY -IncI1 (ST12) plasmids were linked to a poultry source. The remaining IncI1 outbreaks were associated with ground beef (ST20) and tomatoes (ST12). In addition, we examined isolates from five unsolved clusters of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections and used our plasmid-encoded gene findings to predict the source. Overall, we identified a likely association between the source of ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella outbreaks and the type of resistance gene/plasmid it carries.

  4. Antibacterial activity of medicinal herb extracts against Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Hyun Ae; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Park, Hyun; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Youn-Chul; Eo, Seong-Kug; Kang, Ho-Young; Kim, Sam-Woong; Lee, John Hwa

    2006-10-01

    The therapeutic potentials of twenty-two medicinal herb species traditionally used in Korea to treat gastrointestinal infections were evaluated for the treatment of salmonellosis. Candidates were primarily screened using the disk-agar method for antibacterial activity against three different Salmonella serotypes. Of the herbs tested, the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Schizandrae Fructus exhibited antibacterial activity against all three Salmonella. The extracts of this herb were further tested against 13 additional Salmonella strains of 6 different serotypes. All of these strains were also affected by these extracts, though the methanolic extract had slightly higher activity. The MIC values of this extract against the 16 Salmonella strains varied from 15.6 to 125 microg/ml. Nine of the 16 strains tested had MIC values of damages were rarely observed in the treated mice, whereas the untreated controls showed clinical signs, e.g., lethargy, and histological damage in the kidney, liver, intestine, and spleen. We conclude that Schizandrae Fructus has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis.

  5. Thermal resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips, nugget meat and pelleted broiler feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Oliver; D'Aoust, J-Y; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-31

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips available at retail and prepared at home before consumption have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting food-borne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis from consumption of these products may be due, in part, to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. In this study the thermal resistances of Salmonella strains isolated from chicken nuggets and strips, chicken nugget/strip meat and broiler feed were determined to assess whether they exhibited enhanced thermal resistance. Thermal resistances (D- and z- values) of 7 cocktails (25 isolates, 4 serovars) were determined in commercially prepared irradiation-treated chicken nugget/strip meat blend, and heated in a constant temperature waterbath. The thermal resistances found were lower than those reported for similar strains in the literature. D-values ranged from 6.93 to 0.12 min at 55 and 62 degrees C respectively, with z-values from 4.10 to 5.17 degrees C. Two strains of S. Enteritidis separately isolated from pelleted feed and chicken nugget meat blend, with indistinguishable geno- and phenotypes, had lower (and probably identical) thermal resistances than the other isolates. Results indicated that the strains of Salmonella isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips and pelleted broiler feed did not exhibit unusually high thermal resistance, and that normal heating (71 degrees C) prior to consumption should eliminate these organisms from chicken nuggets/strips.

  6. Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens in the region of Triângulo Mineiro, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CBC Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian salmonellosis and mycoplasmosis are infectious diseases that, in addition of causing lack of flock uniformity, represent a hazard to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of mycoplasmosis and salmonellosis in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens slaughtered at a processing plant with local health inspection in Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. A total of 210 samples were randomly collected at the time of bleeding. Samples were submitted to rapid plate serum agglutination test (RSA for the classification of Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. In order to increase result specificity, mycoplasmosis-positive samples were submitted to hemagglutination inhibition test (HI. No samples presented detectable antibodies against Salmonella pullorum or Salmonella gallinarum in the RSA test. Only Mycoplasma synoviae was detected in 14% of the backyard chickens and 0.74% in commercial broilers, whereas no antibodies were detected in spent hens. The seroprevalence rates found in the present study emphasize the need of keeping chicken flocks free from disease using effective biosafety systems.

  7. [Quantitative microbiological risk assessment of Salmonella spp. in connmmon catering foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong-xiang; Liu, Xiu-mei

    2008-05-01

    To study the relationship between foodborne diseases (FBD) and contamination of Salmonella spp. in catering foods, quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) of Salmonella spp. was used to evaluate the food material or the ready to eat food. The contamination data of Salmonella spp. in 10 896 food samples of 9 categories of food which were collected by National Food Contamination and Food Borne Disease Surveillance Net, combining with diet consumption data from National Food Nutrition Survey in 2002, were analyzed by the microbiological risk assessment model developed by WHO/FAO or FDA/FSIS of US to predict probability of FBD. The results of MRA showed that the probability of salmonellosis by consuming ready to eat meat in summer and autumn was 0.20, much higher than the other foods. Although the contamination level in raw poultry was higher than meat, the probability of salmonellosis by raw poultry (9.11 x 10(-6)) was lower than meat (3.14 x 10(-5)) because of the low consumption volume. Probability of FBD was significantly correlated with the volume of food consumption, the status of economy and bacteria contamination level. The level of FBD in summer season was higher than in winter and spring because of ambient temperature.

  8. SEROTYPES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA ISOLATED FROM PORK, CHICKEN MEAT AND LETTUCE, BANGKOK AND CENTRAL THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyomdecha, Nattamon; Mungkornkaew, Narissara; Samosornsuk, Worada

    2016-01-01

    Food of animal origins, particularly pork and chicken meat, has long been recognized as major sources of human salmonellosis. There have been recent reports of human salmonellosis outbreaks due to consumption of leafy green vegetables such as lettuce. In this study, 120 (40 pork, 40 chicken meat and 40 lettuce) samples were randomly collected from retail markets in Bangkok and central Thailand during June to August 2015 for Salmonella serotype identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Salmonella was found in 82%, 62% and 20% of pork, chicken meat and lettuce samples, respectively. The top 5 most common Salmonella serotypes were Panama (15%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Rissen, Anatum, and Stanley (11% each), Albany (9%), and Indiana (8%). A high percentage of Salmonella isolated from food of animal origin were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. From antibiogram pattern analysis, the most common serotypes constituted isolates that were multidrug resistant. The study indicates that Salmonella was still present in various kinds of food and that certain serotypes have become predominant, a phenomenon not previously reported in Thailand.

  9. Visual analytics for epidemiologists: understanding the interactions between age, time, and disease with multi-panel graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K H Chui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual analytics, a technique aiding data analysis and decision making, is a novel tool that allows for a better understanding of the context of complex systems. Public health professionals can greatly benefit from this technique since context is integral in disease monitoring and biosurveillance. We propose a graphical tool that can reveal the distribution of an outcome by time and age simultaneously. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce and demonstrate multi-panel (MP graphs applied in four different settings: U.S. national influenza-associated and salmonellosis-associated hospitalizations among the older adult population (≥65 years old, 1991-2004; confirmed salmonellosis cases reported to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health for the general population, 2004-2005; and asthma-associated hospital visits for children aged 0-18 at Milwaukee Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, 1997-2006. We illustrate trends and anomalies that otherwise would be obscured by traditional visualization techniques such as case pyramids and time-series plots. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: MP graphs can weave together two vital dynamics--temporality and demographics--that play important roles in the distribution and spread of diseases, making these graphs a powerful tool for public health and disease biosurveillance efforts.

  10. Epidemiological significance of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo and the potential role of feed for their entry into the food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal feed is the first link in the food chain and one of the possible source of Salmonella for food producing animals and consequently, humans consuming products of animal origin. The assessment of the importance and role of Salmonella organisms commonly detected in animal feed in epidemic outbreaks of salmonellosis is highly intricate. This is mainly due to the fact that isolates are rarely identified (typed to the serovar level, thus, the relevant data on both animal feed and food of animal origin are lacking. In the framework of the 2-year project granted by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, all Salmonella isolates originating from animal feed were typed to the serovar level in the National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella. Eighteen different serovars have been identified, whereas 15% of all isolates included serovar Montevideo. Frequent isolation of S. ser. Montevideo from animal feed originating from feed mills in our epizootic area (South Bačka and Srem district, encouraged our attempt to summarize and present the available data on the importance of Montevideo serovar in the outbreaks of clinical salmonellosis in humans and to review the reports on individual epidemiological studies aimed at detecting infection sources and establishing relevant facts on emerging antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella. Moreover, this article emphasizes the need and importance of an extensive Salmonella monitoring program at national level, which would encompass all links of the food chain including animal feed and feed processing plants as well.

  11. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  12. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eChirullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028 is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection.Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2 cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in the STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment induces increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 hours post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S.Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets.

  13. Clinical significance of presence of the conjugated Bilopaque in the bowel after oral cholecystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Young; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Kim, Ok Bae; Zeon, Seok Kil; Park, Sam Kyoon [Keimyung University Medical College and Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Oral cholecystography after ingestion of the 3.0 gr. Sodium tyropanoate (Bilopque ) was done in 504 patients from January 1983 to August 1983. Simple supine views of the abdomen of 37 patients, in whom the gallbladder was either nonvisualized or faintly visualized upto 17 hours after Bilopaque administration, were reviewed in search of the presence of conjugated material in the bowel. The results were as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female was nearly 2 : 3 and age distribution was even from 20 years to 79 years. 2. Among 26 cases which showed conjugated Bilopaque in the bowel, cholecystitis with stone was 20 cases (77%) and acalculus cholecystitis was 6 cases (23%). 3. Among 11 case which showed no conjugated Bilopaque in the bowel, hepatitis was 3 caes (28%) and clonorchis sinensis, salmonellosis, pancreatitis, acute gastritis was 2 cases (13%) respectively. 4. All of the 20 cases of cholecystitis with stone showed conjugated Bilopaque in the bowel. 5. Among 6 cases of which conjugated Bilopaque in the bowel, salmonellosis was 1 case (17%) and remaining 5 caes (83%) were acalculus cholecystitis. 6. The result of our study show that the presence of conjugated Bilpaque in the bowel in nonvisualized or faintly visualized gallbladder after oral cholecystography is of definite indicative of cholescystitis. 7. Surgical intervention or ultrasonographic examination of the gallbladder without double dose or second dose oral cholecystography on such cases is recommended.

  14. From type 2 diabetes to antioxidant activity: a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of common and cassia cinnamon bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Seely, Dugald; Perri, Dan; Cooley, Kieran; Forelli, Taryn; Mills, Edward; Koren, Gideon

    2007-09-01

    Common (Cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicum) and cassia (C. aromaticum) cinnamon have a long history of use as spices and flavouring agents. A number of pharmacological and clinical effects have been observed with their use. The objective of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature for preclinical and clinical evidence of safety, efficacy, and pharmacological activity of common and cassia cinnamon. Using the principles of evidence-based practice, we searched 9 electronic databases and compiled data according to the grade of evidence found. One pharmacological study on antioxidant activity and 7 clinical studies on various medical conditions were reported in the scientific literature including type 2 diabetes (3), Helicobacter pylori infection (1), activation of olfactory cortex of the brain (1), oral candidiasis in HIV (1), and chronic salmonellosis (1). Two of 3 randomized clinical trials on type 2 diabetes provided strong scientific evidence that cassia cinnamon demonstrates a therapeutic effect in reducing fasting blood glucose by 10.3%-29%; the third clinical trial did not observe this effect. Cassia cinnamon, however, did not have an effect at lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). One randomized clinical trial reported that cassia cinnamon lowered total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides; the other 2 trials, however, did not observe this effect. There was good scientific evidence that a species of cinnamon was not effective at eradicating H. pylori infection. Common cinnamon showed weak to very weak evidence of efficacy in treating oral candidiasis in HIV patients and chronic salmonellosis.

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of a combination of Coptidis Rhizoma, Mume Fructus, and Schizandrae Fructus against Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyun Ae; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Lee, John Hwa

    2008-09-30

    The antibacterial potential of a preparation of medicinal herbs for the treatment of salmonellosis was evaluated. The preparation contained a combination of methanolic extracts from Mume Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma and Schizandrae Fructus, and is designated NP532. NP532 was tested against 26 different Salmonella stains. All these strains were affected by NP532 even though many of the salmonella strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. The MIC values of this combination against the Salmonella strains varied from 0.49 to 7.8 mg/ml. The in vivo antibacterial activity of NP532 was examined using a S. Gallinarum infection chicken model. The chickens were initially infected with S. Gallinarum, and NP532 was then administered. This preparation was found to have major effects on mortality. The histopathological observations of the NP532 treated animals did not show any of the clinical signs and rarely showed histological damage associated with the disease. On the other hand, the untreated controls showed the clinical signs, e.g. congestion and necrotic changes in the liver, kidney, and spleen. This suggests that NP532 might be an effective treatment for salmonellosis.

  16. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  17. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella spp. in pig farms and slaughterhouses in two provinces in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Patchanee, Prapas

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are an important group of bacterial zoonotic pathogens which can cause acute food-borne diseases in humans. Pork products are the main source of salmonellosis, but the origins and transmission routes of the disease have not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to characterize Salmonella spp. isolated in pig production lines both from pig farms and from slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in northern Thailand. The study focuses on the association among serotypes, antimicrobial resistance patterns and Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns to investigate possible sources of infection and to provide information which could help strengthen salmonellosis control programs in the region. A total of 86 strains of Salmonella comprising five majority serotypes were identified. Antibiotic resistance to tetracycline was found to be the most prevalent (82.56%) followed by ampicillin (81.40%) and streptomycin (63.95%). Seven clusters and 28 fingerprint-patterns generated by PFGE were identified among strains recovered from various locations and at different times, providing information on associations among the strains as well as evidence of the existence of persistent strains in some areas. Study results suggest that Salmonella control programs should be implemented at slaughterhouse production lines, including surveillance to insure good hygiene practices, in addition to regular monitoring of large populations of farm animals.

  18. Traditional treatment of human and animal salmonelloses in Southern Benin: Knowledge of farmers and traditherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Dougnon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to report medicinal plants that are likely to be used in the control of salmonellosis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Southern Benin. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 150 farmers and 100 traditional therapists in seven high municipalities. This step helped to collect plants that are used in the treatment of animal salmonellosis and typhoid fever in human. Results: The results revealed a low level of use of medicinal plants among breeders who prefer antibiotics such as oxytetracycline (53.55%, tylosine + sulfadimerazine (15.30%, and alphaceryl (19.13%. However, plants such as Moringa oleifera (leaves, Carica papaya (leaves and seeds, and Vernonia amygdalina (leaves were mostly used by some farmers. From traditional therapists, 57 plant species of 32 families were identified as typhoid fever cures; among which Leguminosae, Asteraceae, and Euphorbiaceae were predominant. Persea americana (22.72%, V. amygdalina (7.57%, and Corchorus olitorius (7.57% were the most cited by traditherapists for the treatment of typhoid fever in human. Conclusion: This study provides a database for further studies on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Benin plant species on Salmonella spp. These evaluations will guarantee the availability of new therapeutic solutions for populations.

  19. EVALUATION OF AN O-ANTIGEN ELISA FOR SCREENING CATTLE HERDS FOR SALMONELLA-TYPHIMURIUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Bitsch, V.

    1995-01-01

    A total of 2585 serum samples from 62 dairy herds located in four different regions of Denmark were tested in an O-antigen (0:1,4,5,12)-based ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium. Ten closed herds from an island with no reported occurrence of salmonellosis...... the salmonellosis-free island were ELISA-negative, and all but one of the 12 S typhimurium-infected herds were ELISA-positive, which resulted in a herd test sensitivity of 0.92 and herd test specificity of 1.0. Eleven of the 12 S typhimurium-infected herds were negative in a blocking ELISA based on a monoclonal...... antibody to the 0:9 antigen of the serogroup D salmonellas, indicating the possibility of rapid serogroup-specific screening of herds by means of these two tests. Ten other randomly selected herds with clinical outbreaks of S dublin were all, to a large extent, positive in the 0:1,4,5,12-ELISA, whereas a S...

  20. 'One Health' investigation: outbreak of human Salmonella Braenderup infections traced to a mail-order hatchery - United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, J H; Pringle, J; Jones, R W; Nix, B E; Borders, J; Heseltine, G; Gomez, T M; McCLUSKEY, B; Roney, C S; Brinson, D; Erdman, M; McDANIEL, A; Behravesh, C Barton

    2015-07-01

    Human salmonellosis linked to contact with live poultry is an increasing public health concern. In 2012, eight unrelated outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry contact resulted in 517 illnesses. In July 2012, PulseNet, a national molecular surveillance network, reported a multistate cluster of a rare strain of Salmonella Braenderup infections which we investigated. We defined a case as infection with the outbreak strain, determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with illness onset from 25 July 2012-27 February 2013. Ill persons and mail-order hatchery (MOH) owners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted. We identified 48 cases in 24 states. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 ill persons reported live poultry contact in the week before illness; case-patients named 12 different MOHs from eight states. The investigation identified hatchery D as the ultimate poultry source. Sampling at hatchery D yielded the outbreak strain. Hatchery D improved sanitation procedures and pest control; subsequent sampling failed to yield Salmonella. This outbreak highlights the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and the environment and the importance of industry knowledge and involvement in solving complex outbreaks. Preventing these infections requires a 'One Health' approach that leverages expertise in human, animal, and environmental health.

  1. Subtyping Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from different sources by using sequence typing based on virulence genes and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenyun; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Ribot, Efrain M; Knabel, Stephen J; Dudley, Edward G

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne salmonellosis in the United States. Two major food vehicles for S. Enteritidis are contaminated eggs and chicken meat. Improved subtyping methods are needed to accurately track specific strains of S. Enteritidis related to human salmonellosis throughout the chicken and egg food system. A sequence typing scheme based on virulence genes (fimH and sseL) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR-including multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (designated CRISPR-MVLST)-was used to characterize 35 human clinical isolates, 46 chicken isolates, 24 egg isolates, and 63 hen house environment isolates of S. Enteritidis. A total of 27 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 167 isolates. CRISPR-MVLST identified three persistent and predominate STs circulating among U.S. human clinical isolates and chicken, egg, and hen house environmental isolates in Pennsylvania, and an ST that was found only in eggs and humans. It also identified a potential environment-specific sequence type. Moreover, cluster analysis based on fimH and sseL identified a number of clusters, of which several were found in more than one outbreak, as well as 11 singletons. Further research is needed to determine if CRISPR-MVLST might help identify the ecological origins of S. Enteritidis strains that contaminate chickens and eggs.

  2. Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis causing mixed infections in febrile children in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García V

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanesa García,1 Inácio Mandomando,2,3 Joaquim Ruiz,4 Silvia Herrera-León,5 Pedro L Alonso,3,4 M Rosario Rodicio1 1Departamento de Biología Funcional, Área de Microbiología, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain; 2Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, 3Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique; 4ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 5Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain Background and purpose: Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, mostly caused by serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis of Salmonella enterica, has emerged as a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was the clinical and microbiological characterization of nontyphoidal salmonellosis episodes affecting febrile children in Mozambique. Patients and methods: The clinical records of the patients were evaluated, and S. enterica isolates were characterized with regard to serovar, phage type, antimicrobial resistance (phenotype/responsible genes, plasmid content, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. Results: Fifteen S. Typhimurium and 21 S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from blood samples of 25 children, the majority with underlying risk factors. With regard to phage typing, most isolates were either untypeable or reacted but did not conform, revealing that a number of previously unrecognized patterns are circulating in Mozambique. Most isolates were multidrug-resistant, with nearly all of the responsible genes located on derivatives of serovar-specific virulence plasmids. ST313 and ST11 were the predominant sequence types associated with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively, and the uncommon ST1479 was also detected in S. Enteritidis. A distinct XbaI fragment of ~350 kb was associated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of

  3. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A) that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E) feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars) was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6%) and rape seed meal (10.0%). Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P salmonella contamination. Also the level of feed mill contamination of salmonella was higher for feed mills belonging to Company A in comparison to the other companies before and also after heat treatment. Four (10.5%) of the 38 serovars isolated from feed ingredients (28) and feed mills (10) were on the EU 2007 top ten list of human cases of salmonellosis and all but eight (78.9%) on a 12 year list (1997-2008) of cases of human salmonellosis in Sweden. Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient

  4. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of Salmonella contamination in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, Martin; Häggblom, Per

    2010-02-17

    The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP--based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A) that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E) feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Salmonella (28 serovars) was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6%) and rape seed meal (10.0%). Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P salmonella contamination. Also the level of feed mill contamination of salmonella was higher for feed mills belonging to Company A in comparison to the other companies before and also after heat treatment. Four (10.5%) of the 38 serovars isolated from feed ingredients (28) and feed mills (10) were on the EU 2007 top ten list of human cases of salmonellosis and all but eight (78.9%) on a 12 year list (1997-2008) of cases of human salmonellosis in Sweden. Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of

  5. Immunizations, neonatal jaundice, and animal-induced injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Shaine A; Bernstein, Henry H

    2004-08-01

    to 5 of age. Dog bites in children with resultant post-traumatic stress disorder, rabies, and salmonellosis from pet reptiles in the home are also addressed. Clinicians need to be aware of the risk for rabies bites, need to recognize that dog bites in children appear to cause post-traumatic stress disorder in more than half of cases, and need to know how to educate patients on how to prevent salmonellosis from pet reptiles and amphibians. Progress has been made in immunizations, especially immunization for influenza, pneumonia, and pertussis. It is recommended that monitoring for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia be more thorough to prevent the consequences of this condition. Rabies, post-traumatic stress disorder from dog bites, and salmonellosis associated with pet reptiles constitute an important area for patient education.

  6. Contaminated commercial dehydrated food as source of multiple Salmonella serotypes outbreak in a municipal kennel in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Marco; Stefanelli, Simonetta; Bilei, Stefano; Tolli, Rita; Bertolotti, Luigi; Marconi, Paola; Giurlani, Stefano; De Lucia, Pier Giorgio; Ruggeri, Gianfranco; Pagani, Ambrogio

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a large outbreak of canine salmonellosis in a municipal kennel in Tuscany. During the outbreak, 174 samples of 'diarrhetic' and 'normal' faeces and two batches of commercial dehydrated dog food were cultured for pathogenic bacteria. The results of 25, out of a total of 41 dogs (60.9%) revealed at least one faecal sample as being positive for Salmonella; incidence per sampling ranged from 12.5% to 34%. Nine of 10 samples of dehydrated food were positive. Ten totally different serotypes were isolated from dry food and faeces: the results of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis referred to similarity between the Salmonella Montevideo, Muenster and Worthington isolates recovered from both the food and canine faecal samples.

  7. Assessing the Differences in Public Health Impact of Salmonella Subtypes Using a Bayesian Microbial Subtyping Approach for Source Attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. To prioritize interventions and assess the effectiveness of efforts to reduce illness, it is important to attribute salmonellosis to the responsible sources. Studies have suggested that some Salmonella subtypes have a higher health...... impact than others. Likewise, some food sources appear to have a higher impact than others. Knowledge of variability in the impact of subtypes and sources may provide valuable added information for research, risk management, and public health strategies. We developed a Bayesian model that attributes...... revealed that the model can be applied to data with less discriminatory power, which is the only data available in many countries. In conclusion, the model allows for the estimation of relative differences between Salmonella subtypes and sources, providing results that will benefit future risk assessment...

  8. Comparison of chemical treatments to kill Salmonella on alfalfa seeds destined for sprout production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R

    1997-03-03

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis in the US, Canada and Finland linked to alfalfa sprouts have been attributed to Salmonella stanley in 1995 and Salmonella newport in 1996. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of chemical treatments in killing a mixture of five Salmonella serovars inoculated onto alfalfa seeds. Solutions containing calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite at concentrations of 1800 and 2000 micrograms/ml active (available) chlorine respectively, as well as 6% hydrogen peroxide or 80% ethanol were effective in reducing Salmonella populations by more than 1000 fold. However, viable Salmonella cells were detected in seeds treated for 10 min in these solutions. The inaccessibility of Salmonella cells in crevices and between the cotyledon and testa of seeds to lethal concentrations of these chemicals are thought to be the reason for the lack of effectiveness.

  9. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Salmonella spp in semidomesticated reindeer in Norway, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschfalk, Ansgar; Laude, Sabine; Denzin, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    An indirect ELISA was developed as a possible tool to detect the seroprevalence of antibodies to Salmonella spp in semidomesticated reindeer. To cover a broad spectrum of serogroups a lipopolysaccharide mix of S. typhimurium and S. choleraesuis was used as antigen in this pilot study. Sera from 31 culture-negative reindeer with no clinical or historical evidence of salmonellosis were used as negative serum control. After immunisation with an inactivated S. typhimurium vaccine, pooled sera from 6 reindeer were used as positive serum control as no serum from naturally infected animals was available. A seroprevalence of 0.6% in 2000 clinically healthy, slaughter-reindeer from Norway was determined by using this ELISA. No more information on Salmonella in reindeer in Norway is known to the authors. This is the first ELISA established for indirect detection of Salmonella in reindeer.

  10. Effect of management on prevention of Salmonella Dublin exposure of calves during a one-year control programme in 84 Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Vesterbæk, Inge Langborg; Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2012-01-01

    statistical methods: logistic regression analysis and discriminant analysis. Both analyses identified that increased probability of successful control was strongly associated with avoiding purchase of cattle from test-positive herds. Additionally, ensuring good calving area management, separating calf pens......, by only letting one person be responsible for colostrum management and by not feeding poorer quality colostrum to bull calves than to heifer calves. The results are useful for dairy cattle producers and veterinary authorities to substantiate advice on management practices that are likely to lead......Studies reporting on how to control Salmonella in cattle herds have mainly been theoretical simulation models or case reports describing control of clinical salmonellosis outbreaks. The objective of this observational study was to investigate which management routines were associated...

  11. PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS AND SNYBIOTICS IN POULTRY MODE OF ACTION, LIMITATION, AND ACHIEVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata DANKOWIAKOWSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry industry have forced farmers to seek alternatives for the posing a risk factors of cross-resistance acquisition by harmful bacteria. A particular nuisance became salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis forcing to the elimination of whole poultry flocks as well as causing dangerous zoonotic diseases in humans. An excellent replacement for antibiotics have become the pro-, pre-and synbiotic substances which have a beneficial effect on the host organism through the development intensification of healthy intestinal microbial strains and the elimination of pathogenic strains. Such preparations may be administered both in the water spray as well as in feed. Excellent and promising method appears to be their injection directly into the egg air chamber in the 12th day of incubation. However, further studies are required to determine the appropriate doses as well as combinations of bioactive substances and to determine the optimal way for their delivery.

  12. [Clinical and epidemiological description of acute intestinal infections in children of the lower Volga region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A V; Kharchenko, G A

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the results of laboratory diagnostics, carried out by bacteriological, serological and PCR methods, the etiological structure of acute bacterial and viral intestinal infections, most frequently occurring in children of the Astrakhan region, is presented. An important role of viral diarrhea cases, prevailing among the total number of cases of intestinal infections in children, is emphasized. The data on the irregular distribution of morbidity by months, especially in viral intestinal infections and salmonellosis with the prevalent involvement of children aged up to 2 years into the epidemic process, are presented. Infections affect mainly children given artificial feeding, as well as those with complicated premorbid state and frequently having acute respiratory viral infections.

  13. Salmonella Interaction with and Passage through the Intestinal Mucosa: Through the Lens of the Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within the host, as well as for further dissemination throughout the body, and subsequent systemic disease. In this review, we highlight some of the major hurdles Salmonella must overcome upon encountering the intestinal mucosal epithelial barrier, and examine how these bacteria surmount and exploit host defense mechanisms.

  14. Salmonella interaction with and passage through the intestinal mucosa: through the lens of the organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eHallstrom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within the host, as well as for further dissemination throughout the body, and subsequent systemic disease. In this review, we highlight some of the major hurdles Salmonella must overcome upon encountering the intestinal mucosal epithelial barrier, and examine how these bacteria surmount and exploit host defense mechanisms.

  15. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  16. Salmonella tel-el-kebir and terrapins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of Salmonella tel-el-kebir occurring over a 6-month period is described in this report. This is the first outbreak of S. tel-el-kebir in the reported literature. METHODS: S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from human faecal samples using conventional laboratory methods. RESULTS: Eight patients had S. tel-el-kebir isolated from faeces. All patients were owners of, or in close contact with, pet terrapins. The terrapins were purchased in the same pet shop, where they were imported from America. The epidemiological link with these pets was confirmed, as S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from cloacal swabs from the terrapins, and from terrapin water. Molecular biology studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) gave identical fingerprint patterns for all human and terrapin isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonellosis associated with exotic pets is a re-emerging disease in the 1990s, and measures to reduce this are discussed.

  17. Time required to protect the intestinal tract of chicks against Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis using competitive exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EV Sterzo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive exclusion (CE has been designed to accelerate the colonization of the alimentary tract of young commercial birds and it has been also used to repopulate the digestive tract after antibiotic therapy. The method has been successfully adopted as a means to prevent enteric salmonellosis. The present study was carried out to evaluate if CE is able to prevent this kind of infection. Newly hatched chicks were given a CE culture and at different intervals of time birds infected with Salmonella Enteritidis were placed together with the group of treated birds. CE culture was prepared from feces of adult laying hens incubated overnight at 37C under aerobic conditions. Birds were killed 4 and 8 days after challenge and viable counts of Salmonella Enteritidis were assessed in the cecal contents. The results showed that Salmonella infection was reduced even if CE culture administration was concomitant with the inclusion of the infected bird in the group.

  18. Characterization of Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Stanley, a Serovar Endemic to Asia and Associated with Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Bortolaia, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley (S. Stanley) is a common serovar in Southeast Asia and was the second most common serovar implicated in human salmonellosis in Thailand in the years 2002 to 2007. In contrast, this serovar is relatively uncommon in Europe. The objective of this study...... isolates. We found some of the S. Stanley isolates isolated from patients in Europe were acquired during travel to Southeast Asia, including Thailand. The presence of multiple plasmid lineages carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-encoding blaCMY-2 gene in S. Stanley isolates from the central...... part of Thailand was confirmed. Our results emphasize that Thai authorities, as well as authorities in other countries lacking prudent use of antimicrobials, should improve the ongoing efforts to regulate antimicrobial use in agriculture and in clinical settings to limit the spread of multidrug...

  19. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards; Scientific Opinion on a Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment of Salmonella in slaughter and breeder pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    possible (a) by ensuring that breeder pigs are Salmonella-free a reduction of 70-80% in high prevalence MSs and 10-20% in low prevalence MSs can be foreseen; (b) by feeding only Salmonella-free feedstuffs, a reduction of 10-20% in high prevalence MSs and 60-70% in low prevalence MSs can be foreseen; and (c......, followed by control of feed and then control of environmental contamination. Also according to the QMRA, for each MS, a reduction of two logs (99%) of Salmonella numbers on contaminated carcasses would result in more than 90% reduction of the number of human salmonellosis cases attributable to pig meat......This Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) represents a major step forward in terms of modelling Salmonella in pigs from farm to consumption as it takes into account the variability between and within EU Member States (MSs). Around 10-20% of human Salmonella infections in EU may...

  20. Foodborne illness, Australia, circa 2000 and circa 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn; Ford, Laura; Glass, Kathryn; Hall, Gillian

    2014-11-01

    Foodborne disease is a major public health problem worldwide. To examine changes in foodborne illness in Australia, we estimated the incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths attributed to contaminated food circa 2010 and recalculated estimates from circa 2000. Approximately 25% of gastroenteritis cases were caused by contaminated food; to account for uncertainty we used simulation techniques to estimate 90% credible intervals. We estimate that circa 2010, 4.1 million foodborne gastroenteritis cases occurred, and circa 2000, 4.3 million cases occurred. Circa 2010, contaminated food was estimated to be responsible for 30,840 gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations, 76 associated deaths, and 5,140 nongastrointestinal illnesses. Cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis increased from 2000 to 2010 and were the leading causes of gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations; Listeria monocytogenes and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. infections were the leading causes of death. Although the overall incidence of foodborne illnesses declined over time in Australia, cases of foodborne gastroenteritis are still common.

  1. The impact of socioeconomic status on foodborne illness in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K L; Leon, J S; Rebolledo, P A; Scallan, E

    2015-09-01

    Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Although low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering four pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer-level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens.

  2. Zoonotic diseases in the Mediterranean region: a brief introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarhos M

    2008-01-01

    Great concern is being expressed at the international level on the emergence and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, many of which are zoonoses, e.g. Rift Valley fever, highly pathogenic avian influenza, etc. Many aspects of globalisation, i.e. the movements of populations, increased urbanisation, greater production and trade in animals and animal products, close interaction between humans and animals, environmental degradation, inappropriate waste disposal, etc., are all determining factors in the prevalence of zoonoses. The Mediterranean and Middle East share similar ecological and epidemiological conditions and are affected by almost the same zoonoses (brucellosis, rabies, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis, salmonellosis, etc.). National control programmes have given partial results or have failed due to weak infrastructures, insufficient financial resources, inadequate intersectoral collaboration and coordination, a lack of public health education, etc. There is an urgent need for the firm commitment of all parties involved on regional, national and international levels to ensure the success of zoonoses prevention and control programmes.

  3. Will We be Helped from Abroad? A Case of Visceral Leishmaniasisis in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of non-endemic, rare disease in the Crimea — the visceral form of leishmaniasis in 11-month-old child, which clinically occurs with prolonged fever, hepatolienal syndrome with manifestations of hepatitis, anemia, thrombocytopenia. Establishing final definitive diagnosis was preceded by diagnoses: acute intestinal infection, salmonellosis, hepatitis, fever of unknown origin, cytomegalovirus infection. The final diagnosis — visceral leishmaniasis was made in Israel by the results of liver biopsy with the discovery of Leishman — Donovan bodies. The child was treated with AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B. After the treatment the child with his recovery returned to Ukraine. It is suggested that the above incident was a manifestation of the course of multicomponent non-cyclic infectious process.

  4. Pathogen specific carbohydrate antigen microarrays: a chip for detection of Salmonella O-antigen specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixt, Ola; Hoffmann, Julia; Svenson, Stefan; Norberg, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Salmonella O-antigen microarray was developed by covalent coupling of oligosaccharide antigens specific for serogroups Salmonella enterica sv. Paratyphi (group A), Typhimurium (group B) and Enteritidis (group D). Antibodies were correctly detected in sera from patients with culture verified salmonellosis. High serogroup-specificity was seen with the disaccharide antigens. With the larger antigens, containing the backbone sequence Manalpha1-2Rhaalpha1-2Gal (MRG), common backbone-specific antibodies (O-antigen 12) were also detected. This is "proof of principle" that pathogen-specific carbohydrate antigen microarrays constitute a novel technology for rapid and specific serological diagnosis in either individual patients or larger sero-epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  5. Development of a novel hexa-plex PCR method for identification and serotyping of Salmonella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruichao; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Wu, Congming

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important foodborne pathogens, which causes a huge economic burden worldwide. To detect Salmonella rapidly is very meaningful in preventing salmonellosis and decreasing economic losses. Currently, isolation of Salmonella is confirmed by biochemical and serobased serotyping methods, which are time consuming, labor intensive, and complicated. To solve this problem, a hexa-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed using comparative genomics analysis and multiplex PCR technology to detect Salmonella and Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Choleraesuis, and Salmonella Pullorum simultaneously. The accuracy of this method was tested by a collection of 142 Salmonella. Furthermore, the strategy described in this article to mine serovar-specific fragments for Salmonella could be used to find specific fragments for other Salmonella serotypes and bacteria. The combination of this strategy and multiplex PCR is promising in the rapid identification of foodborne pathogens.

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella in raw animal products in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Getachew; Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu

    2015-04-21

    The contributions of animal products to human salmonellosis differ across countries, and source attribution is a major step in prioritizing control measures. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in raw animal products in Ethiopia by using meta-analytical methods. The odds of Salmonella contaminated meat was more than twice higher in markets than in slaughter houses [Odds ratio (OR) = 2.25 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.75, 2.89)]. The source species significantly affected meat contamination in slaughter houses (P  0.05). The pooled estimates of Salmonella contaminated goat carcasses, beef carcasses, minced beef and milk were 3.86%, 4.53%, 8.34% and 10.76% respectively. The estimates demonstrate the extent of contamination, and imply the need for safety intervention measures to reduce the risks of contamination of animal products and human illnesses.

  7. Contaminated commercial dehydrated food as source of multiple Salmonella serotypes outbreak in a municipal kennel in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Selmi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a large outbreak of canine salmonellosis in a municipal kennel in Tuscany. During the outbreak, 174 samples of ‘diarrhetic’ and ‘normal’ faeces and two batches of commercial dehydrated dog food were cultured for pathogenic bacteria. The results of 25, out of a total of 41 dogs (60.9% revealed at least one faecal sample as being positive for Salmonella; incidence per sampling ranged from 12.5% to 34%. Nine of 10 samples of dehydrated food were positive. Ten totally different serotypes were isolated from dry food and faeces: the results of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis referred to similarity between the Salmonella Montevideo, Muenster and Worthington isolates recovered from both the food and canine faecal samples.

  8. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Helle; Helwigh, Birgitte; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    continuing to be high in broiler meat. The number of salmonellosis cases in humans decreased by 4.7 % compared with 2011. A statistically significant decreasing trend in the European Union was observed over the period 2008‑2012. In total, 91,034 confirmed human cases were reported in 2012. It is assumed...... compared with 2011, and 1,642 confirmed human cases were reported in 2012. A statistically significant increasing trend in the European Union was observed over the period 2008‑2012, though only slowly increasing, along with a seasonal pattern. As in previous years, a high fatality rate (17......, indicating the wide distribution of the parasite among different animal and wildlife species. One domestically acquired human case and one imported human case of rabies were reported in the European Union in 2012. The general decreasing trend in the total number of rabies cases in animals observed...

  9. Climate variability, weather and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand: time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Ikeda, Takayoshi; French, Nigel; Baker, Michael G; Hales, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the influence of climate variability on enteric disease incidence may improve our ability to predict how climate change may affect these diseases. To examine the associations between regional climate variability and enteric disease incidence in New Zealand. Associations between monthly climate and enteric diseases (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis) were investigated using Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models. No climatic factors were significantly associated with campylobacteriosis and giardiasis, with similar predictive power for univariate and multivariate models. Cryptosporidiosis was positively associated with average temperature of the previous month (β =  0.130, SE =  0.060, p climate variables and national communicable disease incidence data can contribute to disease prediction models and early warning systems.

  10. An open, non comparative study of ofloxacin i.v. on the treatment of acute symptomatic urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvanich, K; Fugpholngam, V; Srimuang, S; Tanphaichitra, D

    2000-07-01

    The clinical efficacy and the safety of ofloxacin i.v. in 35 acute symptomatic urinary tract patients were evaluated. The drug was intravenously administered, 400 mg starting dose then 200 mg once-daily for 3-5 days. The therapeutic success rate and eradication rate in UTI case were 100 per cent in all cases when evaluated immediately after completion of drug treatment, therapeutic success rate and eradication rate at the follow-up evaluation were 97.2 per cent and 91.6 per cent respectively. Also, 5 cases of acute bronchitis and 2 salmonellosis were also administered intravenously, 400 mg once-daily dose and 400 mg twice daily dose respectively. No serious side effects of ofloxacin i.v. therapy were observed in any of our patients.

  11. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Rimoldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle.

  12. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Löfström, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial foodborne infections in Denmark. To identify the main animal-food sources of human salmonellosis, risk managers have relied on a routine application of a microbial subtyping-based source attribution model since 1995. In 2013, multiple locus variable...... number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types......, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude...

  13. Emergence of Salmonella epidemics: the problems related to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and multiple antibiotic resistance in other major serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velge, Philippe; Cloeckaert, Axel; Barrow, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Two major changes in the epidemiology of salmonellosis occurred in the second half of the 20th century: the emergence of food-borne human infections caused by S. Enteritidis and by multiple-antibiotic resistant strains of Salmonella. This review updates information on the S. Enteritidis pandemic and focuses on the emergence of Salmonella, carrying the SGI1 antibiotic resistance gene cluster, resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, or resistant to fluoroquinolones. The factors responsible for the emergence of these Salmonella strains could be either of human origin or related to bacterial genome evolution. However, our increasing understanding of the molecular fluidity of the genome shows that any attempt to counteract bacteria results in further bacterial evolution or adaptation of other bacteria to take place in the new free ecological niche. In these conditions, we can ask who is faster: humans who want to eliminate bacterial pathogens or bacteria that continuously evolve to gain new niches.

  14. Typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolates from 51 outbreaks in Germany between 1974 and 2009 by a novel phage-typing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T; Braun, P G; Fehlhaber, K; Prager, R; Pfeifer, Y; Rabsch, W

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new phage-typing method and evaluated its application in combination with XbaI macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as a useful tool for the long-term epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis. In this study, we investigated 1008 S. Infantis isolates recovered from humans, various animal species and food products from 1973 to 2009. The typing scheme is based on 17 typing phages, defining 61 different patterns within the strain collection. The experiments showed that phage typing is a reliable method for differentiation of outbreaks and sporadic clinical cases as well as for elucidation of chains of transmission. The combined analysis of phage typing and PFGE revealed the existence of epidemic clones with a high stability over time like PT29/XB27 which was identified in nosocomial salmonellosis, community outbreaks as well as in broiler chickens from 2002 to 2009.

  15. Incidence, clinical presentation, and antimicrobial resistance trends in Salmonella and Shigella infections from children in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-García, Teresa; Campos, Freddy D; Chim, Rodolfo; Arjona, Francisco; Leon, Magda; Michell, Alba; Chaussabel, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella and Shigella cause significant morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance results in greater burden of disease. From 2005 to 2011, Salmonella and Shigella isolates collected from ill children at a major hospital in Yucatan, Mexico, were subjected to serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and agar dilution. The identification of bla CTX, bla CMY, bla SHV, bla TEM, and bla OXA and qnr resistance genes was conducted by PCR and sequencing. Among 2344 children with acute gastroenteritis, salmonellosis decreased from 17.7% in 2005 to 11.2% in 2011 (p Yucatan Peninsula. While Shigella resistance to clinically important antibiotics remained unchanged, resistance to most of these, except ciprofloxacin, declined in Salmonella. bla CMY-2 and qnr genes are common in Salmonella isolates.

  16. A case of recurrent agranulocytosis due to levamisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyachen, Abraham M; Jose, Mohan B; Benjamin, Jobin R

    2015-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is a rare complication of levamisole. We report a 22-year-old female who developed agranulocytosis due to levamisole. The patient initially presented with salmonellosis and agranulocytosis, and then she recovered with treatment. However, 2 months after discharge, she again presented with tonsillitis and agranulocytosis. This time the family revealed that she had been taking levamisole. Though Salmonella infection is a recognized cause of agranulocytosis, any patient presenting with repeated agranulocytosis after an initial recovery should make the clinician suspect another cause, especially drug-induced. A case of Salmonella infection where levamisole was an unsuspecting cause of agranulocytosis has not been described in indexed literature. Recurrent agranulocytosis due to repeated exposure to levamisole has also not been described.

  17. Multiplex Solid-Phase PCR for Rapid Detection and Identification of Salmonella spp. at Sub-species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas; Wolff, Anders

    -PCR gel electrophoresis. The method will be useful for development of point-of-care devices for rapid detection and identification of Salmonella spp. A solid-phase PCR for rapid detection and identification of S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium and S. dublin is developed. The method offers advantages......This study presents a solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR) for rapid detection, identification, and sub-typing of various Salmonella species, the major food-borne cause of salmonellosis. The target DNA is firstly amplified with PCR primers (one primer is labeled with fluorophores) in the liquid phase...... by the liquid phase primer thus generating new templates for the SP-PCR. After the reaction, PCR products labeled with fluorophores remain attached to the substrate and can be visualized directly by fluorescence readout devices. Using this method, S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium and S. dublin can be detected...

  18. Analysis of German nutrition brochures for pregnant women with evidence-based patient information criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küllenberg de Gaudry, Daniela; Grede, Nina; Motschall, Edith; Lins, Sabine

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate nutrition brochures for pregnant women in Germany based on evidence-based patient information (EBPI) criteria. Nutrition brochures for pregnant women in Germany were collected. Brochures addressing the risk of salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis or listeriosis were analyzed by two researchers independently. Fifty brochures reporting any information on the risk of infection were analyzed. Most brochures did not include literature citations and only few brochures gave a risk description, predominantly verbally, which usually leads to an overestimation of the actual risk. Advertisement was present in 22% of the brochures. German nutrition brochures for pregnant women should be adapted to comply with evidence-based patient information (EBPI) criteria for achieving a better quality of the disseminated information. The findings highlight the need of high quality nutrition brochures for pregnant women, which are relevant not only for pregnant women, but also to those responsible for creating brochures, and to physicians in charge of patient information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aptasensors for quantitative detection of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Najmeh; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Shahdordizadeh, Mahin; Wang, Zhouping; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2017-09-15

    Salmonella is one of the most frequent causes of food borne infectious disease. Among nearly 2500 documented serotypes are reported, Salmonella Typhimurium is the number one serotype associated with salmonellosis worldwide. Many different methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of S. typhimurium. Most of these assays are usually expensive, time consuming and require difficult sample preparation steps. Therefore, it is necessary to develop rapid, robust, cost-effective and sensitive alternative detection methods. In the last years, aptasensors, used for detection of S. typhimurium in different samples. In this review, recent advances and applications of aptasensors for the detection and quantification of S. typhimurium in details have been summarized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estudo da ação "in vitro" da Oxamniquine sobre bactérias do gênero Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Amato Neto

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram a ação "in vitro" da oxamniquine sobre dez espécies de salmonelas. Verificaram que diluições de 1,56 a 400 mcg/ml não exerceram qualquer efeito no crescimento bacteriano. Estas observações têm implicações no tratamento da salmonelose de curso prolongado, assim como nos estudos da sua patogenia.The áuthors studied the antibacterial activity of oxamniquine on the species of salmonellae. They verified that dilutions ranging from 1.56 to 400 mcg/ml of the drug had no effect on bactériaI growth. These facts have implications in the treatment of prolonged salmonellosis as in the studies concerning its pathogenesis.

  1. Microbial pathogens in raw pork, chicken, and beef: benefit estimates for control using irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.

    1985-12-01

    Various control procedures have been suggested for reducing foodborne infectious diseases. Receiving considerable attention is irradiation. This report estimates the medical and wage (or productivity) benefits associated with prevention of five human diseases transmitted by beef, pork, and chicken. (These diseases can also be transmitted by other vectors, such as eggs, milk, and pets. But these sources are not included in the analysis.) All of these foodborne infectious diseases - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, trichinosis, tapeworm, and toxoplasmosis - could be significantly reduced by irradiating meat and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just approved irradiation of pork to prevent trichinosis (50FR 29658-59) and is considering approval of irradiation of chicken to kill Salmonella. 22 references.

  2. Domestic reptiles as source of zoonotic bacteria: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2017-08-01

    Captive reptiles, always more often present in domestic environment as pets, may harbor and excrete a large variety of zoonotic pathogens. Among them, Salmonella is the most well-known agent, whereas there are very scant data about infections by mycobacteria, chlamydiae and leptospirae in cold-blooded animals. However, the investigations that found antibody reactions and/or the bacteria in samples collected from free-ranging and captive reptiles show that herpetofauna may be involved in the epidemiology of these infections. The present review reports the updated knowledge about salmonellosis, mycobacteriosis, chlamydiosis and leptospirosis in reptiles and underlines the risk of infection to which people, mainly children, are exposed. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the US alone, salmonellosis was estimated to cause 1.4 million cases effecting 17,000 hospitalization and almost 600 deaths each year. Particularly, Salmonella enterica is a common cause of minor and large food borne outbreaks...... used for typing is crucial for successful discrimination. The core genes or the genes that are conserved in all members of a genus or species are potentially good candidates for investigating genomic variation in phylogeny and epidemiology. A total of 2,882 core genes have been observed among 73....../absence of all genes across genomes, is similar to the consensus tree but with higher branching confidence value. The core genes can be divided into two categories: a few highly variable genes and a larger set of conserved core genes, with low variance. These core genes are useful for investigating molecular...

  4. The occurrence and anti-microbial susceptibility of Salmonellae isolated from commercially available pig ear pet treats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, R; Reid-Smith, R; Ribble, C; Popa, M; Vandermeer, M; Aramini, J

    2008-10-01

    In Canada, there have been reported outbreaks of human salmonellosis related to exposure to animal-derived pet treats, involving pig ear treats, beef steak patty dog treats and pet treats of seafood origin. As a follow-up to recommendations made to the pig ear treat industry in 1999, a total of 245 pig ear treats were purchased in two Canadian cities to provide evidence of adoption of the recommendations and to determine the current levels of Salmonella contamination of pig ear treats available at pet stores. An overall prevalence of 4% was observed, with isolates exhibiting resistance to up to seven anti-microbials. Serotypes recovered included S. Bovismorbificans, S. Give, S. Derby and S. Typhimurium var. Copenhagen. Although the prevalence observed during this study is lower than the prevalence observed in 1999, pig ear treats should still be considered as a possible source of Salmonella and anti-microbial resistant bacteria to humans and dogs in Canada.

  5. Salmonella prostatitis in a man with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jörg; Göcking, Konrad; Pannek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Prostatitis is a very unusual manifestation of Salmonella urinary tract infection and has not been reported in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). A 57-year-old man with paraplegia and a history of recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections presented with Salmonella typhimurium prostatitis. Clinical and sonographic examination of the urinary tract, as well as urinalysis including microbiologic examination, revealed no relevant abnormalities. The microbiologic analysis of the ejaculate revealed growth of monophasic Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serotype 4,12:i:-. A 6-week course of antibiotic treatment was initiated. There were no recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections during follow-up. Salmonellosis is a reportable disease and carriers have to refrain from activities in the food sector. Therefore, Salmonella prostatitis should be considered and excluded in men with SCI and a history of recurrent urinary tract infection who use intermittent catheterization for bladder management.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOMYELITIS CAUSED BY SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSP. HOUTENAE IN A TAYLOR'S CANTIL (AGKISTRODON BILINEATUS TAYLORI) USING AMIKACIN DELIVERED VIA OSMOTIC PUMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; Newton, Alisa L; Sykes, John M

    2016-06-01

    An adult female Taylor's cantil (Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori) presented with marked spinal and mandibular osteomyelitis that cultured positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae, serovar IV 43:z4,z32:-. Progression of osteomyelitis was arrested by treatment using amikacin (0.026 mg/kg per hour) delivered via subcutaneous osmotic pump for 10 mo, replacing the pump every 4 wk. No adverse effects on renal function were appreciated throughout the course of therapy. Amikacin therapy was discontinued after improvement with treatment, but 5 mo later, bony lesions worsened, and an additional abscess formed at the previous pump site. The animal's condition declined and euthanasia was elected. Postmortem examination confirmed marked osteomyelitis with Salmonella infection of same serovar as the initial biopsy. This report highlights the pathogenicity of the S. enterica subsp. houtenae serovar and the ability to deliver effective amikacin dosage via osmotic pump to arrest osteomyelitis due to salmonellosis in a venomous snake.

  7. CRISPR typing and subtyping for improved laboratory surveillance of Salmonella infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Fabre

    Full Text Available Laboratory surveillance systems for salmonellosis should ideally be based on the rapid serotyping and subtyping of isolates. However, current typing methods are limited in both speed and precision. Using 783 strains and isolates belonging to 130 serotypes, we show here that a new family of DNA repeats named CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats is highly polymorphic in Salmonella. We found that CRISPR polymorphism was strongly correlated with both serotype and multilocus sequence type. Furthermore, spacer microevolution discriminated between subtypes within prevalent serotypes, making it possible to carry out typing and subtyping in a single step. We developed a high-throughput subtyping assay for the most prevalent serotype, Typhimurium. An open web-accessible database was set up, providing a serotype/spacer dictionary and an international tool for strain tracking based on this innovative, powerful typing and subtyping tool.

  8. Multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with raw tomatoes eaten in restaurants--United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-07

    During 2005-2006, four large multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with eating raw tomatoes at restaurants occurred in the United States. The four outbreaks resulted in 459 culture-confirmed cases of salmonellosis in 21 states. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigations into these four outbreaks by state and local health departments, national food safety agencies, and CDC. The results of these investigations determined that the tomatoes had been supplied to restaurants either whole or precut from tomato fields in Florida, Ohio, and Virginia. These recurrent, large, multistate outbreaks emphasize the need to prevent Salmonella contamination of tomatoes early in the production and packing process. Current knowledge of mechanisms for tomato contamination and methods of eradication of Salmonella in tomatoes is incomplete; the agricultural industry, food safety agencies, and public health agencies should make tomato-safety research a priority.

  9. Detection of antibodies to Salmonella lipopolysaccharide in muscle fluid from cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wedderkopp, A.; Lind, Peter

    1997-01-01

    -enzootic areas of Jutland (n = 144). Procedure-Salmonella dublin (O:1,9,12), S typhimurium (O:1,4,5,12), and Salmonella O:9-blocking ELISA were used for testing the samples. Results-In the S dublin ELISA, all serum and muscle fluid samples from cattle on the island of Bornholm had OD450 values well below......Objective-To compare muscle fluid with serum samples for detection of antibodies to Salmonella lipopolysaccharide. Sample Population-Muscle fluid and serum samples from 2 cattle populations: 1 from the island of Bornholm with no history of salmonellosis (n = 39), and the other from the S dublin......%) and the O:9-blocking ELISA (r(s) = 0.49, P Salmonella infections in cattle....

  10. Survey of Salmonella serovars in broilers and laying breeding reproducers in East of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Ayachi; Alloui, Nadir; Bennoune, Omar; Kassah-Laouar, Ahmed

    2010-03-08

    Avian salmonellosis affects the poultry industry in underdeveloped and in developed countries. The aim of this study was to identify the most common Salmonella serovars in broilers and laying breeding reproducers in Eastern Algeria according to the ISO 6579 method. A total of 294 samples were obtained from two flocks of 10,000 broilers and laying breeding reproducers. Samples included livers and spleens, drag swabs of bottom boxes of young chickens, cloacal swabs, and faecal samples of chickens. Additional samples were also taken from water, feed and dusty surfaces. Only the cloacal swabs, poultry faeces and samples from dusty surfaces were positive for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Livingstone with a detection rate of 12% and 1.6% respectively. The results showed evidence of legislative failure regarding biosafety within the poultry industry in the area of Batna, Eastern Algeria.

  11. Salmonella prevalence in commercial raw shell eggs in Japan: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Tsujiyama, Y; Asai, T; Noda, Y; Katayama, S; Yamada, Y

    2011-07-01

    We examined 20 300 raw shell chicken eggs sold at retail stores in Japan for Salmonella outside and inside eggs. The eggs were purchased at 220 retail stores throughout Japan between August 2007 and January 2008. Of 2030 pooled egg samples (10 eggs/sample), Salmonella was isolated from five shell samples (0.25%), but not from any of egg-content samples. The serovars of the isolates were Salmonella Enteritidis (2), S. Derby, S. Livingstone and S. Cerro. The samples positive for Salmonella originated from five different egg grading and packaging (GP) centres. All the GP centres washed their egg shells according to government guidelines for hygienic practice in GP centres. Thus, practical control measures at GP centres need to be reviewed and implemented to diminish Salmonella prevalence of egg shells because Salmonella contamination on eggs is a potential hazard for foodborne salmonellosis in Japan.

  12. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  13. Viral Diarrhea in Children: Clinical Manifestations, Innovations in the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Kramariov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A literature search on the study of the clinical features of viral diarrhea in children has been carried out depending on the pathogen. 1,484 children with acute enteric infections (AEI were examined, they underwent inpatient treatment in infectious disease department of Kyiv city children’s clinical hospital № 2 in 2013. It was found that among patients with AEI, 25.9 % had rotavirus infection, 56 % — AEI of uncertain aetiology, 8 % — salmonellosis, 0.1 % — shigellosis, 10 % — AEI with other origin. A literature search showed the effectiveness of the use of probiotics, containing different strains, for AEI treatment, which manifested with reduction of intoxication syndrome, diarrhea, fever by 2–3 days. It is shown that the use of probiotic Subalin, containing Bacillus subtilis strain 2335/105, is promising as etiopathogenetic therapy in the treatment of viral diarrhea in children under current conditions.

  14. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tolar, Beth; Trees, Eija; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Frye, Jonathan G.; Porwollik, Steffen; Weimer, Bart C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Weinstock, George M.; Fields, Patricia I.; McClelland, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th–18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s. PMID:25147968

  15. Evaluation of a covalent mix-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for screening of Salmonella antibodies in pig serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, E.Y.W.; Wu, J.T.Y.; Jauho, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    in 5 laboratories from Europe and North America. Comparison with culture results showed that 88.5% of 26 culture-positive animals were ELISA positive, as were 55% of 60 animals from 2 culture-positive pig herds. Of 90 animals from 2 high health farms with no clinical symptoms of salmonellosis, 98......In this study, a commercial Salmonella covalent mix-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological detection of Salmonella infection in swine was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional fecal culture method and inter-laboratory proficiency testing, using a panel of sera tested.......9% tested negative. The interlaboratory comparison study found a kappa value of 0.9 between our laboratory (using an automated system) and the manufacturer laboratory (using the manual method). Comparison of ELISA results from all 5 participating laboratories showed very good to excellent agreement, between...

  16. Epidemiology of Salmonella typhimurium O:4-12 infection in Norway: evidence of transmission from an avian wildlife reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapperud, G; Stenwig, H; Lassen, J

    1998-04-15

    In 1987, a nationwide outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium O:4-12 infection traced to contaminated chocolate bars occurred in Norway. In the 5 years after the outbreak, elevated numbers of sporadic cases caused by the epidemic strain of Salmonella were detected, followed by a decline in subsequent years. To characterize the epidemiology of this infection, the authors analyzed information concerning all sporadic cases reported in Norway from 1966 to 1996. Of the 153 patients infected by the outbreak strain, 43% were less than 5 years of age, and only three persons had acquired the infection abroad. In contrast, 46% of the cases attributable to other S. typhimurium O:4-12 variants and 90% of the total number of Salmonella infections were related to foreign travel. A distinct seasonality was observed: 76% of the cases appeared between January and April. At the same time of year, the epidemic strain was regularly encountered as the etiologic agent of fatal salmonellosis among wild passerine birds, suggesting an epidemiologic link between the avian and human cases. The strain was rarely isolated from other sources. From 1990 to 1992, the authors conducted a prospective case-control study of sporadic indigenous infections to identify risk factors and obtain guidance for preventive efforts. Forty-one case-patients, each matched by age, sex, and geographic area with two population controls, were enrolled. In conditional logistic regression analysis, the following environmental factors were independently related to an increased risk of infection: drinking untreated water, having direct contact with wild birds or their droppings, and eating snow, sand, or soil. Cases were also more likely than controls to report having antecedent or concurrent medical disorders. Forty-six percent of the study patients were hospitalized for their salmonellosis.

  17. [INCIDENCE, PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREADING OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysh, N G; Chemych, N D; Zaritsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent. In the etiological structure of acute diarrheal infections there are dominated viruses, of food toxicoinfections--Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae (p < 0.05). Predictors of the complication of epidemiological situation of Shigella infections are the gain in the detection of bacterially contaminated samples of milk and dairy products (r = 0.75), for food toxicoinfections caused by Klebsiellae pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae--pastry with cream and cooking meat products (r = 0.64; r = 0.75). Epizootic situation in the region affects on the salmonellosis incidence rate of the population (r = 0.89). There were revealed correlations between the selection of E. coli bacteria from swabs taken from the enterprises of catering, in child care centers and the levels of incidence rates of salmonellosis, acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (r = 0.59; r = 0.60). Timely detection and sanitation of Shigella carriers are a powerful instrument to reduce the incidence rate of shigellosis (r = 0.83).

  18. Development of a Salmonella cross-protective vaccine for food animal production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heithoff, Douglas M; House, John K; Thomson, Peter C; Mahan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is associated with increased Salmonella exposure, transmission, animal disease, and contamination of food and water supplies. Modified live Salmonella enterica vaccines that lack a functional DNA adenine methylase (Dam) confer cross-protection to a diversity of salmonellae in experimental models of murine, avian, ovine, and bovine models of salmonellosis. However, the commercial success of any vaccine is dependent upon the therapeutic index, the ratio of safety/efficacy. Herein, secondary virulence-attenuating mutations targeted to genes involved in intracellular and/or systemic survival were introduced into Salmonella dam vaccines to screen for vaccine candidates that were safe in the animal and the environment, while maintaining the capacity to confer cross-protective immunity to pathogenic salmonellae serotypes. Salmonella dam mgtC, dam sifA, and dam spvB vaccine strains exhibited significantly improved vaccine safety as evidenced by the failure to give rise to virulent revertants during the infective process, contrary to the parental Salmonella dam vaccine. Further, these vaccines exhibited a low grade persistence in host tissues that was associated with reduced vaccine shedding, reduced environmental persistence, and induction of cross-protective immunity to pathogenic serotypes derived from infected livestock. These data indicate that Salmonella dam double mutant vaccines are suitable for commercial applications against salmonellosis in livestock production systems. Reducing pre-harvest salmonellae load through vaccination will promote the health and productivity of livestock and reduce contamination of livestock-derived food products, while enhancing overall food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts protect infected mice against Salmonella Typhimurium-Induced liver damage and mortality by stimulation of innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Moon, Eunpyo; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-06-06

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of four extracts from the fruitbody of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus (hot water extract, HWE; microwave/50% ethanol extract, MWE; acid extract, ACE; and alkaline extract, AKE) against murine salmonellosis. The extracts had no effect on Salmonella ser. Typhimurium growth in culture. Nor were the extracts toxic to murine macrophage cells, RAW 264.7. HWE and MWE stimulated uptake of the bacteria into the macrophage cells as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages infected with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection the HWE- and MWE-treated cells showed greater activity against the bacteria than the control. HWE- and MWE-treated noninfected macrophages had altered morphology and elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. In the presence of S. Typhimurium, iNOS mRNA expression was further increased, accompanied by an increase in NO production. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that HWE and MWE, administered by daily intraperitoneal injection, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespans of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) were significantly extended by HWE and MWE. β-Glucan, known to stimulate the immune system, was previously found to be present in high amounts in the active extracts. These results suggest that the mushroom extract activities against bacterial infection in mice occur through the activation of innate immune cells.

  20. Immune response of turkey poults exposed at 1 day of age to either attenuated or wild Salmonella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Martina; Stamm, Andreas; Weber, Rita; Glünder, Gerhard; Berndt, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a foodborne zoonosis that is most often acquired by consuming poultry products such as eggs and poultry meat. Amongst other measures the vaccination of food-producing poultry is thought to contribute to a reduction in human salmonellosis. In the European Union (EU) in 2014 the licence of a commercially available Salmonella vaccine for chickens and ducks was extended to turkeys. In the present study, we examined the course of infection with a virulent Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) strain, a virulent S. enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) strain, and the respective live vaccine containing attenuated strains of both serovars in turkey poults. Besides collecting microbiological data and detecting invading Salmonella in the caecal mucosa via immunohistochemistry, we also assessed immune reactions in terms of antibody production, influx of CD4-, CD8α- and CD28-positive cells into the caecal mucosa and the expression of four different immune-related proteins. We found that the attenuated strains were able to invade the caecum, but to a lower degree and for a shorter duration of time compared to virulent strains. Infections with virulent Salmonellae also caused an increase in CD4-, CD8α- and CD28-positive cells in the caecal mucosa and an increased transcription of iNOS, IL-8-like chemokines, and IFN-γ. In poults treated with attenuated bacteria we could not detect any evidence of immune responses. In conclusion, the vaccine showed a lower degree of caecal invasion and induced weaker immune reactions compared to the virulent Salmonella strains in turkeys. The efficiency of the vaccine has to be verified in future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Carol H.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  2. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, O; Holley, R A; Ahmed, R; Tabor, H; Nadon, C; Ng, L K; D'Aoust, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting foodborne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis as a result of consuming partly cooked chicken nuggets may be due in part to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterize the strains of Salmonella contaminating chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted feeds, in an attempt to demonstrate whether the same Salmonella strains present in broiler feed could be isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips available for human consumption. Salmonellae were recovered using the Health Canada MFHPB-20 method for the isolation and identification of Salmonella from foods. Strains were characterized by serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial resistance typing (R-typing), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonellae were isolated from 25-g samples in 27% (n=92) of nugget and strip samples, 95% (n=20) of chicken nugget meat samples, and from 9% (n=111) of pelleted feed samples. Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Orion were the most commonly isolated serovars from chicken nuggets and strips, nugget and strip meat, and pelleted broiler feeds, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0006 and R-type sensitive as well as Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0068 and R-type sensitive were isolated from pelleted feed, and chicken nugget and strip meat in two separate instances. Data showed that Salmonella strains isolated from broiler feed were indistinguishable from strains isolated from packaged raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips. However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella.

  3. Outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections linked to contact with baby poultry from a single agricultural feed store chain and mail-order hatchery, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loharikar, Anagha; Vawter, Shannon; Warren, Kim; Deasy, Marshall; Moll, Maria; Sandt, Carol; Gilhousen, Renee; Villamil, Elizabeth; Rhorer, Andrew; Briere, Elizabeth; Schwensohn, Colin; Trees, Eija; Lafon, Patricia; Adams, Jennifer Kincaid; Le, Brenda; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2013-01-01

    Over 30 outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to contact with live poultry from mail-order hatcheries were reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1990 and 2010. In May 2009, we investigated an outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections, primarily affecting children. A case was defined as a person with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, in a Pennsylvania or New York resident with illness onset between May 1 and September 1, 2009. We conducted a case-control study to examine the relationship between illness and live poultry contact. Controls were age-matched and geographically-matched. Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted. We identified 36 case-patients in Pennsylvania and New York; 36% were children aged ≤5 years. Case-patients were more likely than controls to report live baby poultry contact (matched odds ratio [mOR]: 17.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7-710.5), contact with chicks (mOR: 14.0; 95% CI: 2.1-592.0), ducklings (mOR: 8.0; 95% CI: 1.1-355.0) and visiting agricultural feed stores (mOR: 6.0; 95% CI: 1.3-55.2). Most (83%) visited agricultural Feed Store Chain Y, a national agricultural feed store chain, which received poultry from Hatchery C, which is supplied by multiple egg sources. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a source duck flock, but had a different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern than the outbreak strain. Live baby poultry remain an important source of human salmonellosis, particularly among children. Preventing these infections requires comprehensive interventions at hatcheries and agricultural feed stores; pediatricians should inform patients of risks associated with live poultry contact.

  4. Changes in the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of non-typhoidal Salmonella recovered from mail-order hatchling poultry sold at US feed stores, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Erdman, M M; Muñoz-Vargas, L; Mollenkopf, D F; Habing, G G

    2018-02-01

    Every year, multiple outbreaks of salmonellosis in humans are linked to contact with mail-order chicks and ducks. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal changes in the prevalence of serovars, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) recovered from shipped boxes of mail-order hatchling poultry in the United States during 2013 to 2015. In each year, a sample of feed stores belonging to a single national chain participated in the study. The store employees submitted swabs or hatchling pads from hatchling boxes and shipment tracking information of the arriving boxes to the investigators. NTS was cultured from the samples and isolates were sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (Ames, IA) for serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and AMR phenotyping. The PFGE patterns of Salmonella serovars isolated from hatchling boxes were compared with those from human outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to live poultry contact. The box-level prevalence of NTS was significantly higher in 2015 compared to 2014. Also, the population of Salmonella serovars recovered in 2015 was more diverse and substantially different from those recovered in the previous two years. Of PFGE patterns recovered from hatchling boxes, seven distinct patterns in 2015, three in 2014 and four in 2013 were indistinguishable from the PFGE patterns of human outbreaks-associated strains in the respective years. Importantly, a significant positive correlation was found between the box-level prevalence of PFGE patterns and the number of human illnesses associated with the same patterns. Also, the proportion of multidrug-resistant isolates was higher in 2014 and 2015 compared to that in 2013. The results demonstrate that shipments of mail-order hatchling poultry are frequently contaminated with Salmonella genotypes indistinguishable from human outbreaks-associated strains each year, and control efforts at hatchery level are

  5. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates recovered from the pig slaughter process in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Adriana; Sala, Claudia; Imre, Kálmán

    2015-01-15

    Reported human salmonellosis cases have increased in Romania. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of Salmonella strains isolated from pork and chicken meat indicate a worrying multidrug resistance pattern. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance of Salmonella strains in a pig slaughterhouse-processing complex, which receives animals from 30% of the large industrialized swine farms in Romania. A total of 108 samples, including pork (n = 47), packaged pork products (n = 44), scald water sludge (n = 8), and detritus from the hair removal machine of the slaughterhouse (n = 9) were examined for the presence of Salmonella through standard methods. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated strains to 17 antibiotics was tested using the Vitek 2 system. Twenty-six (24.1%) samples were found to be Salmonella positive; this included 25.5% of meat samples and 15.9% of packaged products, as well as samples from two different points of the slaughter (41.2%). Resistance was observed against tetracycline (61.5%), ampicillin (50%), piperacillin (50%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (34.6%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (26.9%), nitrofurantion (23.1%), cefazolin (15.4%), piperacillin/tazobactam (7.7%), imipenem (3.8%), ciprofloxacin (3.8%), and norfloxacin (3.8%). No resistance towards cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, amikacin, and gentamicin was found. Our study demonstrated the occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains in the investigated pork production complex and highlighted it as a potential source of human infections. The results demonstrate the seriousness of antibiotic resistance of Salmonella in Romania, while providing a useful insight for the treatment of human salmonellosis by specialists.

  6. Prevalence, concentrations, and antibiotic sensitivities of Salmonella serovars in poultry from retail establishments in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengia, E; Samadpour, M; Hill, H W; Greeson, K; Tenney, K; Liao, G; Huang, X; Meschke, J S

    2014-06-01

    Poultry have been identified as one of the major sources of salmonellosis, with estimates ranging from 10 to 22% of total cases. Despite several advances in the industry and new performance standards, the incidence of salmonellosis in the population has not declined over the last 15 years. Salmonella is pervasive in a wide variety of foods, and thus, estimating its burden resulting from specific food categories has been challenging and plagued with uncertainty due to critical data gaps. The objective of this study was to conduct a year-long market survey (1,322 samples) to help bridge the data gaps on the contamination rates and levels of Salmonella on raw poultry by product type (i.e., breast, thighs, drums, wings, and split breast) and production method (conventional versus organic). The isolates recovered were serotyped and tested for antibiotic sensitivities. A PCR method was utilized for initial screening of samples after an overnight enrichment in tryptic soy broth. Three-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays and anti-Salmonella immunomagnetic separation methods were utilized to determine the levels of Salmonella and aid with the recovery of Salmonella species, respectively. Eleven percent of the samples were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in percent positive rates by product type included up to a 4-fold difference in percent positive rates between establishments, ranging from 7 to 31%. Of the samples positive for Salmonella species, 94% had organic or as not using antibiotics had significantly higher rates of recovery of Salmonella. On the other hand, all of the Salmonella isolates that were resistant to two or more antibiotics originated from conventional processing establishments where antibiotics were utilized. In addition, a significant proportion of isolates from conventionally processed products were serotypes clinically relevant to humans.

  7. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

  8. Destination specific risks of acquisition of notifiable food- and waterborne infections or sexually transmitted infections among Finnish international travellers, 1995-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöldi, Viktor; Sane, Jussi; Kantele, Anu; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2017-10-10

    Overnight international travels made by Finns more than doubled during 1995-2015. To estimate risks and observe trends of travel-related notifiable sexually transmitted and food- and water-borne infections (STIs and FWIs) among travellers, we analysed national reports of gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis A, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases and related them to travel statistics. Cases notified as travel-related to the Finnish infectious diseases register were used as numerators and overnight stays of Statistics Finland surveys as denominator. We calculated overall risks (per 100,000 travellers) and assessed trends (using regression model) in various geographic regions. Of all travel-related cases during 1995-2015, 2304 were STIs and 70,929 FWIs. During 2012-2015, Asia-Oceania showed highest risk estimates for gonorrhoea (11.0; 95%CI, 9.5-13), syphilis (1.4; 0.93-2.1), salmonellosis (157; 151-164), and campylobacteriosis (135; 129-141), and Africa for hepatitis A (4.5; 2.5-7.9), and shigellosis (35; 28-43). When evaluating at country level, the highest risks of infections was found in Thailand, except for hepatitis A ranking Hungary the first. During 2000-2011, significantly decreasing trends occurred for most FWIs particularly in the European regions and for STIs in Russia-Baltics. Our findings can be used in targeting pre-travel advice, which should also cover those visiting Thailand or European hepatitis A risk areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) from Salmonella Typhimurium dt40 in Japan, winter 2008-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Katsumi; Kubo, Midori; Une, Yumi; Kato, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen

    2014-07-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis in wild passerines caused mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Hokkaido, Japan, 2005-06; however, the etiology was poorly understood. In winter 2008-09, sparrow mortality again occurred in Hokkaido, and 202 deaths in 100 incidents at 94 sites were reported. We conducted a comprehensive investigation to evaluate the cause and impact on sparrow populations. We collected 26 carcasses at 13 sites, including a zoological park. In addition, Salmonella screening of zoo animals was conducted as a biosecurity measure. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from multiple organs in all examined sparrows; they were diagnosed with septicemic salmonellosis. Eleven sites (85%) were related to wild bird feeding and six of eight sparrow fecal samples, including from the zoo, were S. Typhimurium-positive. No infection was detected in zoo animals. Isolates belonged to three phage types: DT40 (88%), DT110 (8%), and DT120 (4%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were the same in all isolates, regardless of phage type. Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic-resistance profiles of DT40 were similar in all isolates, indicating a single origin. The mortality was likely associated with that in 2005-06 because the isolates had the same profiles. Tissue levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium (the main components of chemical deicer suspected to be the major cause of poisoning deaths in 2005-06 mortality) were not higher in the affected sparrows. We conclude that an emerging epidemic infection with S. Typhimurium DT40 related to bird feeding was the cause of sparrow mortality in 2008-09 and suggest that this causative strain is host-adapted to sparrows in Japan. The mortality might have had some impact on the local population, but its influence was limited.

  10. MLVA polymorphism of Salmonella enterica subspecies isolated from humans, animals, and food in Cambodia

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    Sarthou Jean

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella (S. enterica is the main cause of salmonellosis in humans and animals. The epidemiology of this infection involves large geographical distances, and strains related to an episode of salmonellosis therefore need to be reliably discriminated. Due to the limitations of serotyping, molecular genotyping methods have been developed, including multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA. In our study, 11 variable number tandem-repeats markers were selected from the S. enterica Typhimurium LT2 genome to evaluate the genetic diversity of 206 S. enterica strains collected in Cambodia between 2001 and 2007. Findings Thirty one serovars were identified from three sources: humans, animals and food. The markers were able to discriminate all strains from 2 to 17 alleles. Using the genotype phylogeny repartition, MLVA distinguished 107 genotypes clustered into two main groups: S. enterica Typhi and other serovars. Four serovars (Derby, Schwarzengrund, Stanley, and Weltevreden were dispersed in 2 to 5 phylogenic branches. Allelic variations within S. enterica serovars was represented using the minimum spanning tree. For several genotypes, we identified clonal complexes within the serovars. This finding supports the notion of endemo-epidemic diffusion within animals, food, or humans. Furthermore, a clonal transmission from one source to another was reported. Four markers (STTR3, STTR5, STTR8, and Sal20 presented a high diversity index (DI > 0.80. Conclusions In summary, MLVA can be used in the typing and genetic profiling of a large diversity of S. enterica serovars, as well as determining the epidemiological relationships of the strains with the geography of the area.

  11. Detection of Salmonella Carriers in Sheep and Goat Flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan Provinces, Iran

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    Hossein Esmaeili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Salmonellosis is an infectious and a food-borne disease of humans and animals. The initial source of the infection is the intestinal tracts of birds and other animals. Apparently healthy animals can become subclinical carriers and persistently shed Salmonella in their feces which can act as a reservoir for the pathogen. The aim of this study is to detect the carriers of Salmonella among apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces, Iran.Methods:    A total of 389 fecal samples were aseptically collected from the rectum of apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces. Bacteriological culture was conducted using selenite cystine, Rappaport–Vassiliadis, brilliant green and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Suspected colonies were inoculated in to TSI, peptone water, Simmon’s Citrate, Urea medium and MRVP. Sero-groups were detected by antisera.              Results:    Two samples from 189 samples (1.05% were positive for Salmonella in Bushehr province. Salmonella abortusovis and Salmonella typhimurium were detected following serotyping. No Salmonella carriers were detected in Lorestan province.Conclusion:    As the rate of carriers of Salmonella was low, the risk of food-borne salmonellosis due to consumption of small ruminant's meat is low, especially in the condition of well cooked meat. Since S. abortusovis was detected, strategies of prevention and control of abortion due to this agent must be taken to reduce the economic losses. Moreover, the presence of S. typhimurium is a hazard to public health and people who have close contact to sheep and goats.

  12. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Salmonella enteritidis: Its Implication for Diagnosis and Development of Local Isolate Vaccine for Poultry

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    Tati Ariyanti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Genus Salmonella consists of more than 2,400 serovars, which can be identified by means of serological method based on the variation of their somatic (O, flagellar (H and capsular antigens (Vi. Salmonella serovars which are able to cause disease in animal or domestic animal are limited, such as: S. pullorum and S. gallinarum which are well adapted to poultry, cause fowl typhoid, S. cholerasuis causes disease in swine. S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis can infect all animals and humans. S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis could be isolated from salmonellosis of poultry, meat, milk and eggs. The prevalence of those isolates within the last two decades tends to increase. Pathogenic Salmonella serovars can infect both animals and humans, colonize the intestinal epithelial cells lead to diarrhoea. Salmonella spp. may enter the lower layer of epithelial cells and the lymphoid vascular system. Humoral antibody and cell mediated immunity responses may develop. Extraintestinal shedding or dissemination of Salmonella spp. may occur and multiply, this may cause latent infections and spread to the environment. Serologic diagnosis of infected animals can be done by means of serum or whole blood agglutination tests with whole cell antigen or ELISA with LPS coated tray, might demonstrate cross reactions among serovars within the one group. ELISA antibody by using fimbrial SEF14 antigen demonstrated specific diagnosis of S. enteritidis infection. The use of S. enteritidis inactive vaccines stimulates high humoral antibody response and protection against challenged homologous serovar within one group (D. The secretory antibody in mucosal surface of intestine and cell mediated immunity were not stimulated after vaccination with inactive Salmonella vaccine. Inactive vaccines (local isolate of S. enteritidis which was developed and evaluated on experimental layer chicken produced protection against challenged homologous and may be used to control vertical

  13. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance in Nontyphoidal Salmonella Isolated from Human and Poultry-Related Samples in Brazil: 20-Year Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss-Rech, Daiane; Potter, Luciana; Vaz, Clarissa Silveira Luiz; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer; Sangioni, Luís Antonio; Vargas, Águeda Castagna; de Avila Botton, Sônia

    2017-02-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella are one of the leading causes of foodborne diseases in the world. As poultry products are recognized as main sources of human salmonellosis, nontyphoidal Salmonella control has become a global issue for the poultry industry. The increasing antimicrobial resistance in poultry-related nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars is a global matter of concern. By monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance, alternative treatments can be identified and possible restrictions in the treatment of systemic human salmonellosis foreseen. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the profile and temporal evolution of the antimicrobial resistance of nontyphoidal Salmonella of poultry and human origin in Brazil, isolated in the period from 1995 to 2014. Four databases were researched; twenty-nine articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. In the nontyphoidal isolates of poultry origin, the highest levels of antimicrobial resistance were verified for sulfonamides (44.3%), nalidixic acid (42.5%), and tetracycline (35.5%). In the human-origin isolates, the resistance occurred mainly for sulfonamides (46.4%), tetracycline (36.9%), and ampicillin (23.6%). Twenty-two articles described results of antimicrobial resistance specifically for Salmonella Enteritidis, also enabling the individual meta-analysis of this serovar. For most antimicrobials, the resistance levels of Salmonella Enteritidis were lower than those found when considering all the nontyphoidal serovars. In the poultry-origin isolates, a quadratic temporal distribution was observed, with reduced resistance to streptomycin in Salmonella Enteritidis and in all nontyphoidal serovars, and a linear increase of resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella Enteritidis. In the human-origin isolates, a linear increase was identified in the resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella Enteritidis and in all the nontyphoidal isolates, and to gentamicin in Salmonella Enteritidis

  15. Designing a biochip following multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Infantis, Hadar, and Virchow in poultry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Chiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella-contaminated foods, especially poultry-derived foods (eggs, chicken meat, are the major source of salmonellosis. Not only in the European Union (EU, but also in the United States, Japan, and other countries, has salmonellosis been an issue of concern for food safety control agencies. In 2005, EU regulation 1003/2005 set a target for the control and reduction of five target Salmonella enterica serovars—S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S. Hadar, and S. Virchow—in breeding flocks. Thus, a simple biochip for the rapid detection of any of these five Salmonella serovars in poultry products may be required. The objectives of this study were to design S. Virchow-specific primers and to develop a biochip for the simultaneous identification of all or any of these five Salmonella serovars in poultry and poultry products. Experimentally, we designed novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for the specific detection of S. Virchow, S. Infantis, and S. Hadar. The specificity of all these primers and two known primer sets for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis was then confirmed under the same PCR conditions using 57 target strains and 112 nontarget Salmonella strains as well as 103 non-Salmonella strains. Following multiplex PCR, strains of any of these five Salmonella serovars could be detected by a chromogenic biochip deployed with DNA probes specific to these five Salmonella serovars. In comparison with the multiplex PCR methods, the biochip assay could improve the detection limit of each of the Salmonella serovars from N×103 cfu/mL to N×102 cfu/mL sample in either the pure culture or the chicken meat samples. With an 8-hour enrichment step, the detection limit could reach up to N×100 cfu/mL.

  16. Wild fauna as a carrier of Salmonella in Reunion Island: Impact on pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Claire; Parama Atiana, Laura; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is an economic burden to the livestock industry in Reunion Island. In this study, we wanted to improve our understanding of Salmonella epidemiology by studying the wild fauna of Reunion Island. We assessed Salmonella diversity in small non-flying mammals, birds and cockroaches in order to evaluate their potential role in the epidemiology of Salmonella. A total of 268 samples were collected from cockroaches, small mammals and birds. The bacteriological analyses revealed that 11.7% of non-flying mammals and 25% of cockroaches tested were Salmonella infected; two wild bird species were also detected positive. The 128 Salmonella isolates were distributed in fifteen serotypes and the most predominant were S. 4,[5],12:i:- (21.9% of positive samples) followed by S. Enteritidis (15.6%), S. Typhimurium (15.6%), S. Infantis (12.5%) and S. Weltevreden (12.5%). A total of 27 XbaI profiles were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Comparison of these Salmonella strains with our collection of Salmonella isolated from pigs and pig farm environments at the same period revealed 14 strains in common between wild fauna and pigs, especially for cockroaches. Our results suggest that wild fauna of Reunion Island could be infected by strains of Salmonella also isolated from pigs or pig environment. They may play a role in both persistence and spreading of Salmonella and therefore, could be a source of infection in pig farms. Pest control against cockroaches could be a helpful tool in the reduction of Salmonella infection of pigs, limiting contacts between wild fauna and both pigs and pig environment. Special attention should be paid to S. 4,[5],12:i:- since it was predominant in Reunion Island's wild fauna and pigs and was the third most frequently reported serotype in human salmonellosis in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing incidence of megabacteriosis in canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D; Leroy, C; Sturbois, M; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Vindevogel, H

    2006-11-01

    A total of 312 post-mortem examinations of 178 canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus), 40 parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus, Nymphicus hollandicus) and 94 parrots (Amazona aestiva, Psitaccus erithacus) were conducted at the Birds and Rabbits Service of the University of Liège, Belgium. After a detailed gross examination, tissue samples were collected for virological and/or bacteriological and/or parasitological examination to complete the diagnosis. In all cases, a microscopic examination of the proventricular mucus layer was undertaken for the detection of the anamorphic ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, which causes the non-zoonotic but important disease in cage birds known as megabacteriosis. At the time of death, megabacteriosis was diagnosed respectively in 28% of canaries and 22.5% of budgerigars (P value for Fisher's exact test=0.5576), but was not diagnosed in parrots (P value for Fisher's exact test <0.0001). The incidence of megabacteriosis significantly increases along the years (P value for chi2 test <0.0001, Cramer's coefficient=0.3405). The most common gross lesions seen at necropsy of the 59 megabacteriosis cases was proventricular dilatation (86.1%). All the birds diagnosed as typical megabacteriosis cases were free of Salmonella spp. infections and of any parasitic infections. Four megabacteriosis cases (three canaries, one parakeet) were not included in statistical analysis as salmonellosis, pseudotuberculosis, coccidiosis and chlamydophilosis were diagnosed concomitantly in these birds. With the exception of megabacteriosis, the most frequent causes of death were protozoan (coccidiosis, lankesterellosis) infections (18.4%) and salmonellosis (17.1%) in canaries, and psittacosis (31.5%) and viral hepatitis (26.3%) in parakeets. In parrots, the most common causes of death were psittacosis (28.6%) and aspergillosis (28.5%).

  18. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; de Almeida, Sílvia Maria; de Lima, Edna Tereza; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Pinczowski, Pedro; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2010-03-01

    Avian salmonellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella that can cause three distinct diseases in birds: pullorum diseases, fowl typhoid, and paratyphoid infection. Various wildlife species are susceptible to infections by Salmonella, regardless of whether they live in captivity or freely in the wild. The present study verified the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in three captive specimens of Amazona aestiva. The study involved a total of 103 birds undergoing rehabilitation to prepare for living in the wild, after having been captured from animal traffickers and delivered to the Centrofauna Project of the Floravida Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This is the first report of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in A. aestiva that originated from capture associated with animal trafficking; Salmonella was detected during the study by the serologic method of rapid serum agglutination on a plate with bacterial isolate. The antimicrobial profile exam of the isolated samples demonstrated sensitivity to ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, and cloranfenicol. The three samples also presented resistance to more than four antibiotics. The presence of the genes invA and spvC was verified by PCR technique and was associated with virulence and absence of class 1 integron, a gene related to antimicrobial resistance. The commercial antigen for pullorum disease was shown to be a useful tool for rapid detection in the screening of Salmonella of serogroup D1 in Psittaciformes. New studies on Salmonella carriage in birds involved in trafficking must be performed to better understand their participation in the epidemiologic cycle of salmonellosis in humans and other animals.

  19. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG5-PCR and ERIC-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fardsanei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7% was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1–P7 were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin.

  20. Preharvest Salmonella Detection for Evaluation of Fresh Ground Poultry Product Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P; Evans, Robert D; Regalado, Jason; Sullivan, Joseph F; Dutta, Vikrant; Elvinger, Francois; Pierson, F William

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella is an important economic and public health concern for the poultry industry. Fresh ground product has been linked with multiple salmonellosis outbreaks in humans. Exposure can be controlled by proper handling and preparation by consumers; however, the industry desires to minimize carriage levels in the final product. A substantial obstacle in reducing product contamination stems from limitations in diagnostic methodologies. Detection of Salmonella contamination currently requires extended incubation periods, and by the time test results are available, the fresh product has reached retail shelves. The goal of this study was to develop a preharvest diagnostic protocol for the evaluation of ground product contamination. The turkey processing plant where this research was conducted had previously established Salmonella screening (BAX system) of ground product, thus providing an opportunity for preharvest sample comparison. Drag swabs were collected from live-haul trailers entering the processing plant over a 12-month period. The swabs were added to modified buffered peptone water and incubated at 40°C. After incubation for 6 h or overnight, samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella with the DNAble assay and related to ground turkey samples from corresponding lots. The linear relationship for the percentage of Salmonella-positive live-haul trailers was significant for both the 6-h (slope = 1.02, R(2) = 0.96, and P Salmonella-positive ground turkey samples. These data indicate that preharvest screening provides a meaningful evaluation of product contamination. Additionally, the 6-h incubation protocol is rapid enough to allow for product mitigation and could potentially aid in the reduction of future salmonellosis outbreaks.

  1. Influence of Salmonella in pigs preharvest and during pork processing on human health costs and risks from pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gay Y; Liu, Xuanli; McNamara, Paul E; Barber, David A

    2005-09-01

    Salmonellosis in humans is a costly disease traditionally assumed to be associated with exposure to contaminated food. We have developed a farm-to-fork model that allows estimation of the human health costs and risks associated with Salmonella in pork. This analysis focuses on the stages of the pork production chain up to the point of producing a chilled pork carcass. The model predicts the number of human cases of salmonellosis associated with pork (mean, 99,430; 90% confidence interval, 20,970 to 245,560) and the corresponding social costs (mean, $81.53 million; 90% confidence interval, $18.75 million to $197.44 million). Sensitivity and scenario analyses suggest that changes in Salmonella status during processing are more important for human health risk and have a higher benefit:cost ratio when compared with on-farm strategies for Salmonella control. Specifically, benefit:cost ratios are less than 1 (indicating they are not likely to be profitable from a social economic perspective) for the on-farm strategies of vaccination and meal feeding, whereas rinsing carcasses at various temperatures with and without sanitizer all have benefit:cost ratios greater than 1 (indicating they are profitable from a social economic perspective). This type of modeling is useful for evaluation of the relative cost effectiveness of interventions at different points in the food chain when allocating limited food safety dollars and is best used for examining trends and alternative strategies rather than for providing definitive dollar value estimates of risk. The dollar value estimates must be considered in the context of the wide confidence intervals.

  2. Comparing TiO2 photocatalysis and UV-C radiation for inactivation and mutant formation of Salmonella typhimurium TA102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Antonino; Rizzo, Luigi; Guilloteau, Hélène; Bellanger, Xavier; Merlin, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common causes of foodborne bacterial human disease worldwide, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) was associated to the incidence of invasive salmonellosis. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects of the TiO2 photocatalysis process in terms of both bacteria inactivation and the emergence of mutants, on S. typhimurium TA102 water suspensions. The TiO2 photocatalysis was compared with a conventional disinfection process such as UV-C radiation. In spite of the faster bacterial inactivation obtained in UV-C disinfection experiments (45, 15, and 10 min for total inactivation for initial cell density 109, 108, and 107 CFU mL-1, respectively), photocatalytic disinfection (60, 30, and 15 min) was more energy efficient because of a lower energy requirement (2-20 mWs cm-2) compared to the UV-C disinfection process (5-30 mWs cm-2). During the photocatalytic experiments, the mutation frequency increased up to 1648-fold compared to background level for a 108 CFU mL-1 initial bacterial density, and mutants were inactivated after 1-10-min treatment, depending on initial bacterial cell density. In UV-C disinfection experiments, the mutation frequency increased up to 2181-fold for a 108 CFU mL-1 initial bacterial cell density, and UV-C doses in the range of 0.5-4.8 mWs cm-2 were necessary to decrease mutation frequency. In conclusion, both disinfection processes were effective in the inactivation of S. typhimurium cells, and mutants released into the environment can be avoided if cells are effectively inactivated.

  3. EVALUATION AND PREDICTIVE METHODS OF EPIDEMICAL SITUATION IN THE AREA OF ACUTE ENTERIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malysh N.G.

    2017-06-01

    temperature, humidity and rainfall. Simultaneously, should be gathered the information about the population on the investigated area, its density (for 1 km2, natural and migratory movement. When the information is gathered, begins the stage of analytical research. At first, determines the long-term tendency of the sick rate. If the average time of growth of the sick rate ranges from 0 to 1.0% - the epidemiological situation of this nosology is good, ranges from 1.1% to 5.0% - unstable, more than 5.0 % - bad. The probability of the influence of natural and social "risk factors» (X on the AII sick rate (Y calculates according to this formula: Rxy = Ʃ dx•dy / √Ʃ dx2•dy2, where Rxy - correlation coefficient; dx - departure from the arithmetical average of levels of natural or social factors; dy - departure from the arithmetical average of the annual sick rate or seasonal distribution. If it was founded an authentic correlation (p<0.05 between the average monthly rates of air temperature, humidity, rainfallы, number and density of population (per 1 km2, natural and migratory movements, and the sick rate of the AII nosological entities, the AII epidemical situation, in a case of increasing of the indicators of abovementioned "risk factors", will be also considered as unstable, which requires immediate elaboration and implementation of the targeted preventive steps. a result, the study found, that in current conditions in Sumy region the epidemical situation of shigellosis, AIIDA and AIIUE is good, according to Тred.av.= -10.7 % for shigellosis, and Тgr.av. = +0.6 % for acute intestinal infection, caused by other determined agents (AIIDA and acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (AIIUE; epidemical situation of salmonellosis is unstable, because: Тgr.av.= +2.3 %. It was found, that the number and density of population (1 km2. Similar relationships were also found between the levels of salmonellosis sick rate and net migration rate and natural population

  4. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: Linking systems biology with vaccine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Leslie G.; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Rossetti, Carlos A.; Lewin, Harris A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Turse, Joshua E.; Wylie, Dennis C.; Bai, Yu; Drake, Kenneth L.

    2011-09-22

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhanced approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic *sipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host

  5. Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and

  6. Salmonella enteritidis and antibiotic resistance patterns: a study on 1950 children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Eshraghi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Salmonellosis is a bacterial gasteroenteritis caused by different serovars of Salmonella. In the recent years, Salmonella enterica subspecies. Enterica serovar enteritidis is a major cause of gastroenteritis and food poisoning in the worldwide.  Different genus of salmonella is increasingly being resistant to common antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica isolated from medical health centers in Tehran. "n"nMethods: In this descriptive cross- sectional study from April to December 2008, 1950 fecal specimens from children with diarrhea were cultivated to identify Salmonella enteritidis. We used Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI protocol to determine resistance patern of the isolates to 16 different antibiotics. "n"nResults: In this study, out of 26 isolates 14(54% were S. enteritidis, 2(8% S. para B, 6(23% S. para C, 3(11% S. arizonea and 1(4% S. para A. all of them were sensitive to ceftazidime, cephalexin, cefotaxime, ceftiraxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin and colistin sulfate. All of the isolates were resistant to nitrofurantoin whereas 71.4% of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  7. Mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. / Mecanismos de resistência às quinolonas em Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Rocha Moreira de Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a common and widespread zoonotic disease of humans and a frequent cause of foodborne disease. Treatment of severe and systemic salmonellosis is usually done with fluoroquinolones. In this review resistance mechanisms of Salmonella to quinolones are discussed. Single point mutations in the quinolone resistant determining region (QRDR of the gyrA gene may be sufficient to generate high levels of resistance to non-fluorated quinolones and also may decrease the fluoroquinolones susceptibility. Other resistance mechanisms that should be considered are mutations in parC gene, the possibility of acquiring resistance through plasmidial transference and hyper-expression of efflux pumps. Fluoroquinolones resistance is still relatively uncommon in Salmonella compared to other species belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. However, the more careful use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary and human medicine is essential to decrease the selective pressure which can avoid the emergence and spread of resistant clones and consequently maintain the clinical efficacy of this group of antibiotics.A salmonelose é uma zoonose de importância mundial e uma das mais freqüentes doenças de origem alimentar. As fluoroquinolonas são a principal opção para o tratamento de salmoneloses graves ou sistêmicas. Esta revisão de literatura teve como objetivo apresentar os principais mecanismos envolvidos na resistência de Salmonella spp a estes antimicrobianos. Mutações de ponto na Região Determinante de Resistência à Quinolona (QRDR do gene gyrA podem gerar altos níveis de resistência a quinolonas não-fluoradas, além de reduzir a suscetibilidade as fluoroquinolonas. Outros mecanismos de resistência que também precisam ser considerados são as mutações no gene parC, a possibilidade do envolvimento de plasmídios de resistência e o sistema de efluxo ativo. A resistência às fluoroquinolonas ainda é incomum em Salmonella spp., quando

  8. Cost of Illness for Five Major Foodborne Illnesses and Sequelae in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Kristian

    2018-01-08

    The main objective of this study was to derive cost estimates of five major foodborne illnesses (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), yersiniosis and shigellosis) in Sweden. These estimates provide a necessary contribution to perform future cost-benefit analyses aimed at reducing the burden of foodborne disease. A secondary aim was to obtain estimates of the true number of cases that occur in the community, thus providing necessary ground for calculating costs. The true number of cases for each foodborne illness was simulated by multiplying the reported number of cases by sequential multipliers, one for each potential source of information loss about a case. This assessment of the true number of cases was then used to estimate the number of cases of sequelae for each illness. An incidence-based analysis was then used to calculate direct medical and non-medical costs, as well as indirect costs. Data for estimating the true number of cases for each illness were primarily based on an expert panel, while the derivation of costs mainly utilized national registries, databases and published literature. The estimated number of cases was between 7- and 11-fold higher than the reported number of cases, indicating the importance of taking information loss into account when calculating costs. By far the most common pathogen of the five was campylobacter, with an estimated 101,719 (90% credibility interval [CI] 59,640-158,025) human cases occurring annually. For salmonella, 19,678 (90% CI 8394-40,456) cases were estimated to occur each year, while the other three pathogens were less common, with a yearly incidence of approximately 2500-5500 cases each. The total cost for the five pathogens (including sequelae) amounted to €142 million annually. Campylobacter was the most costly pathogen, representing 69% of the total costs. Salmonellosis and EHEC constituted 18 and 9% of these costs, respectively, while yersiniosis and shigellosis

  9. Incidence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Food-Producing Animals, Animal Feed, and the Associated Environment in South Africa, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Rauff, Dionne; De Klerk, Grietjie; Keddy, Karen H; Dziva, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis continues to pose a global threat to human health, primarily by causing food-borne illnesses, and food-producing animals are the principal reservoirs of many pathogenic serovars. To identify key control points and generate information that may enable future estimation of the transmission routes between the environment, animals, and humans, we examined data on Salmonella isolates in South Africa. Samples were obtained from livestock and poultry on farms, meat at abattoirs, raw materials at feed mills, animal feed, and environmental sources (eg, poultry houses, abattoirs, feed mills, water) from 2012 to 2014 in compliance with each establishment's protocols conforming to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (ISO/TS 17728, ISO 18593:2004 and ISO 17604:2003) standards. Isolation and serotyping of Salmonella were performed according to the scope of accreditation of the respective laboratories conforming to ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard techniques. Salmonella was isolated from 9031 of 180 298 (5.0%) samples, and these isolates were distributed among 188 different serovars. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate, with 1944 of 180 298 (21.5%) originating from poultry on farms, poultry meat, and poultry houses, followed by Salmonella Havana, with 677 of 180 298 (7.5%), mostly from environmental samples. Serovars that are uncommonly associated with human disease (Salmonella Idikan, Salmonella Salford, and Salmonella Brancaster) were isolated at higher frequencies than Salmonella Typhimurium, a common cause of human illness. Environmental samples accounted for 3869 of 9031 (42.8%) samples positive for Salmonella. We describe the frequent isolation of Salmonella of a wide variety of serovars, from an array of animal feeds, food animals, and food animal environment. As prevention of human salmonellosis requires the effective control of Salmonella in food animals, these data can be used to facilitate Salmonella control in

  10. Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhan-Ali Aliya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions in the Northwest Territories (NWT of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three notifiable (mandatory reporting to public health authorities at the time of diagnosis enteric infections. Methods The rate of campylobacteriosis was modeled using a Poisson distribution while rates of giardiasis and salmonellosis were modeled using a Negative Binomial distribution. Rate ratios (the ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence of disease in the non-exposed group were estimated for infections by the three major pathogens with potential community-level risk factors. Results Significant (p≤0.05 associations varied by etiology. There was increased risk of infection with Salmonella for communities with higher proportions of ‘households in core need’ (unsuitable, inadequate, and/or unaffordable housing up to 42% after which the rate started to decrease with increasing core need. The risk of giardiasis was significantly higher both with increased ‘internal mobility’ (population moving between communities, and also where the community’s primary health facility was a health center rather than a full-service hospital. Communities with higher health expenditures had a significantly decreased risk of giardiasis. Results of modeling that focused on each of Giardia and Salmonella infections separately supported and expanded upon previous research outcomes that suggested health disparities are often associated with socioeconomic status, geographical and social mobility, as well as access to health care (e.g. facilities

  11. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

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    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  12. Surtos de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos causados por Salmonella Enteritidis Food borne disease outbreaks caused by Salmonella Enteritidis

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    Jacqueline T.M. Peresi

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: São descritos surtos de salmonelose notificados no período de julho de 1993 a junho de 1997 na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, tendo em vista os vários surtos de veiculação alimentar ocasionados por Salmonella nessa região. MÉTODO: Foram obtidos 19 inquéritos epidemiológicos para análise de dados, 87 amostras de fezes e 38 amostras de alimentos, incluindo 12 de ovos para análise microbiológica. Cepas de Salmonella foram submetidas a sorotipagem, fagotipagem e teste de sensibilidade a 13 agentes antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: Foram acometidas 906 pessoas com 295 hospitalizações. Cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis Fagotipo 4 foram isoladas de 80,5% das coproculturas, de todas amostras de alimentose de 41,7% dos ovos. Em 22 (95,7% surtos os a salmonela foi veiculada por alimentos contendo ovos crus ou semicrus. Os testes de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos revelaram sensibilidade à maioria das cepas. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando os resultados obtidos, torna-se necessária a implantação e intensificação de medidas de controle na produção e armazenamento dos ovos, além da orientação à população quanto aos riscos no consumo inadequado desse alimento.OBJECTIVE: It is to describe outbreaks of salmonellosis reported from July 1993 through June 1997 in the Northwest region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, one of the areas where several foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis have been recently detected. METHOD: Data of 19 epidemiological investigations were analysed; 87 stool specimens and 38 food samples (including 12 of shell eggs were processed for microbiological analysis. Salmonella strains were identified by serotyping, phagetyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. RESULTS: There were 906 ill persons including 295 hospitalized patients. Phage type 4 (PT 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strains were isolated from 80.5% of stool samples, from all food samples and from 41.7% of eggs. Of the outbreaks, 95.7% were

  13. International outbreak of Salmonella Eastbourne infection traced to contaminated chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, P C; Mackel, D C; Baine, W B; Barker, W H; Gangarosa, E J

    1975-04-05

    Between Dec. 4, 1973, and Feb. 15, 1974, 80 cases of infection due to Salmonella eastbourne, previously a rare isolated serotype in the United States, were reported from twenty-three States. An additional 39 cases were reported from seven Provinces in Canada during a similar period. A telephone case-control study implicated Christmas-wrapped chocolate balls manufactured by a Canadian company as the vehicle of transmission. S. eastbourne was subsequently isolated from several samples of leftover chocolate balls obtained from homes where cases occurred. Investigation of the factory revealed that the contaminated Christmas and Easter chocolates, and a few chocolate items for year-round sale, had been produced between May and October, 1973. Bacteriological testing of samples taken at the plant implicated cocoa beans as the probable source of the salmonella organisms which, in the low-moisture chocolate, were able to survive heating during production. This outbreak and the finding of salmonella of other serotypes in chocolates produced by another manufacturer suggest that chocolate-related salmonellosis may be a significant public-health problem.

  14. The European-American exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F

    1993-01-01

    The European-American exchange of infectious diseases was responsible for the demographic havoc of the native population in the New World after 1492. Prior to this date medical writers describe the presence in Spain of viral diseases like influenza, parotitis, smallpox, measles, poliomyelitis, and rabies; there were also rickettsiasis, diphtheria, salmonellosis, plague, tubercolosis, leprosy, malaria, scabies and tinea. In America, before European arrivals, there were no records of human viral diseases, though there were records of rickettsiasis, treponematosis--pinta, yaws and syphilis--leihsmaniasis, amibiasis and perhaps leprosy. With the discovery of America in 1492, Columbus's sailors were contaminated by yaws and spread this disease into Europe. In 1493 influenza, as a zoonosis, was introduced into Santo Domingo and was responsible for the annihilation of the natives of the Antilles in less than a quarter of a century; in 1518 smallpox was also introduced in Santo Domingo and then to the American continent by negro slaves: by the same means measles were introduced in 1531. The previous existence or introduction of other infectious diseases in America is also discussed.

  15. Microbiological food safety: a dilemma of developing societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Sarker, Mahfuzur R; Hossain, Ashfaque

    2014-11-01

    Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the life style of the population in the developing world. Socioeconomic status of the population in poorer economies is one of the major determinants to delineate the availability of safe food to the vulnerable population. Assessment of the prevalence of foodborne illness in developing world is the most neglected area to control disease. Botulism, Shigellosis, Campylobacteriosis, Escherichia coli infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Salmonellosis, Listeriosis and Cholerae are extensively prevalent and pose a major threat to human health in underdeveloped communities. The existing food safety status of many African, South Asian, Central, and South American developing countries is distressing therefore; it seems much timely to highlight the areas for the improvement to ensure the supply of safe food to the population in these regions. Extensive literature search at PubMed, Science Direct and Medline was carried out during the current year to catch on relevant data from 1976 to date, using selective terms like food safety, South East Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and foodborne illness etc. Efforts were made to restrict the search to low income countries of these regions with reference to specific foodborne pathogens. This report briefly discusses the present food safety situation in these developing countries and associated consequences as prime issues, suggesting foodborne illness to be the most distressing threat for human health and economic growth.

  16. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsi, Attila; Howe, Kevin; Kirkpatrick, Tasha B; Wills, Robert; Bailey, R Hartford; Lawrence, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler production continuum were transformed with the broad host range plasmid pAKlux1, and a chicken skin attachment model was developed. Results Salmonella strains carrying pAKlux1 constitutively expressed the luxCDABE operon and were therefore detectable using bioluminescence. Strains were characterized in terms of bioluminescence properties and plasmid stability. To assess the usefulness of bioluminescent Salmonella strains in food safety studies, we developed an attachment model using chicken skin. The effect of washing on attachment of Salmonella strains to chicken skin was tested using bioluminescent strains, which revealed the attachment properties of each strain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that bioluminescence is a sensitive and effective tool to detect Salmonella on food products in real-time. Bioluminescence imaging is a promising technology that can be utilized to evaluate new food safety measures for reducing Salmonella contamination on food products. PMID:18211715

  17. Salmonella enterica flagellin is recognized via FLS2 and activates PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Victoria; Charrier, Amélie; Schikora, Adam; Bigeard, Jean; Pateyron, Stephanie; de Tauzia-Moreau, Marie-Ludivine; Evrard, Alexandre; Mithöfer, Axel; Martin-Magniette, Marie Laure; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Hirt, Heribert

    2014-04-01

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Recent evidence indicates that plants recognize S. enterica and raise defense responses. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction of S. enterica with plants are still largely unclear. Here, we show that flagellin from S. enterica represents a prominent pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in Arabidopsis thaliana, which induces PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) via the recognition of the flg22 domain by the receptor kinase FLS2. The Arabidopsis fls2 mutant shows reduced though not abolished PTI activation, indicating that plants rely also on recognition of other S. enterica PAMPs. Interestingly, the S. enterica type III secretion system (T3SS) mutant prgH- induced stronger defense gene expression than wild-type bacteria in Arabidopsis, suggesting that T3SS effectors are involved in defense suppression. Furthermore, we observe that S. enterica strains show variation in the flg22 epitope, which results in proteins with reduced PTI-inducing activity. Altogether, these results show that S. enterica activates PTI in Arabidopsis and suggest that, in order to accomplish plant colonization, S. enterica evolved strategies to avoid or suppress PTI.

  18. Salmonella, a cross-kingdom pathogen infecting humans and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schikora, Adam

    2013-06-01

    Infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella strains are constant and are a non-negligible threat to the human population. In the last two decades, salmonellosis outbreaks have increasingly been associated with infected fruits and vegetables. For a long time, Salmonellae were assumed to survive on plants after a more or less accidental infection. However, this notion has recently been challenged. Studies on the infection mechanism in vegetal hosts, as well as on plant immune systems, revealed an active infection process resembling in certain features the infection in animals. On one hand, Salmonella requires the type III secretion systems to effectively infect plants and to suppress their resistance mechanisms. On the other hand, plants recognize these bacteria and react to the infection with an induced defense mechanism similar to the reaction to other plant pathogens. In this review, we present the newest reports on the interaction between Salmonellae and plants. We discuss the possible ways used by these bacteria to infect plants as well as the plant responses to the infection. The recent findings indicate that plants play a central role in the dissemination of Salmonella within the ecosystem. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The dark side of the salad: Salmonella typhimurium overcomes the innate immune response of Arabidopsis thaliana and shows an endopathogenic lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, Adam; Carreri, Alessandro; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Hirt, Heribert

    2008-05-28

    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium contaminated vegetables and fruits are considerable sources of human infections. Bacteria present in raw plant-derived nutrients cause salmonellosis, the world wide most spread food poisoning. This facultative endopathogen enters and replicates in host cells and actively suppresses host immune responses. Although Salmonella survives on plants, the underlying bacterial infection mechanisms are only poorly understood. In this report we investigated the possibility to use Arabidopsis thaliana as a genetically tractable host system to study Salmonella-plant interactions. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) marked bacteria, we show here that Salmonella can infect various Arabidopsis tissues and proliferate in intracellular cellular compartments. Salmonella infection of Arabidopsis cells can occur via intact shoot or root tissues resulting in wilting, chlorosis and eventually death of the infected organs. Arabidopsis reacts to Salmonella by inducing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and enhanced expression of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. The induction of defense responses fails in plants that are compromised in ethylene or jasmonic acid signaling or in the MKK3-MPK6 MAPK pathway. These findings demonstrate that Arabidopsis represents a true host system for Salmonella, offering unique possibilities to study the interaction of this human pathogen with plants at the molecular level for developing novel drug targets and addressing current safety issues in human nutrition.

  20. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Mauritius linked to consumption of marlin mousse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issack, Mohammad I; Hendriksen, Rene S; Lun, Phimy Lan Keng; Lutchun, Ram K S; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2009-01-01

    We report the first outbreak of salmonellosis caused by consumption of contaminated marlin mousse. Between 29 October and 5 November 2008, at least 53 persons developed diarrheal illness, all with a history of eating marlin mousse. Salmonella spp. that did not produce gas from glucose was isolated from stools of 26 affected patients and blood culture from one patient. Salmonella sp. isolates with the same phenotype were isolated in three samples of marlin mousse manufactured on 27 October 2008. The constituents of the mousse were smoked marlin, raw eggs, bovine gelatin, oil, and cream. A laboratory investigation of one sample of marlin mousse manufactured 3 days later, and the individual ingredients sampled a week after production of the contaminated batch were all negative for Salmonella. Serotyping and minimum inhibitory concentration determination were performed on 12 patient isolates related to the outbreak and two mousse isolates. All isolates belonged to Salmonella serovar Typhimurium and were pansusceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that all the isolates were indistinguishable, thus implicating the mousse as the vehicle of the outbreak.

  1. The welfare risks and impacts of heat stress on sheep shipped from Australia to the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Clive

    2016-12-01

    This review considers the welfare issues confronting sheep due to heat stress on board ships undertaking long distance voyages. Sheep engage in behavioural and physiologic mechanisms to attempt to mitigate heat stress, but the evidence from Australian shipments from 2005 to 2014 is that mortality approximately doubles when sheep are transported from Australia in winter to the Middle East in summer. Much of this increase has been attributed to salmonellosis and inanition, but this may have been mistaken for, or exacerbated by, heat stress. The Australian government's estimate of the heat stress threshold of sheep is substantially higher than that observed under simulated live export conditions, which leads to an underestimate of the importance of heat stress in sheep on voyages where mortality is high. Improved temperature monitoring on ships and the creation of both a robust model of the impact of increased temperatures on sheep morbidity and mortality, and a heat stress scale for sheep would assist in understanding and addressing this welfare concern. The high risk to sheep exported from Australia during summer in the Middle East is sufficient to warrant consideration of restriction of trade during this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathobiology of Salmonella, intestinal microbiota, and the host innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lima Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a relevant pathogen under a clinical and public health perspective. Therefore, there has been a significant scientific effort to learn about pathogenic determinants of this pathogen. The clinical relevance of the disease, associated with the molecular tools available to study Salmonella as well as suitable animal models for salmonellosis, have provided optimal conditions to drive the scientific community to generate a large expansion of our knowledge about the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enterocolitis that took place during the past two decades. This research effort has also generated a wealth of information on the host immune mechanisms that complements gaps in the fundamental research in this area. This review focus on how the interaction between Salmonella, the microbiota and intestinal innate immunity leads to disease manifestation. As a highly successful enteropathogen, Salmonella actively elicits a robust acute intestinal inflammatory response from the host, which could theoretically lead to the pathogen demise. However, Salmonella has evolved redundant molecular machineries that renders this pathogen highly adapted to the inflamed intestinal environment, in which Salmonella is capable of outcompete resident commensal organisms. The adaptation of Salmonella to the inflamed intestinal lumen associated with the massive inflammatory response that leads to diarrhea, generate perfect conditions for transmission of the pathogen. These conditions illustrate the complexity of the co-evolution and ecology of the pathogen, commensals and the host.

  3. Pathobiology of salmonella, intestinal microbiota, and the host innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renato Lima

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is a relevant pathogen under a clinical and public health perspective. Therefore, there has been a significant scientific effort to learn about pathogenic determinants of this pathogen. The clinical relevance of the disease, associated with the molecular tools available to study Salmonella as well as suitable animal models for salmonellosis, have provided optimal conditions to drive the scientific community to generate a large expansion of our knowledge about the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enterocolitis that took place during the past two decades. This research effort has also generated a wealth of information on the host immune mechanisms that complements gaps in the fundamental research in this area. This review focus on how the interaction between Salmonella, the microbiota and intestinal innate immunity leads to disease manifestation. As a highly successful enteropathogen, Salmonella actively elicits a robust acute intestinal inflammatory response from the host, which could theoretically lead to the pathogen demise. However, Salmonella has evolved redundant molecular machineries that renders this pathogen highly adapted to the inflamed intestinal environment, in which Salmonella is capable of outcompete resident commensal organisms. The adaptation of Salmonella to the inflamed intestinal lumen associated with the massive inflammatory response that leads to diarrhea, generate perfect conditions for transmission of the pathogen. These conditions illustrate the complexity of the co-evolution and ecology of the pathogen, commensals, and the host.

  4. Emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Potsdam as a major serovar in waterfowl hatcheries and chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yao-Chi; Yu, Chang-you; Lin, Jiang-Liang; Lai, Jyh-mirn; Chen, Shu-Wun; Tu, Pei-Chun; Chu, Chishih

    2011-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a common food-borne illness in humans caused by Salmonella-contaminated poultry and their products. In hatcheries, 110 Salmonella isolates were identified, mostly from first enrichment, and few from delayed enrichment. The Salmonella prevalence in goose and duck hatcheries was higher when measured by four multiplex PCR methods than by traditional culture (73.8% vs. 44.35%, P Potsdam of serogroup C1 and other isolates were Salmonella Montevideo of C1 and Salmonella Albany of C2. Plasmid and pulsed field gel electrophoresis genetic analysis revealed that isolates from duck hatcheries were more diverse than those from goose hatcheries. In Salmonella Potsdam, host species-specific genotypes were observed in geese for genotypes 3, 4, and 5 and in ducks for genotypes 7, 8, and 9, suggesting that Salmonella Potsdam may evolve into goose- and duck-specific isolates. An examination of 1121 eggs found that only Salmonella Potsdam was identified in 1.8% (7/591) of eggs from chickens fed on the ground, not housed in cages, and in egg content (6/7) as well as eggshell membrane (1/7). In conclusion, Salmonella Potsdam may be a major Salmonella infection in waterfowl and chicken eggs.

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-01-06

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91%) reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of "risky behaviour" associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants' responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO) and Food handlers compared to all other professions (p 0.05) their responses.

  6. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  7. The effects, costs and benefits of Salmonella control in the Danish table-egg sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, H; Madsen, M; Feld, N C; Mygind, J; Hald, T

    2009-06-01

    A public plan for eradicating Salmonella in Danish table-egg production was implemented in 1996. During 2002, the poultry industry took over the responsibility of the programme. The proportion of infected layer flocks was reduced from 13.4% in 1998 to 0.4% in 2006. The public-health impact of the plan has been quite marked. In 1997, 55-65% of the 5015 cases of human salmonellosis were estimated to be associated with eggs. In 2006, these figures were reduced to 1658 and 5-7%, respectively. Based on an assessment of the number of human cases attributable to table eggs, we used probabilistic modelling to estimate the avoided societal costs (health care and lost labour), and compared these with the public costs of control. The probable avoided societal costs during 1998-2002 were estimated to be 23.3 million euros (95% CI 16.3-34.9), and the results showed a continuous decreasing cost-benefit ratio reaching well below 1 in 2002. Further reductions in the primary production based on effective surveillance and control are required to ensure continued success.

  8. Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, N I; Meuwissen, M P M; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Huirne, R B M

    2005-04-01

    This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurized milk), and "consumer" (retailer/catering establishment and pasteurized milk consumption). The concept of food safety improvement focused on 2 main groups of hazards: chemical (antibiotics and dioxin) and microbiological (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate food safety experts' perceptions of the attributes' importance. Preference data from individual experts (n = 24) on 101 attributes along the chain were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Experts perceived the attributes from the "feed" and "farm" blocks as being more vital for controlling the chemical hazards; whereas the attributes from the "farm" and "dairy processing" were considered more vital for controlling the microbiological hazards. For the chemical hazards, "identification of treated cows" and "quality assurance system of compound feed manufacturers" were considered the most important attributes. For the microbiological hazards, these were "manure supply source" and "action in salmonellosis and M. paratuberculosis cases". The rather high importance of attributes relating to quality assurance and traceability systems of the chain participants indicates that participants look for food safety assurance from the preceding participants. This information has substantial decision-making implications for private businesses along the chain and for the government regarding the food safety improvement of fluid pasteurized milk.

  9. Evaluation of Agricultural Interventions on Human and Poultry-Related Salmonella Enteritidis in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marsha; Cox, William; Otterstatter, Michael; de With, Nancy; Galanis, Eleni

    2017-10-13

    A collaborative investigation between public health and animal health led to numerous interventions along the food chain in response to an outbreak of human salmonellosis and increased incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) among poultry. Incidence of both human and chicken SE decreased substantially in 2012 and 2013 following these interventions. We used time series analysis to assess the impact of three interventions: vaccination of broiler breeder flocks, separation in the hatchery of breeder eggs, and an industry order to stop farm-gate sales of ungraded broiler hatching eggs. Results show a Granger causal association between human SE incidence and SE incidence in chickens 8 months earlier. Among the interventions, separation of breeder flocks showed a consistent and statistically significant association with declining SE incidence in chickens. Our results did not show consistent declines in chicken SE following breeder flock vaccination (live or inactivated vaccine). None of the interventions had statistically significant impacts on human SE incidence. Our results are consistent with a positive effect of certain interventions and also reveal where additional data are needed for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multiple interventions throughout the food chain are best practices when dealing with enteric pathogens; collecting data on the timing and intensity of these interventions allow proper evaluation of their independent and combined effects. Finally, we identify considerations for others interested in undertaking similar evaluations. Ongoing collaborative work between public health and animal health is required to refine strategies for SE control in British Columbia.

  10. Extracellular Adenosine Generation in the Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Responses and Pathogen Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samiul Alam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine, an immunomodulatory biomolecule, is produced by the ecto-enzymes CD39 (nucleoside triphosphate dephosphorylase and CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase by dephosphorylation of extracellular ATP. CD73 is expressed by many cell types during injury, infection and during steady-state conditions. Besides host cells, many bacteria also have CD39-CD73-like machinery, which helps the pathogen subvert the host inflammatory response. The major function for adenosine is anti-inflammatory, and most recent research has focused on adenosine’s control of inflammatory mechanisms underlying various autoimmune diseases (e.g., colitis, arthritis. Although adenosine generated through CD73 provides a feedback to control tissue damage mediated by a host immune response, it can also contribute to immunosuppression. Thus, inflammation can be a double-edged sword: it may harm the host but eventually helps by killing the invading pathogen. The role of adenosine in dampening inflammation has been an area of active research, but the relevance of the CD39/CD73-axis and adenosine receptor signaling in host defense against infection has received less attention. Here, we review our recent knowledge regarding CD73 expression during murine Salmonellosis and Helicobacter-induced gastric infection and its role in disease pathogenesis and bacterial persistence. We also explored a possible role for the CD73/adenosine pathway in regulating innate host defense function during infection.

  11. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian’s clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed. PMID:23687940

  12. An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutrosa subgutrosa) and a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Tiffany M; Wünschmann, Arno; Morningstar-Shaw, Brenda; Pantlin, Gayle C; Rasmussen, James M; Thompson, Rachel L

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis enteritis occurred in two juvenile goitered gazelles and an adult Malayan tapir over a period of 5 wk at the Minnesota Zoo. Diagnosis was made postmortem on one gazelle and one tapir, and a second gazelle was diagnosed via fecal culture. The death of the tapir was attributed to S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis septicemia, while salmonellosis was considered to be a contributing factor besides ostertagiasis for the death of one goitered gazelle and for the diarrhea of another goitered gazelle. A third gazelle became ill in the same time period, but Salmonella infection was not confirmed by culture. All exhibited the clinical signs of profuse, watery diarrhea. The gazelles developed a protein-losing enteropathy, and the tapir showed signs of sepsis and endotoxemia. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the Salmonella isolates to be indistinguishable from each other. One year prior to this outbreak, Salmonella sp. was cultured from a Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) housed in the same building as the tapir. After further investigation into the outbreak, spread of this pathogen was speculated to be associated with human movement across animal areas.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus Probiotic, P22 Bacteriophage and Salmonella Typhimurium on the Heterophilic Burst Activity of Broiler Chickens

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    GA Marietto-Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the constant evolution of industrial poultry production and the global emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics there has been an increasing interest in alternatives for the treatment of poultry salmonellosis, such as phage therapy and probiotics. The present study evaluated the effects of the oral administration of the bacteriophage P22 and of a probiotic, consisting of four Lactobacillus species, on the level of circulating heterophils containing a superoxide anion of one-day-old broilers challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium for seven days. It was concluded that the treatment with a probiotic with lactobacilli of broilers experimentally infected with Salmonella spp eliminates this pathogen by increasing the circulating levels of reactive heterophils. When chicks are treated with a probiotic and a bacteriophage, the agent is eliminated with no changes in circulating reactive heterophil counts. It is also concluded that the heterophils of day-old chicks are not capable of producing superoxide anion. However, this capacity is detected after 48 h of life, indicating that heterophils mature as birds age.

  14. Virulence blockers as alternatives to antibiotics: type III secretion inhibitors against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, P; Elofsson, M; Rosell, S; Wolf-Watz, H

    2008-07-01

    In recent years mounting problems related to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have resulted in the prediction that we are entering the preantibiotic era. A way of preventing such a development would be to introduce novel antibacterial medicines with modes of action distinct from conventional antibiotics. Recent studies of bacterial virulence factors and toxins have resulted in increased understanding of the way in which pathogenic bacteria manipulate host cellular processes. This knowledge may now be used to develop novel antibacterial medicines that disarm pathogenic bacteria. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is known to be a potent virulence mechanism shared by a broad spectrum of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that interact with human, animal and plant hosts by injecting effector proteins into the cytosol of host cells. Diseases, such as bubonic plague, shigellosis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, pulmonary infections, sexually transmitted chlamydia and diarrhoea largely depend on the bacterial proteins injected by the T3SS machinery. Recently a number of T3SS inhibitors have been identified using screening-based approaches. One class of inhibitors, the salicylidene acylhydrazides, has been subjected to chemical optimization and evaluation in several in vitro and ex vivo assays in multiple bacterial species including Yersinia spp., Chlamydia spp., Salmonella spp. and Pseudotuberculosis aeruginosa. Reports published up to date indicate that T3SS inhibitors have the potential to be developed into novel antibacterial therapeutics.

  15. Avian cytokines in health and disease

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    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  16. Rapid Salmonella detection using an acoustic wave device combined with the RCA isothermal DNA amplification method

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    Antonis Kordas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major foodborne pathogen that causes Salmonellosis, posing a serious threat for public health and economy; thus, the development of fast and sensitive methods is of paramount importance for food quality control and safety management. In the current work, we are presenting a new approach where an isothermal amplification method is combined with an acoustic wave device for the development of a label free assay for bacteria detection. Specifically, our method utilizes a Love wave biosensor based on a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW device combined with the isothermal Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA method; various protocols were tested regarding the DNA amplification and detection, including off-chip amplification at two different temperatures (30 °C and room temperature followed by acoustic detection and on-chip amplification and detection at room temperature, with the current detection limit being as little as 100 Bacteria Cell Equivalents (BCE/sample. Our acoustic results showed that the acoustic ratio, i.e., the amplitude over phase change observed during DNA binding, provided the only sensitive means for product detection while the measurement of amplitude or phase alone could not discriminate positive from negative samples. The method's fast analysis time together with other inherent advantages i.e., portability, potential for multi-analysis, lower sample volumes and reduced power consumption, hold great promise for employing the developed assay in a Lab on Chip (LoC platform for the integrated analysis of Salmonella in food samples.

  17. Salmonella in the pork production chain and its impact on human health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella spp. comprise the second most common food-borne pathogens in the European Union (EU). The role of pigs as carriers of Salmonella has been intensively studied both on farm and at slaughter. Salmonella infection in pigs may cause fever, diarrhoea, prostration and mortality. However, most infected pigs remain healthy carriers, and those infected at the end of the fattening period could pose a threat to human health. Contamination of pig carcasses can occur on the slaughter line, and it is linked to cross-contamination from other carcasses and the presence of Salmonella in the environment. Therefore, Salmonella serovars present on pig carcasses can be different from those detected in the same bathes on the farm. In recent years, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby and S. serotype 4,[5],12:i:- (a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium) have been the most common serovars to be detected in pigs in EU countries, but S. Rissen, S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis and S. Brandenburg have also been reported. In humans, several cases of salmonellosis have been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and pork products. Among the main serovars of porcine origin detected in confirmed human cases, S. Typhimurium, the monophasic variant S. 4,[5],12:i:- and S. Derby are certainly the most important.

  18. Molecular detection assay of five Salmonella serotypes of public interest: Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, and Hadar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarel, M; Tudor, A; Loneragan, G H; Nightingale, K K

    2017-03-01

    Foodborne illnesses due to Salmonella represent an important public-health concern worldwide. In the United States, a majority of Salmonella infections are associated with a small number of serotypes. Furthermore, some serotypes that are overrepresented among human disease are also associated with multi-drug resistance phenotypes. Rapid detection of serotypes of public-health concern might help reduce the burden of salmonellosis cases and limit exposure to multi-drug resistant Salmonella. We developed a two-step real-time PCR-based rapid method for the identification and detection of five Salmonella serotypes that are either overrepresented in human disease or frequently associated with multi-drug resistance, including serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, Hadar, and Heidelberg. Two sets of four markers were developed to detect and differentiate the five serotypes. The first set of markers was developed as a screening step to detect the five serotypes; whereas, the second set was used to further distinguish serotypes Heidelberg, Newport and Hadar. The utilization of these markers on a two-step investigation strategy provides a diagnostic specificity of 97% for the detection of Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, Newport and Hadar. The diagnostic sensitivity of the detection makers is >96%. The availability of this two-step rapid method will facilitate specific detection of Salmonella serotypes that contribute to a significant proportion of human disease and carry antimicrobial resistance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Methodologies for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Subtyping: Gold Standards and Alternatives▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattiau, Pierre; Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    For more than 80 years, subtyping of Salmonella enterica has been routinely performed by serotyping, a method in which surface antigens are identified based on agglutination reactions with specific antibodies. The serotyping scheme, which is continuously updated as new serovars are discovered, has generated over time a data set of the utmost significance, allowing long-term epidemiological surveillance of Salmonella in the food chain and in public health control. Conceptually, serotyping provides no information regarding the phyletic relationships inside the different Salmonella enterica subspecies. In epidemiological investigations, identification and tracking of salmonellosis outbreaks require the use of methods that can fingerprint the causative strains at a taxonomic level far more specific than the one achieved by serotyping. During the last 2 decades, alternative methods that could successfully identify the serovar of a given strain by probing its DNA have emerged, and molecular biology-based methods have been made available to address phylogeny and fingerprinting issues. At the same time, accredited diagnostics have become increasingly generalized, imposing stringent methodological requirements in terms of traceability and measurability. In these new contexts, the hand-crafted character of classical serotyping is being challenged, although it is widely accepted that classification into serovars should be maintained. This review summarizes and discusses modern typing methods, with a particular focus on those having potential as alternatives for classical serotyping or for subtyping Salmonella strains at a deeper level. PMID:21856826

  20. Cytokine activation during embryonic development and in hen ovary and vagina during reproductive age and Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of 11 proinflammatory cytokines in the chicken embryos during embryonic development, as well as in the hen ovary and vagina in vivo, to investigate whether sexual maturation affects their ovarian and vaginal mRNA abundance and to determine whether cytokine expression was constitutive or induced in the ovary and vagina as a response to SE infection. RT-PCR analysis revealed that several cytokines were expressed in the chicken embryos, and in the ovary and vagina of healthy birds. Expression of various cytokines during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated. In addition, a significant up-regulation of several cytokines in the ovary and vagina of sexually mature SE infected birds compared to healthy birds of the same age was observed. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the hen reproductive organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91% reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of “risky behaviour” associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants’ responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO and Food handlers compared to all other professions (p < 0.05. However, the gender of participants did not significantly affect (p > 0.05 their responses.

  2. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exploits inflammation to modify swine intestinal microbiota.

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    Rosanna eDrumo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen responsible for foodborne disease worldwide. It is a successful enteric pathogen because it has developed virulence strategies allowing it to survive in a highly inflamed intestinal environment exploiting inflammation to overcome colonization resistance provided by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we used piglets featuring an intact microbiota, which naturally develop gastroenteritis, as model for salmonellosis. We compared the effects on the intestinal microbiota induced by a wild type and an attenuated S. Typhimurium in order to evaluate whether the modifications are correlated with the virulence of the strain. This study showed that Salmonella alters microbiota in a virulence-dependent manner. We found that the wild type S. Typhimurium induced inflammation and a reduction of specific protecting microbiota species (SCFA-producing bacteria normally involved in providing a barrier against pathogens. Both these effects could contribute to impair colonization resistance, increasing the host susceptibility to wild type S. Typhimurium colonization. In contrast, the attenuated S. Typhimurium, which is characterized by a reduced ability to colonize the intestine, and by a very mild inflammatory response, was unable to successfully sustain competition with the microbiota.

  3. In vivo IFN-γ secretion by NK cells in response to Salmonella typhimurium requires NLRC4 inflammasomes.

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    Andreas Kupz

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are a critical part of the innate immune defense against viral infections and for the control of tumors. Much less is known about how NK cells contribute to anti-bacterial immunity. NK cell-produced interferon gamma (IFN-γ contributes to the control of early exponential replication of bacterial pathogens, however the regulation of these events remains poorly resolved. Using a mouse model of invasive Salmonellosis, here we report that the activation of the intracellular danger sensor NLRC4 by Salmonella-derived flagellin within CD11c+ cells regulates early IFN-γ secretion by NK cells through the provision of interleukin 18 (IL-18, independently of Toll-like receptor (TLR-signaling. Although IL18-signalling deficient NK cells improved host protection during S. Typhimurium infection, this increased resistance was inferior to that provided by wild-type NK cells. These findings suggest that although NLRC4 inflammasome-driven secretion of IL18 serves as a potent activator of NK cell mediated IFN-γ secretion, IL18-independent NK cell-mediated mechanisms of IFN-γ secretion contribute to in vivo control of Salmonella replication.

  4. Mycotic aneurysm in a turtle hunter: brief review and a case report

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    Harsha Moole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella-associated mycotic aneurysm is a rare, but dreaded, complication of salmonellosis. Immunocompromised and elderly populations are more susceptible to develop this extra-intestinal complication. Salmonella is spread via fecal–oral and vehicle-borne routes. Reptiles, especially small pet turtles, have been linked with an increased risk of Salmonella infection. Diagnosis of mycotic aneurysm is a challenge due to atypical presentations. Recently, widespread use of CT scan imaging to evaluate for unexplained abdominal pain and sepsis has led to early identification of mycotic aneurysms. Antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention are the cornerstones of management. Open surgery has been the gold standard of treatment but is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A relatively new alternative to open surgery is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR. It is comparatively less invasive and is associated with reduced early morbidity and mortality in the setting of mycotic aneurysm. However, there is a risk of late infection. Here, we present a patient with Salmonella mycotic aneurysm initially treated conservatively with antibiotic therapy who later underwent successful interval EVAR with no complications to date. Also included is a brief review of Salmonella-associated mycotic aneurysms.

  5. BCG Lymphadenitis and Recurrent Oral Candidiasis in an Infant with a New Mutation Leading to Interleukin-12 Receptor Beta-1 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Caner; Dogu, Figen; Tuygun, Nilden; Tanir, Gonul; Guloglu, Deniz; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ikinciogullari, Aydan

    2012-01-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare syndrome characterized by the predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Salmonellosis has been reported in almost half of affected patients. Patients are also vulnerable to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Various other infectious diseases occurred, albeit each rarely, but mucocutaneous candidiasis have been reported in more patients. Interleukin-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) deficiency is the most frequent genetic cause of MSMD. Here, we describe an infant with a single episode of BCG lymphadenitis (BCG-itis) who also suffered from recurrent oral candidiasis. Genetic analysis revealed a new homozygous mutation (64+1G>T) in the IL12RB1 gene that caused complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency. IL12Rβ1 deficiency should be considered in patients with BCG infection, even a single episode of BCG-itis or recurrent mucocutaneous candidiasis. Nevertheless, awareness should be increased in countries where BCG vaccination is performed. PMID:21905505

  6. Treatment of septic arthritis of the coxofemoral joint in 12 foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló Oliver, F; Russell, T M; Uprichard, K L; Neil, K M; Pollock, P J

    2017-05-01

    To describe the clinical signs, surgical treatment, and outcome of septic arthritis of the coxofemoral joint in foals. Retrospective clinical study. Foals (n = 12) with confirmed sepsis of the coxofemoral joint. Lameness was localized to the coxofemoral joint based on physical examination. Sepsis was confirmed by cytological analysis of synovial fluid obtained under ultrasonographic guidance, during general anesthesia or standing sedation. Intra-articular analgesia was used as an adjunct diagnostic modality in 2 foals. Surgical lavage of the affected joint was performed via arthroscopy or needle lavage, with repeated lavage performed in 7 foals. Synovial fluid contained 4.4 to 173 × 109 /L white blood cells (WBCs), and 38-63 g/L total protein. Cultures were positive in 10/12 foals. Isolated organisms included Salmonella spp., Streptococcus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia spp., Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus spp. Ten foals were discharged from hospital (83%). One of these was euthanized 15 days later due to chronic intestinal salmonellosis and renal failure, and 9 foals survived with no residual lameness detected 1 year after discharge from hospital. Sepsis of the coxofermoral joint can be effectively treated with a combination of arthroscopic lavage and the use of systemic and local antimicrobials. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Evidence for the transmission of Salmonella from reptiles to children in Germany, July 2010 to October 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, M; Rabsch, W; Plenz, B; Fruth, A; Prager, R; Simon, S; Schmidt, V; Munch, S; Braun, Pg

    2013-11-14

    This study examines the Salmonella status in reptiles kept in households with children suffering from gastroenteritis due to an exotic Salmonella serovar, to obtain information on possible transmission paths. A number of affected households (n=79) were contacted, and almost half (34/79) comprised at least one reptile in the home. Of the households, 19 were further studied, whereby a total of 36 reptiles were investigated. Samples were taken from the reptiles including the oral cavity, the cloaca, the skin and, in the case of lizards, the stomach, and isolation of Salmonella strains was performed using repeated enrichment and typing. Where the Salmonella serovars of the infected child and the reptile were identical, typing was followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) constituted 19 of 36 examined reptiles. Altogether 319 Salmonella isolates were investigated and 24 different serovars identified in the reptiles. In 15 of 19 households, an identical serovar to the human case was confirmed in at least one reptile (including 16 of all 19 bearded dragons examined). The results demonstrate that reptiles and especially bearded dragons shed various Salmonella serovars including those isolated from infected children in the respective households. Hygiene protocols and parents' education are therefore highly necessary to reduce the risk of transmission. From a terminological point of view, we propose to call such infections 'Reptile-Exotic-Pet-Associated-Salmonellosis' (REPAS).

  8. Schistosoma-associated Salmonella resist antibiotics via specific fimbrial attachments to the flatworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Alison E; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Day, Tim A; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-06-28

    Schistosomes are parasitic helminths that infect humans through dermo-invasion while in contaminated water. Salmonella are also a common water-borne human pathogen that infects the gastrointestinal tract via the oral route. Both pathogens eventually enter the systemic circulation as part of their respective disease processes. Concurrent Schistosoma-Salmonella infections are common and are complicated by the bacteria adhering to adult schistosomes present in the mesenteric vasculature. This interaction provides a refuge in which the bacterium can putatively evade antibiotic therapy and anthelmintic monotherapy can lead to a massive release of occult Salmonella. Using a novel antibiotic protection assay, our results reveal that Schistosoma-associated Salmonella are refractory to eight different antibiotics commonly used to treat salmonellosis. The efficacy of these antibiotics was decreased by a factor of 4 to 16 due to this association. Salmonella binding to schistosomes occurs via a specific fimbrial protein (FimH) present on the surface on the bacterium. This same fimbrial protein confers the ability of Salmonella to bind to mammalian cells. Salmonella can evade certain antibiotics by binding to Schistosoma. As a result, effective bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics are unfortunately above the achievable therapeutic levels of the drugs in co-infected individuals. Salmonella-Schistosoma binding is analogous to the adherence of Salmonella to cells lining the mammalian intestine. Perturbing this binding is the key to eliminating Salmonella that complicate schistosomiasis.

  9. The dark side of the salad: Salmonella typhimurium overcomes the innate immune response of Arabidopsis thaliana and shows an endopathogenic lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schikora

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium contaminated vegetables and fruits are considerable sources of human infections. Bacteria present in raw plant-derived nutrients cause salmonellosis, the world wide most spread food poisoning. This facultative endopathogen enters and replicates in host cells and actively suppresses host immune responses. Although Salmonella survives on plants, the underlying bacterial infection mechanisms are only poorly understood. In this report we investigated the possibility to use Arabidopsis thaliana as a genetically tractable host system to study Salmonella-plant interactions. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP marked bacteria, we show here that Salmonella can infect various Arabidopsis tissues and proliferate in intracellular cellular compartments. Salmonella infection of Arabidopsis cells can occur via intact shoot or root tissues resulting in wilting, chlorosis and eventually death of the infected organs. Arabidopsis reacts to Salmonella by inducing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades and enhanced expression of pathogenesis related (PR genes. The induction of defense responses fails in plants that are compromised in ethylene or jasmonic acid signaling or in the MKK3-MPK6 MAPK pathway. These findings demonstrate that Arabidopsis represents a true host system for Salmonella, offering unique possibilities to study the interaction of this human pathogen with plants at the molecular level for developing novel drug targets and addressing current safety issues in human nutrition.

  10. Combined influence of multiple climatic factors on the incidence of bacterial foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Park, Ki Hwan; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2018-01-01

    Information regarding the relationship between the incidence of foodborne diseases (FBD) and climatic factors is useful in designing preventive strategies for FBD based on anticipated future climate change. To better predict the effect of climate change on foodborne pathogens, the present study investigated the combined influence of multiple climatic factors on bacterial FBD incidence in South Korea. During 2011-2015, the relationships between 8 climatic factors and the incidences of 13 bacterial FBD, were determined based on inpatient stays, on a monthly basis using the Pearson correlation analyses, multicollinearity tests, principal component analysis (PCA), and the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) modeling. Of the 8 climatic variables, the combination of temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, insolation, and cloudiness was significantly associated with salmonellosis (Psnowfall, wind speed, duration of sunshine, and cloudiness were not significant for these 3 FBD. Other FBD, including campylobacteriosis, were not significantly associated with any combination of climatic factors. These findings indicate that the relationships between multiple climatic factors and bacterial FBD incidence can be valuable for the development of prediction models for future patterns of diseases in response to changes in climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Guanosine 5'-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, HeeKyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun; Koh, Hong Bum

    2017-09-30

    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate were observed, and Salmonella Gallinarum was re-isolated from the liver, spleen, and cecum of the layers. All tested internal organs for the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited significantly lower re-isolation numbers of Salmonella Gallinarum and less severe pathological changes than those in the control group, indicating that the CaFe-GMP feed supplement induced bacterial clearance and increased resistance to Salmonella Gallinarum. Additionally, due to the inhibitory action of CaFe-GMP on the growth of Salmonella Gallinarum, the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited better egg production, including a higher laying rate and fewer broken eggs. The results suggest that a 0.16% CaFe-GMP additive may help prevent salmonellosis in the poultry industry.

  12. ISOLATION STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLAE IN CHICKEN ORGANS, EGGS AND FEED COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Saraj-Uddin; Sajid, Mahum; Hashmi, Ramiz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide.

  13. Guanosine 5′-monophosphate-chelated calcium and iron feed additives maintains egg production and prevents Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Kim, HeeKyong; Heo, Su Jeong; Cho, Hyang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP)-chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, a CaFe-GMP feed additive was added to a commercial layer feed and fed to layers over a four-week period. All were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate were observed, and Salmonella Gallinarum was re-isolated from the liver, spleen, and cecum of the layers. All tested internal organs for the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited significantly lower re-isolation numbers of Salmonella Gallinarum and less severe pathological changes than those in the control group, indicating that the CaFe-GMP feed supplement induced bacterial clearance and increased resistance to Salmonella Gallinarum. Additionally, due to the inhibitory action of CaFe-GMP on the growth of Salmonella Gallinarum, the CaFe-GMP additive group exhibited better egg production, including a higher laying rate and fewer broken eggs. The results suggest that a 0.16% CaFe-GMP additive may help prevent salmonellosis in the poultry industry. PMID:28057911

  14. A clinical trial investigating the impact of in-feed flavophospholipol on Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Saranya; Farzan, Abdolvahab; O'Sullivan, Terri L; Friendship, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    A clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of in-feed flavophospholipol in reducing Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Pigs were obtained from a farm with a history of salmonellosis and were housed at a research facility. Over the span of 10 weeks the pigs received either a feed containing 4 ppm of flavophospholipol (treatment, n = 25) or a non-medicated feed (control, n = 20). Weekly fecal samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella and generic E. coli. A subset of Salmonella and E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to compare the prevalence of Salmonella shedding and AMR in Salmonella and E. coli isolates in treatment and control groups. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella shedding (P > 0.05) and AMR in Salmonella (P > 0.01) and E. coli (P > 0.005) isolates was not different between the treatment and control groups.

  15. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, Martin; Kristoffersen, Thor

    2014-07-11

    Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a "crushing plant" which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. During the 19-year period, 34% of samples collected during unloading of ships delivering soybeans yielded Salmonella; the proportion of samples from ships that yielded Salmonella varied from 12-62% each year. Dust samples from all shiploads from South America yielded Salmonella. In total 94 serovars of Salmonella were isolated, including nine (90%) of the EU 2012 top ten serovars isolated from clinical cases of salmonellosis in humans, including major animal pathogenic serovars like Spp. Typhimurium and Enteritidis. This study shows that a HAACP-based control program in a soybean crushing plant can produce Salmonella free soybean meal despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soybeans. That approach is suggested as an effective way to minimize the risk of Salmonella exposure of the animal feed mills and contamination of the subsequent animal feed chain.

  16. Detection of Salmonella spp. survival and virulence in poultry feed by targeting the hilA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Jarquin, R; Hanning, I; Almeida, G; Ricke, S C

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate immunomagnetic beads and a reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR method for the detection of Salmonella inoculated into feed. In addition, a reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR method was evaluated for quantifying virulence gene hilA expression of Salmonella ssp. in poultry feed matrices and utilized to determine the influence of poultry feed environmental factors on Salmonella hilA expression. An immunomagnetic separation technique was evaluated for increased recovery of Salmonella from feed. Salmonella cultures were inoculated into feed samples and exposed to heat treatments of 70°C and sampled periodically. From these samples, RNA was collected and hilA gene expression was measured relative to the housekeeping 16S rRNA gene. The immunomagnetic bead protocol increased recovery by 1 log. The up-regulation of hilA was demonstrated after 5 and 10 min of inoculated feed samples being exposed to heat treatment. From this work, the data indicate that the ability to detect live Salmonella cells in feed samples may be increased by targeting the hilA gene. Foodborne salmonellosis originating from poultry is a major problem, and feed is a leading source of contamination in poultry, but detection in feed is complicated by low concentrations. The assays and experiments in this study examine possible improvements to recovery and detection of Salmonella in feed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, Jonathan; Hutwagner, Lori; Vugia, Duc; Shallow, Sue; Daily, Pamela; Bender, Jeffrey; Koehler, Jane; Marcus, Ruthanne; Angulo, Frederick J

    2004-04-15

    To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996-1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; Preptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with approximately 74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

  18. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis.

  19. Evaluation of a statewide foodborne illness complaint surveillance system in Minnesota, 2000 through 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, John; Smith, Kirk; Kaehler, Dawn; Everstine, Karen; Rounds, Josh; Hedberg, Craig

    2010-11-01

    Foodborne outbreaks are detected by recognition of similar illnesses among persons with a common exposure or by identification of case clusters through pathogen-specific surveillance. PulseNet USA has created a national framework for pathogen-specific surveillance, but no comparable effort has been made to improve surveillance of consumer complaints of suspected foodborne illness. The purpose of this study was to characterize the complaint surveillance system in Minnesota and to evaluate its use for detecting outbreaks. Minnesota Department of Health foodborne illness surveillance data from 2000 through 2006 were analyzed for this study. During this period, consumer complaint surveillance led to detection of 79% of confirmed foodborne outbreaks. Most norovirus infection outbreaks were detected through complaints. Complaint surveillance also directly led or contributed to detection of 25% of salmonellosis outbreaks. Eighty-one percent of complainants did not seek medical attention. The number of ill persons in a complainant's party was significantly associated with a complaint ultimately resulting in identification of a foodborne outbreak. Outbreak confirmation was related to a complainant's ability to identify a common exposure and was likely related to the process by which the Minnesota Department of Health chooses complaints to investigate. A significant difference (P foodborne disease surveillance in Minnesota happens through a multitude of mechanisms. The ability to integrate these mechanisms and carry out rapid investigations leads to improved outbreak detection.

  20. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.