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Sample records for salmon stocks listed

  1. Salmon stocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, C; Korman, J

    1999-01-01

    The PFRCC, in this first report, intends to provide a broad species-by-species overview of stock status and trends for BC as a whole, as well as an overview of the relevant fisheries management issues...

  2. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  3. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  4. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  5. Determining The Importance Of Stock Structure, And Production Sources To Population Dynamics Of California Chinook Salmon Using Otoliths As Geochemical Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett-Johnson, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Pacific coast salmonids, including California stocks, have declined in numbers with all populations of California Central Valley Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) listed or proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Although California's natural stocks are declining, mass production of Central Valley fall-run Chinook salmon through hatchery production has supplemented the commercial and recreational fisheries. One challenge in understanding...

  6. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  7. 12 CFR 220.11 - Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks. 220.11 Section 220.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... (REGULATION T) § 220.11 Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin... paragraph (f) of this section, OTC margin stock shall meet the following requirements: (1) Four or more...

  8. Use of Artificial Propagation and Supplementation for Rebuilding Salmon Stocks Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 5 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichatowich, Jim; Watson, Bruce

    1993-06-01

    Conventional hatcheries, supplementation, and habitat protection are management activities located on a production continuum. At one end of the continuum is the conventional hatchery which attempts to separate artificially propagated fish from naturally reproducing populations. On the other end of the continuum is natural production. Supplementation which attempts to increase natural production through the use of artificial propagation lies somewhere between natural production and conventional hatcheries on the continuum. The use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species is controversial. Guidance on the use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species comes from three sources: The Endangered Species Act (ESA), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) policies and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) guidelines.

  9. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

    1986-08-01

    For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In

  10. Growth and smolting in lower-mode Atlantic Salmon stocked into the Penobscot River, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; O'Malley, Andrew; Cox, Oliver; Ruksznis, Peter; Trial, Joan G.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar in Maine has relied on hatchery-produced fry and smolts for critical stocking strategies. Stocking fry minimizes domestication selection, but these fish have poor survival. Conversely, stocked smolts have little freshwater experience but provide higher adult returns. Lower-mode (LM) fish, those not growing fast enough to ensure smolting by the time of stocking, are a by-product of the smolt program and are an intermediate hatchery product. From 2002 to 2009, between 70,000 and 170,000 marked LM Atlantic Salmon were stocked into the Pleasant River (a tributary in the Penobscot River drainage, Maine) in late September to early October. These fish were recaptured as actively migrating smolts (screw trapping), as nonmigrants (electrofishing), and as returning adults to the Penobscot River (Veazie Dam trap). Fork length (FL) was measured and a scale sample was taken to retrospectively estimate FL at winter annulus one (FW1) using the intercept-corrected direct proportion model. The LM fish were observed to migrate as age-1, age-2, and infrequently as age-3 smolts. Those migrating as age-1 smolts had a distinctly larger estimated FL at FW1 (>112 mm) than those that remained in the river for at least one additional year. At the time of migration, age-2 and age-3 smolts were substantially larger than age-1 smolts. Returning adult Atlantic Salmon of LM origin had estimated FLs at FW1 that corresponded to smolt age (greater FL for age 1 than age 2). The LM product produces both age-1 and age-2 smolts that have greater freshwater experience than hatchery smolts and may have growth and fitness advantages. The data from this study will allow managers to better assess the probability of smolting age and manipulate hatchery growth rates to produce a targeted-size LM product.

  11. STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING INDUCES SOPHISTICATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares capital budgeting techniques employed in listed and unlisted companies in Brazil. We surveyed the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 398 listed companies and 300 large unlisted companies, and based on 91 respondents, the results suggest that the CFOs of listed companies tend to use less simplistic methods more often, for example: NPV and CAPM, and that CFOs of unlisted companies are less likely to estimate the cost of equity, despite being large companies. These findings indicate that stock exchange listing may require greater sophistication of the capital budgeting process.

  12. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  13. Motivators of Dividend Payout among Firms listed on the Stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    Motivators of Dividend Payout among Firms listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius. 17. 1.0 I TRODUCTIO ... In addition, the success of a financial manager is tied to the maximisation of shareholders' wealth and hence ... the dividend behaviour of Malaysian companies was sensitive to the changes in earnings. Fama and ...

  14. The study of issuance of stocks in venture companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement the profitable projects, achieve the maximum efficiency, and increase their shareholders, companies may use different types of financial resources in different ways. The ability of companies to identify the internal and external resources for providing capital and financial programs is considered as one of the main factors that affects on the growth and development of the companies. Financing resources and their usage volume are factors that affect on the companies’ operating performance. In this regard, companies and economic institutions can be financially provided from both inside and outside. Companies can issue and sell new common stocks to investors to provide their required financial resources. This study was conducted to investigate the issuance of stocks as one of resources of financing in the companies. Statistical population of this study was active listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. The sample of study was selected among listed companies raising capital through applying stage random sampling and simple random sampling. Sampling was conducted during the period 2008-20013 and finally the sample size including 40 companies were chosen using a Cochran formula. To analyze the obtained information, t-test and correlation coefficient were used. Although the results of the study revealed that there was no significant difference between the internal sources of financing and the issuance of stocks among the studied companies, there is a significant relationship between companies’ issuance of stocks and their size. Companies increase the use of retained earnings and stocks for financing through expanding the size of companies. Also, due to the existence of relationship between financing and the fixed assets of the companies through issuing the stocks of companies, no statistically significant relationship were observed between financing and companies’ profitability. Finally, there was no significant

  15. Harvest Management and Recovery of Snake River Salmon Stocks : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 7 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Gilbertson, Larry G.

    1993-06-01

    Management measures to regulate salmon fishing harvest have grown increasingly complex over the past decade in response to the needs for improved protection for some salmon runs and to alter harvest sharing between fisheries. The development of management plans that adequately address both needs is an immensely complicated task, one that involves a multitude of stocks, each with its own migration patterns and capacity to sustain exploitation. The fishing industry that relies on these fish populations is also highly diverse. The management task is made especially difficult because the stocks are often intermingled on the fishing grounds, creating highly mixed aggregates of stocks and species on which the fisheries operate. This situation is the one confronting harvest managers attempting to protect Snake River salmon. This report provides an overview of some of the factors that will need to be addressed in assessing the potential for using harvest management measures in the recovery of Snake River salmon stocks. The major sections of the report include the following: perspectives on harvest impacts; ocean distribution and in-river adult migration timing; description of management processes and associated fisheries of interest; and altemative harvest strategies.

  16. Study on the Stock Market Evolution of Companies Listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia - Oana Ştefan (Belcic - Ştefan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study pursues highlighting the perspective of the Romanian stock market on the value of listed companies during a period fully marked by the presence of the global financial crisis. To this purpose I have analyzed 36 companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange for a reference period of 5 years, i.e. 2009-2013. The study aimed to determine the level of the most relevant stock exchange indicators, respectively, the Price to Earnings Ratio, Price to Book Value and Dividend Yield and their evolutionary analysis, including by comparison with the average levels of the activity sectors that the companies which form the structure of the sample belong to.

  17. Geo-Referenced, Abundance Calibrated Ocean Distribution of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Stocks across the West Coast of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Renee Bellinger

    Full Text Available Understanding seasonal migration and localized persistence of populations is critical for effective species harvest and conservation management. Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus forecasting models predict stock composition, abundance, and distribution during annual assessments of proposed fisheries impacts. Most models, however, fail to account for the influence of biophysical factors on year-to-year fluctuations in migratory distributions and stock-specific survival. In this study, the ocean distribution and relative abundance of Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha stocks encountered in the California Current large marine ecosystem, U.S.A were inferred using catch-per-unit effort (CPUE fisheries and genetic stock identification data. In contrast to stock distributions estimated through coded-wire-tag recoveries (typically limited to hatchery salmon, stock-specific CPUE provides information for both wild and hatchery fish. Furthermore, in contrast to stock composition results, the stock-specific CPUE metric is independent of other stocks and is easily interpreted over multiple temporal or spatial scales. Tests for correlations between stock-specific CPUE and stock composition estimates revealed these measures diverged once proportional contributions of locally rare stocks were excluded from data sets. A novel aspect of this study was collection of data both in areas closed to commercial fisheries and during normal, open commercial fisheries. Because fishing fleet efficiency influences catch rates, we tested whether CPUE differed between closed area (non-retention and open area (retention data sets. A weak effect was indicated for some, but not all, analyzed cases. Novel visualizations produced from stock-specific CPUE-based ocean abundance facilitates consideration of how highly refined, spatial and genetic information could be incorporated in ocean fisheries management systems and for investigations of biogeographic factors that influence

  18. Geo-Referenced, Abundance Calibrated Ocean Distribution of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Stocks across the West Coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, M Renee; Banks, Michael A; Bates, Sarah J; Crandall, Eric D; Garza, John Carlos; Sylvia, Gil; Lawson, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Understanding seasonal migration and localized persistence of populations is critical for effective species harvest and conservation management. Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) forecasting models predict stock composition, abundance, and distribution during annual assessments of proposed fisheries impacts. Most models, however, fail to account for the influence of biophysical factors on year-to-year fluctuations in migratory distributions and stock-specific survival. In this study, the ocean distribution and relative abundance of Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) stocks encountered in the California Current large marine ecosystem, U.S.A were inferred using catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) fisheries and genetic stock identification data. In contrast to stock distributions estimated through coded-wire-tag recoveries (typically limited to hatchery salmon), stock-specific CPUE provides information for both wild and hatchery fish. Furthermore, in contrast to stock composition results, the stock-specific CPUE metric is independent of other stocks and is easily interpreted over multiple temporal or spatial scales. Tests for correlations between stock-specific CPUE and stock composition estimates revealed these measures diverged once proportional contributions of locally rare stocks were excluded from data sets. A novel aspect of this study was collection of data both in areas closed to commercial fisheries and during normal, open commercial fisheries. Because fishing fleet efficiency influences catch rates, we tested whether CPUE differed between closed area (non-retention) and open area (retention) data sets. A weak effect was indicated for some, but not all, analyzed cases. Novel visualizations produced from stock-specific CPUE-based ocean abundance facilitates consideration of how highly refined, spatial and genetic information could be incorporated in ocean fisheries management systems and for investigations of biogeographic factors that influence migratory

  19. Testing three common stocking methods: Differences in smolt size, migration rate and timing of two strains of stocked Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage; Thomassen, Søren T.

    2018-01-01

    The influence of three common stocking practices for two strains (Ätran and Burrishoole) of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, on smolt size, migration probability and migration timing were investigated in situ. Using a common garden experiment, fish from these populations were released...... to inherited factors, and emphasize the importance of considering age of fish and time spent in the hatchery when stocking populations in the wild to maximize smolt output...

  20. Genetic stock identification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar populations in the southern part of the European range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinnity Philip

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anadromous migratory fish species such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar have significant economic, cultural and ecological importance, but present a complex case for management and conservation due to the range of their migration. Atlantic salmon exist in rivers across the North Atlantic, returning to their river of birth with a high degree of accuracy; however, despite continuing efforts and improvements in in-river conservation, they are in steep decline across their range. Salmon from rivers across Europe migrate along similar routes, where they have, historically, been subject to commercial netting. This mixed stock exploitation has the potential to devastate weak and declining populations where they are exploited indiscriminately. Despite various tagging and marking studies, the effect of marine exploitation and the marine element of the salmon lifecycle in general, remain the "black-box" of salmon management. In a number of Pacific salmonid species and in several regions within the range of the Atlantic salmon, genetic stock identification and mixed stock analysis have been used successfully to quantify exploitation rates and identify the natal origins of fish outside their home waters - to date this has not been attempted for Atlantic salmon in the south of their European range. Results To facilitate mixed stock analysis (MSA of Atlantic salmon, we have produced a baseline of genetic data for salmon populations originating from the largest rivers from Spain to northern Scotland, a region in which declines have been particularly marked. Using 12 microsatellites, 3,730 individual fish from 57 river catchments have been genotyped. Detailed patterns of population genetic diversity of Atlantic salmon at a sub-continent-wide level have been evaluated, demonstrating the existence of regional genetic signatures. Critically, these appear to be independent of more commonly recognised terrestrial biogeographical and political

  1. Effect of stocking sub-yearling Atlantic salmon on the habitat use of sub-yearling rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) restoration in the Lake Ontario watershed may depend on the species' ability to compete with naturalized non-native salmonids, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Ontario tributaries. This study examined interspecific habitat associations between sub-yearling Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout as well as the effect of salmon stocking on trout habitat in two streams in the Lake Ontario watershed. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon occupied significantly faster velocities and deeper areas than rainbow trout. However, when examining the habitat use of rainbow trout at all allopatric and sympatric sites in both streams, trout habitat use was more diverse at the sympatric sites with an orientation for increased cover and larger substrate. In Grout Brook, where available habitat remained constant, there was evidence suggesting that trout may have shifted to slower and shallower water in the presence of salmon. The ability of sub-yearling Atlantic salmon to affect a habitat shift in rainbow trout may be due to their larger body size and/or larger pectoral fin size. Future studies examining competitive interactions between these species during their first year of stream residence should consider the size advantage that earlier emerging Atlantic salmon will have over rainbow trout.

  2. Habitats of Weak Salmon Stocks of the Snake River Basin and Feasible Recovery Measures : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 1 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.W.; Witty, Kenneth L.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes spawning aggregations of Snake River salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and numerical status of aggregations. It summarizes habitat quality and problems between the natal area and the open ocean. It reviews critical habitat designation, identifies mitigative measures and suggests monitoring and research.

  3. Bona fide evidence for natural vertical transmission of infectious salmon anemia virus in freshwater brood stocks of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sergio H; Ramírez, Ramón; Labra, Alvaro; Carmona, Marisela; Muñoz, Cristián

    2014-06-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a severe disease that affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), causing outbreaks in seawater in most salmon-producing countries worldwide, with particular aggressiveness in southern Chile. The etiological agent of this disease is a virus belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae family, named infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Although it has been suggested that this virus can be vertically transmitted, even in freshwater, there is a lack of compelling experimental evidence to confirm this. Here we demonstrate significant putative viral loads in the ovarian fluid as well as in the eggs of two brood stock female adult specimens that harbored the virus systemically but without clinical signs. The target virus corresponded to a highly polymorphic region 3 (HPR-3) variant, which is known to be virulent in seawater and responsible for recent and past outbreaks of this disease in Chile. Additionally, the virus recovered from the fluid as well as from the interior of the eggs was fully infective to a susceptible fish cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first robust evidence demonstrating mother-to-offspring vertical transmission of the infective virus on the one hand and the asymptomatic transmission of a virulent form of the virus in freshwater fish on the other hand. The robustness of the data presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the biology of the virus but most importantly will constitute a key management tool in the control of an aggressive agent constantly threatening the sustainability of the global salmon industry.

  4. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  5. Effects of feeding and stocking density on digestion of cultured Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoxiang; Zheng, Jimeng; Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects of feeding rate (0.8%, 1.0%, and 1.2% initial body weight/day), feeding frequency (two, three, and four times/day) and stocking density (10, 15, and 20 kg/m3) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on growth performance, digestion and waste generation of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) were investigated in an 8-week orthogonal experiment (L9(3)3) with a constant daily water renewal at 7.50% of total volume. No mortality occurred during the experimental period. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) varied from 0.90 to 1.13 and specific growth rate (SGR) ranged from 0.48% to 0.69%/day. SGR, thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and FCR were not significantly ( P>0.05) affected by the three factors, while net protein utilization (NPU) was significantly ( Psalmon farming industry.

  6. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  7. Study of Disease and Physiology in the 1979 Homing Study Hatchery Stocks: A Supplement to "Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing", 1979 by Slatick, Gilbreath, and Walch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Anthony J.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1981-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, is conducting research on imprinting salmon and steelhead for homing (Slatick et al. 1979, 1980; Novotny and Zaugg 1979). The studies were begun with little background knowledge of the effects of disease or certain physiological functions on imprinting and homing in salmonids. Consequently, work aimed at filling this void was begun by the authors in 1978 (Novotny and Zaugg 1979) and continued in 1979. In 1979, we examined random samples of normal populations of homing test fish at the hatcheries to determine the physiological readiness to migrate and adapt to seawater and general fish health. At the Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington, we determined the survival of samples of the test fish maintained in marine net-pens after release from the hatcheries. Hatcheries and stocks sampled are listed in Table 1.

  8. The Financial Indicators’ and Listed Company‘s Stock Price Link Determining the Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Tamošiūnienė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for value determination increased after rising of the Lithuanian economics. The joint-stock company value depends on the stock price and the company’s profit according to the “stock pricing for profit” method. The purpose of this scientific paper is the financial indicators’ and listed company’s stock price link determining the value. The analysis methods are: the research of scientific literature, data analysis, summarizing and graphic visualization. The link between financial indicators and the stock price is determined on the basis of correlation regression analysis. The analysis showed that listed on the stock exchange company’s stocks already have some value as they raise the capital. The research results revealed the stock price’s direct dependence on the fixed asset turnover and the debt-to-asset ratios.

  9. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon bycatch genetic stock identification 1994-1995 Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In some years, the Bering Sea trawl fishery incidentally harvests (bycatch) large numbers of chum salmon. Because chum salmon were declining in some western Alaska...

  10. Research on the Dividend Policy of Listed Company and Fluctuation Effect of Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dividend policy and theory, this article takes the events that A stock of all the listed banking companies (16 in total issued dividend in the CSI stock market for 5 years from 2008 to 2012 as the investigation samples to inspect the relevance of dividend policy with the fluctuation of stock price and transaction volume, thus to prove the dividend policy is an efficient mechanism for information transmission.

  11. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  12. Does Ownership Structure Influence Firm Value? An Empirical Research towards the Bucharest Stock Exchange Listed Companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgeta Vintila; Stefan Cristian Gherghina

    2015-01-01

      The aim of this study is to research the influence of ownership structure on firm value in order to provide, from our knowledge, the first results for the case of the Bucharest Stock Exchange listed companies...

  13. Ownership, Managerial Control and the Governance of Companies Listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how corporate control is exerted in companies listed on the Brussels Stock Exchange. There are several alternative corporate governance mechanisms which may play a role in disciplining poorly performing management: blockholders (holding companies, industrial companies, families

  14. Effects of stocking hatchery fish on the phenotype of indigenous populations in the amago salmon Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, K; Furukawa, M; Kubota, M; Harada, Y

    2012-07-01

    The expression of colour marks (parr marks, red and black spots) of the amago salmon Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae was compared with microsatellite information, to see the effects of stocking hatchery fish on the phenotype of indigenous populations, which face extinction through extensive stocking. A Bayesian-based assignment test suggested introgression of two exotic clusters into one indigenous cluster in the stocked area and its vicinity. The number of parr marks was significantly higher in one hatchery-origin population, which exclusively comprised one exotic cluster. An increased number of red spots in stocked hatchery fish was probably a consequence of hatchery feeding conditions. The number of black spots was correlated with body size in many populations, except for hatchery and heavily introgressed populations. Coefficients of correlation and regression of black spots with body size, which were largest in indigenous populations, decreased with an increase of introgression by hatchery fish. As indigenous populations have low genetic diversity with high relatedness, it was inferred that the height of correlation and regression coefficients in black spots is caused by high genetic homogeneity and fixation of alleles in loci related to the increase of black spots, both of which might have collapsed with introgression by hatchery fish. These results suggest the possibility that introgression by stocked fish causes a change of phenotype in indigenous populations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Executive stock options and earnings management in the portuguese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, executive stock options align managers’ and shareholders’ interests. However, previous studies have indicated that stock options may engender manager-shareholder conflicts (Jensen, 2005 and create incentives for earnings management (e.g. Jensen, Murphy and Wruck, 2004; Burns and Kedia, 2006; Efendi, Srivastava and Swanson, 2007. Therefore, this paper examines the implications of stock option grants on earnings management. In particular, we address the following question: Does stock options grant induce incentives for earnings management? Using a sample of 33 non-financial listed Portuguese firms-year from 2003 to 2010, we find that managers are more likely to engage in earnings management when they hold stock options. This study suggests that stock options may not always be effective in aligning the interests of managers and shareholders. Rather, executive stock options seem to affect the informational quality of earnings negatively, and consequently reduce the quality and value relevance of published financial data.

  16. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix D: Natural River Drawdown Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  17. Investigating the relationship between auditor’s opinion and stock return in the companies listed at Tehran stock exchange market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Farzinfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the relationship between auditor’s opinion and stock return in the companies listed at Tehran stock exchange market. In this study, all required data are collected from aware shareholders and provide a sampling of 130 questionnaires, the data collected over the period 2010-2011 using test methods such as computer software, data analysis and statistical methods to answer research questions. According to research result through questionnaires and tests, there is a significant relationship between stock returns and the auditor's opinion, in fact, for aware shareholders of the company the auditor’s opinion has a special message. This message is based on the results of study hypothesis in comparison with previous research with regard to changes in the questionnaire and provides assumptions that are more detailed. The first finding is that unqualified audit report has a positive impact on stock returns of companies with a medium to low degree. Adverse audit report has a negative impact on stock returns of companies with medium to high degree. Disclaimer of audit report has a negative impact on stock returns of companies with medium to high degree. Finally, qualifying paragraphs, which modified the items of income statement items have more impact in comparison with qualifying paragraphs which modified the Balance Sheet items.

  18. AFSC/ABL: Immature chum salmon allozyme ID of mixed stocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Immature chum salmon were collected by the F/V Northwest Explorer between September 5 and October 8, during the 2002 BASIS survey across the eastern Bering Sea shelf...

  19. AFSC/ABL: Stock composition, timing, and spawning distribution of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radio telemetry was used to determine the distribution, locate spawning sites, and evaluate the tagging response of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha...

  20. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile chum salmon allozyme stock identification, Gulf of Alaska 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summer surveys (Julyb??August) of juvenile salmon ecology along the continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska are conducted annually by scientists from the Ocean...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Genetic stock identification of sockeye salmon captured near Unalaska Island - 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study is part of the Auke Bay Laboratoryb??s Ocean Carrying Capacity (OCC) which has extensively sampled salmon in the North Pacific since 1996 to obtain...

  2. Study of Disease and Physiology in the 1978 Homing Study Hatchery Stocks: A Supplement to "Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing" by Slatick, Novotny, and Gilbreath, January 1979.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Anthony J.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1979-11-01

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Aquaculture Task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might effect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. Hatcheries and stocks sampled are listed in Table 1. The health status of the stocks was quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will effect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. The analyses conducted by the veterinary pathologist indicate that overall there was no evidence of serious pathological conditions that might be disastrous to any given stock, but at this time it is also difficult to interpret the results of certain types of clinical pathology that have either not been previously reported or extensively studied. For example, if the 77% incidence of basophillic granular organisms in the gills of the Carson coho salmon does represent an infestation of microsporidian protozoan parasites, is the intensity of infestation severe enough to cause irreparable damage that might affect survival? The results of the viral assays are questionable because the Rangen Laboratory is the only one that found evidence of viruses in these stocks (however, the veterinary pathologist did find evidence

  3. Multifractal in Volatility of Family Business Stocks Listed on Casablanca STOCK Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    In this paper, we check for existence of multifractal in volatility of Moroccan family business stock returns and in volatility of Casablanca market index returns based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) technique. Empirical results show strong evidence of multifractal characteristics in volatility series of both family business stocks and market index. In addition, it is found that small variations in volatility of family business stocks are persistent, whilst small variations in volatility of market index are anti-persistent. However, large variations in family business volatility and market index volatility are both anti-persistent. Furthermore, multifractal spectral analysis based results show strong evidence that volatility in Moroccan family business companies exhibits more multifractality than volatility in the main stock market. These results may provide insightful information for risk managers concerned with family business stocks.

  4. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile chum salmon allozyme stock identification, Bering Sea 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic stock identification techniques were used to identify the origin and provide stock-specific migration and distribution patterns of juvenile chum...

  5. Linkages between coastal and open-ocean habitats and dynamics of Japanese stocks of chum salmon and Japanese sardine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, Akihiko; Kaeriyama, Masahide

    2005-03-01

    Coastal-ocean-open-ocean migrations, prey-predator relations and long-term population dynamics of chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) and Japanese sardine ( Sardinops melanostictus), associated with large-scale climate and oceanographic conditions, are reviewed. After early marine life in coastal waters in northern Japan, chum salmon of Japanese origin spend their first summer in the Okhotsk Sea, then move to the Western Subarctic Gyre for the first winter at sea. Thereafter, they migrate between summer feeding grounds in the Bering Sea and wintering grounds in the Alaskan Gyre for a period of usually up to four years, and finally return to their natal rivers to spawn. Carrying capacity ( K) for chum salmon at an unfished equilibrium level was estimated from a Ricker spawner-recruitment curve, and the residual carrying capacity ( RCC=(K-abundance)K-1). was positively correlated with body size at age 4, and negatively correlated with age at maturity. Marine survival of Hokkaido chum populations was affected by body size at release, but neither by Aleutian low pressure activity nor sea-surface temperature (SST) around coastal Hokkaido in spring, although there is some correlation between survival rate and coastal SST. Juveniles of the Pacific stock of Japanese sardine become broadly distributed in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) as far east as 180° longitude during spring. Adults disperse as far as the central Pacific and the southern areas of the Okhotsk Sea and Western Subarctic Gyre in years of high abundance. Somatic growth and age at maturation of sardine are density-dependent. We used catch, biomass and residuals of observed recruitment numbers from a Ricker curve (LNRR) as a measure of sardine population dynamics. LNRR was highly correlated with SST of KE in winter, which shifted in 1970 and 1988. Recent biomass and catch remain at extremely low levels due to a combination of adverse environmental conditions and intensive fishing. We suggest that Japanese

  6. Changes In Stock Returns And Trading Volume Of American Depositary Receipts Around Their U.S. Stock Exchange Listing Switches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kam C Chan; Annie Wong

    2012-01-01

    .... stock exchange to a more prestigious U.S. stock exchange; namely from the NASDAQ or American Stock Exchange to the New York Stock Exchange or from the American Stock Exchange to the NASDAQ since year 2000...

  7. Motivators of Dividend Payout among Firms listed on the Stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a sample of 38 listed companies on the SEM, the cross sectional analysis revealed that current earnings, retained earnings and liquidity are among the most significant motivators of dividend payout. Market capitalization rate per sector and price- to-book value turns out to be statistically insignificant while debt to ...

  8. 76 FR 20302 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... salmon, including life history and physiology, diet, associated fish species, habitat requirements..., reproduction, or rearing of offspring; and (5) habitats that are protected from disturbance or are...

  9. AUDIT OPINIONS FOR LISTED ENTITIES FOR THE FIRST CATEGORY ON THE ROMANIEN STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Timea Fülöp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By the opinion included in the auditor report, the auditor ensures the users about the fact that the financial information presented in the financial statements is trustworthy, partially trustworthy or not trustworthy. In this study we analyzed the auditors’ opinion received by the entities listed in the first category on the Stock Exchange Bucharest.Our aim was to check if the auditor changement changes also the opinion. For this reason the period toked into consideration is more than 7 years ( 2005-2012. The future research directions aim at extending the analysis on entities from the 2nd category quoted on the stock exchange.

  10. Cross listing and firm value - corporate governance or market segmentation? An empirical study of the stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Gang

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the economic consequences of cross-listing on the Chinese stock market. We argue that by adopting a higher disclosure standard through cross- listing firms voluntarily commit themselves to reducing information asymmetry. As a result, cross-listed firms are able to benefit from growth opportunities with less appropriated cash flow and lower cost of capital. The empirical evidence shows that cross-listed firms indeed command higher valuations than their non-cross-listed ...

  11. Influence of stocking density on growth, body composition and energy budget of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Ziyi; Qiu, Denggao; Sun, Guoxiang; Li, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar were reared at four stocking densities—high density D 1 (final density ˜39 kg/m3), medium densities D 2 (˜29 kg/m3) and D 3 (˜19 kg/m3), and low density D 4 (˜12 kg/m3)—for 40 days to investigate the effect of stocking density on their growth performance, body composition and energy budgets. Stocking density did not significantly affect specific growth rate in terms of weight (SGRw) but did affect specific growth rate in terms of energy (SGRe). Stocking density significantly influenced the ration level (RLw and RLe), feed conversion ratio (FCRw and FCRe) and apparent digestibility rate (ADR). Ration level and FCRw tended to increase with increasing density. Fish at the highest density D 1 and lowest density D 4 showed lower FCRe and higher ADR than at medium densities. Stocking density significantly affected protein and energy contents of the body but did not affect its moisture, lipid, or ash contents. The expenditure of energy for metabolism in the low-density and high-density groups was lower than that in the medium-density groups. Stocking density affected energy utilization from the feces but had no effect on excretion rate. The greater energy allocation to growth at high density and low density may be attributed to reduced metabolic rate and increased apparent digestibility rate. These findings provide information that will assist selection of suitable stocking densities in the Atlantic-salmon-farming industry.

  12. Audit Committee Practice in the Polish Listed Stock Companies. Present Situation and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szczepankowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The audit committee is one of the parts of corporate governance mechanism, which is understood as the relationship between corporate managers, directors and the providers of equity, people and institutions who save and invest their capital to earn the return. This study presents survey research results of audit committee activity in Polish public stock companies quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE. The purpose of this paper is to present the audit committee practice in Poland after 2009. The paper shows that the audit committee practice is still the most problematic issue of transitional Polish corporate governance rules. The survey has shown that the corporate needs and its implementation, and communication with listed companies leave a lot of room for improvement. The paper is based on the documents prepared in 2010 by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Polish Association of Listed Companies and the Polish Institute of Directors.

  13. Differences in Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection severity between upper Yukon River and Tanana River chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Two genetically distinct populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were simultaneously sampled at the confluence of the Yukon and Tanana rivers in 2003. Upper Yukon-Canadian fish had significantly higher infection prevalence as well as more severe infections (higher parasite density in heart tissue) than the lower Yukon-Tanana River fish. Both populations had migrated the same distance from the mouth of the Yukon River at the time of sampling but had significantly different distances remaining to swim before reaching their respective spawning grounds. Multiple working hypotheses are proposed to explain the differences between the two stocks: (1) the two genetically distinct populations have different inherent resistance to infection, (2) genetically influenced differences in feeding behaviour resulted in temporal and/or spatial differences in exposure, (3) physiological differences resulting from different degrees of sexual maturity influenced the course of disease, and (4) the most severely infected Tanana River fish either died en route or fatigued and were unable to complete their migration to the Tanana River, thus leaving a population of apparently healthier fish. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. CORPORATE FAILURE PREDICTION: A STUDY OF PUBLIC LISTED COMPANIES IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE (IDX)

    OpenAIRE

    Octavia Boentoro, Debby

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to develop a model that can predict financial distress amongst public listed companies in Jakarta Stock Exchange from year 2008 until 2013. Author uses 216 companies as sample where 168 for healthy companies and 48 for distress companies. The methodology that use on this paper is using logistic regression analysis. The result proves there are four financial ratios namely: Quick Asset Turnover, Cash Flow to Assets, Total Liabilities Total Assets, and Debt R...

  15. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE PROBABILITY OF DEFAULT IN CASE OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES LISTED ON STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton Noemi, Racz Timea Erzsebet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of estimation of a firm's probability of default increased significantly during the economic and financial crisis for financial institutions, which can be explained by the fact that the share of nonperforming loans increased in this period. The probability of default can be estimated with structural models, which have on base the methodology developed by Merton (1974, methodology used by Moody's Corporation (known as KMV Merton model. The aim of this study is to estimate the probability of default of companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange using this methodology. This approach was widely used in the literature by many researchers (i.e., Kealhofer and Kurbat (2000, Crosbie and Bohn (2002, Duffie and Wang (2004, Bharath and Shumway (2004, 2008. In Romania this methodology was empirically tested by Codirlaşu (2007, who estimated using Merton's methodology the probability of default of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, respectively by Bobircă et al. (2008, where the probabilities of default were estimated in case of 42 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange for 2000-2008 time period. In this paper we used Merton's model, which assumes that a company defaults if the value of its assets is less than the promised dept repayment at time T. The process of estimating the probability of default starts from the following firm specific variables: the market value of the firm's assets, the share prices, the value of the liabilities and the risk-free rate. The analyzed period is 2003-2010, containing the economic and financial crisis period, too. Analyzing the financial statements of the companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, we determined the input parameters of the model and calculated the quarterly probabilities of default of each analyzed company. According to our results the probabilities of default have a reduced value in the majority of the cases.

  16. Return on securities of the listed banks, using BET and BET-C indices of the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria FIRESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work has great importance for the economic and financial area due to the fact that targets the relevance of the financial indicators in anticipation of the stock variation. The aim is to measure the correlation, the type and intensity, between the variation of stock market profitability and the profitability of the securities traded by banks in Romania, listed on the BSE. The research is approached transversely (banks in Romania listed on the stock market as well as longitudinally (from the date of listing on the Stock Exchange of each bank until 31.12.2016. Using the econometric model Eviews we tested the correlation between the profitability of BRD, BT, BCC bank`s securities and the profitability of Bucharest Stock Exchange, by BET and BET-C. The results show that the research hypothesis isn’t validated for any of those banks.

  17. STOCK PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF LISTED ENTITIES AT THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE. CASE STUDY ON THE ENERGY AND RELATED UTILITIES SECTOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Anghel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial performance, as a multi-criteria economic category, constitutes a current topic broadly investigated by authors and experts in finance, financial management, accounting, evaluation and general management. In this ever more competitive capital market, because investors are increasingly better informed, it becomes essential for a company to know and periodically evaluate its stock performance in order to compare it at economic branch level. This present research study analyses six companies that activate in the energy and related utilities sector, listed at the Bucharest Stock Exchange, between 2004 and 2015, with the aim of identifying branch similarities regarding the evolution of the key stock growth ratios and indicators used in stock performance analysis. Furthermore, the authors deemed appropriate to correlate their results with the evolution of the main rates of return of the same companies

  18. Executive stock options and earnings management in the portuguese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, executive stock options align managers’ and shareholders’ interests. However, previous studies have indicated that stock options may engender manager-shareholder conflicts (Jensen, 2005 and create incentives for earnings management (e.g. Jensen, Murphy and Wruck, 2004; Burns and Kedia, 2006; Efendi, Srivastava and Swanson, 2007. Therefore, this paper examines the implications of stock option grants on earnings management. In particular, we address the following question: Does stock options grant induce incentives for earnings management? Using a sample of 33 non-financial listed Portuguese firms-year from 2003 to 2010, we find that managers are more likely to engage in earnings management when they hold stock options. This study suggests that stock options may not always be effective in aligning the interests of managers and shareholders. Rather, executive stock options seem to affect the informational quality of earnings negatively, and consequently reduce the quality and value relevance of published financial data.RESUMENTeóricamente, las opciones sobre acciones para ejecutivos permiten alinear los intereses de la dirección con los de los accionistas. No obstante, los estudios anteriores han indicado que las opciones sobre acciones pueden provocar conflictos de intereses entre ejecutivos y accionistas (Jensen, 2005 y crear incentivos para la gestión de resultados (e.g. Jensen et al., 2004; Burns and Kedia, 2006; Efendi et. al., 2007. Así, este trabajo examina las implicaciones de la atribución de opciones sobre acciones en la gestión de resultados. En particular, planteamos la siguiente pregunta: ¿La atribución de opciones sobre acciones induce la práctica de gestión de resultados? Utilizando una muestra de 33 empresas portuguesas no financieras cotizadas para el período 2003-2010, observamos que los ejecutivos son más propensos a la adopción de prácticas de gestión de resultados cuando poseen opciones sobre

  19. Determinants of dividend policy: Evidence from listed firms in the African stock exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnadi Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrates that much of the existing theoretical literature on dividend policy can be applied to the emerging capital markets of Africa. Using available financial data of listed firms in the 29 stock exchanges in Africa, the study finds similarities in the determinants of dividend policy in African firms with those in most developed economies. In particular, agency costs are found to be the most dominant determinant of dividend policy among African firms. The finding is non-synonymous with emerging capital markets which have a high concentration of private ownership and trading volumes. Agency cost theory may be important in both emerging and developed capital markets but the nature of the agency problem may be different in each case. Other factors such as level of market capitalization, age and growth of firms, as well as profitability also play key roles in the dividend policy of listed African firms.

  20. 77 FR 19597 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... UKTR Chinook salmon ESU, the overall extinction risk of the ESU is considered to be low over the next... not in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, nor is it likely to... suggests a polyphyletic pattern of run timing evolution (Myers et al., 1998; Waples et al., 2004), with...

  1. Comparing the transcriptomes of embryos from domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) stocks and examining factors that influence heritability of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicskei, Beatrix; Taggart, John B; Glover, Kevin A; Bron, James E

    2016-03-17

    Due to selective breeding, domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon are genetically diverged, which raises concerns about farmed escapees having the potential to alter the genetic composition of wild populations and thereby disrupting local adaptation. Documenting transcriptional differences between wild and domesticated stocks under controlled conditions is one way to explore the consequences of domestication and selection. We compared the transcriptomes of wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon embryos, by using a custom 44k oligonucleotide microarray to identify perturbed gene pathways between the two stocks, and to document the inheritance patterns of differentially-expressed genes by examining gene expression in their reciprocal hybrids. Data from 24 array interrogations were analysed: four reciprocal cross types (W♀ × W♂, D♀ × W♂; W♀ × D♂, D♀ × D♂) × six biological replicates. A common set of 31,491 features on the microarrays passed quality control, of which about 62 % were assigned a KEGG Orthology number. A total of 6037 distinct genes were identified for gene-set enrichment/pathway analysis. The most highly enriched functional groups that were perturbed between the two stocks were cellular signalling and immune system, ribosome and RNA transport, and focal adhesion and gap junction pathways, relating to cell communication and cell adhesion molecules. Most transcripts that were differentially expressed between the stocks were governed by additive gene interaction (33 to 42 %). Maternal dominance and over-dominance were also prevalent modes of inheritance, with no convincing evidence for a stock effect. Our data indicate that even at this relatively early developmental stage, transcriptional differences exist between the two stocks and affect pathways that are relevant to wild versus domesticated environments. Many of the identified differentially perturbed pathways are involved in organogenesis, which is expected to be an active process at

  2. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, 1992 : Annual Report FY 92-93.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen Wesley

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results for the second year (1992) of a three year study. The goals of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the source (s) of interdam losses of adult fall chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), as well as upstream of LGR; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, and to assist with redd habitat mapping and carcass recovery (for genetic stock profile analysis). Radio telemetry was used as the method of addressing project goals. Unmarked (not adipose clipped) adult fall chinook salmon were trapped and radio tagged at IHR and LGR dams as they ascended the Snake River during their spawning migration. They used aerial and ground mobile radio tracking to determine the movements of these fish. They examined movements of all radio tagged salmon upstream of LGR Dam. That provided us with a sample of 17 radio tagged fish tagged at IHR and 20 tagged at LGR. They estimate a combined fall back rate at LGR of 37.1% (13 fish). Another 10.8--13.5% were `lost` or prespawning mortalities. They identified two potential spawning locations that would not have been detected from the aerial spawning surveys. One site was upstream of Troy on the Grande Ronde River and the other was in the upper Snake River.

  3. Migratory urge and gll Na+,K+-ATPase activity of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts from the Dennys and Penobscot River stocks, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Randall C.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.

    2010-01-01

    Hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts produced from captive-reared Dennys River and sea-run Penobscot River broodstock are released into their source rivers in Maine. The adult return rate of Dennys smolts is comparatively low, and disparity in smolt quality between stocks resulting from genetic or broodstock rearing effects is plausible. Smolt behavior and physiology were assessed during sequential 14-d trials conducted in seminatural annular tanks with circular flow. “Migratory urge” (downstream movement) was monitored remotely using passive integrated transponder tags, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was measured at the beginning and end of the trials to provide an index of smolt development. The migratory urge of both stocks was low in early April, increased 20-fold through late May, and declined by the end of June. The frequency and seasonal distribution of downstream movement were independent of stock. In March and April, initial gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities of Penobscot River smolts were lower than those of Dennys River smolts. For these trials, however, Penobscot River smolts increased enzyme activity after exposure to the tank, whereas Dennys River smolts did not, resulting in similar activities between stocks at the end of all trials. There was no clear relationship between migratory urge and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of both stocks increased in advance of migratory urge and then declined while migratory urge was increasing. Maximum movement was observed from 2 h after sunset through 1 h after sunrise but varied seasonally. Dennys River smolts were slightly more nocturnal than Penobscot River smolts. These data suggest that Dennys and Penobscot River stocks are not markedly different in either physiological or behavioral expression of smolting.

  4. Estuary-wide genetic stock distribution and salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation

  6. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly J.; Scholz, Allan T.

    2001-07-01

    Lake Roosevelt has been stocked with Whatcom stock kokanee since 1989 to mitigate for anadromous salmon losses caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The primary objective of the hatchery plantings was to create a self-sustaining recreational fishery. Due to low return numbers, it was hypothesized a native stock of kokanee might perform better than the coastal Whatcom strain. Therefore, kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Matched pair releases of Whatcom stock and Meadow Creek kokanee were made from Sherman Creek in late June 2000. Stock performance between Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee was evaluated through three performance measures (1) returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) returns to other tributaries, indicating availability for angler harvest, and (3) returns to the creel. A secondary objective was to evaluate the numbers collected at downstream fish passage facilities. Age 2 kokanee were collected during five passes through the reservoir, which included 89 tributaries between August 17th and November 7th, 2000. Sherman Creek was sampled once a week because it was the primary egg collection location. A total of 2,789 age 2 kokanee were collected, in which 2,658 (95%) were collected at Sherman Creek. Chi-square analysis indicated the Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek in significantly higher numbers compared to the Whatcom stock ({chi}{sup 2} = 734.4; P < 0.01). Reservoir wide recoveries indicated similar results ({chi}{sup 2} = 733.1; P < 0.01). No age 2 kokanee were collected during creel surveys. Age 3 kokanee are expected to recruit to the creel in 2001. No age 2 kokanee were collected at the fish passage facilities due to a 170 mm size restriction at the fish passage centers. Age 3 kokanee are expected to be collected at the fish passage centers during 2001. Stock performance cannot be properly evaluated until 2001, when

  7. THE DETERMINANTS OF PROFITABILITY IN COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORANA VĂTAVU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish the determinants of financial performance in 126 Romanian companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, over a period of ten-years (2003-2012. The analysis is based on cross sectional regressions. Return on assets is the performance proxy, while the variables expected to have a significant impact on profitability are debt, asset tangibility, size, liquidity, taxation, risk, inflation and crisis. Regression results indicate that profitable companies operate with limited borrowings. Tangibility, business risk and the level of taxation have a negative impact on return on assets. Although earnings are sustained by significant sales turnover, performance is affected by high levels of liquidity. Periods of unstable economic conditions, reflected by high inflation rates and the current financial crisis, have a strong negative impact on corporate performance.

  8. Assessment of interbreeding and introgression of farm genes into a small Scottish Atlantic salmon Salmo salar stock: ad hoc samples - ad hoc results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, E; Knox, D; Marshall, S

    2016-12-01

    An eclectic set of tissues and existing data, including purposely collected samples, spanning 1997-2006, was used in an ad hoc assessment of hybridization and introgression of farmed wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the small Loch na Thull (LnT) catchment in north-west Scotland. The catchment is in an area of marine farm production and contains freshwater smolt rearing cages. The LnT S. salar stock was found to be genetically distinctive from stocks in neighbouring rivers and, despite regular reports of feral farm S. salar, there was no evidence of physical or genetic mixing. This cannot be completely ruled out, however, and low level mixing with other local wild stocks has been suggested. The LnT population appeared underpinned by relatively smaller effective number of breeders (Neb ) and showed relatively low levels of genetic diversity, consistent with a small effective population size. Small sample sizes, an incomplete farm baseline and the use of non-diagnostic molecular markers, constrain the power of the analysis but the findings strongly support the LnT catchment having a genetically distinct wild S. salar population little affected by interbreeding with feral farm escapes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Strategies of Dividend policy of the companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabłoński Bartłomiej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the determinants of companies’ decisions about paying out dividends, which has been described in the Polish specialist literature, concentrates mainly on the dividends actually paid out. The research presented in the article refers to declarations of the companies included in their dividend policies. The aim of the article is to present an attitude to dividend policy exhibited by the companies listed on the Warsaw stock exchange. A particular attempt was made at identifying various formulas of constructing dividend policies by the companies and the declared conditions for dividend payments and their amounts. 118 dividend companies took part in the research and they were selected from among the companies listed on the Warsaw stock exchange in the years 2006-2012. The authors have analysed the dividend policy of the companies in terms of its components and the way it was formulated, as well as the determinants of decisions about dividend payments declared by the companies. The results of the analysis were referred to the types of strategies of the dividend policy presented in the specialist literature. The research results indicate that the boards of many companies do not consider formulating and publicising the principles of making dividend payments to be a relevant area of investor relations. The dividend policy of the companies is usually formulated too generally, with the use of general statements. Satisfying capital needs for the planned development processes appears to be a basic determinant of the distribution of profit, which is why residual dividend policy is prevalent in the analysed companies.

  10. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested

  11. Challenges of Executive Information Systems in listed Johannesburg Stock Exchange companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Papageorgiou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The widespread use of Executive Information Systems (EISs as a management information tool was noted in listed Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE companies. The digital business environment exposed executives to so much data that data need to be converted into useful information that is organised and summarised.Objectives: The purpose of this study is to establish and to determine the existence, and to what extent EISs exist in all levels of management and to identify the challenges companies experienced in listed JSE companies. Therefore the problem exists that EIS-users at all levels of management are unaware of the challenges of EISs and that EISs can be used as a tool to analyse their businesses’ performance and competitiveness.Method: A mixed method was used; both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Questionnaires were sent to 334 listed JSE companies and 13 interviews were conducted with users of EISs in all levels of management.Results: The results of the study demonstrate that the majority of respondents of the questionnaire have an EIS or plan to implement an EIS. The results further revealed the respondents’ positive attitude towards EISs as it is an excellent management information tool that adds strategic value to their business, that is critical for real-time decision-making, solves problems and creates a competitive edge. From the results it is evident that there is a need for an EIS to be ‘everybody’s information system’. The results of the interviews demonstrate that an EIS is a seamless reliable system necessary for proper timeous decision-making. The respondents to the questionnaire and the interviewees indicated that they understood the value of EISs as a useful part of their company.Conclusion: The study adds value to the awareness and understanding of EISs that creates a business environment in which business and management can enhance sustainability and strategic competitiveness.

  12. Voluntary Financial Reporting on the Internet: Analysis of the Practice of Stock-Market Listed Croatian and Slovene Joint Stock Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Pervan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into Internet financial reporting carried out in June 2005 that focused on stock-market listed Croatian and Slovene joint-stock companies has two basic aspects, comparative and explanatory. The comparative aspect of the research showed that Slovene corporations have a statistically significant higher level of financial reporting (as measured with IFR score. The average IFR score for 55 corporate entities from Croatia came to just 6.85, while the average IFR score for 30 Slovene firms was 17.63. The second aspect of the investigation was explanatory, and at the level of each state and sample the intention was to find the variables that affect IFR scores significantly. With respect to the Croatian sample it was shown that the IFR score was statistically significantly and positively correlated with size, profitability, number of shareholders, and amount of traffic on the stock markets. Then regression analysis showed that majority foreign ownership had a positive effect on the IFR score. A statistically significant but negative correlation was established for two sectors, tourism and marine transport. For the Slovene sample, comprising 30 firms, the size, profitability and number of stockholders were not significant variables. However, official listing, proportion of market capitalisation and ratio of market to book values of shares were statistically significantly and positively correlated with the IFR score. Only one sector, transport, was significantly and negatively correlated with the IFR score.

  13. Effects of Marine Mammals on Columbia River Salmon Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 3 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donn L.

    1993-06-01

    Most research on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in recent years has been directed to downstream migrant salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) losses at dams. Comparatively little attentions has been given to adult losses. Recently an estimated 378,4000 adult salmon and steelhead (O. mykiss) were unaccounted-for from Bonneville Dam to terminal areas upstream. It is now apparent that some of this loss was due to delayed mortality from wounded by marine mammals. This report reviews the recent literature to define predatory effects of marine mammals on Columbia River salmon.

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  15. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt has been stocked with Lake Whatcom stock kokanee since 1989 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining recreational fishery. Due to low return numbers, it was hypothesized a stock of kokanee, native to the upper Columbia River, might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom strain. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Matched pair releases of Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee were made from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance between Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee was evaluated using three performance measures; (1) the number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to other tributaries and (3) the number of returns to the creel. Kokanee were collected during five passes through the reservoir via electrofishing, which included 87 tributary mouths during the fall of 2000 and 2001. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Whatcom stock in 2000 ({chi}{sup 2} = 736.6; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01) and 2001 ({chi}{sup 2} = 156.2; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01). Reservoir wide recoveries of age two kokanee had similar results in 2000 ({chi}{sup 2} = 735.3; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01) and 2001 ({chi}{sup 2} = 150.1; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01). Six Lake Whatcom and seven Meadow Creek three year olds were collected in 2001. The sample size of three year olds was too small for statistical analysis. No kokanee were collected during creel surveys in 2000, and two (age three kokanee) were collected in 2001. Neither of the hatchery kokanee collected were coded wire tagged, therefore stock could not be distinguished. After two years of monitoring, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appear to be capable of providing a run of three-year-old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. The small number of

  16. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PROPERTY AND REAL ESTATE COMPANIES LISTED ON INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa V. Soetanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available   This paper aimed to evaluate perfomance of property and real estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange using the DEA method. Samples were 23 companies listed from 2009–2012. Results showed that some companies are relatively efficient each year. However, only one company consistently had technical efficiency equal to 1. The main cause of inefficiency from 2009–2011 was scale inefficiency while inefficiency happened in 2012 was pure technical inefficiency. Overall the companies operate efficiently un-der constant returns to scale is showing an increase from 17.39%–39.13%.

  17. ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF PROFITABILITY, ASSETS STRUCTURE, SIZE OF COMPANIES, AND LIQUIDITY TO CAPITAL STRUCTURES IN MINING COMPANIES LISTED IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE PERIOD 2012 - 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gatot Nazir Ahmad; Ripa Lestari; Sholatia Dalimunthe

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of profitability, structure assets, firm size and liquidity to the capital structure of mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2012-2015...

  18. Performance Measurement Model for the Consumer Industry Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange: DEA and SFA Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Handono Eko Prabowo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  research  attempts  to  provide  performance  measurement  model  for  the  consumer industry listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX by  using the data envelopment analysis (DEA and the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA. There were 36 panel irms analyzed over the period of 2000-2005 or 216 pooled observations. The output variable was total sales and input variables were labor, inventory, ixed assets and capital. Z-variables are age of the irm, size  of  the  irm,  market  share  and  time  period.  Empirical  indings  reveal  that  the  average technical  eficiency  (mean  TE  for  consumer  industry  was  0.6630.  The  study  indicates  the existence of output slacks (output deicits and input slacks (input wastages in the consumer industry's  operation.  The  study  also  shows  that  the  joint  effect  of  four  z-variables  on  the technical  ineficiencies  of  the  consumer  industry  was  signiicant  although  the  individual effects of one or more variables might not be statistically signiicant. ";} // -->activate javascript

  19. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  20. Firm and Auditor Characteristics, and Audit Report Lag in Manufacturing Companies Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtaruddin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting is relevant. Its manifestation can be seen from the timeliness of reporting. Timeliness could be judged from the audit report lag, which is the length of time from the end of company’s fiscal year to the date of auditor's report. This research aims to empirically examine the influence of firm size, operation complexity, auditor quality, and auditor's opinion on audit report lag of manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The population of this research consists of manufacturing companies, listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2012 as many as 111 companies with the research’s sample of 65 companies or 325 observational data, which were selected by purposive sampling method. The data are secondary data obtained from Indonesia Stock Exchange. The research proves that simultaneously, all variables significantly influence the audit report lag. Subsequently in partial, variables ‘firm size’, ‘auditor's opinion’ have a significant and positive effect on audit report lag, the ‘auditor quality’ has a significant and negative effect on audit report lag, while the variable ‘operation complexity’ has no significant effect on audit report lag. The coefficient of determination ?(R?^2 in this study was 0.192 or 19.2 % and the remaining 80.8 % is influenced by other factors that were not examined.

  1. CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL METHOD USED IN MEASURING AND ANALYZING COMPANIES LISTED IN PEFINDO25 AT INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE PERIOD 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis M HUTABARAT

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The industry in Indonesia is an interesting business to capitalize. In Indonesia many companies were established since it is profitable. The capital market serves as an economic pillar in most countries. Indonesia is a rich country, rich in many ways especially in natural resources. However, the industry has its ups and downs in the stock market. It is interesting to see the performance of the companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange.  This study aimed to measure and analyze companies listed in Pefindo25 at Indonesian Stock Exchange using Capital Asset Pricing Model. The sample used is 25 companies listed at Pefindo25 index. Based on the results of the study, it can conclude that after analyzing the companies listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange using Capital Asset Pricing Model that based on Beta analysis, the companies have the type of stocks that are aggressive and defensive. With positive and negative return. The company with aggressive beta shows that the company tend to face higher risk, as JPFA find itself with positif return 15.47% expected return. And companies with defensive type of stocks tend to have positive return such as: FISH, STTP, AISA, APLN, and others since they are not sensitive to market changes. It is recommended for further research to look on this CAPM method in analyzing the stock investment.

  2. Fundmental Analysis for Stock Price Valuation by Using Price Earnings Ratio Method (Study at Mining Companies Listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange Year 2011-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningtyas, Rovi; Suhadak; Hidayat, Raden Rustam

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted based on the misprice on the investment of stock. The misprice of investment on stock can be reduced with evaluate the reasonable of stock price by using fundamental analysis. The fundamental analysis that used in this research is Price Earnings Ratio (PER) method. The PER method aim to know the reasonableness of stock price with compare the intrinsic value of stock and the stock market price. The research is descriptive quantitative method. The research takes the s...

  3. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  4. The Impact of a Surprise Dividend Increase on a Stocks Performance : the Analysis of Companies Listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Słoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of marginal investors to the announcement of a surprise dividend increase has been measured. Although field research is performed on companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, the paper has important theoretical implications. Valuation theory gives many clues for the interpretation of changes in dividends. At the start of the literature review, the assumption of the irrelevance of dividends (to investment decisions is described. This assumption is the basis for up-to-date valuation procedures leading to fundamental and fair market valuation of equity (shares. The paper is designed to verify whether the market value of stock is immune to the surprise announcement of a dividend increase. This study of the effect of a surprise dividend increase gives the chance to partially isolate such an event from dividend changes based on long-term expectations. The result of the research explicitly shows that a surprise dividend increase is on average welcomed by investors (an average abnormal return of 2.24% with an associated p-value of 0.001. Abnormal returns are realized by investors when there is a surprise increase in a dividend payout. The subsample of relatively high increases in a dividend payout enables investors to gain a 3.2% return on average. The results show that valuation models should be revised to take into account a possible impact of dividend changes on investors behavior. (original abstract

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E. (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  7. The Determinants of Corporate debt maturity: a study on listed companies of Bombay Stock Exchange 500 index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveesh Krishnankutty

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was intented to identify the determinants of the debt maturity structure of listed firms in Bombay Stock Exchange 500 index. For the analysis we have taken 321 firms during the period 2002- 2011, comprising of a panel model with fixed effects. We also used GMM (1991 and GMM (1998 estimates of our analysis. The result of robustness tests confirms that past year debt maturity, leverage and growth opportunities are directly determined the debt maturity of Indian firms. Liquidity, effective tax and rate prime lending rate are negatively determining the debt maturity of Indian companies.

  8. What makes the stock exchange succeed? Evidence from cross-listing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagano, M.; Randl, O.; Röell, A.A.; Zechner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the increasing integration of capital markets, geography has not yet become irrelevant to finance. Between 1986 and 1997, European public companies have increasingly listed abroad, especially in the U.S. We relate the cross-listing decisions to the characteristics of the destination

  9. “Analysis of Capital Structure Determinant” A case from Pakistan’s chemical sector companies listed at Karachi stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Akhtar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and analyzes the capital structure determinants of chemical sector of Pakistan. The sample is comprises over 34 listed chemical companies of Pakistan. All companies are listed at Pakistan’s national stock exchange “Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE. Debt/Equity is taken as dependent variable and five independent variables are Profitability, Growth, Financial Cost, Size, and Tangibility. The Results showed that financial cost and tangibility are positively related while other variables have negative relationship with the dependent variable (Debt/Equity.

  10. Market Reaction to the Approval of Stock Option Plans: an Event Study of Bovespa Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Finotti Cordeiro Perobelli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify market reactions to Employee Stock Options Plans (ESOP proposals and awards in the Brazilian Stock Exchange from July 1994 to March 2007. In order to achieve such objective, event studies methodology was applied and the original sample (comprised by all companies that adopted ESOP during the survey period was divided according to employees’ eligibility to ESOP and CEOs bargain power. Using non-parametric tests (Sign Test e Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, we could verify that announcements of ESOP proposals and ESOP awards were not related to positive abnormal returns. As the opposite, returns around those announcements dates were negatives, in general. Such pattern could be explained by some theoretical consequences of ESOP plans: increase in the CEOs risky behavior, constrains in the dividend policy and CEOs opportunistic behavior by managing the timing of their voluntary disclosures around stock option awards. We also found evidences suggesting that employees´ eligibility is related to abnormal returns. When all employees are awarded, returns are even more negative. Possible explanations are indirect costs of capital pulverization and increase in the companies cost of capital due to the ESOP. Our findings suggest that an ESOP adoption in a poor governance environment can increase agency problems, instead of aligning CEOs and shareholders interests.

  11. A study on relationship between asymmetric information on dividend polices of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adineh Hayatbakhsh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Explaining and the determinants of dividend policy is one of the biggest challenges that have long been the center of attention of accounting and financial researcher and theoreticians. There are many evidences that confirm the effects of dividend and there are a lot of other potential factors whose effects on the dividend policy have not been studied yet. In this study, the effects of four variables including asymmetric information, growth opportunities, cash holding and firm size in payout dividend policy are investigated, simultaneously. The study uses the information of 140 companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2005-2010. In this study, 4 hypotheses are proposed and investigated. There are positive and significant relationships between asymmetric information, growth opportunities, cash holding and company size on one side and payout dividend policy on the other side.

  12. Is there Needed an Industry Approach on Corporate Default Risk? Case Study on Companies Listed on Romanian Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Triandafil

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on applying Black and Scholes structural approach on credit risk in the case of the companies listed on Romanian Stock Exchange. We conduct a case-study on 35 companies belonging to five industries (energetic, materials, chemistry, pharmaceuticals, equipments during a period of 10 years in order to highlight out default point/threshold and its essential factors evolution across industries. Research approach is concentrated also on the specific characteristics of the Romanian capital market (especially in terms of illiquidity and lack of transparency additional costs, macroeconomic environment and corporate finance decision process. We compute default point from the perspective of the arbitrage between assets and leverage; in accordance with the most recent theories on specific features corporate default within emerging countries (Galytskyy, 2006, a key element will be represented by the assets volatility which will be correlated with the country risk premium in order to highlight out a potential macroeconomic impact on corporate failure.

  13. Modelling of variation in productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and other regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some statistical models of variation in productivity of pink and chum salmon populations (Oncorhynchus...

  14. Exploring the Impact of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 Certification on Financial Performance: The Case of Companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ionașcu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certification on the financial performance of Romanian companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE. Based on audited financial statements of a population of 67 non-financial companies listed during 2013-2015 and using regression models, this paper shows, for the first time in Romania, that companies listed on BSE, implementing complex management systems (quality – environmental and/or occupational health and safety perform better, and that their performance is directly linked to the complexity of the management systems implemented.

  15. Effects of Capital Structure and Profitability on Corporate Value with Company Size as the Moderating Variable of Manufacturing Companies Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Mahdaleta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of capital structure and profitability on the corporate value by company size as the moderating variable on manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2012 to 2014. Variables used in this research are the Capital Structure and Profitability as independent variables, company size as moderating variable and corporate value as the dependent variable. The corporate value in this study was measured using price to book value. This study was performed on manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. This study was conducted on 46 companies that meet the sampling criteria of 135 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The research data were secondary data from the financial statements of 46 companies published in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The data processing method in this study used multiple linear regression tests and moderating test using residual test by testing classical assumption test beforehand. The results show independent variables have simultaneous significant influence on the corporate value. Meanwhile, partially, Debt to equity ratio has significant negative effect on corporate value, and Return on assets has significant positive effect on corporate value. The moderating test result shows that company size is unable to partially moderate the relationship of debt to equity ratio on the corporate value, and unable to partially moderate the relationship of return on assets on the corporate value.

  16. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a

  18. The Relevance of Fair Value Across Countries: Firms Listed in Lisbon and Madrid Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rocha da Veiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the theories of gray and positive accounting this study examines the options in the measurement of assets and the usefulness of fair value. Using a sample of 104 Portuguese and Spanish companies with listed securities, the research analyzes factors associated with the fair value option and whether the listing incorporates this information. The results reveal a conservative behavior, where only 19% of companies use the fair value, specially the Portuguese (35%, confirming that the country of origin has a significant influence on this choice. The fair value option is more expressive on investment properties, and less expressive in intangibles. The sectors denote significantly different behaviors, and companies with higher quotes are more cautious using the fair value. The market reacts differently about the nature of this information. It is favorable to its sectorial utilization, reacting negatively to a more widespread use (Portugal, which supports the argument that the relevance of fair value estimates are dependent on the confidence placed by investors. This study contributes to stress the culture and market price of companies as explanatory variables for the use of fair value. Our findings suggest a more conservative culture in Spanish than in Portuguese companies.

  19. The Effect of Financial Leverage, Employee Stock Ownership Program and Firm Size on Firm Performance of Companies Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurainun Bangun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and to obtain affected empirical evidence of financial leverage, firm size and employee stock ownership program (ESOP to firm performance in manufacturing company in Indonesian Stock Exchange on 2013-2015. Independent variables in this research are Financial Leverage (DER, Firm Size and Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP. Dependent variables in this research are Return on Assets (ROA and Return On Equity (ROE. The results Showed that the simultaneous test of three independent variables Significantly afftected to the ROA and ROE. The partial tests of Financial Leverage (proxy DER and Firm Size Significantly affected to ROA and ROE. But, the results Showed that the Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP did not Affect to ROA and ROE.

  20. Mortality of Yearling Chinook Salmon Prior to Arrival at Lower Granite Dam, on the Snake River : Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1991-10-01

    Efforts have been initiated to develop a research plan that will provide insight into causes of, and ultimately solutions to, the apparent excessive mortality of juvenile chinook upstream from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River. In the context of the proposed salmon stock listings under the Endangered Species Act, issues that potentially affect wild stocks of spring chinook salmon probably warrant immediate consideration and resolution. Mark-recapture data at Lower Granite Dam indicate that few yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts survive to that site after release from various hatcheries. Upriver stocks of yearling spring and summer chinook exhibit pronounced losses en route to the dam. In 1989 and 1990, only about 8 to 18% of PIT-tagged representatives from McCall or Sawtooth hatchery were detected at the dam. General survival indices for these stocks indicate that perhaps only 15 to 35% of the yearlings survived to that site. This suggests these stocks may sustain as much mortality traversing this unobstructed reach of river as the general population would passing through the entire hydroelectric complex.

  1. Challenges of Executive Information Systems in listed Johannesburg Stock Exchange companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Papageorgiou

    2011-09-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to establish and to determine the existence, and to what extent EISs exist in all levels of management and to identify the challenges companies experienced in listed JSE companies. Therefore the problem exists that EIS-users at all levels of management are unaware of the challenges of EISs and that EISs can be used as a tool to analyse their businesses’ performance and competitiveness. Method: A mixed method was used; both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Questionnaires were sent to 334 listed JSE companies and 13 interviews were conducted with users of EISs in all levels of management. Results: The results of the study demonstrate that the majority of respondents of the questionnaire have an EIS or plan to implement an EIS. The results further revealed the respondents’ positive attitude towards EISs as it is an excellent management information tool that adds strategic value to their business, that is critical for real-time decision-making, solves problems and creates a competitive edge. From the results it is evident that there is a need for an EIS to be ‘everybody’s information system’. The results of the interviews demonstrate that an EIS is a seamless reliable system necessary for proper timeous decision-making. The respondents to the questionnaire and the interviewees indicated that they understood the value of EISs as a useful part of their company. Conclusion: The study adds value to the awareness and understanding of EISs that creates a business environment in which business and management can enhance sustainability and strategic competitiveness.

  2. Stock price forecasting for companies listed on Tehran stock exchange using multivariate adaptive regression splines model and semi-parametric splines technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Reza; Arashi, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important topics of interest to investors is stock price changes. Investors whose goals are long term are sensitive to stock price and its changes and react to them. In this regard, we used multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model and semi-parametric splines technique for predicting stock price in this study. The MARS model as a nonparametric method is an adaptive method for regression and it fits for problems with high dimensions and several variables. semi-parametric splines technique was used in this study. Smoothing splines is a nonparametric regression method. In this study, we used 40 variables (30 accounting variables and 10 economic variables) for predicting stock price using the MARS model and using semi-parametric splines technique. After investigating the models, we select 4 accounting variables (book value per share, predicted earnings per share, P/E ratio and risk) as influencing variables on predicting stock price using the MARS model. After fitting the semi-parametric splines technique, only 4 accounting variables (dividends, net EPS, EPS Forecast and P/E Ratio) were selected as variables effective in forecasting stock prices.

  3. The implications of financial performance on stock exchange indicators of listed companies: empirical evidence for the Romanian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Oana ȘTEFAN(BELCIC-ȘTEFAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and quantifies the implications of financial indicators of performance on the share return of companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange. These implications are even more relevant as the Romanian capital market could benefit from increased visibility with its reclassification as an emerging capital market in the near future. The research is conducted at the level of 33 companies listed on BSE for the time frame 2011-2013, building a multiple linear regression model that quantifies the variation in price to book value depending on the evolution of nine financial indicators of performance out of a total of 38 such possible indicators. Correcting the effects of serial correlation within the model led to its respecification resorting to the generalized differences procedure. The value of the R-squared coefficient of determination for the processed model is 0.543, eight of the nine independent variables being significant at the 1% level. The 0 probability associated to the F-test as well as its value confirm that the regression equation is globally significant. Also, all the assumptions for validating the estimated model are confirmed, both general ones, characteristic to the multiple linear regression procedure, and, in particular, according to the specific set of data under processing. The applied usefulness of the regression model is valued in the next step of the research, that of testing the effectiveness of the Romanian capital market, after which it was found that the influence of financial performance indicators was already incorporated into the market price since the end of the reporting period.

  4. Using executive information systems as a business management tool in listed Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE companies: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Papageorgiou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the extent and use of Executive Information Systems (EISs as a business management tool in listed Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE companies. Problem: This study is important in order to establish the existence of EISs in these companies and whether it is being used as a business management tool to analyse and measure companies' performances. Research Methodolog:The research methods were both quantitative and qualitative in nature and are based on the literature study, questionnaire and interviews. Findings and conclusion: The findings of the study provide evidence that companies with an EIS or planning to implement an EIS view it as an excellent business management tool. This tool has built-in features, is critical for real-time decision-making, solves problems and creates a competitive edge. Value of the research: The value of the study adds to the current understanding and awareness of EISs. EISs create an environment in which business and management can enhance sustainability and strategic competitiveness.

  5. Using executive information systems as a business management tool in listed Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE companies: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Papageorgiou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the extent and use of Executive Information Systems (EISs as a business management tool in listed Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE companies. Problem: This study is important in order to establish the existence of EISs in these companies and whether it is being used as a business management tool to analyse and measure companies' performances.Research Methodolog:The research methods were both quantitative and qualitative in nature and are based on the literature study, questionnaire and interviews. Findings and conclusion: The findings of the study provide evidence that companies with an EIS or planning to implement an EIS view it as an excellent business management tool. This tool has built-in features, is critical for real-time decision-making, solves problems and creates a competitive edge. Value of the research: The value of the study adds to the current understanding and awareness of EISs. EISs create an environment in which business and management can enhance sustainability and strategic competitiveness.

  6. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  7. The Influence Profitability, Financial Leverage, and Firm Size on Income Smoothing Empirical Studies on Banking Companies Listed on Stock Exchanges in Indonesia 2009-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Fathoni, Ahmad Fauzan; Taufik, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine profitability, financial leverage, and firm size, on income smoothing in banking companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2009-2012. This study uses income smoothing as the dependent variable, the independent variable we use profitability, financial leverage, and firm size. Purposive sampling method we used to get the sample, and from 32 firms that we observed, we got 19 firms as the samples. To analize the data Multiple Linier Regression, F-test an...

  8. Salmon vulnerability maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  9. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in outmigrant juvenile Chinook salmon from the lower Columbia River and Estuary and Puget Sound, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Bolton, Jennie L; Boyd, Daryle; Olson, O Paul; Sol, Sean Y; Ylitalo, Gina M; Johnson, Lyndal L

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have examined the presence, distribution, and concentrations of toxic contaminants in two major waterways in the Pacific Northwest: the lower Columbia River and Estuary (LCR&E) and Puget Sound, Washington. However, those studies have not reported on the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in juvenile Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha). Populations of Chinook salmon from the LCR&E and Puget Sound are declining, and some stocks are currently listed as "threatened" under the Endangered Species Act. Bioaccumulation of contaminants, including PBDEs, by juvenile Chinook salmon in the LCR&E and Puget Sound is of concern due to the potential toxicity of the contaminants and associated sublethal effects in fish. In this article, we present the concentrations of PBDEs measured in gutted bodies and stomach contents of outmigrant juvenile Chinook salmon collected at six sites in the LCR&E and four sites in Puget Sound. For comparison, we also analyzed gutted bodies of juvenile Chinook salmon from eight hatcheries in the LCR&E as well as samples of the hatchery fish feeds. The mean summation SigmaPBDE concentrations measured in bodies of juvenile Chinook salmon from the different sites ranged from 350 to 2800 ng/g lipid weight, whereas those in stomach contents ranged from less than the quantitation limit (salmon samples collected from the LCR&E and Puget Sound. These results show that outmigrant juvenile Chinook salmon in the LCR&E and Puget Sound have been exposed to PBDEs in the environment and that these chemicals are bioaccumulating in their tissues; thus, the potential effects of PBDEs on these salmon should be further investigated.

  11. Effect of Corporate Governance Structure on the Financial Performance of Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE-Listed Mining Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaih Dzingai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been many corporate collapses and financial crises in recent years linked to a lack of effective corporate governance. The South African King IV Code of Corporate Governance recommends that corporate governing bodies should be comprised of an appropriate balance of knowledge, diversity, and independence for discharging their duties objectively and more efficiently. This study examines the effect of corporate governance structures on firm financial performance. The secondary data of selected Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, Socially Responsible Investment (SRI Index-listed mining firms’ sustainability reports, and integrated annual financial statements are used. Using panel data analysis of the random effects model, we determined the relationship between board independence and board size and the return on equity (ROE for the period 2010–2015. Results indicate a weak negative correlation between ROE and board size, and a weak, but positive, correlation between ROE and board independence. Additionally, there is a positive, but weak, correlation between ROE and sales growth, but a negative and weak relationship between ROE and firm size. The study suggests that effective corporate governance through a small effective board and monitoring by an independent board result in increased firm financial performance. We recommend that South African companies see compliance with the recommendations of the King IV Code on Corporate Governance not as a liability, but an ethical investment that may likely yield financial benefit in the long-term. Although complying with corporate governance principles does not necessarily translate into a significant economic benefit, firms should, however, continue to adopt corporate governance for ethical reasons to meet stakeholder’s social and environmental needs for sustainable development.

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF BANKRUPTCY LIKELIHOOD ON COAL MINING LISTED FIRMS IN THE INDONESIAN STOCK EXCHANGE: AN ALTMAN, SPRINGATE AND ZMIJEWSKI APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noor Salim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the bankruptcy possibility of Coal Mining Companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, using Altman Model (Z-score, Springate Model (SScore and Zmijewski Model (X-Score approaches. The respondent is 19 Coal Mining Companies listed in IDX taken from 22 companies’ population. Purposive sampling was used as the sampling technique which required the following criteria: go public Coal Mining Companies listed in IDX respectively from 2011 until 2011, and have audited financial statements for the fiscal year 2011 – 2014. Data collection methods were desk research. The result of this research showed that Zmijewski Model is the most accurate predictive models that can be applied to coal mining company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX because this model has the highest level of accuracy compared to other predictive models that are equal to 78.95%, followed by Springate Model which has an accuracy rate of 47.37%, and the last one, Altman Model only has 5.26%.

  13. Distribution, feeding and growth of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. parr stocked into rivers with various abiotic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev A. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the research of efficiency of Atlantic salmon the artificial reproduction, feeding rate, distribution and growth of farm-raised one-year-old Atlantic salmon have been examined. The fish has been released into nursery areas with different hydrological characteristics located in the Rivers Kola, Umba, Srednyaya and Akkim in the Murmansk region. The observations have being conducted for 1–5 months since the moment of fish release. In natural habitat, juveniles rapidly distribute downstream and upstream regardless of water temperature, depth and current velocity. In all examined nursery areas adapting one-year-old juveniles prefer to stay at weak current sites close to the shore, hiding in the gravel. In all the cases farmed parr shows high feed rate, but qualitative composition of their food differs significantly from food composition of wild juveniles. Revealed peculiarities of adapting parr's distribution and qualitative food composition indicate the impact of long-term rearing at hatcheries on fish behavior. Growth rate of one-year-old juveniles is arcwise connected with fraction composition of gravel and the level of bottom fouling: the bigger bottom rocks are and the thicker the fouling is, the more intensive fish growth is. The revealed correlations have been described with equations of linear regression. Connections between juvenile growth and water temperature, current velocity and depth of the area have not been detected. The research outcomes could provide a basis for scientific advice for planning release sites and number of released one-year-old Atlantic salmon by hatcheries in the Murmansk region.

  14. The Effect of Good Corporate Governance and Environmental Performance on Financial Performance of the Company (Studies on Participants of Proper Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Andriana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine whether the environmental performance and Good Corporate Governance (GCG mechanisms such as managerial ownership, institutional ownership, the proportion of independent commissioners, had effects of the audit committee on financial performance measured by using Return on Equity (ROE. This research used the population of manufacturing company listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange that participated in PROPER 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Based on the multiple regression analysis, audit committee partially had a significant effect on financial performance, while the others did not. Meanwhile, the analysis result shows that environmental performance and all GCG mechanisms simultaneously have significant effectson financial performance.

  15. Age composition and spawning escapement of Chinook salmon in the Karluk, Ayakulik, and Chignik Rivers, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A project was initiated in June 1993 to monitor the status of the chinok salmon stocks of the Karluk, Ayakulik and Chignik rivers. These stocks were selected for...

  16. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  17. Identification and classification of open book accounting dimensions by considering inter-organizational cost management: A case study of petrochemical companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadeghi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and to classify Open book accounting (OBA dimensions according to inter-organizational cost management (IOCM in petrochemical companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this research, there are 18 statistical society financial and accounting experts listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. By studying the theoretical literature and conducted investigations inside and outside of the country and also the experts’ comments, the OBA dimensions were identified and then classified by analytical hierarchy process technique. According to the studies and experts’ ideas, four dimensions including nature of data and accounting data disclosure practices, uses of disclosed accounting data, conditions of OBA, cost implementation of OBA were identified as OBA dimensions. The results of examinations were shown that, considering the comments on dimensions of nature of data and accounting data disclosure practices, the form of data disclosure plays a more important role. In uses of disclosed accounting data dimension, coordination and planning among team members play the most important role. According to conditions of OBA dimension, trust is the most important one and in cost implementation of OBA dimension, the cost of the other party plays the most important role.

  18. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Earnings Management: Empirical Evidence from the Top 5,000 Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Account manipulation has been the subject of accounting discussions not only in the U.S. but across the world, especially during times of financial crises. This paper investigates the impact of the recent financial crisis on account manipulation probability by adopting the Beneish Model (1999, 2013 of eight performance ratios. The analysis has been conducted using the Top 5,000 Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies (Società Per Azioni ranked by revenues during the time period 2005-2012. We use the AIDA Bureau Van Dijk database. We test the existence of earnings management (EM within the Top Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies through a comparison between the pre-crisis period (2005-2008 and the crisis period (2009-2012. Our findings show that the number of firms with a higher likelihood of earnings manipulation decreases by 4.53% from the pre-crisis to crisis period. As a consequence, we argue that EM increases when the crisis is weak while EM decreases during the crisis period.

  19. The Influence of Good Corporate Governance Mechanism on Earnings Management: Empirical Study in Indonesian Stock Exchange Listed Company for Periods of 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermiyetti Hermiyetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of good corporate governance mechanism about earnings management in companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The independent variables include the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency. The dependent variable is earnings management which is measured by discretionary revenue model (Stubben, 2010. Size of company is used as the control variable in this research. The population of this research is 465 samples from companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling method. In addition, the data analysis method used is regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The result of this research indicates that the mechanism of good corporate governance which is represented by the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency do not have any significant impact on earnings management. However, the result shows that company size gave positive influence toward earning management. Keywords: Good corporate governance, size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, commissioner meeting frequency, earnings management

  20. AFSC/FMA/Salmon Genetics From Observer Speimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic data of salmon bycatch samples collected by fisheries observers are used for mixed-stock analyses to determine geographic region of origin. This work is done...

  1. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  2. 76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... scientific uncertainty in forecasting SRFC stock abundance, the Council designed management measures for... well the Council's 2010 management objectives were met. The second report, ``Preseason Report I Stock...), provides the 2011 salmon stock abundance projections and analyzes the impacts on the stocks and Council...

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  4. Deformity Prevalence and Meristic Characteristics in Atlantic salmon : The Effect of Ploidy, Incubation Temperature and Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Intense salmon farming regimes in Norway have resulted in hundreds of thousands of salmon escaping each year. These domesticated salmon have been selectively bred for generations and therefore have the potential to genetically infiltrate wild population’s causing gene flow, out breeding depression and ultimately a decline in stocks. Triploidization has become a popular method for inducing sterility into large batches of salmon. This study investigated the effects of triploidization on Atlanti...

  5. A survey on relationship between capital structure, free cash flow and diversification and firm performance of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of free cash flow, share diversification and capital structure on Tobin-Q in selected firms on Tehran Stock Exchange. The population of the survey includes 520 firms listed on this exchange until year 2012 and the survey uses a sample of 105 firms, randomly. The study uses the models originally developed by Palepu (1985 [Palepu, K. (1985. Diversification strategy, profit performance and the entropy measure. Strategic Management Journal, 6(3, 239-255.] to measure the effects of different factors on Tobin Q. The study has indicated that while capital structure and free cash flow influence positively on Tobin Q, diversification has maintained a negative and meaningful relationship with Tobin Q.

  6. Using Benford’s Law to detect data error and fraud: An examination of companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saville

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting numbers generally obey a mathematical law called Benford’s Law, and this outcome is so unexpected that manipulators of information generally fail to observe the law. Armed with this knowledge, it becomes possible to detect the occurrence of accounting data that are presented fraudulently. However, the law also allows for the possibility of detecting instances where data are presented containing errors. Given this backdrop, this paper uses data drawn from companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange to test the hypothesis that Benford’s Law can be used to identify false or fraudulent reporting of accounting data. The results support the argument that Benford’s Law can be used effectively to detect accounting error and fraud. Accordingly, the findings are of particular relevance to auditors, shareholders, financial analysts, investment managers, private investors and other users of publicly reported accounting data, such as the revenue services

  7. STUDY ON DISCLOSURE LEVEL OF COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: THE CASE OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA GORGAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic globalization, the need for high quality financial information has become a desiderate. Accounting met such needs through a set of high quality standards, the International Financial Reporting Standards. Their global imposing, either through adoption or convergence, make its contribution to proper functioning of capital markets and even of the entire economy. The quality of financial reporting, however, is the result of how they are applied in each country or company. The objective of our study is to analyze the disclosure level of companies listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE in compliance with the presentation requirements of the international accounting standard IAS 38 “Intangible assets”. The empirical study revealed a significant level of non-compliance. In order to determine the degree of compliance with international accounting referential we built a disclosure index. Four hypothesis were tested in order to identify the factors that influence the disclosure level.

  8. ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF PROFITABILITY, ASSETS STRUCTURE, SIZE OF COMPANIES, AND LIQUIDITY TO CAPITAL STRUCTURES IN MINING COMPANIES LISTED IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE PERIOD 2012 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Nazir Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of profitability, structure assets, firm size and liquidity to the capital structure of mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2012-2015. Sampling technique using purpose sampling. Data analysis technique used in this research is panel data regression. The results showed that partially profitability had negative and significant effect to capital structure, asset structure had positive and significant effect to capital structure, firm size had positive and significant effect to capital structure, and liquidity had negative and significant effect to capital structure. Simultaneously profitability, asset structure, firm size and liquidity have a significant effect on capital structure.

  9. The Influence of Profıtabılıty and Debt Ratıo Toward the Value of Stock Medıated by the Issuer’s Actıon (Empirical Study on Fishery Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2008 – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigor Sitorus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to extend a model empirical research from the direct effect of the influencing of profitability and the debt ratio toward the Value of stock  to be a new model empirical research of  the mediating effect of Issuer’s action upon the influencing of profitability and debt ratio toward Value of stock. This research was conducted at the  Fishery Company listed in Indonesia Stock exchange period from  2008 to 2014. Structural Equation Model (SEM by AMOS software 22.00 was used to analyze the data, and the result shows high goodness of fit while the simultaneous and individual tests generate significant result. The result of analysis shows that: (1 the Profitability gives significantly positive influence to Issuer’s Action, (2; the Profitability gives significantly positive influence toValue of stock , (3 the Debt Ratio gives significantly negative influence to Issuer’s Action,  (4; the Debt Ratio gives significantly negative influence to  Value of stock , (5; the Issuer’s Action gives significantly  positive influence to Value of stock , therefore the mediated effect of Issuer’s Action has more strength compared to direct effect of the Profitability and the Debt Ratio toward the Value of stock, so we may conclude that the result evidently shows the Issuer’s Action was able to mediate the influence of profitability and debt ratio toward Value of stock.

  10. The Influence of R&D Policy on Performance of the Companies Listed with Bucharest Stock Exchange (through Intangible Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, R&D potential of the companies (reflected by intangible assets tends to make the difference between competing enterprises. Although investing in tangible assets is still viewed as important, the researchers have discovered that investors on capital market tend to buy stocks of the high-tech companies promoting a policy of increasing R&D expenditures.The results of the present study on the Romanian economy reveals the correlation between the variation of intangible assets of the chemicals and pharmaceuticals companies (high-tech and their performance – reflected by EPS and PER coefficients.

  11. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  12. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices....... This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  13. An exploration of the online investor relations (IR practices of companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leana Esterhuyse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has found that having better investor relations (IR practices contributes towards improved share prices, liquidity of shares and analyst following. The main aim of this study was to determine the extent to which JSE-listed companies comply with international best practice guidelines for IR practices via the company’s website. A secondary objective was to arrive at an opinion regarding the stage of internet adoption for IR practices in which JSE-listed companies find themselves, based on Hedlin’s (1999 three-stage model. A checklist of 201 items was used to assess the websites of 205 JSE-listed companies from the beginning of July to mid-September 2012. The average online IR score for all 205 companies was found to be disappointing, although the top 100 companies in South Africa performed better than companies in other emerging and developing economies, but worse than companies in advanced economies, where size is probably the main differentiator. Bandwidth is also a constraining factor for online IR quality in South Africa. We conclude that instead of moving towards stage III (HTML, video and audio of Hedlin’s model (1999, JSE listed companies still seem to find themselves in stage II (paper-equivalent PDF’s. This should concern Chief Financial Officers (CFOs, as effective and efficient communication with investors could contribute towards attaining optimal share prices and improved liquidity and analyst following.

  14. Vaccination improves survival of Baltic salmon ( Salmo salar ) smolts in delayed release sea ranching (net-pen period)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    1997-01-01

    Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) of the Finnish Iijoki stock were hatched and reared in freshwater in a salmon hatchery on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic sea. Salmon parr were divided in three groups each comprising 22 000 fish. One group was vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection...

  15. A fish of many scales: extrapolating sublethal pesticide exposures to the productivity of wild salmon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David H; Spromberg, Julann A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-12-01

    For more than a decade, numerous pesticides have been detected in river systems of the western United States that support anadromous species of Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over the same interval, several declining wild salmon populations have been listed as either threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because pesticides occur in surface waters that provide critical habitat for ESA-listed stocks, they are an ongoing concern for salmon conservation and recovery throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. Because pesticide exposures are typically sublethal, a key question is whether toxicological effects at (or below) the scale of the individual animal ultimately reduce the productivity and recovery potential of wild populations. In this study we evaluate how the sublethal impacts of pesticides on physiology and behavior can reduce the somatic growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and, by extension, subsequent size-dependent survival when animals migrate to the ocean and overwinter in their first year. Our analyses focused on the organophosphate and carbamate classes of insecticides. These neurotoxic chemicals have been widely detected in aquatic environments. They inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme in the salmon nervous system that regulates neurotransmitter-mediated signaling at synapses. Based on empirical data, we developed a model that explicitly links sublethal reductions in acetylcholinesterase activity to reductions in feeding behavior, food ration, growth, and size at migration. Individual size was then used to estimate size-dependent survival during migration and transition to the sea. Individual survival estimates were then integrated into a life-history population projection matrix and used to calculate population productivity and growth rate. Our results indicate that short-term (i.e., four-day) exposures that are representative of seasonal pesticide use may be sufficient to reduce the

  16. 76 FR 8345 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...) are listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA: Snake River Sockeye salmon, Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon, Snake River fall Chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead, Upper Columbia River... Water Resources Education Center, 6:30-8:30 p.m. We received nine comment letters by mail, fax, or e...

  17. The impact of corporate diversification on firm value using entropy and herfindel indices for the companies listed in tehran stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keramatollah Heydari Rostami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of different business activities. Some companies have lack of diversity but others are diversified. One of the most important parameters for evaluation for choosing company for investing is company’s value. Therefore, this article investigates the effect of diversify by both indices of entropy and Herfindel on firm value for the companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. The effect of diversification on firm value is tested for the period of 2006 to 2014 for 88 companies. The target population for the period for investigation is chosen by using Cochrane method and systematic elimination method. Panel analysis is used for hypothesis testing, estimating procedures and testing model assumptions. Results show that there is not significant linear and non-linear relationship between the two variables of entropy index of business diversification and firm value but there is a significant negative relationship between the two variables of Herfindel index of business diversification and firm value. Results show a U-shaped relationship between these variables and the dependent variable.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF PROFITABILITY, LIQUIDITY, AND DEBT TO THE DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO IN MANUFACTURING COMPANY (LISTED IN INDONESIAN STOCK EXCHANGE FROM 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Kartika Sari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis research analyzes the influence of profitability, liquidity, and debt to dividend payout ratio in manufacturing companies in Indonesia. The samples consist of 102 companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during the period of 2008-2010. This research tests three hypotheses related to the influence of profitability, liquidity, and debt toward the dividend payout ratio (DPR. Data obtained were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. The results of this research indicate that: (1 profitability ratio (ROI has positively significant influence to dividend payout ratio. (2 Liquidity ratio (QR does not significantly influence to dividend payout ratio. (3 Debt ratio (DER does not significantly influence to dividend payout ratio.Keywords: profitability, liquidity, debt, Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR, manufacturing company.AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh profitabilitas, likuiditas, dan utang terhadap rasio pembayaran dividen dalam perusahaan-perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia. Sampel terdiri dari 102 perusahaan yang terdaftar di Bursa saham Indonesia selama periode tahun 2008-2010. Penelitian ini menguji tiga hipotesa yang berkaitan dengan pengaruh profitabilitas, likuiditas, dan utang terhadap rasio pembayaran dividen (DPR. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis regresi. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: (1 profitabilitas rasio (ROI memiliki pengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap rasio pembayaran dividen. (2 rasio likuiditas (QR tidak berpengaruh terhadap rasio pembayaran dividen. (3 Rasio hutang (DER tidak berpengaruh atas rasio pembayaran dividen.Kata kunci: profitabilitas, likuiditas, utang, rasio pembayaran dividen (DPR, manufaktur perusahaan.

  19. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  20. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Carr-Harris

    Full Text Available Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years, Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the

  1. Using the Idea of Market-Expected Return Rates on Invested Capital in the Verification of Conformity of Market Evaluation of Stock-Listed Companies with their Intrinsic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mielcarz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concept of investor-expected rates of return on capital of listed companies and the use of these rates in the assessment of the extent to which the stock evaluation of a given entity is compatible with its intrinsic value. The article also features results of the research aimed at verification – with the use of the presented tool – of whether the market value of WSE-listed companies reflects their fundamental value. The calculations presented in the empirical part of the article show that at the beginning of 2011, market evaluation of the most of the analysed entities greatly exceeded their fundamental value.

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, David (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A. (Utah State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Ecology Center and Watershed Science Unit); Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)

    1994-06-01

    In 1990 the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River Sockeye salmon as endangered. As a result, Snake River Sockeye were listed and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding efforts to enhance sockeye stocks. Recovery efforts include development of a brood stock program, genetics work, describing fish community dynamics in rearing lakes, and completing limnology studies. The SBT, in cooperation with Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), are directing fish community and limnology studies. IDFG is managing the brood stock program. The University of Idaho and NMFS are completing genetics work. Part I of this document is the SBT 1993' annual report that describes findings related to fish community research. Part II is a document completed by Utah State University (USU). The SBT subcontracted USU to complete a limnology investigation on the Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Management suggestions in Part II are those of USU and are not endorsed by the SBT and may not reflect the opinions of SBT biologists.

  3. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  4. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  5. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  6. Light Experiment data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  7. Social Behavior - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  8. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  9. Fish Health data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  10. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  11. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    Full Text Available Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC, Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a

  12. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Darimont, Chris T; Macduffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable method

  13. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  14. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  15. Stream flow and temperature maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  16. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  17. AFSC/ABL: Population structure of odd- and even-broodline Asian pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Electrophoretic analysis of Asian even brood-year pink salmon stocks has shown regional heterogeneity (Noll et al. in review). Hypothetical mixed fisheries were...

  18. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  19. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  20. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) first section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, Futoshi; Taniyama, Yukari; Hwi, Song You; Fujisaki, Takeshi; Kameda, Takashi; Mori, Koji

    2005-11-01

    Recently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming widely recognized as an issue for Japanese companies. Corporate responsibility for employees is considered important by various stakeholders, and occupational safety and health is regarded as one of these responsibilities. The present authors examined this issue from the viewpoint of corporate management by analysis of statements found in CSR-related reports. For companies listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), we searched for CSR-related reports, and titles and contents, based on two established guidelines: the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2002 as the international reference and the Environmental Reporting Guidelines of the Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, as the domestic reference. Corporations that published CSR reports were 26.3% (416/1,581) of the total, and large differences were recognized by type of industry. Comparing the numbers of pages for various contents, more concern was shown about the environment than about social activity, indicating the environment to be the main issue of CSR in Japan. In the items included in the guidelines, many matters about occupational accidents were mentioned, but it was found that statements regarding HIV/AIDS, which is not of such strong social concern in Japan, and statements regarding the costs of safety that are difficult to calculate were few. However, statements regarding mental health, which is of high interest socially, were many, even though this issue is not included in the two guidelines used. In revising the guidelines, these matters should be reviewed. In the future, continuance of analysis of CSR-related reports with regard to changes and comparisons with overseas reports will help improve occupational safety and health.

  1. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-09-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  2. 77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... caught primarily in fisheries north of Cape Falcon, Oregon and other fisheries that occur north of the U... Salmon Treaty with Canada (PST). Other Chinook salmon stocks caught in fisheries north of Cape Falcon are... abundance) multiplied by F MSY (.78) or 180,260 returning spawners. ABC is 819,400 multiplied by F ABC (F...

  3. Determinants of Stock Price Movements: Evidence from Chittagong Stock Exchange, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Syedul Islam; Evana Nusrat Dooty

    2015-01-01

    Stock market plays a vital role in the economic development of an economy. It bridges up between savers and real manufacturers by raising funds from investors to companies. This process was broken down due to the 2010-2011 stock market crash in Bangladesh. Though the determinants of stock price have been settled empirically, the current paper aims to reexamine the relationship between stock price, dividend and retained earnings of 29 listed banks of Chittagong Stock Exchange, in the post-cras...

  4. 76 FR 62375 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist Coho Salmon Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Endangered Species Act Listing Determinations for Pacific Salmon and Steelhead'' (70 FR 37204; June 28, 2005... Finding on Petitions To Delist Coho Salmon Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Marine... coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petitions...

  5. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-04-01

    This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.

  6. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  7. Analysis of Right Issue Announcement Effect toward Stock Price Movement and Stock Trading Volume within Issuer in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Yaputra Yakup

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to identify and analyze the rights issue effect to the stock price, the effect of the rights issue on stock trading volume, the correlation between stock prices before and after the right issue, as well as the correlation between volume of trading activity before the right issue and after that event. The objects of the study are the companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (JSX. The hypothesis stated that right issues have a significant effect on stock price on companies listed on the JSX, rights issues have a significant effect on the stock trading volume on companies listed on the JSX, there is a significant correlation between stock price before and after the rights issue on companies listed in JSX, there is a significant correlation between volume of the stock trading before the rights issue and after that event. Data analysis used were descriptive statistics, simple linear regression analysis and paired t-test. Hypothesis testing was performed by using the Pearson correlation test with significance level of 5%. The results show that the right issue has a positive effect but not significant toward stock prices of companies listed in JSX, right issue has a negative effect and not significant toward the trading volume activity (TVA on companies listed in JSX.

  8. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  9. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1986-1987 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved survival production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River system and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985-broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986-broods of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1985-brood coho and the 1986-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon.

  10. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  11. Salmon, Science, and Reciprocity on the Northwest Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bruce Johnsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe depletion of many genetically distinct Pacific salmon populations has spawned a contentious debate over causation and the efficacy of proposed solutions. No doubt the precipitating factor was overharvesting of the commons beginning along the Northwest Coast around 1860. Yet, for millenia before that, a relatively dense population of Indian tribes managed salmon stocks that have since been characterized as "superabundant." This study investigates how they avoided a tragedy of the commons, where in recent history, commercial ocean fishers guided by scientifically informed regulators, have repeatedly failed. Unlike commercial fishers, the tribes enjoyed exclusive rights to terminal fisheries enforced through rigorous reciprocity relations. The available evidence is compelling that they actively husbanded their salmon stocks for sustained abundance.

  12. Influence network in Chinese stock market

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    In a stock market, the price fluctuations are interactive, that is, one listed company can influence others. In this paper, we seek to study the influence relationships among listed companies by constructing a directed network on the basis of Chinese stock market. This influence network shows distinct topological properties, particularly, a few large companies that can lead the tendency of stock market are recognized. Furthermore, by analyzing the subnetworks of listed companies distributed in several significant economic sectors, it is found that the influence relationships are totally different from one economic sector to another, of which three types of connectivity as well as hub-like listed companies are identified. In addition, the rankings of listed companies obtained from the centrality metrics of influence network are compared with that according to the assets, which gives inspiration to uncover and understand the importance of listed companies in the stock market. These empirical results are meaning...

  13. FACTS, FANTASIES, AND FORECASTS: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the far western contiguous United States (California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline has taken place over the past 150 years, but there have been decades when the numbers increased. Overall...

  14. Relationships Between Landscape Habitat Variables and Chinook Salmon Production in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-09-01

    This publication concerns the investigation of potential relationships between various landscape habitat variables and estimates of fish production from 25 index stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon with the Columbia River Basin.

  15. Market Reactions to Publicly Announced Privacy and Security Breaches Suffered by Companies Listed on the United States Stock Exchanges: A Comparative Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Adolfo S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of security and privacy breaches the present research examines the comparative announcement impact between the two types of events. The first part of the dissertation analyzes the impact of publicly announced security and privacy breaches on abnormal stock returns, the change in firm risk, and abnormal trading volume are measured.…

  16. Analysis of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation, 1990 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William H.; Coley, Travis C.; Burge, Howard L.

    1990-09-01

    Supplementation or planting salmon and steelhead into various locations in the Columbia River drainage has occurred for over 100 years. All life stages, from eggs to adults, have been used by fishery managers in attempts to establish, rebuild, or maintain anadromous runs. This report summarizes and evaluates results of past and current supplementation of salmon and steelhead. Conclusions and recommendations are made concerning supplementation. Hatchery rearing conditions and stocking methods can affect post released survival of hatchery fish. Stress was considered by many biologists to be a key factor in survival of stocked anadromous fish. Smolts were the most common life stage released and size of smolts correlated positively with survival. Success of hatchery stockings of eggs and presmolts was found to be better if they are put into productive, underseeded habitats. Stocking time, method, species stocked, and environmental conditions of the receiving waters, including other fish species present, are factors to consider in supplementation programs. The unpublished supplementation literature was reviewed primarily by the authors of this report. Direct contact was made in person or by telephone and data compiled on a computer database. Areas covered included Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, California, British Columbia, and the New England states working with Atlantic salmon. Over 300 projects were reviewed and entered into a computer database. The database information is contained in Appendix A of this report. 6 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  17. Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jerry Stuart

    1974-01-01

    Using play money, students buy and sell six types of stock certificates at prices determined periodically by tossing three dice; all students participate as investors, brokers, or banker. In addition to gaining practice on computational skills in a motivational game, students study the real stock market concurrently. (SD)

  18. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C.; Elliott, Diane G.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Linda K.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2010-01-01

    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (≥28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock.

  19. An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Cumulative Effects of Tidal Freshwater and Estuarine Ecosystem Restoration on Endangered Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weitkamp, Laurie A. [Marine Sciences lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Buenau, Kate E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kropp, Roy K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The listing of 13 salmon and steelhead stocks in the Columbia River basin (hereafter collectively referred to as “salmon”) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, has stimulated tidal wetland restoration in the lower 235 kilometers of the Columbia River and estuary for juvenile salmon habitat functions. The purpose of the research reported herein was to evaluate the effect on listed salmon of the restoration effort currently being conducted under the auspices of the federal Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Linking changes in the quality and landscape pattern of tidal wetlands in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) to salmon recovery is a complex problem because of the characteristics of the ecosystem, the salmon, the restoration actions, and available sampling technologies. Therefore, we designed an evidence-based approach to develop, synthesize, and evaluate information to determine early-stage (~10 years) outcomes of the CEERP. We developed an ecosystem conceptual model and from that, a primary hypothesis that habitat restoration activities in the LCRE have a cumulative beneficial effect on juvenile salmon. There are two necessary conditions of the hypothesis: • habitat-based indicators of ecosystem controlling factors, processes, and structures show positive effects from restoration actions, and • fish-based indicators of ecosystem processes and functions show positive effects from restoration actions and habitats undergoing restoration. Our evidence-based approach to evaluate the primary hypothesis incorporated seven lines of evidence, most of which are drawn from the LCRE. The lines of evidence are spatial and temporal synergies, cumulative net ecosystem improvement, estuary-wide meta-analysis, offsite benefits to juvenile salmon, landscape condition evaluation, and evidence-based scoring of global literature. The general methods we used to develop information for the lines of evidence included field

  20. Evaluating stocking efficacy in an ecosystem undergoing oligotrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Oligotrophication has negatively affected fisheries production in many freshwater ecosystems and could conceivably reduce the efficacy of stockings used to enhance fisheries. In Lake Michigan, offshore oligotrophication has occurred since the 1970s, owing to reductions in total phosphorus (TP) inputs and nearshore sequestration of TP by nonindigenous dreissenid mussels. We evaluated simultaneous effects of stock enhancement and oligotrophication on salmonine species (Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, and steelhead O. mykiss) that support valuable recreational fisheries. We employed a novel application of an Ecopath with Ecosim model by conducting a full factorial simulation experiment. Our design included multiple levels of salmonine stocking, consumption by invasive quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis), and TP that were informed by manager interests. Under all levels of TP and quagga mussel consumption, our results showed that stock enhancement could still increase salmonine biomass, but positive responses were stronger for lake trout and steelhead than Chinook salmon. Simulations showed that quagga mussel consumption has deleterious effects on pelagic-oriented prey fishes and Chinook salmon, which feed almost exclusively on the pelagic-oriented alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). In summary, results from our simulation experiment suggested that lake trout and steelhead are better suited to the current ecosystem than Chinook salmon, and therefore, stock enhancement provides the highest gains for these two species. Furthermore, simulated biomass of all recreational salmonine species increased with increasing TP, indicating the need for managers to consider how potential future oligotrophication will limit the carrying capacity of salmonine biomass in Lake Michigan

  1. Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

    1997-05-01

    To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

  2. DANUBE SALMON (HUCHO HUCHO L.. THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating of the thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to ecological and zoogeographical, morphological and biological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the Danube salmon, as well as to its cultivation in Ukraine and abroad. Methodology. In the process of systematic search complete and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core have been formed by the literature from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed the thematic list of publications in a quantity of 100 sources, containing characteristics of Danube salmon as representative of salmonids. Literary sources was arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding, and researching of the salmon biological features.

  3. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  4. Linking individual migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon to their genetic origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Deacon, M.

    2005-01-01

    by increased aquaculture activities. The interpretation of results from studies of survival and behaviour of fish from such “mixed stocks” require information of the genetic background of individual fish. We used genetic analysis combined with radiotelemetry to study upstream migration of Atlantic salmon....... The results indicate that stocked, foreign salmon had a slightly higher mortality and moved more up and down in the river than the native salmon did, but all salmon had problems passing the physical obstructions in the river. The DNA analyses enabled us to compare the behaviour of fish of different genetic...... origin, but the interpretation of the results was hampered by a high mortality of tagged fish. This study demonstrates that the combination of recent genetic methods and telemetry provides a potent tool for better management of mixed stock fisheries...

  5. Innovative methods for a sustainable retrofit of the existing building stock. A cross-path from social housing to the listed heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietromaria Davoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three correlated researches try to give operative answers to the problem of defining procedures and tools for a correct survey and retrofit actions for the existing building stock. Starting from a first research on social housing energy retrofit, a fast audit protocol and different intervention scenarios have been defined, with the ultimate purpose of supporting the energy transformation of older urban aggregates; this cluster includes single buildings with high historical values, which necessarily need a deeper diagnosis with a future perspective of a wider promotion and evaluation of environmental sustainability issues.

  6. 2013 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  7. 2012 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  8. Restoration of native Atlantic salmon runs in northern Spain: do costs outweigh benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanes F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon stocks in northern Spain are at the southern range of the species distribution. As such they are likely more vulnerable to environmental change and human disturbance. The Nalon-Narcea River salmon is one such population in Asturias, Spain. The river is dammed throughout the watershed with few fish passage facilities. However, angling data show that salmon returns are consistent although the population is relatively small. We have employed one tributary as a model, the River Trubia. Although some problems of agriculture and industrial pollution have been detected downstream, an upstream habitat evaluation suggests that adequate spawning and juvenile habitat exists. The regional Government has proposed to construct fishways for allowing upstream passage of salmon. This would potentially increase salmon production, but there are also some concerns like increased hybridization of salmon and trout which is already evident downriver and which previous work suggests will increase as salmon colonize new habitat, and potential changes in fishing regulations as salmon distributions shift upriver and away from traditional angling areas. Here, we present an overview of ecological and social aspects of salmon habitat restoration in the River Nalon-Narcea that we hope will provide solutions that balance costs and benefits and may be applicable to other anadromous populations.

  9. Analyzing Influential Factors Against Timeliness of Financial Reporting (Empirical Study of Automation and Components and Telecommunication Companies Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suryanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effect of the relationship between firm size, profitability, solvency, public ownership, and the audit opinion on the timeliness of financial reporting. The dependent variable in the form of timekeeping company deliver the financial statements to the Stock Exchange. Meanwhile for the independent variables such as firm size measured by total asets of the company, profitability is measured by profit margin ratio, solvency measured by debt-to-equity ratio, public ownership is measured by the percentage of the number of shares owned by the community, and the audit opinion is measured with an unqualified opinion and otherwise unqualified. This study uses secondary data with population automotive companies and telecommunications components and annual financial statements issued on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012. From the analysis conducted in this study it can be concluded that the size of the company significantly influence the timeliness of financial reporting. While profitability, solvency, public ownership, and the audit opinion does not affect the timeliness of financial reporting.

  10. Stock Market Liquidity: A Case Study of Karachi Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Ali Kanasro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A market is to be considered as liquid when large transactions are executed with a small impact on price. This paper identifies the position of stock market liquidity at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE during the period from 1985 to 2006. The analysis is based on using annual data of the listed firms at KSE and the data available on economic survey of the Government of Pakistan and other sources. For measurements of liquidity at KSE we have used three measuring tools as; Liquidity Analysis, Turnover Ratio and Size of Market to determine the liquidity issues at KSE. We provide the evidences of less stock market liquidity or to say illiquidity at Karachi Stock Exchange during the sample period. Consequently, market is still for behind in its efficiency, especially in liquidity hence it fails to attract new investors. We find that less liquidity causes less synchronicity in prices attracting less inventors and results is low size of market.

  11. Migratory pattern of adult sockeye salmon, Oncorrhynchus nerka, in Bristol Bay as related to the distribution of their home-river waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The stocks of sockeye salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska, are produced in the lakes and streams of 10 major river systems, which discharge into the bay over a shoreline...

  12. Abundance and run timing of adult pacific salmon and dolly varden in Frosty Creek, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2000-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 2000 to 2002, a fixed picket weir was operated on Frosty Creek, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, to assess the stock status of Pacific salmon and Dolly Varden...

  13. Crims Island-Restoration and monitoring of juvenile salmon rearing habitat in the Columbia River Estuary, Oregon, 2004-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Under the 2004 Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System released by the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) were directed to restore more than 4,047 hectares (10,000 acres) of tidal marsh in the Columbia River estuary by 2010. Restoration of Crims Island near Longview, Washington, restored 38.1 hectares of marsh and swamp in the tidal freshwater portion of the lower Columbia River. The goal of the restoration was to improve habitat for juveniles of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmon stocks and ESA-listed Columbian white-tailed deer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored and evaluated the fisheries and aquatic resources at Crims Island in 2004 prior to restoration (pre-restoration), which began in August 2004, and then post-restoration from 2006 to 2009. This report summarizes pre- and post-restoration monitoring data used by the USGS to evaluate project success. We evaluated project success by examining the interaction between juvenile salmon and a suite of broader ecological measures including sediments, plants, and invertebrates and their response to large-scale habitat alteration. The restoration action at Crims Island from August 2004 to September 2005 was to excavate a 0.6-meter layer of soil and dig channels in the interior of the island to remove reed canary grass and increase habitat area and tidal exchange. The excavation created 34.4 hectares of tidal emergent marsh where none previously existed and 3.7 hectares of intertidal and subtidal channels. Cattle that had grazed the island for more than 50 years were relocated. Soil excavated from the site was deposited in upland areas next to the tidal marsh to establish an upland forest. Excavation deepened and widened an existing T-shaped channel to increase tidal flow to the interior of the island. The western arm of the existing 'T

  14. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  15. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  16. Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1978-07-01

    Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

  17. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  18. Atlantic Salmon Smolt Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual data are collected as part of smolt trapping operations using fish trapping methods. Traps collect emigrating salmon smolts to identify cohort...

  19. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  20. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottle and turn to tighten. Then take the plastic cover off of the top of the spray unit. ... room temperature in an upright position. Replace the plastic cover to keep the nozzle clean. Opened calcitonin salmon ...

  1. Guidelines for monitoring and adaptively managing restoration of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R.J.; Duda, J.J.; Pess, G.R.; Zimmerman, M.; Crain, P.; Hughes, Z.; Wilson, A.; Liermann, M.C.; Morley, S.A.; McMillan, J.; Denton, K.; Warheit, K.

    2014-01-01

    As of January, 2014, the removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams on the Elwha River, Washington, represents the largest dam decommissioning to date in the United States. Dam removal is the single largest step in meeting the goals of the Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act of 1992 (The Elwha Act) — full restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem and its native anadromous fisheries (Section 3(a)). However, there is uncertainty about project outcomes with regards to salmon populations, as well as what the ‘best’ management strategy is to fully restore each salmon stock. This uncertainty is due to the magnitude of the action, the large volumes of sediment expected to be released during dam removal, and the duration of the sediment impact period following dam removal. Our task is further complicated by the depleted state of the native salmonid populations remaining in the Elwha, including four federally listed species. This situation lends itself to a monitoring and adaptive management approach to resource management, which allows for flexibility in decision-making processes in the face of uncertain outcomes.

  2. Testing for genetic differences in survival and growth between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon from Warm Springs River, Oregon (Study sites: Warm Springs Hatchery and Little White Salmon River; Stocks: Warm Springs hatchery and Warm Springs River wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1996): Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in north - central Oregon was initiated with spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Warm Springs River. Managers included wild fish in the broodstock most years and avoided artificial selection to minimize genetic divergence from the wild founder population. We tested for genetic differences in survival and growth between the hatchery and wild populations to ascertain whether this goal has been achieved. Progeny of hatchery x hatchery (HH), hatchery female x wild male (HW), and wild x wild (WW) crosses were genetically marked at the sSOD - 1* allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in hatchery ponds in 1992 and 1996 and in the Little White Salmon River, in south - central Washington, in 1996. Fish were evaluated to returning adult at the hatchery and over their freshwater residence of 16 months in the stream. The three crosses differed on several measures including survival to outmigration in the stream (WW>HH>HW) and juvenile growth in the hatchery (1992 year - class; WW>HW>HH); however, results may have been confounded. The genetic marks were found to differentially effect survival in a companion study (HH mark favored over WW mark; HW mark intermediate). Furthermore, HW survival in the current study was neither intermediate, as would be expect ed from additive genetic effects, nor similar to that of HH fish as would be expected from maternal effects since HW and HH fish were maternal half - siblings. Finally, the unexpected performance of HW fish precludes ruling out maternal differences between hatchery and wild mothers as the cause of differences between HH and WW fish. The key finding that survival of HH fish in a stream was 0.91 that for WW fish, indicating a small loss of fitness for natural rearing in the hatchery population, is valid only if three conditions hold: (1) any selection on the genetic marks was in the same direction as in the companion study, (2) lower survival in

  3. Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Part II, Smolt Monitoring Program, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnaha, Willis E.

    1985-07-01

    The report describes the travel time of marked yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) between points within the system, and reports the arrival timing and duration of the migrations for these species as well as coho salmon (O. kisutch). A final listing of 1984 hatchery releases is also included. 8 refs., 26 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Shchelkanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work consists in the analysis of modern scientific conceptions about infectious salmon anemia (ISA etiologically linked with ISAV (infectious salmon anemia virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Isavirus. ISA is deadly disease of Salmonidae fishes.Discussion. ISA began to extend actively among salmon breeding farms since the extremity of the XX century and poses nowadays serious threat of fishing industry as there are no not only anti-ISAV chemopreparates and effective vaccines, but also scientifically based ideas of ISAV ecology. In the offered review data on the discovery history, taxonomical status, virion morphology and genome structure as well as ecology of ISAV, clinical features, pathogenesis and laboratory diagnostics, actions in the epizootic foci for the prevention of further distribution and prophylaxis of ISA, arrangement for protection against salmon louses and utilized approaches to anti-ISAV vaccines development are discussed. There is very important that ISAV is capable to be transferred by salmon louses – pelagic crustaceans (Copepoda: Caligidae that allows to classify ISAV as arbovirus ecological group which are transferred due to biological transmission by arthropods (copepods to vertebrate animals (salmons. It is the only example known so far when representatives of Crustacea act as a vector for arboviruses.Conclusion. Investigation of ISAV ecology turns into one of "touchstones" allowing to judge technological readiness of mankind to master resources of the World Ocean. 

  5. Salmon 2100: the future of wild Pacific salmon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lackey, R.T; Lach, D.H; Duncan, S.L

    2006-01-01

    Realistic options to restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and southern British Columbia are identified by 36 salmon scientists, resource managers, and policy experts...

  6. EARNING MANAGEMENT, STOCK RETURN AND COMPANIES’ MERGER AND ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    Sigit Handoyo; Fitria Rahmadani Putri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the practice earning management before merger and acquisitionannouncement. It also aimed to examine the differences of stock return before and after merger and acquisitionannouncement among companies that were listed on Indonesia stock exchange. The samples were 35 companiesthat did merger and acquisition and listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) period 2004–2013. Then, thedata analysis was performed by computer statistic program SPSS. These sample...

  7. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  8. Effects of host migration, diversity and aquaculture on sea lice threats to Pacific salmon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkosek, Martin; Gottesfeld, Allen; Proctor, Bart; Rolston, Dave; Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Lewis, Mark A

    2007-12-22

    Animal migrations can affect disease dynamics. One consequence of migration common to marine fish and invertebrates is migratory allopatry-a period of spatial separation between adult and juvenile hosts, which is caused by host migration and which prevents parasite transmission from adult to juvenile hosts. We studied this characteristic for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from one of the Canada's largest salmon stocks. Migratory allopatry protects juvenile salmon from L. salmonis for two to three months of early marine life (2-3% prevalence). In contrast, host diversity facilitates access for C. clemensi to juvenile salmon (8-20% prevalence) but infections appear ephemeral. Aquaculture can augment host abundance and diversity and increase parasite exposure of wild juvenile fish. An empirically parametrized model shows high sensitivity of salmon populations to increased L. salmonis exposure, predicting population collapse at one to five motile L. salmonis per juvenile pink salmon. These results characterize parasite threats of salmon aquaculture to wild salmon populations and show how host migration and diversity are important factors affecting parasite transmission in the oceans.

  9. Terrorism and Stock Market Linkages: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Imtiaz; Suleman, Tahir

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the impact of prolonged terrorist activities on stock prices of different sectors listed in Karachi Stock Exchange by using newly developed terrorism impact factor index with lingering effect (TIFL) and monthly time series data from 2002(Jan) to 2011(Dec). Johansen and Jeuselius cointegration revealed long run relationship between terrorism and stock price. Normalized cointegration vectors are used to test the effect of terrorism on stock price. Results demonstrated si...

  10. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  11. 75 FR 38776 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding for a Petition to List Puget Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Finding for a Petition to List Puget Sound Coho Salmon as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: National Marine... coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) as an endangered or threatened species and to designate critical... our Policy on Applying the Definition of Species under the ESA to Pacific Salmon (56 FR 58612...

  12. The effect of light on the settlement of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, H I; Boxaspen, K; Kuhn, P

    2004-12-01

    The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is an ectoparasitic copepod that infests both wild and farmed salmonid fish. Salmon lice are a major disease problem in the farming of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and the possibility of salmon lice playing a role in the decline of wild anadromous stocks has also been raised. Lepeophtheirus salmonis can detect a range of stimuli (pressure/moving water, chemicals and light) in the external environment. However, the response thresholds to various stimuli, and the spatial and temporal scales over which they operate in the context of host location, are largely unknown. In this context, we attempted to determine whether salmon lice copepodids settle onto hosts more effectively, or at different locations on the fish's body, under different qualities of light. Lice settlement trials were conducted under three lighting conditions; L1: unpolarized under ultraviolet A (UVA)-through visible; L2: unpolarized without UVA (control); L3: 100% linearly polarized without UVA. A dark control was also conducted. No statistically significant difference in lice settlement was found. While changes in light intensity are involved in host detection at spatial scales on the order of metres, the results presented here suggest that it is not the primary sensory modality underlying host location at smaller spatial scales (cm to mm).

  13. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) on catch statistics in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Darren M; Penman, David J; Migaud, Herve; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; McAndrew, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible.

  14. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. on catch statistics in Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Green

    Full Text Available In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.. This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible.

  15. Pacific salmon extinctions: quantifying lost and remaining diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard G; Waples, Robin S; Myers, James M; Weitkamp, Laurie A; Bryant, Gregory J; Johnson, Orlay W; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2007-08-01

    Widespread population extirpations and the consequent loss of ecological, genetic, and life-history diversity can lead to extinction of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and species. We attempted to systematically enumerate extinct Pacific salmon populations and characterize lost ecological, life history, and genetic diversity types among six species of Pacific salmon (Chinook [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], sockeye [O. nerka], coho [O. kisutch], chum [O. keta], and pink salmon [O. gorbuscha] and steelhead trout [O. mykiss]) from the western contiguous United States. We estimated that, collectively, 29% of nearly 1400 historical populations of these six species have been lost from the Pacific Northwest and California since Euro-American contact. Across all species there was a highly significant difference in the proportion of population extinctions between coastal (0.14 extinct) and interior (0.55 extinct) regions. Sockeye salmon (which typically rely on lacustrine habitats for rearing) and stream-maturing Chinook salmon (which stay in freshwater for many months prior to spawning) had significantly higher proportional population losses than other species and maturation types. Aggregate losses of major ecological, life-history, and genetic biodiversity components across all species were estimated at 33%, 15%, and 27%, respectively. Collectively, we believe these population extirpations represent a loss of between 16% and 30% of all historical ESUs in the study area. On the other hand, over two-thirds of historical Pacific salmon populations in this area persist, and considerable diversity remains at all scales. Because over one-third of the remaining populations belong to threatened or endangered species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, it is apparent that a critical juncture has been reached in efforts to preserve what remains of Pacific salmon diversity. It is also evident that persistence of existing, and evolution of future, diversity will depend

  16. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2017-01-01

    Sea lice infestations are an increasing challenge in the ever-growing salmon aquaculture sector and cause large economic losses. The high salmon production in a small area creates a perfect habitat for parasites. Knowledge of how salmon lice planktonic larvae disperse and spread the infection...... between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...

  17. Comparison of stock valuation models with their intrinsic value in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stock evaluation is one of the most important and most complex operational processes in the stock exchange. In financial markets, the pricing of tradable assets plays a basic role in resource allocation. After initial stock valuation of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange, some changes were observed in prices with the value set by the Stock Exchange. The aim of this study was to determine the model applied in the formation of stock prices in the stock market to find an appropriate market value model among value-based valuation models. To test the models of stock valuation, ordinary least square regression was used. Also, E-Views software was used for further data analysis. The sample included all the companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2008 till 2013. Based on the stratified random sampling, each industry was selected as a category and using Cochran formula, sample size of 40 participants was determined from each category. The data analysis indicated that the price-to-book ratio (P/B ratio had the highest adjustment factor and had been set as the best stock valuation model.

  18. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice. For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  19. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice.For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  20. [Expertise level of occupational health physician, implementation of occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS) and occupational safety and health activity level in Japan in the companies listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange first section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yukiko; Kameda, Takashi; Shirakawa, Chie; Nagata, Tomohisa; Zama, Satoko; Kayashima, Koutarou; Kobayashi, Yuuichi; Mori, Koji

    2007-12-01

    By enforcement of the revised Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law on April, 2006, the implementation of OSHMS seems to be expanding and encouraged. In OSHMS of Japan, however, the occupational health aspects have not been put into operated, while only occupational safety aspects have been prioritized. To clarify the issues to deploy OSHMS with occupational health aspects, we conducted a mail survey of 1,581 companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Market First Section in December, 2004. The effective responses were 267 (16.9%). The number of companies which had installed OSHMS, those that planned to install OSHMS and those had no plan for OSHMS were 62 (23.2%), 82 (30.7%) and 123 (46.1%), respectively. Only 12 companies include the complete OH activities in the installed OSHMS. A significant relationship was observed among expertise of OH physicians, actual role and responsibility of OH physicians, installation of OSHMS and OH services quality level. To deploy OSHMS well-balanced for health and safety aspects in present Japan, it was suggested that the education regarding OH operation in OSHMS was necessary to the person in charge of OSHMS in each company, and the participation by OH physicians to operate OSHMS, especially OH physicians with expertise, was essential.

  1. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1988-1989 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1990-03-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation test the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock); the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1989. 2 tabs.

  2. Does Domestication Cause Changes in Growth Reaction Norms? A Study of Farmed, Wild and Hybrid Atlantic Salmon Families Exposed to Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Monica Favnebøe; Skaala, Øystein; Nilsen, Frank; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control) and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily). The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1∶3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication. PMID:23382901

  3. Does domestication cause changes in growth reaction norms? A study of farmed, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families exposed to environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Favnebøe Solberg

    Full Text Available One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily. The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1:2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1:3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication.

  4. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  5. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous salmonid stocks have declined in both the Grande Ronde River Basin (Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Status Review Symposium 1998) and in the entire Snake River Basin (Nehlsen et al. 1991), many to the point of extinction. The Grande Ronde River Basin historically supported large populations of fall and spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye (O. nerka), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) (Nehlsen et al. 1991). The decline of chinook salmon and steelhead populations and extirpation of coho and sockeye salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin was, in part, a result of construction and operation of hydroelectric facilities, over fishing, and loss and degradation of critical spawning and rearing habitat in the Columbia and Snake River basins (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Hatcheries were built in Oregon, Washington and Idaho under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to compensate for losses of anadromous salmonids due to the construction and operation of the lower four Snake River dams. Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on Lookingglass Creek, a tributary of the Grande Ronde River, was completed under LSRCP in 1982 and has served as the main incubation and rearing site for chinook salmon programs for Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers in Oregon. Despite these hatchery programs, natural spring chinook populations continued to decline resulting in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listing Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon as ''threatened'' under the federal Endangered Species Act (1973) on 22 April 1992. Continuing poor escapement levels and declining population trends indicated that Grande Ronde River basin spring chinook salmon were in imminent danger of extinction. These continuing trends led fisheries co-managers in the basin to initiate the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program (GRESCSSP) in order to prevent extinction and preserve options for use of

  6. Atlantic salmon and eastern oyster breeding programs at the National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (NCWMAC) focuses on the coldwater marine aquaculture industry’s highest priority research needs including development of improved genetic stocks. Coldwater aquaculture production has potential for expansion, and both Atlantic salmon and Eas...

  7. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  8. Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of chinook salmon in northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Price, David M.; Li, Hiram W.; McIntosh, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified distribution and behavior of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) related to patterns of stream temperature and physical habitat at channel-unit, reach-, and section-level spatial scales in a wilderness stream and a disturbed stream in the John Day River basin in northeastern Oregon. We investigated the effectiveness of thermal remote sensing for analyzing spatial patterns of stream temperature and assessed habitat selection by spring chinook salmon, evaluating whether thermal refugia might be responsible for the persistence of these stocks in rivers where water temperatures frequently exceed their upper tolerance levels (25A?C) during spawning migration. By presenting stream temperature and the ecology of chinook salmon in a historical context, we could evaluate how changes in riverine habitat and thermal spatial structure, which can be caused by land-use practices, may influence distributional patterns of chinook salmon. Thermal remote sensing provided spatially continuous maps of stream temperature for reaches used by chinook salmon in the upper subbasins of the Middle Fork and North Fork John Day River. Electivity analysis and logistic regression were used to test for associations between the longitudinal distribution of salmon and cool-water areas and stream habitat characteristics. Chinook salmon were distributed nonuniformly in reaches throughout each stream. Salmon distribution and cool water temperature patterns were most strongly related at reach-level spatial scales in the warm stream, the Middle Fork (maximum likelihood ratio: P 0.30). Pools were preferred by adult chinook salmon in both subbasins (Bonferroni confidence interval: P a?? 0.05); however, riffles were used proportionately more frequently in the North Fork than in the Middle Fork. Our observations of thermal refugia and their use by chinook salmon at multiple spatial scales reveal that, although heterogeneity in the longitudinal stream temperature profile may

  9. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. passage and abundance in streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Deacy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn.

  10. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  11. Habitat use and diet composition of juvenile Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The habitat use and diet of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was examined in the South Sandy Creek drainage that discharges into eastern Lake Ontario. Subyearling salmon were stocked in early May during two consecutive years, and habitat and diet evaluations were made in mid-July and mid-October in 2005 and 2006. Both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon occupied deeper and faster areas that had more cover and larger sized substrate materials than was present, on average, within the study reach. Differences in habitat use between subyearling and yearling salmon only occurred in summer. Principal component analysis showed that of the habitat variables examined, the amount of cover and size of substrate were more important to juvenile salmon in summer, whereas depth and velocity were more important in the fall. Trichopteran larvae (mainly hydropsychids) dominated the diet of juvenile Atlantic salmon, and parr were feeding most heavily from the substrate as compared to the drift. The juvenile ecology of this re-introduced population of Atlantic salmon is consistent with that reported in other studies throughout the species native range.

  12. THE EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES ON BANKING STOCK PRICE INDEX IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laduna R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock price index can be regarded as a barometer in the measuremet of a nation’s economic condition, besides it can also be used in conducting statistical analysis on the current market. Stock is the proof of one’s share in a company in the form of securities issued by the listed go-public companies. This study was conducted to measure the effect of macroeconomic variables such as inflation, interest rate, and exchange rate on banking stock price index in Indonesia stock exchange or Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The results of study show that inflation and exchange rate posively influence the stock price index. The positive effect of the exchange rate shows that issuers who were positively affected by Rupiah (IDR depreciation appear to be the most dominant group. Meanwhile, the interest rate or Suku Bunga (SBI has a negative effect. Lower interest rate stimulates higher investments and better economic activities which increase the stock price.

  13. Managing Pacific salmon escapements: The gaps between theory and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, Cleveland R.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Williams, Jack E.; Reiser, Dudley W.

    1999-01-01

    There are myriad challenges to estimating intrinsic production capacity for Pacific salmon populations that are heavily exploited and/or suffering from habitat alteration. Likewise, it is difficult to determine whether perceived decreases in production are due to harvest, habitat, or hatchery influences, natural variation, or some combination of all four. There are dramatic gaps between the true nature of the salmon spawner/recruit relationship and the theoretical basis for describing and understanding the relationship. Importantly, there are also extensive practical difficulties associated with gathering and interpreting accurate escapement and run-size information and applying it to population management. Paradoxically, certain aspects of salmon management may well be contributing to losses in abundance and biodiversity, including harvesting salmon in mixed population fisheries, grouping populations into management units subject to a common harvest rate, and fully exploiting all available hatchery fish at the expense of wild fish escapements. Information on U.S. Pacific salmon escapement goal-setting methods, escapement data collection methods and estimation types, and the degree to which stocks are subjected to mixed stock fisheries was summarized and categorized for 1,025 known management units consisting of 9,430 known populations. Using criteria developed in this study, only 1% of U.S. escapement goals are by methods rated as excellent. Escapement goals for 16% of management units were rated as good. Over 60% of escapement goals have been set by methods rated as either fair or poor and 22% of management units have no escapement goals at all. Of the 9,430 populations for which any information was available, 6,614 (70%) had sufficient information to categorize the method by which escapement data are collected. Of those, data collection methods were rated as excellent for 1%, good for 1%, fair for 2%, and poor for 52%. Escapement estimates are not made for 44

  14. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  15. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of

  16. Measuring nighttime spawning behavior of chum salmon using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The striking body coloration and morphology that Pacific salmon display during spawning coupled with elaborate courtship behaviors suggest that visual cues are important during their reproductive period. To date, virtually all existing information on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning behavior has been derived from studies conducted during the daytime, and has contributed to the assumption that salmon do not spawn at night. We tested this assumption using a new technology - a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) - to describe and measure nighttime spawning behavior of wild chum salmon in the Columbia River. The DIDSON produces detailed, video-like images using sound, which enabled us to collect behavioral information at night in complete darkness. The display of DIDSON images enabled fish movements and behaviors to be spatially quantified. We collected continuous observational data on 14 pairs of chum salmon in a natural spawning channel during the daytime and nighttime. Spawners of both genders were observed chasing intruders during nighttime and daytime as nests were constructed. Regardless of diel period, females were engaged in digging to both construct nests and cover eggs, and courting males exhibited the pre-spawning behavior of tail crossing. We observed a total of 13 spawning events, of which nine occurred at night and four occurred during the day. The behaviors we observed at night suggest the assumption that chum salmon do not spawn at night is false. Once chum salmon begin nest construction, visual cues are apparently not required for courtship, nest defense, and spawning. We speculate that non-visual cues (e.g. tactile and auditory) enable chum salmon to carry out most spawning behaviors at night. Our findings have implications for how nighttime flows from hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River are managed for power production and protection of imperiled salmon stocks.

  17. Salmon as drivers of physical and biological disturbance in river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2012-04-01

    Large migrations across landscapes and ecosystem boundaries combined with disturbances of riverine spawning habitats through nest construction indicate the huge potential that Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus sp.) have to disturb and alter regional energy flow. Nutrients derived from ocean-reared dead and decaying salmon are released into surrounding aquatic ecosystems fertilizing the water column, recently disturbed by increased suspended sediments due to nest construction. These opposing forces of disturbance and fertilization on spawning habitat have been demonstrated to impact local geomorphic and ecological cycles within salmon streams. An often cited, yet not fully tested, hypothesis is that this pulse of nutrients provided by decaying salmon can shift freshwater habitats to higher production levels. This hypothesis, however, remains contested and uncertain. Fine sediments are increasingly being recognized as important delivery and storage vectors for marine-derived nutrients (MDNs) in spawning streams. The temporal and spatial significance of these sediment vectors on gravelbed storage of MDN have not been quantified thereby restricting our ability to estimate the impact of gravelbed storage of MDNs on the riverine habitats. The objectives of this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of sediment deposition and retention in an active spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of MDN associated with the fine sediment storage. The Horsefly River spawning channel (HFC), an artificial salmon stock enhancement stream, was used to examine the biogeomorphic impacts of salmon spawning. We organized the HFC in an upstream-downstream paired treatment approach where the upstream enclosure was kept free of salmon and the downstream enclosure was loaded with actively spawning salmon. We used the difference in suspended sediment concentration between the salmon enclosure and the control enclosure to determine the contribution of salmon nest construction to suspended

  18. Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salmon from the Lower Columbia River : Final Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobes, Stephen; Knudsen, Kathy; Allendorf, Fred

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop techniques to provide the information needed to determine if Lower Columbia River coho salmon represent a 'species' under the Endangered Species Act. Our report features two new nuclear DNA approaches to the improved detection of genetic variation: (1) Studies of DNA-level genetic variation for two nuclear growth hormone genes; (2) Use of arbitrary DNA primers (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, or 'RAPD' primers) to detect variation at large numbers of nuclear genes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify variable sections (introns) of two growth hormone genes (GH-I and G/f-Z) in several salmonid species. Coho salmon had three DNA length variants for G/-I intron C. Restriction analysis and sequencing provided valuable information about the mode of evolution of these DNA sequences. We tested segregation of the variants in captive broods of coho salmon, and demonstrated that they are alleles at a single Mendelian locus. Population studies using the GH-1 alleles showed highly significant frequency differences between Lower Columbia River and Oregon Coast coho salmon, and marginal differences among stocks within these regions. These new markers are adequately defined and tested to use in coho salmon population studies of any size. The nature of the variation at GH-1 (Variable Number Tandem Repeats, or 'VNTRs') suggests that more genetic variants will be found in coho salmon from other areas. GH-2 intron C also showed length variation in coho salmon, and this variation was found to be sex-linked. Because PCR methods require minute amounts of tissue, this discovery provides a technique to determine the gender of immature coho salmon without killing them. Chinook salmon had restriction patterns and sequence divergences similar to coho salmon. Thus, we expect that sex linkage of GH-2 alleles predates the evolutionary divergence of Pacific salmon species, and that gender testing with

  19. Reconstruction of Pacific salmon abundance from riparian tree-ring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D C; Naiman, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    detected for salmon in the Kadashan River or in Disappearance Creek. Decadal-scale cycles in salmon abundance with periods of 25-68 years were detected in all of the reconstructions. This novel approach provides river-specific, long-term perspectives on salmon abundance and cycles. Additionally, it provides a new frame of reference for maintaining and rebuilding individual stocks and for striking a balance between societal demands and the limited, always-changing salmon resource.

  20. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1987-1988 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1988-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1988.

  1. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J B; Winton, J R

    2003-09-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aquaculture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  2. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: DETERMINANT FACTORS AND STOCK PRICE IN DEVELOPING MARKET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaenal Fanani

    2017-01-01

    ... with debt, political cost, market share, and earning. Sample of thisresearch was chosen by using purposive sampling of 350 manufacturing business listed in the JakartaStock Exchange, started from 1997 up to 2002...

  3. Spring Chinook Salmon Production for Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Annual Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulas, Speros

    2007-01-01

    This annual report covers the period from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. Work completed supports the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) effort to restore a locally-adapted stock of spring Chinook to the Umatilla River Basin. During the year, staff at the Little White Salmon/Willard National Fish Hatchery Complex have completed the rearing of 218,764 Brood Year 2004 spring Chinook salmon for release into the Umatilla River during spring 2006 and initiated production of approximately 220,000 Brood Year 2005 spring Chinook for transfer and release into the Umatilla River during spring 2007. All work under this contract is performed at the Little White Salmon and Willard National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), Cook, WA.

  4. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Investigations on infectious diseases of Pacific salmon due to micro-organisms other than viruses are reviewed. The etiological agents include trematodes, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. Bacteria have been found to be the most important agents of disease in the several species of Pacific salmon. Kidney disease, due to a small, unnamed Gram-positive diplobacillus, causes serious mortalities in young salmon reared in hatcheries. The disease has also been found in wild fish. Aquatic myxobacteria are important agents of disease both in the hatchery and in the natural habitat. One of the myxobacteria, Chondrococcus columnaris, causes disease at relatively high water temperatures. The problem of the taxonomy of this organism is discussed. Another myxobacterium, Cytophaga psychrophila, has been found responsible for epizootics in coho salmon at lower water temperatures, i.e., in the range of 40° to 55° F. In outbreaks of gill disease in young salmon, myxobacteria of several kinds have been implicated.

  5. Growth and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the northeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, Melissa E.; Beckman, Brian R.; Andrews, Alexander G., III; Beaudreau, Anne H.; McPhee, Megan V.

    2017-01-01

    -year stocks of juvenile pink salmon, finding support for the idea that the even-year stock allocates more energy to storage, as opposed to growth, than does the odd-year stock. Over all, our results support the idea that sea-ice dynamics influence energy allocation and growth of juvenile salmon in the northern Bering Sea and provide a foundation for further understanding of how environmental conditions influence juvenile salmon at the northern edge of their range.

  6. In situ measurement of coastal ocean movements and survival of juvenile Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David W; Melnychuk, Michael C; Payne, John C; Rechisky, Erin L; Porter, Aswea D; Jackson, George D; Ward, Bruce R; Vincent, Stephen P; Wood, Chris C; Semmens, Jayson

    2011-05-24

    Many salmon populations in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans have experienced sharply decreasing returns and high ocean mortality in the past two decades, with some populations facing extirpation if current marine survival trends continue. Our inability to monitor the movements of marine fish or to directly measure their survival precludes experimental tests of theories concerning the factors regulating fish populations, and thus limits scientific advance in many aspects of fisheries management and conservation. Here we report a large-scale synthesis of survival and movement rates of free-ranging juvenile salmon across four species, 13 river watersheds, and 44 release groups of salmon smolts (>3,500 fish tagged in total) in rivers and coastal ocean waters, including an assessment of where mortality predominantly occurs during the juvenile migration. Of particular importance, our data indicate that, over the size range of smolts tagged, (i) smolt survival was not strongly related to size at release, (ii) tag burden did not appear to strongly reduce the survival of smaller animals, and (iii) for at least some populations, substantial mortality occurred much later in the migration and more distant from the river of origin than generally expected. Our findings thus have implications for determining where effort should be invested to improve the accuracy of salmon forecasting, to understand the mechanisms driving salmon declines, and to predict the impact of climate change on salmon stocks.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullon, Donna L; Yunker, Mark B; Alleyne, Carl; Dangerfield, Neil J; O'Neill, Sandra; Whiticar, Michael J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    We measured persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in order to characterize dietary exposure in the highly contaminated, salmon-eating northeastern Pacific resident killer whales. We estimate that 97 to 99% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in returning adult chinook were acquired during their time at sea. Highest POP concentrations (including PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and DDT) and lowest lipids were observed in the more southerly chinook sampled. While feeding by salmon as they enter some more POP-contaminated near-shore environments inevitably contribute to their contamination, relationships observed between POP patterns and both lipid content and delta13C also suggest a migration-related metabolism and loss of the less-chlorinated PCB congeners. This has implications for killer whales, with the more PCB-contaminated salmon stocks in the south partly explaining the 4.0 to 6.6 times higher estimated daily intake for sigmaPCBs in southern resident killer whales compared to northern residents. We hypothesize that the lower lipid content of southerly chinook stocks may cause southern resident killer whales to increase their salmon consumption by as much as 50%, which would further increase their exposure to POPs.

  8. CSR and Company's Stock Price. A Comparative Evidence from Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Dornean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and stock price for the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE in 2015, comparing with the results obtained for 2014. This study investigates the differences in the market stock price (and other market variables, such as dividends and stock return of companies that show CSR compared with those that do not. For this purpose we will use three statistical techniques: discriminant analysis, probit analysis model and logistic regression. There is no significant difference between the prediction ability of the models, in the context in which probit model and logistic regression have and average correct classification of 70.29%, while discriminant analysis records 71.62%. Our analysis highlighted that stock return has a significant impact on CSR activities of a company. Moreover, all discriminants have a positive impact on CSR.

  9. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  10. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  11. Disclosure ambiental dos produtores de etanol com ações listadas na Bovespa e Nyse - Environmental disclosure by ethanol producers listed on the Bovespa and Nyse stock exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Luiz Vellani

    2009-05-01

    ethanol producers listed on the BOVESPA and NYSE stock exchanges report the expenditures and benefits incurred by their environmental activities: do they report monetary values or words only? Is their a pattern of disclosure? On the basis of case study research, it is concluded that ethanol-producing firms listed on BOVESPA and the NYSE disclose environmental information by means of written, non-financial texts contained in the accounting reports sent to SEC and CVM, respectively. The amount of environmental expenditures and benefits are not completely cited. An evolving pattern can be perceived. It can be said that firms still report only what is required by law and regulatory bodies. No evidence was found of economic-financial environmental reports.

  12. Disclosure ambiental dos produtores de etanol com ações listadas na Bovespa e Nyse - Environmental disclosure by ethanol producers listed on the Bovespa and Nyse stock exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Luiz Vellani

    2009-05-01

    ethanol producers listed on the BOVESPA and NYSE stock exchanges report the expenditures and benefits incurred by their environmental activities: do they report monetary values or words only? Is their a pattern of disclosure? On the basis of case study research, it is concluded that ethanol-producing firms listed on BOVESPA and the NYSE disclose environmental information by means of written, non-financial texts contained in the accounting reports sent to SEC and CVM, respectively. The amount of environmental expenditures and benefits are not completely cited. An evolving pattern can be perceived. It can be said that firms still report only what is required by law and regulatory bodies. No evidence was found of economic-financial environmental reports.

  13. Pesticides in urban streams and prespawn mortality of Pacific coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Hearsey, James W

    2013-10-01

    The listing of several runs of Pacific salmon as threatened or endangered and associated federal, state, and local efforts to restore/enhance salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest make it imperative that the factors associated with these population declines are understood. Prespawn mortality (PSM) has been documented in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) within urban streams in western Washington since the late 1990s and is characterized by a suite of neurological and respiratory symptoms with mortality occurring shortly thereafter. Mortality rates in returning adults have ranged between 17 and 100%. The cause of PSM is not known, but the presence of pesticide residues within urban streams led to a hypothesis that PSM in coho salmon and pesticides in urban streams were linked. We exposed pairs of "green" (unripe) prespawn male and female coho salmon to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Longevity, ripening in female salmon, and brain acetylcholinesterase were not significantly affected by continuous exposure to the maximum reported concentrations of the pesticides. Fertilization, hatching success, and growth of fry were also not affected when green adults were exposed to these concentrations for 96 h. The absence of effects suggests it is unlikely that pesticides within stormwater are singularly responsible for PSM in coho salmon or that they impair the reproductive capability of exposed adults.

  14. Does Employee Stock Ownership Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Miyajima, Hideaki; Owan, Hideo

    studies, we focus on the effects of changes in varying attributes of existing ESO—the effects on the intensive margin. Our fixed effect estimates show that an increase in the strength of the existing ESO plans measured by stake per employee results in statistically significant productivity gains......This paper provides novel evidence on the effects of employee stock ownership (ESO), using new panel data on Japanese ESO plans for a highly representative sample of publicly-traded firms in Japan (covering more than 75% of all firms listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange) over 1989-2013. Unlike most prior....... Furthermore, such productivity gains are found to lead to profitability gains since wage gains from ESO plans are statistically significant yet rather modest. Our analysis of Tobin's Q suggests that the market tends to view such gains from ESO plans as permanent. We further find that increasing the stake...

  15. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  16. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  17. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Services listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. The first planning of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from a captive broodstock occurred in 1994 with the release of 14,119 fish to Redfish Lake. Two release strategies were used with four broodstock lineages represented. In 1995, 95,411 hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon were planted to Stanley Basin waters, including the release of additional broodstock lineage groups and release strategies in Redfish Lake, a yearling smolt release to Redfish Lake Creek, and a direct release to Pettit Lake.

  18. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2017-01-01

    between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...... farm site enter a neighboring fjord containing another farm site. Farms were characterized as emitters, receivers or isolated, and we could identify two clusters of farms that were largely isolated from each other. The farm characteristics are a valuable input for the development of management plans...... for the entire Faroese salmon industry...

  19. Salmon Life Histories, Habitat, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary: An Overview of Research Results, 2002-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Anderson, Greer; Baptisa, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore beach-seining sites in the estuary, Chinook salmon occurred during all months of the year, increasing in abundance from January through late spring or early summer and declining rapidly after July. Recently emerged fry dispersed throughout the estuary in early spring, and fry migrants were abundant in the estuary until April or May each year. Each spring, mean salmon size increased from the tidal freshwater zone to the estuary mouth; this trend may reflect estuarine growth and continued entry of smaller individuals from upriver. Most juvenile Chinook salmon in the mainstem estuary fed actively on adult insects and epibenthic amphipods Americorophium spp. Estimated growth rates of juvenile Chinook salmon derived from otolith analysis averaged 0.5 mm d-1, comparable to rates reported for juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in other Northwest estuaries. Estuarine salmon collections were composed of representatives from a diversity of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) from the lower and upper Columbia Basin. Genetic stock groups in the estuary exhibited distinct seasonal and temporal abundance patterns, including a consistent peak in the Spring Creek Fall Chinook group in May, followed by a peak in the Western Cascades Fall Chinook group in July. The structure of acanthocephalan parasite assemblages in juvenile Chinook salmon from the tidal freshwater zone exhibited a consistent transition in June. This may have reflected changes in stock composition and associated habitat use and feeding histories. From March through July, subyearling Chinook salmon were among the most abundant species in all wetland habitat types (emergent, forested, and scrub/shrub) surveyed in the lower 100 km of the estuary. Salmon densities

  20. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-12

    The study estimated dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and provided additional performance measures as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. This summary report focuses on spring run stocks, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead.

  1. Impact of forest management on coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations of the Clearwater River, Washington: A project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. J. Cederholm; L. M. Reid

    1987-01-01

    Abstract - In 1972, declining coho salmon production and visible forestry impacts on coho habitats prompted the initiation of an ongoing fisheries research project in the Clearwater River basin of the Olympic Peninsula. Heavy fishery catches have resulted in a general under-seeding of the basin, as demonstrated by stocking experiments and inventories of potential...

  2. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dales Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    The study estimated dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and provided additional performance measures as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. This summary report focuses on spring run stocks, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead.

  3. Stock Price Reactions to Short-Lived Public Information : The Case of Betting Odds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2005-01-01

    Stock markets and betting markets co-exist for professional soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange.For each firm, two pieces of information are released to the stock market on a weekly basis from August to June: experts expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the

  4. Salmon Life Cycle Models Illuminate Population Consequences of Disparate Survival and Behavior Between Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakes, M.; Satterthwaite, W.; Petrik, C.; Hendrix, N.; Danner, E.; Lindley, S. T.

    2016-02-01

    In past decades there has been a heavy reliance on the production of hatchery-reared fish to supplement declining population numbers of Pacific salmon. In some cases, the benefits of hatchery supplementation have been negligible despite concerted long-term stocking efforts. The management and conservation of depressed salmon populations, via hatchery practices or otherwise, can be improved by expanding our understanding of the dissimilarities between hatchery and wild salmon and how each interacts with the environment. In this study we use a stage-structured salmon life-cycle model to explore the population consequences of disparate survival and behavior between hatchery and wild-origin fall-run Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the California Central Valley. We couple empirically-based statistical functions with deterministic theoretical models to identify how environmental conditions (e.g., water temperature, flow) and habitat drive the survival and abundance of both hatchery and wild salmon as they integrate across riverscapes and cross marine and freshwater ecosystem boundaries during their life cycle. Results from this study suggest that hatchery practices can lead to dissimilar interactions between hatchery and wild salmon and the environmental conditions they experience. As such, the population dynamics of fall-run Chinook Salmon in the California Central Valley are partly dependent on the composition of individuals that make up their populations. In total, this study improves out ability to conserve imperiled salmonids by identifying mechanistic linkages between the natal origin of salmon, survival and behavior, and the environment at spatiotemporal scales relevant to salmon populations and fisheries management.

  5. Distribution by origin and sea age of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the sea around the Faroe Islands based on analysis of historical tag recoveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jan Arge; Hansen, Lars P.; Bakkestuen, Vegar

    2012-01-01

    Distribution by origin and sea age of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the sea around the Faroe Islands based on analysis of historical tag recoveries. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1598–1608.A database of 2651 tags applied to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in 13 countries...... countries in the southern European stock complex. Furthermore, the proportion of tag recoveries from southern European countries was higher in autumn, and the proportion recovered from northern European countries higher in winter. The apparent temporal and spatial segregation of stocks of different origin...... suggests that there may have been differential exploitation on these stocks, which provides information that could inform fishery management with regard to temporal and/or spatial fishery options for the Faroes commercial salmon fishery should it recommence in future...

  6. Trophic ontogeny of fluvial Bull Trout and seasonal predation on Pacific Salmon in a riverine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus are typically top predators in their host ecosystems. The Skagit River in northwestern Washington State contains Bull Trout and Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschapopulations that are among the largest in the Puget Sound region and also contains a regionally large population of steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout). All three species are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Our objective was to determine the trophic ecology of Bull Trout, especially their role as predators and consumers in the riverine food web. We seasonally sampled distribution, diets, and growth of Bull Trout in main-stem and tributary habitats during 2007 and winter–spring 2008. Consumption rates were estimated with a bioenergetics model to (1) determine the annual and seasonal contributions of different prey types to Bull Trout energy budgets and (2) estimate the potential impacts of Bull Trout predation on juvenile Pacific salmon populations. Salmon carcasses and eggs contributed approximately 50% of the annual energy budget for large Bull Trout in main-stem habitats, whereas those prey types were largely inaccessible to smaller Bull Trout in tributary habitats. The remaining 50% of the energy budget was acquired by eating juvenile salmon, resident fishes, and immature aquatic insects. Predation on listed Chinook Salmon and steelhead/Rainbow Trout was highest during winter and spring (January–June). Predation on juvenile salmon differed between the two study years, likely due to the dominant odd-year spawning cycle for Pink Salmon O. gorbuscha. The population impact on ocean- and stream-type Chinook Salmon was negligible, whereas the impact on steelhead/Rainbow Trout was potentially very high. Due to the ESA-listed status of Bull Trout, steelhead, and Chinook Salmon, the complex trophic interactions in this drainage provide both challenges and opportunities for creative adaptive management strategies.

  7. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  8. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  9. Stock Splits and Stock Dividends: Why, Who, and When.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakonishok, Josef; Lev, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This study investigates empirically why firms split their stock or distribute stock dividends and why the market reacts favorably to these distributions. The findings suggest that stock splits are mainly aimed at restoring stock prices to a "normal range." Some support can also be found for the oft-mentioned signaling motive of stock splits. Stock dividends are altogether different from stock splits and they appear to be a decreasing phenomenon. The clue to stock dividend distributions may li...

  10. Global assessment of extinction risk to populations of Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Rand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5% are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67% and found that 17 of these (27% are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct.

  11. Composition and Relative Abundance of Fish Species in the Lower White Salmon River, Washington, Prior to the Removal of Condit Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the composition and relative abundance of fish species was collected by a rotary screw trap and backpack electrofishing in the lower White Salmon River, Washington. The information was collected downstream of Condit Dam, which is at river kilometer (rkm) 5.2, and is proposed for removal in October 2011. A rotary screw trap was installed in the White Salmon River at rkm 1.5 and operated from March through June during 2006-09. All captured fish were identified to species and enumerated. Daily subsets of fish were weighed, measured, and fin clipped for a genetic analysis by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. *Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were captured in the highest numbers (n=18, 640), and were composed of two stocks: tule and upriver bright. Almost all captured fall Chinook salmon were age-0, with only 16 (0.09 percent) being age-1 or older. *Tule fall Chinook salmon, the native stock, generally out-migrated from mid-March through early April. The tule stock was the more abundant fall Chinook salmon subspecies, comprising 85 percent of those captured in the trap. *Upriver bright fall Chinook salmon comprised 15 percent of the Chinook salmon catch and generally out-migrated from late May to early June. *Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) were captured by the rotary screw trap in all years. Coho salmon were caught in low numbers (n=661) and 69 percent were age-0 fish. Steelhead were slightly more abundant (n=679) than coho salmon and 84 percent were age-1 or older fish. Trap efficiency estimates varied widely (range, 0-10 percent) by species, fish size, and time of year. However, if we use only the estimates from efficiency tests where more than 300 wild age-0 Chinook salmon were released, there was a mean trapping efficiency of 1.4 percent (n=4, median, 1.3 percent, range, 0.3-2.4 percent) during the tule out-migration period, and a mean trapping efficiency of 0.8 percent (n=2, range, 0.3-1.2 percent) during

  12. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  13. Stock Price Volatility and Role of Dividend Policy: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Akif; Noreen, Umara

    2016-01-01

    Despite years of empirical research, the linkage between dividend policy and stock price volatility remains controversial among the researchers and scholars. This research endeavors to figure out the relationship between stock price volatility and dividend policy of listed companies in Pakistan. A sample of fifty firms, based upon consistent dividend paying behavior, listed on Karachi Stock Exchange has been selected from non-financial sectors, for the period of 2005 to 2012. Multiple regress...

  14. Stock Market Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Brenda D.

    This project is designed to teach students the process of buying stocks and to tracking their investments over the course of a semester. The goals of the course are to teach students about the relationships between conditions in the economy and the stock market; to predict the effect of an economic event on a specific stock or industry; to relate…

  15. Predictability of Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predictability of stock returns has been shown by empirical studies over time. This article collects the most important theories on forecasting stock returns and investigates the factors that affecting behavior of the stocks’ prices and the market as a whole. Estimation of the factors and the way of estimation are the key issues of predictability of stock returns.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  17. Maternal blood, egg and larval thiamin levels correlate with larval survival in landlocked Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J P; Brown, S B; Wooster, G W; Bowser, P R

    1998-12-01

    A link was previously established between the Cayuga syndrome, a condition causing 100% mortality in larval landlocked Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in several of New York's Finger Lakes, and a maternal diet of alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, a non-native thiaminase-rich Clupeid fish. We evaluated salmon larvae viability relative to maternal thiamin status, and investigated the putative link of the Cayuga syndrome to an alewife diet in fish from the geographic regions outside the Finger Lakes/lower Great Lakes watersheds. We identified Cayuga syndrome in Atlantic salmon from Otsego Lake in the Susquehanna River watershed and from Green Pond in New York's Adirondack Mountains. In both systems alewife represent the major component of the diet for the salmon. Thiamin levels in the maternal blood of Otsego salmon with syndrome-negative progeny were three- to four-fold greater than those Otsego females whose progeny exhibited 100% mortality. Thiamin levels in eggs and larvae were directly related to thiamin levels in maternal blood in both syndrome-positive and syndrome-negative stocks. Thiamin bath treatments of syndrome-afflicted larvae eliminated mortality regardless of their lake stock of origin. Maternal blood levels of approximately 0.31 nmol thiamin pyrophosphate/g or 0.44 nmol total thiamin/g appear necessary to achieve egg threshold levels of approximately 0.8 and 1.1 nmol/g unphosphorylated and total thiamin, respectively; these egg thiamin levels should prevent significant syndrome-related mortality in landlocked Atlantic salmon larvae. These results confirm the role of thiamin in the etiology of the Cayuga syndrome and support the dietary link of this naturally occurring thiamin deficiency to the thiaminase-rich alewife.

  18. Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, NK; Johnson, GE; Storch, AJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-07-06

    The tidal freshwater monitoring (TFM) project reported herein is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USACE], and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The project is being performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Project No. 2005-001-00). The research is a collaborative effort among the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the University of Washington. The overarching goal of the TFM project is to bridge the gap in knowledge between tidal freshwater habitats and the early life history attributes of migrating salmon. The research questions include: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the Columbia River are juvenile salmon found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions? What is the ecological contribution of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of ESA-listed salmon in the Columbia River basin? Field data collection for the TFM project commenced in June 2007 and since then has continued monthly at six to nine sites in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta (river kilometer 192-208). While this report includes summary data spanning the 19-month period of study from June 2007 through December 2008, it highlights sampling conducted during calendar year 2008. Detailed data for calendar year 2007 were reported previously. The 2008 research objectives were as follows: (1) Characterize the vegetation composition and percent cover, conventional water quality, water surface elevation, substrate composition, bathymetry, and beach slope at the study sites within the vicinity of the Sandy

  19. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  20. Does firm size affect stock returns? Evidence from the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batsirai Winmore Mazviona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between firm size and stock returns for firms listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE between June 2009 and July 2013. We adopt the regression model employed by Banz in 1981, with innovations. The regression is based on constructed portfolios, with market capitalization as the basis for portfolio construction. The portfolios comprise at most 5 stocks, and stocks are sorted in ascending order by market capitalization for selection into portfolios. The sample period spans from June 2009 to July 2013. We select the sample period beginning from 2009 because that is when the government of Zimbabwe demonetized the Zimbabwean dollar and adopted a basket of foreign currencies as legal tender. The data prior to 2009 is also distorted by hyperinflation and therefore is not reliable. The sample size covers 64 companies listed on the ZSE, of which 60 are industrial and 4 are mining companies. We find that the estimated coefficient for the firm size factor is not significant at the 5% level of significance. Therefore, firm size has a positive yet insignificant effect on stock returns for companies listed on the ZSE for the period June 2009 to July 2013. Contrary to the general empirical findings, larger firms on the ZSE tend to exhibit higher risk-adjusted returns than smaller firms.

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish And Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next year's work.

  2. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next years work.

  3. Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja B. Kristoffersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned.

  4. Infections by Renibacterium salmoninarum and Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, T A; Teel, D J; Fisher, J; Beckman, B; Jacobson, K C

    2015-04-01

    We examined 1454 juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of Washington and Oregon (USA) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum, Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin and skin metacercariae. The prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. Two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were determined for salmon infected with these pathogens/parasites, both individually and in combination, with uninfected fish used for comparison. Yearling Chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum had significantly reduced weight residuals. Chinook salmon infected with skin metacercariae alone did not have significantly reduced growth metrics. Dual infections were not associated with significantly more severe effects on the growth metrics than single infections; the number of triple infections was very low and precluded statistical comparison. Overall, these data suggest that infections by these organisms can be associated with reduced juvenile Chinook salmon growth. Because growth in the first year at sea has been linked to survival for some stocks of Chinook salmon, the infections may therefore play a role in regulating these populations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Patterns of genomic variation in Coho salmon following reintroduction to the interior Columbia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nathan R; Kamphaus, Cory; Murdoch, Keely; Narum, Shawn R

    2017-12-01

    Coho salmon were extirpated in the mid-20th century from the interior reaches of the Columbia River but were reintroduced with relatively abundant source stocks from the lower Columbia River near the Pacific coast. Reintroduction of Coho salmon to the interior Columbia River (Wenatchee River) using lower river stocks placed selective pressures on the new colonizers due to substantial differences with their original habitat such as migration distance and navigation of six additional hydropower dams. We used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to genotype 5,392 SNPs in reintroduced Coho salmon in the Wenatchee River over four generations to test for signals of temporal structure and adaptive variation. Temporal genetic structure among the three broodlines of reintroduced fish was evident among the initial return years (2000, 2001, and 2002) and their descendants, which indicated levels of reproductive isolation among broodlines. Signals of adaptive variation were detected from multiple outlier tests and identified candidate genes for further study. This study illustrated that genetic variation and structure of reintroduced populations are likely to reflect source stocks for multiple generations but may shift over time once established in nature.

  6. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Lewis

    Full Text Available The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations, because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05 in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks have declined significantly (P < 0.05. Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline.

  7. A fuzzy logic model to forecast stock market momentum in Indonesia's property and real estate sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penawar, H. K.; Rustam, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The Capital market has the important role in Indonesia's economy. The capital market does not only support the economy of Indonesia but also being an indicator Indonesia's economy improvement. Something that has been traded in the capital market is stock (stock market). Nowadays, the stock market is full of uncertainty. That uncertainty values make predicting stock market is all that we have to do before we make a decision in the stock market. One that can be predicted in the stock market is momentum. To forecast stock market momentum, it can use fuzzy logic model. In the process of modeling, it will be used 14 days historical data that consisting the value of open, high, low, and close, to predict the next 5 days momentum categories. There are three momentum categories namely Bullish, Neutral, and Bearish. To illustrate the fuzzy logic model, we will use stocks data from several companies that listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in property and real estate sector.

  8. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Hill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal British Columbia - a large (3186 km2 and undeveloped temperate rainforest ecosystem with legislated protected status. In comparison with other pristine Pacific Rim salmon rivers we studied, the Kitlope is characterized by abundant and complex habitats for salmon that should contribute to high resilience. However, biological productivity in this system is constrained by naturally cold, light limited, ultra-oligotrophic growing conditions; and the mean (± SD density of river-rearing salmonids is currently low (0.32 ± 0.27 fish per square meter; n = 36 compared to our other four study rivers (grand mean = 2.55 ± 2.98 fish per square meter; n = 224. Existing data and traditional ecological knowledge suggest that current returns of adult salmon to the Kitlope, particularly sockeye, are declining or depressed relative to historic levels. This poor stock status - presumably owing to unfavorable conditions in the marine environment and ongoing harvest in coastal mixed-stock fisheries - reduces the salmon-mediated transfer of marine-derived nutrients and energy to the system's nutrient-poor aquatic and terrestrial food webs. In fact, Kitlope Lake sediments and riparian tree leaves had marine nitrogen signatures (δ15N among the lowest recorded in a salmon ecosystem. The protection of the Kitlope watershed is undoubtedly a conservation success story. However, "salmon strongholds" of pristine watersheds may not adequately sustain salmon populations and foster

  9. The Australian stock market development: Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla Nyasha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the origin and development of the Australian stock market. The country has three major stock exchanges, namely: the Australian Securities Exchange Group, the National Stock Exchange of Australia, and the Asia-Pacific Stock Exchange. These stock exchanges were born out of a string of stock exchanges that merged over time. Stock-market reforms have been implemented since the period of deregulation, during the 1980s; and the Exchanges responded largely positively to these reforms. As a result of the reforms, the Australian stock market has developed in terms of the number of listed companies, the market capitalisation, the total value of stocks traded, and the turnover ratio. Although the stock market in Australia has developed remarkably over the years, and was spared by the global financial crisis of the late 2000s, it still faces some challenges. These include the increased economic uncertainty overseas, the downtrend in global financial markets, and the restrained consumer confidence in Australia.

  10. Network structure detection and analysis of Shanghai stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to investigate community structure of the component stocks of SSE (Shanghai Stock Exchange 180-index, a stock correlation network is built to find the intra-community and inter-community relationship. Design/methodology/approach: The stock correlation network is built taking the vertices as stocks and edges as correlation coefficients of logarithm returns of stock price. It is built as undirected weighted at first. GN algorithm is selected to detect community structure after transferring the network into un-weighted with different thresholds. Findings: The result of the network community structure analysis shows that the stock market has obvious industrial characteristics. Most of the stocks in the same industry or in the same supply chain are assigned to the same community. The correlation of the internal stock prices’ fluctuation is closer than in different communities. The result of community structure detection also reflects correlations among different industries. Originality/value: Based on the analysis of the community structure in Shanghai stock market, the result reflects some industrial characteristics, which has reference value to relationship among industries or sub-sectors of listed companies.

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume IX : Evaluation of the 2001 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Migrant Salmon and Steelhead Trout Migrating to Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day Dams using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-12-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2001 inseason outmigration via the internet for eighteen PIT-tagged stocks of wild salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams and eleven passage-indexed stocks to Rock Island, McNary, or John Day dams. Nine of the PIT-tagged stocks tracked this year were new to the project. Thirteen ESUs of wild subyearling and yearling chinook salmon and steelhead, and one ESU of hatchery-reared sockeye salmon were tracked and forecasted to Lower Granite Dam. Eight wild ESUs of subyearling and yearling chinook salmon, sockeye salmon and steelhead were tracked to McNary Dam for the first time this year. Wild PIT-tagged ESUs tracked to Lower Granite Dam included yearling spring/summer chinook salmon release-recovery stocks (from Bear Valley Creek, Catherine Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek, Lostine River, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, and Valley Creek), PIT-tagged wild runs-at-large of yearling chinook salmon and steelhead, and a PIT-tagged stock of subyearling fall chinook salmon. The stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon smolts outmigrating to Lower Granite Dam, consisted this year of a new stock of fish from Alturas Lake Creek, Redfish Lake Creek Trap and Sawtooth Trap. The passage-indexed stocks, counted using FPC passage indices, included combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead migrating to Rock Island and McNary dams, and, new this year, combined wild and hatchery subyearling chinook salmon to John Day Dam. Unusual run-timing and fish passage characteristics were observed in this low-flow, negligible-spill migration year. The period for the middle 80% of fish passage (i.e., progress from the 10th to the 90th percentiles) was unusually short for nine out of ten PIT-tagged yearling spring/summer chinook salmon stocks tracked to Lower Granite Dam. It was the

  12. 77 FR 73104 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ..., stock price, the number of publicly traded shares, and corporate governance standards to ensure... corporate governance listing standards, Nasdaq Rule 5101 also gives the Exchange discretion to deny listing...

  13. Formation of an Integrated Stock Price Forecast Model in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Dzikevičius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technical and fundamental analyses are widely used to forecast stock prices due to lack of knowledge of other modern models and methods such as Residual Income Model, ANN-APGARCH, Support Vector Machine, Probabilistic Neural Network and Genetic Fuzzy Systems. Although stock price forecast models integrating both technical and fundamental analyses are currently used widely, their integration is not justified comprehensively enough. This paper discusses theoretical one-factor and multi-factor stock price forecast models already applied by investors at a global level and determines possibility to create and apply practically a stock price forecast model which integrates fundamental and technical analysis with the reference to the Lithuanian stock market. The research is aimed to determine the relationship between stock prices of the 14 Lithuanian companies listed in the Main List by the Nasdaq OMX Baltic and various fundamental variables. Based on correlation and regression analysis results and application of c-Squared Test, ANOVA method, a general stock price forecast model is generated. This paper discusses practical implications how the developed model can be used to forecast stock prices by individual investors and suggests additional check measures.

  14. Does the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect significantly affect the A-H premium of the stocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eddie C. M.; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Since the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect ("the Connect") was launched in late 2014, more and more Mainland investors have invested in Hong Kong listed shares, and vice versa, increasing the transaction volume of the stock market on both sides. However, only a few studies investigated how the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect affected the pricing dynamics of stocks listed in both Shanghai and Hong Kong. Applying linear regression, this study investigates how the Connect affects the H-share discounts of 12 stocks cross-listed in Shanghai and Hong Kong. A new feature of our model is that we add a dummy variable so as to be the first study to examine the effect of the China financial crisis on the A-H premium of the stocks. We find that the A-H premium of all stocks widens significantly after the Connect is launched, implying immatureness or even inefficiency of China's financial market. Furthermore, the result shows that trading activities in the mainland market affects the A-H premium more significantly than trading activities in the Hong Kong market do. This implies that China's financial market plays a dominant role in the Connect.

  15. 17-Beta estradiol and 4-nonylphenol delay smolt development and downstream migration in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Skovbølling, Søren; Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    . Serum vitellogenin levels increased several-fold in both male and female E2- and 4-NP-treated fish. Overall, E2- and 4-NP-treatment impaired smolting as judged by elevated condition factor, reduced gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and alpha-subunit Na+, K+ -ATPase mRNA level, reduced muscle water content......The effect of 17-beta estradiol (E2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on smoltification and downstream migration of Atlantic salmon was studied in an integrated laboratory and field study. In a stock of hatchery-raised 1-year-old salmon, smoltification progressed from February until late May as judged...

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  17. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  18. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  19. EARNING MANAGEMENT, STOCK RETURN AND COMPANIES’ MERGER AND ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Handoyo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the practice earning management before merger and acquisitionannouncement. It also aimed to examine the differences of stock return before and after merger and acquisitionannouncement among companies that were listed on Indonesia stock exchange. The samples were 35 companiesthat did merger and acquisition and listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX period 2004–2013. Then, thedata analysis was performed by computer statistic program SPSS. These samples were selected by usingpurposive sampling method. Analysis hypothesis used Independent sample t-test and Wilcoxon sign rankstest. The result of independent sample t-test showed that the companies tended to do earning managementbefore merger and acquisitions. While the result of Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed that there was nodifference between stock return before and after merger and acquisition announcement.

  20. 75 FR 18932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on March 30, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed... the NASDAQ Market Center for securities listed on NASDAQ or the New York Stock Exchange (``NYSE''). As...

  1. Ranking Tehran’s Stock Exchange Top Fifty Stocks Using Fundamental Indexes and Fuzzy TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Saleh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Investment through the purchase of securities, constitute an important part of countries economic exchange. Therefore, making decisions about investing in a particular stock has become one of the most controversial areas of economic and financial research and various institutions have began to rank companies stock and determine priorities of stock purchase to investment. The current research, with the determination of important required indexes for companies ranking based on their shares value on the Tehran stock exchange, can greatly help to the accurate ranking of fifty premier listed companies. Initial ranking indicators are extracted and then a decision-making group (exchange experts with the use of the Delphi method and also non-parametric statistic methods, determines the final indexes. Then, by using Fuzzy ANP, weight criteria are obtained with taking into account their interaction with each other. Finally, using fuzzy TOPSIS and information extraction about the premier fifty listed companies of Tehran stock exchange in 2014 are ranked with the software "Rahavard Novin”. Sensitivity analysis to criteria weight and relevant analysis presentation was conducted at the end of the study procedures.

  2. Skagit River coho salmon life history model—Users’ guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Kirby, Grant; Morris, Scott

    2017-09-29

    Natural resource management is conducted in the context of multiple anthropogenic stressors and is further challenged owing to changing climate. Experiments to determine the effects of climate change on complex ecological systems are nearly impossible. However, using a simulation model to synthesize current understanding of key ecological processes through the life cycle of a fish population can provide a platform for exploring potential effects of and management responses to changing conditions. Potential climate-change scenarios can be imposed, responses can be observed, and the effectiveness of potential actions can be evaluated. This approach is limited owing to future conditions likely deviating in range and timing from conditions used to create the model so that the model is expected to become obsolete. In the meantime, however, the modeling process explicitly states assumptions, clarifies information gaps, and provides a means to better understand which relationships are robust and which are vulnerable to changing climate by observing whether and why model output diverges from actual observations through time. The purpose of the model described herein is to provide such a decision-support tool regarding coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon for the Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe of Washington State.The Skagit coho salmon model is implemented in a system dynamics format and has three primary stocks—(1) predicted smolts, (2) realized smolts, and (3) escapement. “Predicted smolts” are the number of smolts expected based on the number of spawners in any year and the Ricker production curve. Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) return to the Skagit River in odd years, and when they overlap with juvenile rearing coho salmon, coho smolt production is substantially higher than in non-pink years. Therefore, the model uses alternative Ricker equations to predict smolts depending on whether their juvenile year was a pink or non-pink year. The stock “realized smolts

  3. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  4. Study of Wild Spring Chinook Salmon in the John Day River System, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Robert B.

    1986-02-01

    A study of wild spring chinook salmon was conducted in the John Day River, Oregon: (1) recommend harvest regulations to achieve escapement goals in the John Day River; (2) recommend adtustments in timing of fish passage operations at Columbia River dams that will increase survival of John Day migrants; (3) recommend habitat or environmental improvements that will increase production of spring chinook salmon; (4) determine escapement goals for wild spring chinook salmon in the John Day River; and (5) recommend procedures for hatchery supplementation in the John Day River in the event it becomes necessary to artificially maintain the run of spring chinook salmon. Juveniles were captured as smolts during migration and as fingerlings during summer rearing. Juveniles were coded-wire tagged, and recoveries of tagged adults were used to assess contribution to ocean and Columbia River fisheries, timing of adult migrations through the Columbia River in relation to fishing seasons, and age and size of fish in fisheries. Scoop traps and seines were used to determine timing of smolt migrations through the John Day River. In addition, recoveries of tagged smolts at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Jones Beach were used to determine migration timing through the Columbia River. We examined freshwater life history of spring chinook salmon in the John Day River and related it to environmental factors. We looked at adult holding areas, spawning, incubation and emergence, fingerling rearing distribution, size and growth of juveniles and scales. Escapement goals fo the John Day River as well as reasons for declines in John Day stocks were determiend by using stock-recruitment analyses. Recommendations for hatchery supplementation in the John Day were based on results from other study objectives.

  5. Consolidated List of Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of chemicals subject to reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right- To-Know Act (EPCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act.

  6. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  7. Foreign Delisting and Domestic Stock Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uderche-Rangau, Loredana; Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to understand the foreign delisting phenomenon using a multi-method approach based on both information content analysis and event study analysis of foreign companies withdrawing their stocks from the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Our objective is to measure the impact of the delis......The aim of our paper is to understand the foreign delisting phenomenon using a multi-method approach based on both information content analysis and event study analysis of foreign companies withdrawing their stocks from the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Our objective is to measure the impact...... of the delisting decision on the domestic stock price by observing the link between the pure value impact and the reasons for delisting. Our results show that, contrary to previous results, firms delisting from Tokyo can gain value depending on the reaction of the market operators to the content of the information...... provided in the delisting announcements. i.e. delisting can be presented either as the result of the not fulfilment of the benefits of cross-listing or as a part of a more general strategy of the company. Highlighting significant clusters, content analysis provides a valuable addition to traditional event...

  8. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  9. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Welch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  10. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-10-28

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  11. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-10-21

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces.

  12. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  13. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook...

  14. Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, C.; Koed, Anders

    2002-01-01

    tagged and released in the Danish River Lilleaa. The downstream migration of the different groups of fish was monitored by manual tracking and by three automatic listening stations. The downstream migration of radio tagged smolts of both species occurred concurrently with their untagged counterparts......The downstream migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and sea trout smolt (S. trutta L.) was investigated using radio telemetry in the spring of 1999 and 2000. Forty wild sea trout smolts, 20 F1 sea trout smolts, 20 hatchery salmon smolts and 20 salmon smolts from river stockings were radio....... The diel migration pattern of the radio tagged smolts was predominantly nocturnal in both species. Wild sea trout smolt migrated significantly faster than both the F1 trout and the introduced salmon. There was no correlation between net ground speed, gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity or fish length in any...

  15. Can listed property shares be a surrogate for direct property investment behaviour?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douw Boshoff; Chris E Cloete

    2012-01-01

    .... Stock market listed property investment funds offer the opportunity to compare indirect property investment to direct property investment, which could bridge the gap between irrational investment...

  16. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  18. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

    2014-05-06

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem.

  19. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-01-01

    ... and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest...

  20. Comparative Genomics Identifies Candidate Genes for Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jieying; Keith A. Boroevich; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) has been described as the hoof and mouth disease of salmon farming. ISA is caused by a lethal and highly communicable virus, which can have a major impact on salmon aquaculture, as demonstrated by an outbreak in Chile in 2007. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ISA resistance has been mapped to three microsatellite markers on linkage group (LG) 8 (Chr 15) on the Atlantic salmon genetic map. We identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and three f...

  1. Delousing efficiency of farmed ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) against Lepeophtheirus salmonis infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Eric; Davie, Andrew; Migaud, Hervé

    2014-08-01

    Cleaner-fish (wrasse, Labridae) are increasingly deployed within the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) industry as a biological control against sea-lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer). Two tank-based trials were performed to test the effect of farmed ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta Ascanius) body mass and supplementary feeding on the delousing of Atlantic salmon post-smolts with an initial infection level of ∼12 lice salmon(-1) and a ∼5% wrasse:salmon ratio. Sea-louse levels below 0.5 lice salmon(-1) were obtained within 84 h, and preferential preying upon larger motile stages was found. The wrasse body mass and the availability of fresh, opened blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) did not significantly affect delousing efficiency. The functional predator response was linear, showing no minimum prey density threshold for sea-louse foraging and no satiation plateau, in spite of the high consumption rates measured. Sea-louse infection levels declined following a one-phase exponential decay model, with a standardised decline time constant of 0.8-1.3% h(-1) for each wrasse stocked per 100 salmon. Farmed ballan wrasse are confirmed as highly effective therapeutic and preventive biological controls against sea-lice. The study supports the current minimum hatchery size target (10 mm total length) and the use of supplementary feeding to sustain the wrasse stocks in operation. The functional predator response and the standardised decline time constant of sea-louse abundance are proposed as useful indicators of delousing efficiency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  3. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  4. Exploring the Whitehorse Fishway : a guide to the travels of the Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Yukon Energy Corporation is the major producer of electrical energy in the Yukon. The Whitehorse Rapids Hydroelectricity Facility was constructed in 1956 to meet the demand for electricity in many growing Yukon communities. Electricity is generated by four turbines and seven diesel generators that are used to meet peak demand in winter. Two wind turbines on top of Haeckel Hill are also part of the Whitehorse/Aishihik/Faro power grid. The Whitehorse dam backed up the Yukon River and formed the Schwatka Lake reservoir. The dam includes fish ladders, barrier dams, fish screens and diversion channels to allow salmon coming from the Bering Sea to bypass the dam and reach their spawning grounds upstream. Viewing platforms allow visitors to see how the fish get past the dam. The Whitehorse Rapids Fish Hatchery was built in 1983 by the Yukon Energy Corporation to support the dwindling stock of Chinook salmon. The hatchery has an annual capacity of about 300,000 salmon fry which are released into Wolf Creek. This guide presents the life cycle of the Chinook salmon and briefly describes other fish that live in Yukon waters including grayling, longnose sucker, pike, inconnu, trout, and whitefish. figs.

  5. DLA Forward Stocking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flory, John

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the feasibility of forward stocking in terms of DoD savings. The performance of DLA's criteria is evaluated and a new criteria using a cost and demand threshold is proposed...

  6. Stock Performance of Socially Responsible Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tzu-Man

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year Corporate Responsibility Magazine selects and ranks 100 companies on the basis of their corporate social responsibility. This study investigates the stock performance of socially responsible companies in the U.S. The monthly stock returns for these companies are analyzed and compared with the market performance, with the S&P 500 index designated as a proxy for the market. The empirical evidence suggests that these 100 companies outperform the market in their monthly stock returns. We also narrow down the number of companies selected to the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms. As we narrow down the companies selected, the difference between their returns and the market returns also narrows. In other words, a portfolio that includes all top 100 companies provides the best stock performance. We extend the analysis to long-term annual stock performance. We find that these socially responsible companies′ annual returns are higher than the market returns for up to seven years after they are listed. We also conduct the same analysis on the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms, respectively. Similarly, the larger the number of these top 100 companies, the greater the tendency to generate higher annual returns. We suspect that because the difference between the socially responsible companies′ average returns and the market returns is not dramatic, with a bigger population and thus a larger sample size, the difference becomes more significant. However, in practice, transaction costs must be considered. This study is limited in that it does not consider transaction costs. Nevertheless, we hope to shed some light on the issue of socially responsible companies′ stock performance to encourage companies to start thinking about the importance of corporate social responsibility.

  7. Testing of Dependencies between Stock Returns and Trading Volume by High Frequency Data

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Gurgul; Robert Syrek

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a dependence analysis of returns, return volatility and trading volume for five companies listed on the Vienna Stock Exchange and five from the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Taking into account high frequency data for these companies, tests based on a comparison of Bernstein copula densities using the Hellinger distance were conducted. The paper presents some patterns of causal and other relationships between stock returns, realized volatility and expected and unexpected...

  8. A Study of Financial Performance and Stock Return in IPO Underpricing Phenomenon on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Irfani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that financial performance of listed companies on stock exchange might potentially affect long-term stock return. However, the impact of financial performance on underpric-ing is still in debate. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of financial performance on underpricing at the same period and the effect of both financial performance and underpricing on the long-term stock return on the Indonesia stock exchange (IDX. By employing judgemental sampling method, the sample of this reseach includes 43 underpriced stocks taken from the population of 51 initially public offered stocks on the IDX during 2008-2010. This research uses multiple regression technique to test the hypothesis. This study concludes that not all financial performance ratios affect the underpricing and the long-term stock return in 2011. In addition, this study does not find any em-pirical evidence about the effect of underpricing on the long-term stock return. ";} // -->activate javascript

  9. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  10. SRKW summer prey - Prey species and stock specific consumption estimates for SRKW in their summer range

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) are listed as a Distinct Population Segment under the Endangered Species Act. Data concerning their prey species and stock...

  11. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon life history investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Hemingway, Rulon J.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2017-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes is one factor that has been implicated in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Impoundment of much of the Snake and Columbia rivers has altered food webs and created habitat favorable for species such as Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu. Smallmouth Bass are common throughout the Columbia River basin and have become the most abundant predator in lower Snake River reservoirs (Zimmerman and Parker 1995). This is a concern for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (hereafter, subyearlings) that may be particularly vulnerable due to their relatively small size and because their main-stem rearing habitats often overlap or are in close proximity to habitats used by Smallmouth Bass (Curet 1993; Tabor et al. 1993). Concern over juvenile salmon predation spawned a number of large-scale studies to quantify its effect in the late 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s (Poe et al. 1991; Rieman et al. 1991; Vigg et al. 1991; Fritts and Pearsons 2004; Naughton et al. 2004). Smallmouth Bass predation represented 9% of total salmon consumption by predatory fishes in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, from 1983 through 1986 (Rieman et al. 1991). In transitional habitat between the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and McNary Reservoir, juvenile salmon (presumably subyearlings) were found in 65% of Smallmouth Bass (>200 mm) stomachs and comprised 59% of the diet by weight (Tabor et al. 1993). Within Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River, Naughton et al. (2004) showed that monthly consumption (based on weight) ranged from 5% in the upper reaches of the reservoir to 11% in the forebay. However, studies in the Snake River were conducted soon after Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (NMFS 1992). During this time, Fall Chinook Salmon abundance was at an historic low, which may explain why consumption rates were relatively low compared to those from studies conducted in the

  12. Information Salience, Investor Sentiment, and Stock Returns : The Case of British Soccer Betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts' expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes

  13. Information Salience, Investor Sentiment, and Stock Returns : The Case of British Soccer Betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts’ expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes

  14. Centennial-scale fluctuations and regional complexity characterize Pacific salmon population dynamics over the past five centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lauren A; Schindler, Daniel E; Lisi, Peter J; Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Leavitt, Peter R; Bunting, Lynda; Finney, Bruce P; Selbie, Daniel T; Chen, Guangjie; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Lisac, Mark J; Walsh, Patrick B

    2013-01-29

    Observational data from the past century have highlighted the importance of interdecadal modes of variability in fish population dynamics, but how these patterns of variation fit into a broader temporal and spatial context remains largely unknown. We analyzed time series of stable nitrogen isotopes from the sediments of 20 sockeye salmon nursery lakes across western Alaska to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in salmon abundance over the past ∼500 y. Although some stocks varied on interdecadal time scales (30- to 80-y cycles), centennial-scale variation, undetectable in modern-day catch records and survey data, has dominated salmon population dynamics over the past 500 y. Before 1900, variation in abundance was clearly not synchronous among stocks, and the only temporal signal common to lake sediment records from this region was the onset of commercial fishing in the late 1800s. Thus, historical changes in climate did not synchronize stock dynamics over centennial time scales, emphasizing that ecosystem complexity can produce a diversity of ecological responses to regional climate forcing. Our results show that marine fish populations may alternate between naturally driven periods of high and low abundance over time scales of decades to centuries and suggest that management models that assume time-invariant productivity or carrying capacity parameters may be poor representations of the biological reality in these systems.

  15. Centennial-scale fluctuations and regional complexity characterize Pacific salmon population dynamics over the past five centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lauren A.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Lisi, Peter J.; Holtgrieve, Gordon W.; Leavitt, Peter R.; Bunting, Lynda; Finney, Bruce P.; Selbie, Daniel T.; Chen, Guangjie; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Lisac, Mark J.; Walsh, Patrick B.

    2013-01-01

    Observational data from the past century have highlighted the importance of interdecadal modes of variability in fish population dynamics, but how these patterns of variation fit into a broader temporal and spatial context remains largely unknown. We analyzed time series of stable nitrogen isotopes from the sediments of 20 sockeye salmon nursery lakes across western Alaska to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in salmon abundance over the past ∼500 y. Although some stocks varied on interdecadal time scales (30- to 80-y cycles), centennial-scale variation, undetectable in modern-day catch records and survey data, has dominated salmon population dynamics over the past 500 y. Before 1900, variation in abundance was clearly not synchronous among stocks, and the only temporal signal common to lake sediment records from this region was the onset of commercial fishing in the late 1800s. Thus, historical changes in climate did not synchronize stock dynamics over centennial time scales, emphasizing that ecosystem complexity can produce a diversity of ecological responses to regional climate forcing. Our results show that marine fish populations may alternate between naturally driven periods of high and low abundance over time scales of decades to centuries and suggest that management models that assume time-invariant productivity or carrying capacity parameters may be poor representations of the biological reality in these systems. PMID:23322737

  16. Modeling the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Pacific Salmon Culture Programs: An Example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kyle C.; Peterson, Douglas P.

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change.

  17. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    . Captive Lemhi River females produced smaller and fewer eggs than the Rapid River females; however, relative fecundity was higher than that of the Rapid River fish. Female coho salmon that ceased or slowed oocyte development in the spring had lower body growth from the previous August onward compared with females that continued oocyte growth. This indicates that growth during the late summer and fall, one year prior to spawning, can determine the decision to mature the following spring. Therefore it is important to maintain the growth of broodstock during the summer/fall period to ensure the continuation of ovary development in the subsequent spring. A combined whole cell vaccine of Renogen with killed R. salmoninarum strain MT239 may be effective in reducing the occurrence of BKD during the period immediately after seawater transfer, but not in yearling seawater-adapted chinook salmon. Control of BKD is likely to require an integrated disease management plan, utilizing three components, namely broodstock segregation, antibiotics, and vaccination. Vaccine results incorporated with antibiotic treatment will be used to work toward an integrated disease management plan to help to reduce the cycle of BKD transmission in the captive stocks to increase survival safely. Patterns of estimated survival in one chinook salmon stock (Grovers Creek)were generally consistent with inbreeding depression: progeny of fish that were full siblings (approximate increment in F of 0.25) survived to return at much lower rates than did progeny of fish that were half siblings (F {approx} 0.125) or unrelated individuals (F {approx} 0). Growth at sea of Grovers Creek Hatchery stock study fish was lower than that of UWH stock fish. Among the inbreeding groups alone, no clear differences in growth were detectable. However, preliminary results suggest the general pattern of growth was opposite that expected if inbreeding depression reduced growth: the highest growth was in progeny of related parents.

  18. Price performance following stock's IPO in different price limit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yue; Li, Ming-Xia

    2018-01-01

    An IPO burst occurred in China's stock markets in 2015, while price limit trading rules usually help to reduce the short-term trading mania on individual stocks. It is interesting to make clear the function of the price limits after IPOs. We firstly make a statistical analysis based on all the IPO stocks listed from 1990 to 2015. A high dependency exists between the activities in stock's IPO and various market environment. We also focus on the price dynamics in the first 40 trading days after the stock listed. We find that price limit system will delay the price movement, especially for the up-trend movements, which may lead to longer continuous price limit hits. Similar to our previous work, many results such as ;W; shape can be also observed in the future daily return after the price limit open. At last, we find most IPO measures show evident correlations with the following price limit hits. IPO stocks with lower first-day turnover and earning per share will be followed with a longer continuous price limit hits and lower future daily return under the newest trading rules, which give us a good way to estimate the occurrence of price limit hits and the following price dynamics. Our analysis provides a better understanding of the price dynamics after IPO events and offers potential practical values for investors.

  19. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn

    2007-01-01

    to infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...

  20. A Literature Review, Bibliographic Listing, and Organization of Selected References Relative to Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Abiotic and Biotic Attributes of the Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Marine and Riverine Environs for Various Historical Periods : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 4 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Ronald J.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the results of a literature review on the carrying capacity of Pacific salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of the review was to find the information gaps relative to the determinants of salmon carrying capacity in the Columbia River Basin. The review was one activity designed to answer questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information learned during the literature review and the other work accomplished during this study the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) state concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. To increase understanding of ecology, carring capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The PNNL team suggests that the regions evaluated carrying capacity from more than one view point. The PNNL team recommends that the region use the contextualistic view for evaluating capacity.

  1. The Mauritius stock exchange: Sectoral analysis, risk and return ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Companies listed on the Mauritius Stock Exchange are classified into seven sectors of the economy, namely Banking & Insurance, Industry, Investments, Sugar, Commerce, Leisure & Hotels and Transport. Significant improvements in market capitalisation and turnover are noted in all sectors except the Transport sector.

  2. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    1999-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  4. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  5. Discovery and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemento, A J; Abadía-Cardoso, A; Starks, H A; Garza, J C

    2011-03-01

    Molecular population genetics of non-model organisms has been dominated by the use of microsatellite loci over the last two decades. The availability of extensive genomic resources for many species is contributing to a transition to the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the study of many natural populations. Here we describe the discovery of a large number of SNPs in Chinook salmon, one of the world's most important fishery species, through large-scale Sanger sequencing of expressed sequence tag (EST) regions. More than 3 Mb of sequence was collected in a survey of variation in almost 132 kb of unique genic regions, from 225 separate ESTs, in a diverse ascertainment panel of 24 salmon. This survey yielded 117 TaqMan (5' nuclease) assays, almost all from separate ESTs, which were validated in population samples from five major stocks of salmon from the three largest basins on the Pacific coast of the contiguous United States: the Sacramento, Klamath and Columbia Rivers. The proportion of these loci that was variable in each of these stocks ranged from 86.3% to 90.6% and the mean minor allele frequency ranged from 0.194 to 0.236. There was substantial differentiation between populations with these markers, with a mean F(ST) estimate of 0.107, and values for individual loci ranging from 0 to 0.592. This substantial polymorphism and population-specific differentiation indicates that these markers will be broadly useful, including for both pedigree reconstruction and genetic stock identification applications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Incorporating catastrophic risk assessments into setting conservation goals for threatened Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Thomas P; Davies, Jeremy; Burke, Brian J; Ruckelshaus, Mary H

    2008-01-01

    Catastrophic die-offs can have important consequences for vertebrate population growth and biodiversity, but catastrophic risks are not commonly incorporated into endangered-species recovery planning. Natural (e.g., landslides, floods) and anthropogenic (e.g., toxic leaks and spills) catastrophes pose a challenge for evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Pacific salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act and teetering at precariously low population levels. To spread risks among Puget Sound chinook salmon populations, recovery strategies for ESU-wide viability recommend at least two viable populations of historical life-history types in each of five geographic regions. We explored the likelihood of Puget Sound chinook salmon ESU persistence by examining spatial patterns of catastrophic risk and testing ESU viability recommendations for 22 populations of the threatened Puget Sound chinook salmon ESU. We combined geospatial information about catastrophic risks and chinook salmon distribution in Puget Sound watersheds to categorize relative catastrophic risks for each population. We then analyzed similarities in risk scores among regions and compared risk distributions among strategies: (1) population groups selected using the ESU viability recommendations of having populations spread out geographically and including historical life-history diversity, and (2) population groups selected at random. Risks from individual catastrophes varied among populations, but overall risk from catastrophes was similar within geographic regions. Recovery strategies that called for two viable populations in each of five geographic regions had lower risk than random strategies; strategies that included life-history diversity had even lower risks. Geographically distributed populations have varying catastrophic-risks profiles, thus identifying and reinforcing the spatial and life-history diversity critical for populations to respond to environmental change or needed to rescue

  7. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  8. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  9. The Effects of Stock Dividend on Stock Return in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at identifying the relationship between stock dividend issue and return rate of share of 100 firms from Tehran Stock Exchange during years 2007-2011 tending to issue stock dividend. Pearson correlation test was used to examine the relationship between stock dividend issues and return rate of share and results showed that there is no significant relationship between share return rate and the amount of stock dividend and also between stock dividend issue percentage and return rate of share.

  10. Stock return, seasonality and asymmetric conditional volatility in steel & iron subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chirila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained following the testing of five hypotheses regarding conditional return and volatility of the most listed European stocks in the steel & iron subsector. The following elements of the stocks are analysed: time variation of volatility, seasonality of return and volatility, relationship between return and volatility and volatility asymmetry. The results obtained confirm for all the analyzed stocks the existence of volatility variation in time, the lack of correlation between return and volatility, the existence of asymmetry phenomenon of volatility and the presence in some stocks of the seasonality effect both for return and volatility.

  11. Stock Assessment Supplementary Information (SASINF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the interest of efficiency, clarity and standardization of stock assessment materials, the stock assessment reports for the 2015 Groundfish update have been...

  12. Retrospective analysis of seasonal ocean growth rates of two sea winter Atlantic Salmon in eastern Maine using historic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Lisa K.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial declines of anadromous Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar have occurred throughout its range, with many populations at the southern extent of the distribution currently extirpated or endangered. While both one sea winter (1SW) and two sea winter (2SW) spawner numbers for the North American stocks have declined since the 1950s, the decline has been most severe in 2SW spawners. The first months at sea are considered a period of high mortality. However, early ocean mortality alone cannot explain the more pronounced decline of 2SW spawners, suggesting that the second year at sea may be more critical than previously thought. Atlantic Salmon scales collected by anglers and the state agency from 1946 to 2013 from five rivers in eastern Maine were used to estimate smolt age and ocean age of returning adults. Additionally, seasonal growth rates of maiden 2SW spawners were estimated using intercirculi measurements and linear back-calculation methods. Generalized linear mixed models (Gaussian family, log link function) were used to investigate the influence of average sea surface temperature, accumulated thermal units, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and North Atlantic Oscillation indices, smolt age, smolt length, postsmolt growth, and river of origin on growth rate during the oceanic migration of North American Atlantic Salmon. Results suggest that different factors influence salmon growth throughout their oceanic migration, and previous growth can be a strong predictor of future size. Growth was negatively impacted by the phase of the AMO, which has been linked to salmon abundance trends, in early spring following the postsmolt period. This is likely when the 1SW and 2SW stock components separate, and our results suggest that this period may be of interest in future work examining the disproportionate decline in 2SW spawners.

  13. 76 FR 49513 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Reverse Merger would not include the acquisition of an operating company by a listed company that... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... Listing Requirements for Companies Applying To List After Consummation of a ``Reverse Merger'' With a...

  14. The Determinants Stock Price Crash Risk of the Manufacturing Firms in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidya Gumilang Arianwuri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of business strategy of prospector and defender companies on stock price crash risk, test the influenced of equity market competition on stock price crash risk, and test the effect of prospector strategy on stock price crash risk through overvalued equities. The population of this study was manufacturing firms listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for seven years of observation. The data analysis used in this research was Path Analysis by using Multiple Linear Regression. The results of this study that the business strategy prospector positively affect the stock price crash risk, while the defender strategy was not affect the stock price crash risk. Companies that implemented business prospector strategies will be faced with higher uncertainty than defender business strategies. In addition, the prospector’s business strategy can affect the stock price crash risk through overvalued equities. Companies that implemented business prospector strategies will tend to overvalued equities, which can lead to future stock price crashes. One way reduced to the stock price crash risk is in the presence of equity market competition. The equity market competition had a negative effect on the stock price crash risk, so that a high equity market competition can reduced information asymmetry and minimize the stock price crash risk.

  15. The Body Stocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Louise Ravnløkke Munk; Bang, Anne Louise

    2016-01-01

    of the Repertory Grid technique and Wardrobe Studies to frame a tangible dialogue enabling the parents to elaborate on personal preferences of design aesthetics and materials in baby clothing. In the analysis we use the body stocking as a common reference point for learning about reasons for high use frequency...

  16. Stock Market Savvy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okula, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Keying In, the newsletter of the National Business Education Association, focuses upon teaching young adults how to develop both investment strategies and an understanding of the stock market. The first article, "Sound Investing Know-How: A Must for Today's Young Adults," describes how young adults can plan for their own…

  17. fertilizer and stocking rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in this case the best economic response was achieved at a lower stocking rate than needed for ... The trial was conducted at two sites, the Bathurst Research Station (33°30'S; 26°50'E) (1986-1994) and ... Rainfall and evaporation at the Bathurst Research Station and rainfall at the Boslaagte homestead were measured ...

  18. The Stock Market and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Barro, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in stock prices have substantial explanatory power for U.S. investment, especially for long-term samples, and even in the presence of cash flow variables. The stock market dramatically out-performs a standard q-variable because the market-equity component of this variable is only a rough proxy for stock market value. Although the stock market did not predict accurately after the crash of October 1987, the errors were not statistically significant. Parallel relationships for Canada rai...

  19. Stock prices and business investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2007-01-01

    Is there a link between the stock market and business investment? Empirical evidence indicates that there is. A firm tends to invest more when its stock price increases, and it tends to invest less when the price falls. In “Stock Prices and Business Investment,” Yaron Leitner discusses existing research that explains this relationship. One question under consideration is whether the stock market actually improves investment decisions.

  20. Stock Liquidity and Investment Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    HEIDI HOOI KHUAN QUAH

    2017-01-01

    This PhD study investigates the implications of stock liquidity on firm investments efficiency. The study finds that high stock liquidity has a positive impact on investment efficiency and shows that the beneficial effect of stock liquidity on investment efficiency is stronger among firms with higher information asymmetry and higher monitoring institutional investors. These findings suggest that high stock liquidity plays important informational and governance roles in mitigating information ...

  1. Ecology. Can science rescue salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, C C; Plummer, M L

    2000-08-04

    At a press conference on 27 July, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) released a long-awaited plan to save the Columbia River's endangered salmon by restoring fish habitat, overhauling hatcheries, limiting harvest, and improving river flow. What the plan did not do, however, was call for immediate breaching of four dams on the Snake River, the Columbia's major tributary--an option that has been the subject of a nationwide environmental crusade. The NMFS will hold that option in abeyance while it sees whether the less drastic measures will do the trick. Responses from both sides were immediate and outraged.

  2. ---Stock Market Devpt in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jetu_E_Ch

    accommodates stock market in Ethiopia is a timely issue to catch up with the global trend, given the ... designed to trade stocks except for the fragmented and unregulated stock trading in a dealer market. ..... Monetary Policy Instruments in Ethiopia (Economic Research Department, National. Bank of Ethiopia) pp. 1-18. 39.

  3. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  4. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Burke

    Full Text Available Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  5. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  6. Operating revenue changes in a demutualized stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hesham Abdel-Hafez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stock exchanges were traditionally run as cooperative venues. The globalization, the development of technology, and the increase of competition among stock exchanges forced these venues to change their structure and adopt a new one-demutualization- that can be a lifeline in facing these environmental changes in regards to stock exchanges. This new trend enables the exchange to expand their activities and supply the market with new products and services, therefore enhancing the value of the exchange itself. The main sources of revenue for traditional exchanges have been listing fees, transaction fees, membership fees and the sale of information services such as market data, quotations, and trade data. Due to the environmental changes the stock exchanges' services are now executed electronically, and in turn, this has led to an increase in the competition among exchanges. Furthermore, this increased competition has led to the re-adjustment of the regulation structure which gradually erodes the sources of revenues provided by the conventional stock exchanges. The paper divided the research plan into two sections: the first section is to highlight the concept of demutualization process; the phases of demutualization, the factors that push the stock exchanges to demutualize and the benefits of demutualization. The second section was based on statistical comparative analysis of the stock exchanges' revenues prior and after demutualization. The researcher used the regression analysis tool on seven demutualized stock exchanges during the period from 1997-2012. The paper aims to prove that demutualization has a positive effect on the revenues of the stock exchange, thus it enhances the value of the exchange.

  7. A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming

    OpenAIRE

    Scheel, Ida; Aldrin, Magne; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Jansen, Peder A

    2007-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major economical implications. Despite the strong regulatory interventions, the ISA epidemic is not under control, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic space-time model for the transmission of the virus. We model seaway transmission between farm sites, transmission through shared management and infrastructure, biomass effect...

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  9. New Evidence on Price and Volatility Effects of Stock Option Introductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper adds to the literature dealing with the effect of derivatives trading on underlying securities by examining option listings from the Netherlands. The effects on both stock returns and volatility are investigated using three types of samples, namely, listing of call options alone,

  10. Stock Price Reaction to Announcements of Right Issues and Debenture Issues: Evidence from Colombo Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani Chathurika Edirisinghe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the stock market reaction for right issues and debenture issues of Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE during the period of 2005 to 2011 while providing evidence for the research question “how do stock prices react to the debt and equity issue announcements of listed companies in CSE?” In investigating the ex-ante and ex-post market reactions the study employees event study methodology, while predicting abnormal returns, based on three alternative normal/expected returns modeling methods, namely Mean Adjusted Model, Market Adjusted Model, and Capital Asset Pricing Model. When testing the alternative hypothesis, whether stock prices significantly reacts to the announcement of right & debenture issues, results of all models show positive market reaction during the 30 days prior to the announcement and react negatively from 2 days after the announcements for right issues, but for debenture issues market reacted negatively during the period prior to debenture issues and continue to do the same during the post event period. Although the magnitude and significance of abnormal return generated through three alternatives methods differ, the pattern of the CAAR of all models are similar. Thus, as far as the speed of the price adjustment is concerned it seems that the CSE is not efficient.

  11. Role Of Stock Market Development In Relationship Between Foreign Ownership And Profitability Of Asean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Agri Putra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine effect of stock market development on relationship between foreign ownership and profitability in ASEAN. Research samples are 491 manufacture firms listed in stock market of Thailand Singapore Philippines Indonesia and Malaysia from 2012-2013. With regression analysis this research find that stock market development have effect on relationship between foreign ownership and profitability in ASEAN. Stock market development as a function of indicator of investor mood legal and policy making and management practices support foreign shareholder role in profits increasing. This research shows new evidence of role of macro economics level factor which is stock market development in ASEAN countries as foreign owners role supporting in profits increasing. Stock market development is important factor to answer inconsistencies of role of foreign owner since foreign ownership will be more growing up in open market between countries in profits increasing.

  12. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical

  13. Responsabilidade social e retornos das ações: uma análise de empresas listadas na BM&FBOVESPA = Social responsibility and stock returns: an analysis of companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lopes de Oliveira Martins

    2015-08-01

    crucial element for success in the market. Corporate Social Responsibility refers to the adoption of socially responsible practices by the authorities, aimed at providing social and economic development of the environments in which they operate. At the same time, these actions meet the organizational interests that may lead to improved corporate image, market share gains, increase in profitability and increase the possibilities of continuity. In order to verify a possible relationship between corporate social responsibility practices and the economic results reported by the companies, this research sought to identify whether disclosure of the composition of the portfolio of the Corporate Sustainability Index (ISE of BM&FBOVESPA impacts on variations in stock returns of the companies that are in the index. In this sense, the share of assets in the portfolio was considered as a proxy for sustainability initiatives, and the event study method was used to analyze the effect of the inclusion or exclusion of firms in the portfolio. ISE portfolios were analyzed for the years 2011 to 2013 and the results showed positive abnormal returns of the companies included after the release of the index and negative abnormal returns of the firms that were excluded from the index. It was found also that the market behavior returns to normality after the absortion of avaliable information, which supports the semi-strong efficiency hypothesis of the Brazilian capital market.

  14. Grouping in the stock markets of Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Sung; Kwon, Okyu; Kaizoji, Taisei; Chae, Seungbyung; Lee, Woong; Moon, Hie-Tae

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the temporally evolving network structures of the Japanese and Korean stock markets through the minimum spanning trees composed of listed stocks. We tested the validity of conventional grouping by industrial categories, and found a common trend of decrease for Japan and Korea. This phenomenon supports the increasing external effects on the markets due to the globalization of both countries. At last the Korean market are grouped with the MSCI Korea Index, a good reference for foreigners' trading, in the early 2000s. In the Japanese market, this tendency is strengthened more and more by burst of the bubble in 1990's.

  15. Price and Volume Dynamics in the Japanese Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hirofumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    We investigated data of stocks listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange. Although the data we used contains limited number of limit orders around the best prices in the ask and bid sides, we could confirm some issues of the layered structure which is similar to that in FX markets. We show time series of a market impact index, which is made using high correlation between dynamics of price and volume of limit orders. In the last section, we remark differences in our observations comparing with the FX market case.

  16. Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in salmon and herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Holland, Larry; Linbo, Tiffany L; Baldwin, David H; Myers, Mark S; Peck, Karen A; Tagal, Mark; Rice, Stanley D; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2015-09-08

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury assessment. Crude oil disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in fish heart muscle cells, and we show here that salmon and herring exposed as embryos to trace levels of crude oil grow into juveniles with abnormal hearts and reduced cardiorespiratory function, the latter a key determinant of individual survival and population recruitment. Oil exposure during cardiogenesis led to specific defects in the outflow tract and compact myocardium, and a hypertrophic response in spongy myocardium, evident in juveniles 7 to 9 months after exposure. The thresholds for developmental cardiotoxicity were remarkably low, suggesting the scale of the Exxon Valdez impact in shoreline spawning habitats was much greater than previously appreciated. Moreover, an irreversible loss of cardiac fitness and consequent increases in delayed mortality in oil-exposed cohorts may have been important contributors to the delayed decline of pink salmon and herring stocks in Prince William Sound.

  17. A three-species model explaining cyclic dominance of Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guill, Christian; Drossel, Barbara; Just, Wolfram; Carmack, Eddy

    2011-05-07

    The four-year oscillations of the number of spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that return to their native stream within the Fraser River basin in Canada are a striking example of population oscillations. The period of the oscillation corresponds to the dominant generation time of these fish. Various-not fully convincing-explanations for these oscillations have been proposed, including stochastic influences, depensatory fishing, or genetic effects. Here, we show that the oscillations can be explained as an attractor of the population dynamics, resulting from a strong resonance near a Neimark Sacker bifurcation. This explains not only the long-term persistence of these oscillations, but also reproduces correctly the empirical sequence of salmon abundance within one period of the oscillations. Furthermore, it explains the observation that these oscillations occur only in sockeye stocks originating from large oligotrophic lakes, and that they are usually not observed in salmon species that have a longer generation time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parallel epigenetic modifications induced by hatchery rearing in a Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luyer, Jérémy; Laporte, Martin; Beacham, Terry D; Kaukinen, Karia H; Withler, Ruth E; Leong, Jong S; Rondeau, Eric B; Koop, Ben F; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-12-05

    Wild stocks of Pacific salmonids have experienced sharp declines in abundance over the past century. Consequently, billions of fish are released each year for enhancing abundance and sustaining fisheries. However, the beneficial role of this widely used management practice is highly debated since fitness decrease of hatchery-origin fish in the wild has been documented. Artificial selection in hatcheries has often been invoked as the most likely explanation for reduced fitness, and most studies to date have focused on finding signatures of hatchery-induced selection at the DNA level. We tested an alternative hypothesis, that captive rearing induces epigenetic reprogramming, by comparing genome-wide patterns of methylation and variation at the DNA level in hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with those of their wild counterparts in two geographically distant rivers. We found a highly significant proportion of epigenetic variation explained by the rearing environment that was as high as the one explained by the river of origin. The differentially methylated regions show enrichment for biological functions that may affect the capacity of hatchery-born smolts to migrate successfully in the ocean. Shared epigenetic variation between hatchery-reared salmon provides evidence for parallel epigenetic modifications induced by hatchery rearing in the absence of genetic differentiation between hatchery and natural-origin fish for each river. This study highlights epigenetic modifications induced by captive rearing as a potential explanatory mechanism for reduced fitness in hatchery-reared salmon.

  19. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1983-1984 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, David L.

    1985-04-01

    Hydroelectric development coupled with numerous other encroachments on the supply and quality of water has reduced the natural habitat for the spawning and rearing of salmon in the Columbia river system. Artificial production in hatcheries has become a critical link in the restoration of natural stocks of salmon. Released hatchery salmon must survive predation, be able to acquire sustainable nutrients under natural conditions, possess the vitality to surmount man-made impediments to seaward migration and adapt to a sea water environment. Survival of hatchery salmonids is dependent upon a number of factors. Time of release, natural food abundance, fish size and the health and/or quality of smolts all play synergistic roles. The nutritional and physical characteristics of ration regimes for hatchery fish plays a major role in determining the effectiveness of hatchery production and the health and/or quality of smolts.Ration regimes containing high quality components in uniform and fine-free pellet forms produce efficient growth response and minimize loss of nutrients maintaining the quality of hatchery water supply. Under such feed regimes, fish are less susceptible to disease and more uniform and desirable fish sizes can be achieved at release time. High quality smolts would help to optimize out-migration survival and successful adaptation to salt water.

  20. Rainy Day Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormsen, Niels Joachim; Greenwood, Robin

    We study the good- and bad-times performance of equity portfolios formed on characteristics. Many characteristics associated with good performance during bad times—value, profitability, small size, safety, and total volatility—also perform well during good times. Stocks with characteristics signi...... generated during good times. We also show how an investor can build a “rainy day” portfolio that minimizes underperformance during bad times...

  1. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geist, D. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arntzen, E. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  2. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake and...

  3. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  4. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon allozyme baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Allozymes from 46 loci were analyzed from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) collected at 61 locations in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Of the 42...

  5. Do Dividend Announcements Affect The Stock Prices in The Greek Stock Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Vazakidis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reaction of the Athens Stock Exchange (ASE to dividend announcements by a sample of firms listed at the FTSE/ATHEX 20 and FTSE/ATHEX Mid 40 for a fixed period 2004-2008. It also provides analytical information about the Greek Stock Market and the regulations underlying it, which have been taken into account in the present thesis. Moreover, previous studies of important academic scholars are presented and discussed, in order for the reader to attain the appropriate theoretical knowledge about the examined issue. Finally, significant abnormal activity is documented throughout the multiple event-windows that are employed and therefore, the null hypothesis, which supports the irrelevance theory as introduced by Miller and Modigliani (1961, is rejected.

  6. Juvenile Chinook Salmon abundance in the northern Bering Sea: Implications for future returns and fisheries in the Yukon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James M.; Howard, Kathrine G.; Gann, Jeanette C.; Cieciel, Kristin C.; Templin, William D.; Guthrie, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance in the northern Bering Sea is used to provide insight into future returns and fisheries in the Yukon River. The status of Yukon River Chinook Salmon is of concern due to recent production declines and subsequent closures of commercial, sport, and personal use fisheries, and severe restrictions on subsistence fisheries in the Yukon River. Surface trawl catch data, mixed layer depth adjustments, and genetic stock mixtures are used to estimate juvenile abundance for the Canadian-origin stock group from the Yukon River. Abundance ranged from a low of 0.62 million in 2012 to a high of 2.58 million in 2013 with an overall average of 1.5 million from 2003 to 2015. Although abundance estimates indicate that average survival is relatively low (average of 5.2%), juvenile abundance was significantly correlated (r=0.87, p=0.005) with adult returns, indicating that much of the variability in survival occurs during early life-history stages (freshwater and initial marine). Juvenile abundance in the northern Bering Sea has increased since 2013 due to an increase in early life-history survival (average juveniles-per-spawner increased from 29 to 59). The increase in juvenile abundance is projected to produce larger runs and increased subsistence fishing opportunities for Chinook Salmon in the Yukon River as early as 2016.

  7. 77 FR 46409 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... plugs specified by the National Stock Numbers (NSNs) referenced to the Procurement List. Binder, Loose.... Service Type/Location: Custodial and Landscaping Service, Rome Federal Building, 600 East First Street... Adminisration, Public Buildings Service, Acquisition Division/Services Branch, Atlanta, GA. Service Type...

  8. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA (ISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Østergaard, Peter

    The first outbreak of ISA on the Faroe Islands was diagnosed in March 2000. Despite intensive surveillance, control and eradication of ISA, the disease has since spread to most of the Faroe Islands affecting about half of the 23 aquaculture farms. Sampling and laboratory diagnosis of ISA is perfo...... characterisation of the virus causing infectious salmon anemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): an orthomyxo-like virus in a teleost....

  9. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  10. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  11. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  12. The Cost of Capital of Cross-Listed Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the cost of capital of firms with foreign equity listings. Our purpose is to shed light on the question whether international and domestic asset pricing models yield a different estimate of the cost of capital for cross-listed stocks. We distinguish between (i) the

  13. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Conservation physiology in practice: how physiological knowledge has improved our ability to sustainably manage Pacific salmon during up-river migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Clark, Timothy D.; Eliason, Erika J.; Crossin, Glenn T.; Raby, Graham D.; Jeffries, Ken M.; Lapointe, Mike; Miller, Kristi; Patterson, David A.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conservation physiology, practical examples of how physiology has helped to understand or to solve conservation problems remain scarce. Over the past decade, an interdisciplinary research team has used a conservation physiology approach to address topical conservation concerns for Pacific salmon. Here, we review how novel applications of tools such as physiological telemetry, functional genomics and laboratory experiments on cardiorespiratory physiology have shed light on the effect of fisheries capture and release, disease and individual condition, and stock-specific consequences of warming river temperatures, respectively, and discuss how these findings have or have not benefited Pacific salmon management. Overall, physiological tools have provided remarkable insights into the effects of fisheries capture and have helped to enhance techniques for facilitating recovery from fisheries capture. Stock-specific cardiorespiratory thresholds for thermal tolerances have been identified for sockeye salmon and can be used by managers to better predict migration success, representing a rare example that links a physiological scope to fitness in the wild population. Functional genomics approaches have identified physiological signatures predictive of individual migration mortality. Although fisheries managers are primarily concerned with population-level processes, understanding the causes of en route mortality provides a mechanistic explanation and can be used to refine management models. We discuss the challenges that we have overcome, as well as those that we continue to face, in making conservation physiology relevant to managers of Pacific salmon. PMID:22566681

  15. Conservation physiology in practice: how physiological knowledge has improved our ability to sustainably manage Pacific salmon during up-river migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J; Hinch, Scott G; Donaldson, Michael R; Clark, Timothy D; Eliason, Erika J; Crossin, Glenn T; Raby, Graham D; Jeffries, Ken M; Lapointe, Mike; Miller, Kristi; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P

    2012-06-19

    Despite growing interest in conservation physiology, practical examples of how physiology has helped to understand or to solve conservation problems remain scarce. Over the past decade, an interdisciplinary research team has used a conservation physiology approach to address topical conservation concerns for Pacific salmon. Here, we review how novel applications of tools such as physiological telemetry, functional genomics and laboratory experiments on cardiorespiratory physiology have shed light on the effect of fisheries capture and release, disease and individual condition, and stock-specific consequences of warming river temperatures, respectively, and discuss how these findings have or have not benefited Pacific salmon management. Overall, physiological tools have provided remarkable insights into the effects of fisheries capture and have helped to enhance techniques for facilitating recovery from fisheries capture. Stock-specific cardiorespiratory thresholds for thermal tolerances have been identified for sockeye salmon and can be used by managers to better predict migration success, representing a rare example that links a physiological scope to fitness in the wild population. Functional genomics approaches have identified physiological signatures predictive of individual migration mortality. Although fisheries managers are primarily concerned with population-level processes, understanding the causes of en route mortality provides a mechanistic explanation and can be used to refine management models. We discuss the challenges that we have overcome, as well as those that we continue to face, in making conservation physiology relevant to managers of Pacific salmon.

  16. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  17. Environment-dependent plasticity and ontogenetic changes in the brain of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, J.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Thomassen, S.T.

    2017-01-01

    Lowered rearing density has repeatedly been shown to increase the performance of hatchery-reared salmonids stocked into natural environments. One possible mechanism for this pattern could be that lower densities enhance brain development, which has been shown to be the case in other hatchery enha...... the opposite pattern was observed for telencephalon. Overall, these results reveal substantial brain plasticity depending on the surrounding environment as well as ontogenetic adaptive changes in the brain of the Atlantic salmon......Lowered rearing density has repeatedly been shown to increase the performance of hatchery-reared salmonids stocked into natural environments. One possible mechanism for this pattern could be that lower densities enhance brain development, which has been shown to be the case in other hatchery...... enhancement strategies, like environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the size of the brain in hatcheryreared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar kept at standard (high) and reduced (low) tank densities. In contrast to our predictions, we found that fish reared at high density had larger dry mass of cerebellum...

  18. 75 FR 59310 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending Its Price List To Reflect Fees Charged for Co-Location Services September 21, 2010. On August 3, 2010, New York Stock Exchange LLC (`...

  19. 78 FR 70987 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the New York Stock Exchange Price List Related to Co-Location Services November 21, 2013. Pursuant to...

  20. 78 FR 16551 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending the New York Stock Exchange LLC Price List To Increase the Gross FOCUS Fee March 11, 2013. Pursuant to...

  1. 77 FR 16298 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Implementing Certain Changes to the Transaction Fees and Credits Within the New York Stock Exchange Price List...

  2. 77 FR 47471 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Implementing Certain Changes to the Credits Within the New York Stock Exchange Price List That Are Applicable to...

  3. 78 FR 2306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Eliminating Certain Credits Within the New York Stock Exchange LLC Price List January 4, 2013. Pursuant to Sectio...

  4. 77 FR 57627 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending Sections 902.02 and 902.03 of the Listed Company Manual of the New York Stock Exchange LLC September 12,...

  5. 77 FR 63406 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Implementing Changes to Certain Fees and Credits Within the New York Stock Exchange LLC Price List October 9, 201...

  6. 77 FR 67431 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Proposing To Make Changes to Certain Fees and Credits Within the New York Stock Exchange LLC Price List November ...

  7. 77 FR 63404 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend Section 902.02 of the New York Stock Exchange Listed Company Manual Regarding Waivers for Certain Listin...

  8. 77 FR 50742 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending the New York Stock Exchange Price List To Provide for Additional Co-location Services and Establish Related Fees August 15, 2012. I....

  9. 75 FR 2899 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Amending Its Listing Fees for Structured Products January 12, 2010. I. Introduction On November 19, 2009, New York Stock Exchange LLC (``NYSE'' o...

  10. 78 FR 42813 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... on June 28, 2013, New York Stock Exchange LLC (``NYSE'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities... notes that neither of the other two primary equities listing markets in the United States--the NASDAQ...

  11. 76 FR 75573 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., on November 18, 2011, the New York Stock Exchange LLC (``NYSE'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the... subject to real-time last sale reporting in the United States. The Listing and Annual Fees for debt...

  12. 78 FR 27466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... given that on April 24, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the... Trigger Price. For covered securities for which the Exchange is the listing market, the System shall...

  13. Determinants and valuation implications of compulsory stock option disclosures in a weak regulatory setting the case of France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Lisa; Joos, Philip; Soonawalla, Kazbi

    Using a sample of listed French firms in 2005, the year of mandatory IFRS adoption in the European Union (EU), we investigate the determinants of disclosure compliance of stock option expenses under IFRS 2, Share-based Payment. Stock options are a popular means of executive compensation in France

  14. Comparative anatomy of the dorsal hump in mature Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Kenta; Ban, Masatoshi; Ichimura, Masaki; Kudo, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) demonstrate prominent morphological changes, such as the development of a dorsal hump. The degree of dorsal hump formation depends on the species in Pacific salmon. It is generally accepted that mature males of sockeye (O. nerka) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon develop most pronounced dorsal humps. The internal structure of the dorsal hump in pink salmon has been confirmed in detail. In this study, the dorsal hump morphologies were analyzed in four Pacific salmon species inhabiting Japan, masu (O. masou), sockeye, chum (O. keta), and pink salmon. The internal structure of the dorsal humps also depended on the species; sockeye and pink salmon showed conspicuous development of connective tissue and growth of bone tissues in the dorsal tissues. Masu and chum salmon exhibited less-pronounced increases in connective tissues and bone growth. Hyaluronic acid was clearly detected in dorsal hump connective tissue by histochemistry, except for in masu salmon. The lipid content in dorsal hump connective tissue was richer in masu and chum salmon than in sockeye and pink salmon. These results revealed that the patterns of dorsal hump formation differed among species, and especially sockeye and pink salmon develop pronounced dorsal humps through both increases in the amount of connective tissue and the growth of bone tissues. In contrast, masu and chum salmon develop their dorsal humps by the growth of bone tissues, rather than the development of connective tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  16. Effect of exposure on salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patursson, Esbern J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, Andre

    2017-01-01

    of the freshwater exchange rate, the tidal exchange rate and dispersion by tidal currents. Salmon farms were ranked according to the rate of increase in the average numbers of salmon lice per fish. In a multiple linear regression, physical exposure together with temperature were shown to have a significant effect...

  17. Contingent Claim-Based Expected Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Zhiyao Chen; Strebulaev, Ilya A.

    2013-01-01

    We develop and test a parsimonious contingent claims model for cross-sectional returns of stock portfolios formed on market leverage, book-to-market equity, asset growth rate, and equity size. Since stocks are residual claims on firms' assets that generate operating cash flows, stock returns are cash flow rates scaled by the sensitivities of stocks to cash flows. Our model performs well because the stock-cash flow sensitivities contain economic information. Value stocks, high-leverage stocks ...

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  19. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  20. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingh, Hannah; Øyehaug, Leiv; Våge, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

    2006-04-18

    Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  1. How do we know how many salmon returned to spawn? Implementing the California Coastal salmonid monitoring plan in Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Gallagher; David W. Wright

    2012-01-01

    California's coastal salmon and steelhead populations are listed under California and Federal Endangered Species Acts; both require monitoring to provide measures of recovery. Since 2004 the California Department of Fish and Game and NOAA Fisheries have been developing a monitoring plan for California¡¯s coastal salmonids (the California Coastal Salmonid...

  2. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. Evolutionary model of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents an evolutionary economic model for the price evolution of stocks. Treating a stock market as a self-organized system governed by a fast purchase process and slow variations of demand and supply the model suggests that the short term price distribution has the form a logistic (Laplace) distribution. The long term return can be described by Laplace-Gaussian mixture distributions. The long term mean price evolution is governed by a Walrus equation, which can be transformed into a replicator equation. This allows quantifying the evolutionary price competition between stocks. The theory suggests that stock prices scaled by the price over all stocks can be used to investigate long-term trends in a Fisher-Pry plot. The price competition that follows from the model is illustrated by examining the empirical long-term price trends of two stocks.

  4. Using a Genetic mixture model to study Phenotypic traits: Differential fecundity among Yukon river Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, J.F.; Evenson, D.F.; McLain, T.H.; Flannery, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fecundity is a vital population characteristic that is directly linked to the productivity of fish populations. Historic data from Yukon River (Alaska) Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha suggest that length-adjusted fecundity differs among populations within the drainage and either is temporally variable or has declined. Yukon River Chinook salmon have been harvested in large-mesh gill-net fisheries for decades, and a decline in fecundity was considered a potential evolutionary response to size-selective exploitation. The implications for fishery conservation and management led us to further investigate the fecundity of Yukon River Chinook salmon populations. Matched observations of fecundity, length, and genotype were collected from a sample of adult females captured from the multipopulation spawning migration near the mouth of the Yukon River in 2008. These data were modeled by using a new mixture model, which was developed by extending the conditional maximum likelihood mixture model that is commonly used to estimate the composition of multipopulation mixtures based on genetic data. The new model facilitates maximum likelihood estimation of stock-specific fecundity parameters without first using individual assignment to a putative population of origin, thus avoiding potential biases caused by assignment error.The hypothesis that fecundity of Chinook salmon has declined was not supported; this result implies that fecundity exhibits high interannual variability. However, length-adjusted fecundity estimates decreased as migratory distance increased, and fecundity was more strongly dependent on fish size for populations spawning in the middle and upper portions of the drainage. These findings provide insights into potential constraints on reproductive investment imposed by long migrations and warrant consideration in fisheries management and conservation. The new mixture model extends the utility of genetic markers to new applications and can be easily adapted

  5. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine salmon case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bölscher, T; Slobbe, van, E.J.J; Vliet, van, M.T.H; Werners, S.E

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment...

  6. Applying Portfolio Selection: A Case of Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Praptiningsih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has three objectives. First, we investigate whether Modern Portfolio Theory can be applied on the financial decisions that made by investors or individual in order to increase their wealth through investment activities. Second, we examine the real behavior of each asset in terms of capital assets pricing models. Third, we determine whether our portfolio is the best model to produce a higher return in a given level of risk or a lowest risk in a particular level of return. It is found that three different stocks listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange have a positive relationship with market returns. The reactions of the investor regarding these stocks are not influenced by each other. Lastly, the minimum variance portfolio (MVP point which represents the single portfolio with the lowest possible level of standard deviation, occurs when the expected return of portfolio is approximately 2.2 percent at a standard deviation of 8.8 percent.

  7. Investment Plans and Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Owen Lamont

    1999-01-01

    Capital expenditure plans at the beginning of the year, from a US government survey of firms, explain more than three quarters of the variation in real annual aggregate investment growth between 1948 and 1993. The negative correlation of contemporaneous investment and stock returns is explained by the negative correlation of planned investment and subsequent stock returns. Unexpected revisions to aggregate investment (actual minus plan) within a year are essentially unrelated to current stock...

  8. Duck Valley Resident Fish Stocking Program, 2000 Final Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    The Shoshone-Paiute Tribes fish-stocking program was begun in 1988 and is intended to provide a subsistence fishery for the tribal members. The program stocks catchable and fingerling size trout in Mt. View and Sheep Creek Reservoirs. Rainbow trout are purchased from only certified disease-free facilities to be stocked in our reservoirs. This project will help restore a fishery for tribal members that historically depended on wild salmon and steelhead in the Owyhee and Bruneau Rivers and their tributaries for their culture as well as for subsistence. This project is partial substitution for loss of anadromous fish production due to construction and operation of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Until anadromous fish can be returned to the Owyhee and Bruneau Rivers this project will continue indefinitely. As part of this project the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes will also receive income in the form of fees from non-tribal members who come to fish these reservoirs. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the fishery will include sampling for length/weight/condition and for signs of disease. A detailed Monitoring and evaluation plan has been put in place for this project. However due to budget limitations on this project only the fishery surveys and limited water quality work can be completed. A creel survey was initiated in 1998 and we are following the monitoring and evaluation schedule for this program (as budget allows) as well as managing the budget and personnel. This program has been very successful in the past decade and has provided enjoyment and sustenance for both tribal and non-tribal members. All biological data and stocking rates will be including in the Annual reports to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  11. Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar M Chittenden

    Full Text Available With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions.

  12. Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Brent A.; Connerton, Michael J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Donald J.; Ringlerd, Neil H.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook salmon of ages 1–4, amounting to a mean annual biomass of 11.33 × 103 metric tons (range, 5.83 × 103 to 23.04 × 103 metric tons). During the same period (1989–2005), the lake supported an alewife biomass of 173.66 × 103 metric tons (range, 62.37 × 103 to 345.49 × 103 metric tons); Chinook salmon of ages 1–4 consumed, on average, 22% (range, 11–44%) of the alewife biomass annually. Because our estimates probably underestimate total consumption and because Chinook salmon are only one of several salmonine species that depend on alewives, predation pressure on the Lake Ontario alewife population may be high enough to raise concerns about long-term stability of this predator–prey system.

  13. Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, Cedar M; Biagi, Carlo A; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Davidsen, Anette Grimsrud; Kondo, Hidehiro; McKnight, Allison; Pedersen, Ole-Petter; Raven, Peter A; Rikardsen, Audun H; Shrimpton, J Mark; Zuehlke, Brett; McKinley, R Scott; Devlin, Robert H

    2010-08-19

    With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions.

  14. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    . Captive Lemhi River females produced smaller and fewer eggs than the Rapid River females; however, relative fecundity was higher than that of the Rapid River fish. Female coho salmon that ceased or slowed oocyte development in the spring had lower body growth from the previous August onward compared with females that continued oocyte growth. This indicates that growth during the late summer and fall, one year prior to spawning, can determine the decision to mature the following spring. Therefore it is important to maintain the growth of broodstock during the summer/fall period to ensure the continuation of ovary development in the subsequent spring. A combined whole cell vaccine of Renogen with killed R. salmoninarum strain MT239 may be effective in reducing the occurrence of BKD during the period immediately after seawater transfer, but not in yearling seawater-adapted chinook salmon. Control of BKD is likely to require an integrated disease management plan, utilizing three components, namely broodstock segregation, antibiotics, and vaccination. Vaccine results incorporated with antibiotic treatment will be used to work toward an integrated disease management plan to help to reduce the cycle of BKD transmission in the captive stocks to increase survival safely. Patterns of estimated survival in one chinook salmon stock (Grovers Creek) were generally consistent with inbreeding depression: progeny of fish that were full siblings (approximate increment in F of 0.25) survived to return at much lower rates than did progeny of fish that were half siblings (F {approx} 0.125) or unrelated individuals (F {approx} 0). Growth at sea of Grovers Creek Hatchery stock study fish was lower than that of UWH stock fish. Among the inbreeding groups alone, no clear differences in growth were detectable. However, preliminary results suggest the general pattern of growth was opposite that expected if inbreeding depression reduced growth: the highest growth was in progeny of related parents.

  15. What Drives Stock Exchange Integration?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina Dorodnykh

    2013-01-01

    .... After a broad discussion of the existent literature, the investigation combines a large number of potentially relevant determinants for the explanation of whether stock exchanges are participating...

  16. 36 CFR 294.29 - List of designated Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Payette Snowbank 924 X Payette Sugar Mountain 014 X Salmon Agency Creek 512 X X Salmon Allan Mountain 946 X X Salmon Anderson Mountain 942 X Salmon Blue Joint Mountain 941 X Salmon Camas Creek 901 X Salmon...

  17. Factors Affecting the Return Stock Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX LQ45 in Years 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangki A. Sorongan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of partially and jointly independent variable of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM against the dependent variable on the stock return. Objects of this research were companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI LQ45 continuously for four years in the period 2012-2015. Companies that qualify for this research were 28 companies. Based on this research, the conclusions indicate that all four independent variables; Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM, either jointly or partially give the significant effect on return stock.

  18. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by the...

  19. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  20. Farmed Atlantic salmon: potential invader in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson; Pete Bisson

    2008-01-01

    Commercial farming of Atlantic salmon in marine net-pens has become a booming industry. At present, approximately 130 salmon farms exist along the Pacific coast of North America. Most of these farms are in cold marine bays within British Columbia, where farmed salmon have become the province’s most valuable agricultural export. Each year, thousands of farmed Atlantic...

  1. Adhesion mechanism of salmon to polymer-coated can walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommershuijzen, H.; Hviid, L.; Hartog, den H.; Vereijken, J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of the amount of salmon adhering to the can wall after emptying is one of the convenience requirements of consumers of canned salmon. In order to achieve this, the mechanism by which salmon adheres to cans needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to provide such knowledge for

  2. Stock Analysis of S.C. ROPHARMA S.A. the Example of Romanian Pharmaceutical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina ONICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stock performance analysis can not find a better place than after presentation of earnings per share, the latter being one of the indicators on the performance of companies listed on capital markets. Exchange rates are considered final term market performance of listed companies since they incorporate information concerning stock, but also financial and accounting data on the net result for the year, sales per share, dividend per share, book value per share, etc. Stock rate of action is the barometer of a company's overall performance, officially recognized by the public through the capital market. But changes in stock price is determined by the evolution of economic and financial results of the enterprise, but also investors' expectations about the possibilities of its development, progress and prospects the industry in which company operates, and national and international economic trends.

  3. STUDY ON FINANCIAL COMMUNICATIONS FROM PUBLIC RETAIL COMPANIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS – MILANO STOCK EXCHANGE AND BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica R GROSU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic and financial crisis that hit the world economy has shown that for retail companies, growth continued to record only for those who held full control over every point of sale. The objective of our work is focused on the analysis of the most important financial indicators that a retail company should focus on and include in communication with external stakeholders. We make the connection with problems of the real economy through a comparative study of Romania and Italy, in which we analyze retail companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE and a similar number of retail companies listed on the Milan Stock Exchange (MSE. The importance of the topic stems from the fact that it is essential for understanding how consumers relate the various retail companies and how the latter model their structure or behavior depending on the requirements and needs of the former.

  4. Estimating betas in thinner markets: "the case of the Athens Stock Exchange"

    OpenAIRE

    Λαμπούσης, Αθανάσιος Ι.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the return interval on the beta estimate known as the “interval effect” which causes securities that are thinly traded to give biased OLS beta estimates. The present study covers a 5-year period, from January 2002 through to December 2006, using three different return intervals: daily, weekly and monthly data for 60 continuously listed thinly-traded stocks on the main market of the Athens Stock Exchange. Results generally support findings fr...

  5. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  6. Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State) Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

  7. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education...

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  9. Ranking Water Transparency of Dutch Stock-Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa H. Linneman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing world population, changing consumption patterns and climate change are affecting water demands, water scarcity and water quality worldwide, while at present, few companies are incorporating good water stewardship. In order to create awareness on this issue and provide an incentive for companies to improve the water performance in their operations and supply chain, a method for ranking companies based on their water transparency has been developed. The method consists of a checklist that can be completed on the basis of information from annual reports, sustainability reports and websites of companies. This is the first time a ranking of companies regarding water transparency has been carried out. Results show that there are large differences in transparency between and within sectors and that companies are reporting more about their operations than their supply chain.

  10. Ranking water transparency of Dutch stock-listed companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linneman, Marissa H.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Berkhout, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    A growing world population, changing consumption patterns and climate change are affecting water demands, water scarcity and water quality worldwide, while at present, few companies are incorporating good water stewardship. In order to create awareness on this issue and provide an incentive for

  11. PERCEPTION OF CAPITAL, PROFIT AND DIVIDENDS AFFECT THE STOCK PURCHASE INTENTION IN INDONESIA PUBLIC COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Muda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the influence perception of Capital Gains and Dividends on Stock Purchase Intention in Indonesian companies. Variables used in this research are the capital, profit and dividends (independent variables and Stock Purchase Intention (dependent variable and to show their relationship, it was used multiple linear regression. This research included Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and there were taken into account a number of 38 societies Data of this research are secondary data, obtained from the financial statements of the investigated companies published in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results showed that simultaneous independent variables have a significant influence on the capital structure, while partially effect on the Capital Shares Purchase Intentions. It was also shown that Profit and Dividends do not affect the Stock Purchase Intention.

  12. Salmon: Robust Proxy Distribution for Censorship Circumvention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many governments block their citizens’ access to much of the Internet. Simple workarounds are unreliable; censors quickly discover and patch them. Previously proposed robust approaches either have non-trivial obstacles to deployment, or rely on low-performance covert channels that cannot support typical Internet usage such as streaming video. We present Salmon, an incrementally deployable system designed to resist a censor with the resources of the “Great Firewall” of China. Salmon relies on a network of volunteers in uncensored countries to run proxy servers. Although any member of the public can become a user, Salmon protects the bulk of its servers from being discovered and blocked by the censor via an algorithm for quickly identifying malicious users. The algorithm entails identifying some users as especially trustworthy or suspicious, based on their actions. We impede Sybil attacks by requiring either an unobtrusive check of a social network account, or a referral from a trustworthy user.

  13. Stock Splits and Liquidity for Two Major Capital Markets from Central–Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Rudnicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stock market there occur some events that contradict the efficient market hypothesis therefore they are called anomalies. One of the mysterious corporate events which has attracted the attention of numerous researchers is a stock split. I perform the review of implications of splitting the stock for market liquidity of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and the Vienna Stock Exchange. I use event study, in particular Market model method and Market adjusted return method, to inspect the behavior of abnormal changes in daily trading volume for stock splits performed between 2000 through 2011 over a short run and assuming a longer time interval. Moreover, I juxtapose the results for both stock exchanges to examine whether the stock split phenomenon for two major capital markets from this part of Europe can be better explained by means of existing theories on stock splits. The research is aimed at analyzing the implications of the split for market liquidity, i.e. whether there occurs an immediate effect following the split as well as whether this corporate event improves the level of market liquidity over long run. Furthermore, the goal of the paper is to investigate whether the investors can cash in on the stock split, more specifically, whether they can profit from lower transaction costs. I document a significant growth in the market liquidity of stock splitting firms over 36 months following the split for both capital markets what is indicative of lower transaction costs for investors. The 1–percent significant results are consistent with the liquidity hypothesis on stock splits.

  14. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine

  15. Essays on Stock Issuance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    Firms which issue new equity subsequently have lower returns than other firms, but does the strength of the issuance effect vary in the cross section of firms? The essay shows, that US firms with characteristics that makes them “hard to value” have returns which are strongly related to their past...... issuance activity, while the return of “easy to value” firms are less related to their past issuance activity. In most cases the difference between “hard to value” and “easy to value” firms are signiffcant. As proxies for “hard to value”, I use three different types of firm characteristics. First, I...... consider firms for which relatively little information is available as “hard to value”. Examples are firms covered by few analysts and small firms. Second, I consider firms with high levels of analyst disagreement on stock price target, next quarter earnings per share and share recommendation as “hard...

  16. Distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiawen; Chen, Langnan; Liu, Hao

    2013-12-01

    We examine the distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity by employing the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) model and three-minute frequency data from Chinese stock markets. We find that the BCPE distribution within the GAMLSS framework fits the distributions of stock market liquidity well with the diagnosis test. We also find that the stock market index exhibits a significant impact on the distributions of stock market liquidity. The stock market liquidity usually exhibits a positive skewness, but a normal distribution at a low level of stock market index and a high-peak and fat-tail shape at a high level of stock market index.

  17. Effects of Handling and Crowding on the Stress Response and Viability of Chinook Salmon Parr and Smolts, 1984 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congleton, James L.

    1985-02-01

    Transportation of migrating chinook salmon smolts from Snake River dams to the Columbia River estuary has not reversed a downward trend in Idaho stocks of this species that first became apparent in the late 1960s. Poor survival of transported smolts may be a consequence of physiological responses to stressful events during collection and transportation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the intensity of stress responses in transported smolts, to determine if stress responses decrease the viability of transported smolts, and to investigate ways of avoiding or mitigating stressful events during transportation. 34 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Role of Dividend of Power to Buy Shares in Companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Muda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the role of the Purchasing Power Shares on manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange Period 2014-2015. The variables used in this study as an Independent Variable Dividend and Purchasing Power Shares as Dependent Variables. Power Buy Stocks in this study was measured by the volume of stock sales every year. This research was conducted in Manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The population of this study were 144 companies with purposive sampling as many as 19 of the Company's Manufacturing Company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange with the study of the 2014-2015 period in order to obtain 38 units of analysis. Data of this research are secondary data from the financial statements of 19 companies published in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. This research data processing method using the Test Statistics Deskribtif, Classical Assumption Test, Test Linear Regression using SPSS. The results of this study demonstrate that the role of the Dividend has significant influence on the Purchasing Power Shares in Manufacturing Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI.

  19. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Time-delayed subsidies: interspecies population effects in salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Nelson

    Full Text Available Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species.

  1. The quality of cold smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Ph. D. thesis was to study the liquid holding capacity/liquid loss of raw and smoked salmonids as affected by raw material and chill storage of the cold smoked product. The liquid holding capacity is an important quality parameter for cold smoked salmon. This study has shown...... of the smoked product affected the liquid holding capacity. Thus, the producers of cold smoked salmon should be aware of this and should have a careful control of the raw material especially regarding the lipid content....

  2. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  3. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits. Genetic,...

  4. Differential rejection of salmon lice by pink and chum salmon: disease consequences and expression of proinflammatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon R M; Fast, Mark D; Johnson, Stewart C; Groman, David B

    2007-05-09

    The consequences of high (735 copepodids fish-1) and low (243 copepodids fish-1) level exposures of size-matched juvenile pink and chum salmon to Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodids were examined. At both levels of exposure the prevalence and abundance of L. salmonis was significantly higher on chum salmon. In addition, the weight of exposed chum salmon following the high exposure was significantly less than that of unexposed chum salmon. At both exposures, the haematocrit of exposed chum salmon was significantly less than that of unexposed chum. Neither weight nor haematocrit of pink salmon was affected by exposures at these levels. Despite the presence of microscopic inflammatory lesions associated with attachment of L. salmonis on the epithelium of gill and fin of both salmon species, there were no mortalities following either exposure. A transient cortisol response was observed in chum salmon 21 d after low exposure. An earlier and quantitatively higher expression of the proinflammatory genes interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor alpha-1 (TNFalpha-1) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in fin and head kidney of pink salmon suggested a mechanism of more rapid louse rejection in this species. Together, these observations indicate a relatively enhanced innate resistance to L. salmonis in the juvenile pink salmon compared with the juvenile chum salmon.

  5. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  6. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  7. 77 FR 48570 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Group.\\6\\ Alpha Indexes measure relative total returns \\7\\ of one stock or one exchange-traded fund... Relating to the Listing and Trading of Alpha Index-Linked Securities August 8, 2012. I. Introduction On... (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to list and trade Alpha Index-Linked...

  8. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  9. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  10. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  11. Comparative genomics identifies candidate genes for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieying; Boroevich, Keith A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) has been described as the hoof and mouth disease of salmon farming. ISA is caused by a lethal and highly communicable virus, which can have a major impact on salmon aquaculture, as demonstrated by an outbreak in Chile in 2007. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ISA resistance has been mapped to three microsatellite markers on linkage group (LG) 8 (Chr 15) on the Atlantic salmon genetic map. We identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and three fingerprint contigs from the Atlantic salmon physical map that contains these markers. We made use of the extensive BAC end sequence database to extend these contigs by chromosome walking and identified additional two markers in this region. The BAC end sequences were used to search for conserved synteny between this segment of LG8 and the fish genomes that have been sequenced. An examination of the genes in the syntenic segments of the tetraodon and medaka genomes identified candidates for association with ISA resistance in Atlantic salmon based on differential expression profiles from ISA challenges or on the putative biological functions of the proteins they encode. One gene in particular, HIV-EP2/MBP-2, caught our attention as it may influence the expression of several genes that have been implicated in the response to infection by infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Therefore, we suggest that HIV-EP2/MBP-2 is a very strong candidate for the gene associated with the ISAV resistance QTL in Atlantic salmon and is worthy of further study.

  12. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial salmon Oncorhynchus spp. fishers traditionally have used gill nets, and more recently tangle nets, to capture adult salmon in the lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, but these gear types are not selective and can result in unintentional injury or death to non-target species, which is a problem when wild or Endangered Species Act-listed salmon are present. Gill and tangle nets capture fish through physical retention. Gill nets have mesh sizes that are slightly larger than the diameter of the head of the target species so that a fish moving through the net becomes entangled behind its operculum. Tangle nets have mesh sizes that are smaller than the diameter of the head of the target species so that a fish becomes entangled by its teeth or jaw. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been evaluating Merwin traps, beach seines, and purse seines during the past decade to determine if these are viable alternative commercial fishing gear types that would reduce negative effects to non-target fish, including wild salmon. As opposed to gill and tangle nets, these alternative gear types capture fish without physical restraint. The nets encircle the area where a fish or school of fish is located and eliminate the ability of those fish to escape. Because fish are not physically restrained by the gear, it is believed that the likelihood of injury and death would be reduced, allowing the safe release of non-target fish.

  13. TECHNICAL AND FUNDAMENTAL ANOMALIES. PARADOXES OF MODERN STOCK EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAKO Elena Dana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the series of researches about the paradoxes of modern stock exchange markets and their impact on the real economy, addressing this time the most important technical anomalies but also fundamental anomalies, which can be observed on the financial markets. As we mentioned in several previous articles, the paradoxes of stock exchanges are related to potential contradictions that arise in relation to a generally accepted truth. A lot of researches in the field of stock market investment focused on finding the answer to the question whether historical prices can be used to predict future prices for listed securities. Complex forecasting methods were created to clarify this aspect. Thus, technical analysis is a method of forecasting the price movements and trends of the market in the future, by studying the market graphs (including here both, the price of the listed instruments and the volume of transactions. The fundamental anomalies refer to the anomalies in trading financial instruments, and to the elements of fundamental analysis. The basic principle of fundamental analysis refers to the fact that the market price of any financial instrument is the result of supply and demand for that instrument. Both the supply and demand that finally determine the price of a financial instrument, are under the influence of various factors. Market’s analysts monitor various economic indicators and examine the market reports, to detect changes that may occur in the economy. The fundamental analysis attempts to predict prices and the overall market development by analyzing some economic indicators, political or social factors which are likely to influence the stock exchange prices. Both technical and fundamental anomalies have a major impact on price formation for financial instruments which are traded on stock exchanges, and are able to offer to warned investors higher earnings.

  14. Long-term hypo-osmoregulatory capacity in downstream migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, H A; Arnekleiv, J V; Nilsen, T O; Nilssen, K J; Rønning, L; Ulvund, J B; Kristensen, T

    2014-10-01

    The duration of hypo-osmoregulatory capacity in downstream migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L smolts previously stocked as startfed young-of-the year (YOY) parr was tested in the River Dalåa from mid-May to late-June 1999. Hypo-osmoregulatory capacity, measured as plasma osmolality and chloride, was assessed after seawater (SW) challenge tests (168 h, salinity = 35). All S. salar exhibited sufficient hypo-osmoregulatory capacity at the initiation of downstream migration in mid-May. Migrating S. salar smolts caught in mid-May and retained in fresh water displayed no signs of de-smoltification as they maintained hypo-osmoregulatory capacity through June. This indicates a physiological smolt window that lasts a minimum of 6 weeks (330 degree days; D°) for hatchery-produced S. salar smolts stocked as YOY parr. Based on the observed river migration speeds, it can be assumed that the S. salar smolts entered SW 2-4 weeks after initiation of migration in the upper parts of the River Dalåa. Hence, based on smolt migration and SW tolerance, it is suggested that stocking of YOY parr is a viable enhancement strategy in the River Dalåa. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work.

  16. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (psalmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 24666 - Updates to the List of Plant Inspection Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... introduction and dissemination of plant pests. The regulations contained in Subpart--Plants for Planting, Sec....) List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases...

  18. What Causes Stock Market Volatility in Pakistan? Evidence from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Ghufran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the presence of volatility at the Karachi Stock Exchange (recently changed the name to Pakistan Stock Exchange (KSE by fitting Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (EGARCH model to 25 years’ index data. We found that the ARCH effects are present in the data indicating the stock market cluster volatility during the period under study. We found persistent high volatility in the stock market and presence of negative leverage effect. Moreover, we tried to identify the factors causing stock market volatility by collecting and analyzing the primary data obtained from 246 individual investors of stock market and 28 brokers listed with KSE. Our results show that investors consider political situation as the most important factor causing turbulence in the stock market. Interviews with the brokers also confirmed this. The second most important factor identified by investors is the herd behavior among investors that results in over- and underpricing of stocks and the overall market shows a volatile behavior. Our findings suggest that individual investor’s behavioral dimensions of involvement, risk attitude, and overconfidence are significantly associated with factors causing market volatility.

  19. The Effect of Macroeconomic Factors on Stock Prices of Swiss Real Estate Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ligocká

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock values of companies listed on stock exchanges could be influenced by many factors. The aim of this article is to examine existence and character of relationship between stock prices of selected Swiss real estate companies and macroeconomic fundamentals (GDP, interest rate, price level. The existence of long-run equilibrium relationship between stock prices and macroeconomic fundamentals is tested with the Johansen cointegration. The short run dynamics between the variables is examined by Vector Error Correction modelling and the Granger causality test. During the period 2005 – 2014 we revealed a long‑run equilibrium for five of the six analyzed stocks. We also confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the interest rate in particular, can explain a long-run behavior of stock prices. By contrast, macroeconomic variables are usually short in explanation of short‑run dynamics of stock prices. However, the results differ substantially among the stocks and, hence, they prevent us from drawing any general conclusion for the entire real estate sector in Switzerland.

  20. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  1. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  2. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  3. Pacific Salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Gende; R.T. Edwards; M.F. Willson; M.S. Wipfli

    2002-01-01

    almon runs in the Pacific Northwest have been declining for decades, so much so that many runs are threatened or endangered; others have been completely extirpated (Nehlsen et al. 1991). This "salmon crisis" looms large in the public eye, because it has serious and wideranging economic, cultural, and ecological repercussions. Billions of dollars have gone...

  4. Salmon theology: Return to traditional reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Clair

    2007-01-01

    When beauty and utility are divorced in the loss of wonder, beauty begins to perish. Salmon go extinct. The fragility of beauty is the fragility of wilderness. It does not perish due to weakness but from the generosity and vulnerability that are bound up with its usefulness.

  5. Stocks low, marketers confident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantho, M. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This has been a nerve wracking season as we looked at inadequate inventory spurring prices ever upward. We have watched the American Petroleum Association`s figures on refiner stocks with considerable dismay as they consistantly fell behind year ago inventory. The anxiety extended to how much oil was in marketers` bulkplants and finally in customer tanks. And so, we asked our reporting panel to help us get a fix on how much oil was available for our customers. We asked the questions in early November and so all our figures are for that month. First we asked the capacity of their bulk tanks. And then how many gallons they had on hand November 1, 1996 and the same date of 1995. From these figures, we were able to get estimates of oil inventories. Marketers bulk tanks were 47.5% filled on November 1 which meant that there was on hand at this level, 36 gallons of heating oil for each customer. At that point in the season, customer tanks were 58% filled which translated into 218 gallons.

  6. Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janetski, David J; Chaloner, Dominic T; Tiegs, Scott D; Lamberti, Gary A

    2009-03-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) disturb sediments and fertilize streams with marine-derived nutrients during their annual spawning runs, leading researchers to classify these fish as ecosystem engineers and providers of resource subsidies. While these processes strongly influence the structure and function of salmon streams, the magnitude of salmon influence varies widely across studies. Here, we use meta-analysis to evaluate potential sources of variability among studies in stream ecosystem responses to salmon. Results obtained from 37 publications that collectively included 79 streams revealed positive, but highly inconsistent, overall effects of salmon on dissolved nutrients, sediment biofilm, macroinvertebrates, resident fish, and isotopic enrichment. Variation in these response variables was commonly influenced by salmon biomass, stream discharge, sediment size, and whether studies used artificial carcass treatments or observed a natural spawning run. Dissolved nutrients were positively related to salmon biomass per unit discharge, and the slope of the relationship for natural runs was five to ten times higher than for carcass additions. Mean effects on ammonium and phosphorus were also greater for natural runs than carcass additions, an effect attributable to excretion by live salmon. In contrast, we observed larger positive effects on benthic macroinvertebrates for carcass additions than for natural runs, likely because disturbance by live salmon was absent. Furthermore, benthic macroinvertebrates and biofilm associated with small sediments (salmon while those associated with large sediments (>32 mm) showed a positive response. This comprehensive analysis is the first to quantitatively identify environmental and methodological variables that influence the observed effects of salmon. Identifying sources of variation in salmon-stream interactions is a critical step toward understanding why engineering and subsidy effects vary so dramatically over space and

  7. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  8. Disagreement and the Stock Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Harrison; Stein, Jeremy C

    2007-01-01

    ...); we also see longer-run fundamental reversion—the tendency for "glamour" stocks with high ratios of market value to earnings, cashflows, or book value to deliver weak returns over the subsequent several years...

  9. Based on BP Neural Network Stock Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The stock market has a high profit and high risk features, on the stock market analysis and prediction research has been paid attention to by people. Stock price trend is a complex nonlinear function, so the price has certain predictability. This article mainly with improved BP neural network (BPNN) to set up the stock market prediction model, and…

  10. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§ 725.3...

  11. Contagion and REIT Stock Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Chinmoy Ghosh; Randall S. Guttery; C. F. Sirmans

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates the contagious movement of real estate investment trust (REIT) stock prices in response to real estate news related to financial institutions' real estate portfolios. The basic hypothesis is that because real estate assets are traded infrequently, the market has incomplete information about their true value; thus, REIT stock prices react negatively to announcements of poorly performing real estate portfolios of financial institutions. Consistent with the hypothesis, ...

  12. Estimating uncertainty of data limited stock assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkalis, Alexandros; Eikeset, Anne Maria; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2017-01-01

    Many methods exist to assess the fishing status of data-limited stocks; however, little is known about the accuracy or the uncertainty of such assessments. Here we evaluate a new size-based data-limited stock assessment method by applying it to well-assessed, data-rich fish stocks treated as data......-limited. Particular emphasis is put on providing uncertainty estimates of the data-limited assessment. We assess four cod stocks in the North-East Atlantic and compare our estimates of stock status (F/Fmsy) with the official assessments. The estimated stock status of all four cod stocks followed the established stock...... assessments remarkably well and the official assessments fell well within the uncertainty bounds. The estimation of spawning stock biomass followed the same trends as the official assessment, but not the same levels. We conclude that the data-limited assessment method can be used for stock assessment...

  13. Individual variation in migration speed of upriver-migrating sockeye salmon in the Fraser River in relation to their physiological and energetic status at marine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J; Hinch, Scott G; Crossin, Glenn T; Patterson, David A; English, Karl K; Donaldson, Michael R; Shrimpton, J Mark; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Farrell, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined individual variation in migration speeds of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in natural river systems or attempted to link migratory behavior with physiological and energetic status on a large spatial scale in the wild. As a model, we used three stocks of summer-run sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, to test the hypothesis that individual variation in migration speed is determined by a combination of environmental factors (i.e., water temperature), intrinsic biological differences (sex and population), and physiological and energetic condition. Before the freshwater portion of the migration, sockeye salmon (Quesnel, Chilcotin, and Nechako stock complexes) were captured in Johnstone Strait ( approximately 215 km from river entry), gastrically implanted with radio transmitters, and sampled for blood, gill tissue, and energetic status before release. Analyses focused solely on individuals that successfully reached natal subwatersheds. Migration speeds were assessed by an extensive radiotelemetry array. Individuals from the stock complex that migrated the longest distance (Nechako) traveled at speeds slower than those of other stock complexes. Females traveled slower than males. An elevated energetic status of fish in the ocean was negatively correlated with migration speed in most river segments. During the transition from the ocean to the river, migration speed was negatively correlated with mean maximum water temperature; however, for the majority of river segments, it was positively correlated with migration speed. Physiological status measured in the ocean did not explain among-individual variability in river migration speeds. Collectively, these findings suggest that there could be extensive variation in migration behavior among individuals, sexes, and populations and that physiological condition in the ocean explained little of this variation relative to in-river environmental

  14. Gold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Surya Mulyadi; Yunita Anwar

    2012-01-01

    It is important to have a portfolio in investment to diversify the investment to different kinds of instruments. Based on previous research, it is concluded that gold is a good portfolio diversifier, a hedge against stock and safe haven in extreme stock market condition. As an investment instrument, stock is exposed to macroeconomic risks and global stock market risks. In this research, we conduct a comparison between the stock investment and gold investment by using the probit econometric mo...

  15. Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin S Shanley

    Full Text Available Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1 and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2 projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation

  16. Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Colin S; Albert, David M

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March) was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1) and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation experiments, and finer

  17. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  18. Ontogenetic selection on hatchery salmon in the wild: natural selection on artificial phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael M; Lachapelle, Kevin A; Kinnison, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    Captive rearing often alters the phenotypes of organisms that are destined for release into the wild. Natural selection on these unnatural phenotypes could have important consequences for the utility of captive rearing as a restoration approach. We show that normal hatchery practices significantly advance the development of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry by 30+ days. As a result, hatchery fry might be expected to face strong natural selection resulting from their developmental asynchrony. We investigated patterns of ontogenetic selection acting on hatchery produced salmon fry by experimentally manipulating fry development stage at stocking. Contrary to simple predictions, we found evidence for strong stabilizing selection on the ontogeny of unfed hatchery fry, with weaker evidence for positive directional selection on the ontogeny of fed fry. These selection patterns suggest a seasonally independent tradeoff between abiotic or biotic selection favoring advanced development and physiological selection linked to risk of starvation in unfed fry. We show, through a heuristic exercise, how such selection on ontogeny may exacerbate problems in restoration efforts by impairing fry productivity and reducing effective population sizes by 13-81%.

  19. A stage-structured Bayesian hierarchical model for salmon lice populations at individual salmon farms – Estimated from multiple farm data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrin, Magne Tommy; Huseby, Ragnar Bang; Stien, Audun; Grøntvedt, Randi Nygaard; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jansen, Peder A

    2017-01-01

    Salmon farming has become a prosperous international industry over the last decades. Along with growth in the production farmed salmon, however, an increasing threat by pathogens has emerged. Of special concern is the propagation and spread of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To gain insight into this parasite’s population dynamics in large scale salmon farming system, we present a fully mechanistic stage-structured population model for the salmon louse, also allowing for complexiti...

  20. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.