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Sample records for salmon carcass analogs

  1. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  2. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  3. Response of nutrients, biofilm, and benthic insects to salmon carcass addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon M. Claeson; Judith L. Li; Jana E. Compton; Peter A. Bisson

    2006-01-01

    Salmon carcass addition to streams is expected to increase stream productivity at multiple trophic levels. This study examined stream nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon), epilithic biofilm (ash-free dry mass and chlorophyll a), leaf-litter decomposition, and macroinvertebrate (density and biomass) responses to carcass addition in three headwater streams of...

  4. Periphyton response to increased light and salmon carcass introduction in northern California streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, H.E.; Wilzbach, M.A.; Cummins, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton response to riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition in coastal streams of northern California was evaluated in a manipulative field experiment. The experiment followed a split-plot design, with streams as whole plots and two 100-m reaches in each of 6 streams as subplots. At the subplot level, riparian hardwoods were removed from one reach in each stream. At the whole-plot level, carcasses were added to both open- and closed-canopy reaches of 3 of the streams. Thus, treatments consisted of reaches with open or closed canopies, in the presence and absence of carcasses. Nutrient limitation of the periphyton was assessed in 2 streams (1 with carcasses and 1 without carcasses) using nutrient-diffusing clay saucers (N-enriched, P-enriched, N+P-enriched, or unenriched control) incubated in open- and closed-canopy reaches in the streams. Canopy and carcass treatments did not affect gross primary productivity or periphyton biomass on natural substrates. The periphyton assemblage consisted primarily of diatoms in all reaches on all dates. N amendment of agar in nutrient-diffusing, clay saucers and canopy removal increased biofilm ash-free dry mass on the saucers, but carcass introduction did not. Failure of periphyton to respond to carcass addition may have reflected overriding light limitation, inadequate within-stream retention of carcass nutrients, and/or limitations of the study design.

  5. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  6. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  7. Carcass analog provides marine subsidies for macroinvertebrates and juvenile Atlantic 8 salmon in temperate oligotrophic streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Margaret Q.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Cunjak, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations entering freshwater ecosystems provide organic matter and marine-derived nutrients during spawning and subsequent mortalities of adults. Dams and other impediments to connectivity in rivers and streams have affected anadromous fish populations in many regions and prevented or reduced this influx of organic materials and nutrients.

  8. Storage and Transformation of Artificial and Natural Salmon-Derived Nutrients in the Hyporheic Zone of a Southeast Alaska Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M. C.; Edwards, R. T.; Hall, R. O.; Norberg, E. C.

    2005-05-01

    Adding nutrients in organic pellets (analogs) or salmon carcasses (SDN) is one strategy resource managers use to enhance productivity in streams where natural salmon nutrient subsidies have been reduced. We compared hyporheic storage and transformation of nutrients from carcasses to those from analogs added to surface water of two tributaries of a salmon stream in Southeast Alaska. Hyporheic sediments responded differently to the two sources with some responses detectable the following summer. Average hyporheic and phreatic SRP concentrations in the analog treatment were 2.5 and 3.5 times greater, respectively, than controls one month after the August additions. Subsurface SRP was again higher the following spring and summer in the analog treatment. Surface water SRP was higher in the analog treatment in late summer a year after the addition. Respiration in phreatic zones in analog and control reaches remained under 1.1 mg DO L sediment-1 h-1. However, respiration rates were elevated in phreatic zones in the carcass treatment reach (3.0 mg DO L sediment-1 h-1) the summer after the addition, suggesting delayed use of stored carcass carbon. These results support the hypothesis that hyporheic zones provide long-term storage and remobilization of SDN thereby enhancing stream productivity in subsequent years.

  9. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  10. Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janetski, David J; Chaloner, Dominic T; Tiegs, Scott D; Lamberti, Gary A

    2009-03-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) disturb sediments and fertilize streams with marine-derived nutrients during their annual spawning runs, leading researchers to classify these fish as ecosystem engineers and providers of resource subsidies. While these processes strongly influence the structure and function of salmon streams, the magnitude of salmon influence varies widely across studies. Here, we use meta-analysis to evaluate potential sources of variability among studies in stream ecosystem responses to salmon. Results obtained from 37 publications that collectively included 79 streams revealed positive, but highly inconsistent, overall effects of salmon on dissolved nutrients, sediment biofilm, macroinvertebrates, resident fish, and isotopic enrichment. Variation in these response variables was commonly influenced by salmon biomass, stream discharge, sediment size, and whether studies used artificial carcass treatments or observed a natural spawning run. Dissolved nutrients were positively related to salmon biomass per unit discharge, and the slope of the relationship for natural runs was five to ten times higher than for carcass additions. Mean effects on ammonium and phosphorus were also greater for natural runs than carcass additions, an effect attributable to excretion by live salmon. In contrast, we observed larger positive effects on benthic macroinvertebrates for carcass additions than for natural runs, likely because disturbance by live salmon was absent. Furthermore, benthic macroinvertebrates and biofilm associated with small sediments (salmon while those associated with large sediments (>32 mm) showed a positive response. This comprehensive analysis is the first to quantitatively identify environmental and methodological variables that influence the observed effects of salmon. Identifying sources of variation in salmon-stream interactions is a critical step toward understanding why engineering and subsidy effects vary so dramatically over space and

  11. Nutrients - Elwha River salmon carcass addition experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dam removal and other fish-barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived...

  12. Surveys of brown bear predation on spawning sockeye salmon in three tributaries to Karluk Lake, Alaska.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of live salmon and carcasses were made in three lateral tributaries to Karluk Lake. The objectives were to assess the impacts of bear predation on spawning...

  13. Time-delayed subsidies: interspecies population effects in salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Nelson

    Full Text Available Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species.

  14. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  15. Thermogenesis in decomposing carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Mikac, Katarina M; Wallman, James F

    2013-09-10

    It is of fundamental importance in forensic entomology that the factors controlling carcass temperatures during decomposition are thoroughly understood. The thermal environment to which fly larvae are exposed is the primary influence on their growth rate, and hence affects any estimate of minimum time since death using such specimens in homicide investigations. To date, much of the entomological research on maggot masses has focused on their elevation of carcass temperatures, with very little focus on the bacteria associated with larval activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the heat associated with decay and the types of bacteria present during the decomposition of a carcass, both in the presence and in the absence of maggots. Three treatments were imposed: fresh, frozen and maggot-infested, each consisting of five replicate pig carcasses. Temperature measurements and bacterial swabs were taken from the gastro-intestinal region of each pig and temperatures and bacterial communities compared between treatments. All carcasses reached average maximum temperatures above 32 °C in a temperature controlled room set at 23 °C. Treatment had no statistically significant effect on the temperatures recorded in each carcass but did significantly affect the community structure of the bacteria. However, bacterial community structure varied across time. This study suggests that bacterial metabolism plays a significant role in carcass thermogenesis, and that maggot masses, while contributing to localised heating within the carcass, may have less of a role in elevating carcass temperatures than previously assumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices....... This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  17. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  18. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  19. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed. Significant associations ...

  20. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zimmy

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... Abstract. In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed.

  1. The chilling of carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  2. Predation of Karluk River sockeye salmon by coho salmon and char

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J.D.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Emlen, J.M.; Wilmot, R.L.; Finn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The number of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in Alaska's Karluk River (Fig. 1) declined from millions to thousands during the early part of the present century. Rounsefell (1958) discussed alternative explanations for the decline including a general loss offertility ofthe system as the number of salmon carcasses declined, competition, overfishing, subtle changes in climate, and predation; he concluded that the combined effect of predation and fishing was the most probable explanation. Later, Van Cleave and Bevan (1973) suggested that the weir constructed in the river each year to facilitate counting the fish as they entered the system was the most probable cause ofthe decline. Itprevented free movement of both adults and juveniles in the river. All of these hypotheses remain as potential explanations for the decline

  3. Temperature and light - Elwha River salmon carcass addition experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dam removal and other fish-barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived...

  4. Analog Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CODING, ANALOG SYSTEMS), INFORMATION THEORY, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, WHITE NOISE, PROBABILITY, ERRORS, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SET THEORY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  5. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  6. Master Dataset for Elwha Carcass Addition Experiment - Elwha River salmon carcass addition experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dam removal and other fish-barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived...

  7. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  8. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  9. A hidden-process model for estimating prespawn mortality using carcass survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeber, J. Tyrell; Peterson, James T.; Sharpe, Cameron; Kent, Michael L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2017-01-01

    After returning to spawning areas, adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. often die without spawning successfully, which is commonly referred to as prespawn mortality. Prespawn mortality reduces reproductive success and can thereby hamper conservation, restoration, and reintroduction efforts. The primary source of information used to estimate prespawn mortality is collected through carcass surveys, but estimation can be difficult with these data due to imperfect detection and carcasses with unknown spawning status. To facilitate unbiased estimation of prespawn mortality and associated uncertainty, we developed a hidden-process mark–recovery model to estimate prespawn mortality rates from carcass survey data while accounting for imperfect detection and unknown spawning success. We then used the model to estimate prespawn mortality and identify potential associated factors for 3,352 adult spring Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha that were transported above Foster Dam on the South Santiam River (Willamette River basin, Oregon) from 2009 to 2013. Estimated prespawn mortality was relatively low (≤13%) in most years (interannual mean = 28%) but was especially high (74%) in 2013. Variation in prespawn mortality estimates among outplanted groups of fish within each year was also very high, and some of this variation was explained by a trend toward lower prespawn mortality among fish that were outplanted later in the year. Numerous efforts are being made to monitor and, when possible, minimize prespawn mortality in salmon populations; this model can be used to provide unbiased estimates of spawning success that account for unknown fate and imperfect detection, which are common to carcass survey data.

  10. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  11. Atlantic Salmon Smolt Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual data are collected as part of smolt trapping operations using fish trapping methods. Traps collect emigrating salmon smolts to identify cohort...

  12. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  13. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottle and turn to tighten. Then take the plastic cover off of the top of the spray unit. ... room temperature in an upright position. Replace the plastic cover to keep the nozzle clean. Opened calcitonin salmon ...

  14. INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Shchelkanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work consists in the analysis of modern scientific conceptions about infectious salmon anemia (ISA etiologically linked with ISAV (infectious salmon anemia virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Isavirus. ISA is deadly disease of Salmonidae fishes.Discussion. ISA began to extend actively among salmon breeding farms since the extremity of the XX century and poses nowadays serious threat of fishing industry as there are no not only anti-ISAV chemopreparates and effective vaccines, but also scientifically based ideas of ISAV ecology. In the offered review data on the discovery history, taxonomical status, virion morphology and genome structure as well as ecology of ISAV, clinical features, pathogenesis and laboratory diagnostics, actions in the epizootic foci for the prevention of further distribution and prophylaxis of ISA, arrangement for protection against salmon louses and utilized approaches to anti-ISAV vaccines development are discussed. There is very important that ISAV is capable to be transferred by salmon louses – pelagic crustaceans (Copepoda: Caligidae that allows to classify ISAV as arbovirus ecological group which are transferred due to biological transmission by arthropods (copepods to vertebrate animals (salmons. It is the only example known so far when representatives of Crustacea act as a vector for arboviruses.Conclusion. Investigation of ISAV ecology turns into one of "touchstones" allowing to judge technological readiness of mankind to master resources of the World Ocean. 

  15. Salmon 2100: the future of wild Pacific salmon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lackey, R.T; Lach, D.H; Duncan, S.L

    2006-01-01

    Realistic options to restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and southern British Columbia are identified by 36 salmon scientists, resource managers, and policy experts...

  16. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  17. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  18. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  19. A comparison between the body composition, carcass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    Keywords: Carcass, Dormer, meat yield, muscle composition, SAMM, sex. # Corresponding ... The effects of breed, age and live weight on the carcass composition and retail cuts of meat-type lambs have ... This paper examines the effect of breed and sex on the body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of the ...

  20. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations; FY 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uusitalo, Nancy M.

    2003-01-30

    Adult and juvenile chum salmon were monitored from October 2001 through September 2002 to evaluate factors limiting production. In 2001, 6 and 69 adult chum salmon were captured in the Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs weirs, respectively. In 2001, 285 and 328 chum salmon carcasses were recovered during spawning ground surveys in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs, respectively. Twenty-eight fish captured in the mainstem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, and Hardy Creek were implanted with radio tags and tracked via an array of fixed aerial, underwater antennas and a mobile tracking unit. Using the Area-Under-the-Curve program population estimates of adult chum salmon were 835 in Hardy Creek and 617 in Hamilton Springs. Juvenile chum salmon migration was monitored from March-June 2002. Total catches for Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 103,315 and 140,220, respectively. Estimates of juvenile chum salmon emigration were 450,195 ({+-}21,793) in Hardy Creek and 561,462 ({+-}21,423) in Hamilton Springs.

  1. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2017-01-01

    Sea lice infestations are an increasing challenge in the ever-growing salmon aquaculture sector and cause large economic losses. The high salmon production in a small area creates a perfect habitat for parasites. Knowledge of how salmon lice planktonic larvae disperse and spread the infection...... between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...

  2. Predicting carcass cut yield by carcass weight and visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strydom

    The linear models included carcass weight and visual assessment of fatness and conformation by means of .... Table 1 Characteristics of the South African classification system for beef, lamb, mutton and goat meat ... Linear models for yield of each cut, the model variance (adjusted R2) and standard errors are presented.

  3. Salmon as drivers of physical and biological disturbance in river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2012-04-01

    sediment concentration. To monitor sediment infiltration into the gravelbed we used modified infiltration bag samplers. Lastly, to examine the contribution of salmon nutrients to the infiltrated sediment we sampled for the presence of a marine isotope signature (15N) in the sediment. Increased sediment in the water column of the salmon enclosure during the active spawn period indicated salmon-mediated sediment resuspension. A gravelbed response to this water column disturbance was detected via increased sediment infiltration during salmon spawning. This stored sediment was enriched in organic matter and 15N indicating a marine salmon signal. Significant relationships between sediment infiltration and salmon enrichment provided further evidence that salmon organic matter, using resuspended sediment as a vector, was infiltrating into the gravelbed. During the post-spawn period organic sediment was elevated in the water column and gravelbed infiltration was reduced reflecting respectively, the release of decay products from salmon carcasses and MDN release from temporary gravelbed storage. This study demonstrated that localized patterns of sediment deposition are regulated by salmon activity, which control gravelbed MDN storage and release. Salmon-mediated, sediment vector influences on riverine habitat have been quantified here on a small experimental scale, but we expect that the effect is replicated and magnified, as it occurs regionally throughout the spawning grounds, with significant ecosystem implications.

  4. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  5. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methods

    Experiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and

  6. Carcass And Non-Carcass Characteristics Of Bunaji (White Fulani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bulls have significantly (P<0.05) heavier live weight, carcass weight, quantity of beef and hump muscles than cows. ... The total internal offal (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, trachea, stomach and intestines) are similar (P<0.05) between the bulls and cows and represented about 5.25±0.15 and 6 75±0.34% of the ...

  7. 78 FR 63959 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management... examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used throughout the... Impact Statement To examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used...

  8. Carcass enrichment detects Salmonella from broiler carcasses found to be negative by other sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most frequently used methods to recover Salmonella from processed broiler chicken carcasses involve carcass rinsing or neck skin maceration. These methods are nondestructive and practical, but have limited sensitivity. The standard carcass rinse method uses only 7.5% of the residual rinsate an...

  9. Trophic ontogeny of fluvial Bull Trout and seasonal predation on Pacific Salmon in a riverine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus are typically top predators in their host ecosystems. The Skagit River in northwestern Washington State contains Bull Trout and Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschapopulations that are among the largest in the Puget Sound region and also contains a regionally large population of steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout). All three species are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Our objective was to determine the trophic ecology of Bull Trout, especially their role as predators and consumers in the riverine food web. We seasonally sampled distribution, diets, and growth of Bull Trout in main-stem and tributary habitats during 2007 and winter–spring 2008. Consumption rates were estimated with a bioenergetics model to (1) determine the annual and seasonal contributions of different prey types to Bull Trout energy budgets and (2) estimate the potential impacts of Bull Trout predation on juvenile Pacific salmon populations. Salmon carcasses and eggs contributed approximately 50% of the annual energy budget for large Bull Trout in main-stem habitats, whereas those prey types were largely inaccessible to smaller Bull Trout in tributary habitats. The remaining 50% of the energy budget was acquired by eating juvenile salmon, resident fishes, and immature aquatic insects. Predation on listed Chinook Salmon and steelhead/Rainbow Trout was highest during winter and spring (January–June). Predation on juvenile salmon differed between the two study years, likely due to the dominant odd-year spawning cycle for Pink Salmon O. gorbuscha. The population impact on ocean- and stream-type Chinook Salmon was negligible, whereas the impact on steelhead/Rainbow Trout was potentially very high. Due to the ESA-listed status of Bull Trout, steelhead, and Chinook Salmon, the complex trophic interactions in this drainage provide both challenges and opportunities for creative adaptive management strategies.

  10. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J B; Winton, J R

    2003-09-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aquaculture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  11. Comparative Physical Carcass Characteristics in the Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated highly significantly different (P<0.01), proportions of lean and fat significantly (P<0.05) different proportions of bone and skin in the carcasses of IND and LWXLD pig. The LWXLD pigs had more lean, and bone, less fat and skin, than the indigenous pigs. Carcass conformation was also clearly different in ...

  12. Broiler breeding strategies using indirect carcass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the consequences of using indirect carcass measurements on the genetic response and rate of inbreeding in broiler breeding programs. In the base breeding scheme, selection candidates were evaluated based on direct carcass measurements on relatives.

  13. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey. ... indicate that supplementing growing turkey feed- containing 18%CP and 2800 Keal/kg ME with 0.05% methionine enhances productive performances, good carcass yield and production cost.

  14. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY CONSUMER AND RESEARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F-test. The British market requires more fat on beef carcass es than is required in the rest of Europe. In Germany they require as little as two millimeters of subcutaneous fat over the roasting joints on the carcasses. .... Butterfield ( 1963) has shown that there is little variation in muscle distribution in a wide range of beef ...

  15. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Investigations on infectious diseases of Pacific salmon due to micro-organisms other than viruses are reviewed. The etiological agents include trematodes, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. Bacteria have been found to be the most important agents of disease in the several species of Pacific salmon. Kidney disease, due to a small, unnamed Gram-positive diplobacillus, causes serious mortalities in young salmon reared in hatcheries. The disease has also been found in wild fish. Aquatic myxobacteria are important agents of disease both in the hatchery and in the natural habitat. One of the myxobacteria, Chondrococcus columnaris, causes disease at relatively high water temperatures. The problem of the taxonomy of this organism is discussed. Another myxobacterium, Cytophaga psychrophila, has been found responsible for epizootics in coho salmon at lower water temperatures, i.e., in the range of 40° to 55° F. In outbreaks of gill disease in young salmon, myxobacteria of several kinds have been implicated.

  16. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  17. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were live weight, carcass weight, Carcass yields and the weights of breast, thigh-drumstick, wings, back, liver, gizzard, heart, tarsi, neck and head. It comes out from this study that in North chickens, except heart weight and carcass yields, slaughter weight was highly and positively correlated with hot carcass ...

  18. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2017-01-01

    between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...... farm site enter a neighboring fjord containing another farm site. Farms were characterized as emitters, receivers or isolated, and we could identify two clusters of farms that were largely isolated from each other. The farm characteristics are a valuable input for the development of management plans...... for the entire Faroese salmon industry...

  19. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was

  20. Analog current mode analog/digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Khayrollah (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved subranging or comparator circuit is provided for an analog-to-digital converter. As a subranging circuit, the circuit produces a residual signal representing the difference between an analog input signal and an analog of a digital representation. This is achieved by subdividing the digital representation into two or more parts and subtracting from the analog input signal analogs of each of the individual digital portions. In another aspect of the present invention, the subranging circuit comprises two sets of differential input pairs in which the transconductance of one differential input pair is scaled relative to the transconductance of the other differential input pair. As a consequence, the same resistor string may be used for two different digital-to-analog converters of the subranging circuit.

  1. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  2. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  3. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  4. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and {sup 40}K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content.

  5. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  6. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  7. Population Estimates for Chum Salmon Spawning in the Mainstem Columbia River, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawding, Dan; Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-11-15

    Accurate and precise population estimates of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning in the mainstem Columbia River are needed to provide a basis for informed water allocation decisions, to determine the status of chum salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and to evaluate the contribution of the Duncan Creek re-introduction program to mainstem spawners. Currently, mark-recapture experiments using the Jolly-Seber model provide the only framework for this type of estimation. In 2002, a study was initiated to estimate mainstem Columbia River chum salmon populations using seining data collected while capturing broodstock as part of the Duncan Creek re-introduction. The five assumptions of the Jolly-Seber model were examined using hypothesis testing within a statistical framework, including goodness of fit tests and secondary experiments. We used POPAN 6, an integrated computer system for the analysis of capture-recapture data, to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of standard model parameters, derived estimates, and their precision. A more parsimonious final model was selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Final chum salmon escapement estimates and (standard error) from seining data for the Ives Island, Multnomah, and I-205 sites are 3,179 (150), 1,269 (216), and 3,468 (180), respectively. The Ives Island estimate is likely lower than the total escapement because only the largest two of four spawning sites were sampled. The accuracy and precision of these estimates would improve if seining was conducted twice per week instead of weekly, and by incorporating carcass recoveries into the analysis. Population estimates derived from seining mark-recapture data were compared to those obtained using the current mainstem Columbia River salmon escapement methodologies. The Jolly-Seber population estimate from carcass tagging in the Ives Island area was 4,232 adults with a standard error of 79. This population estimate appears reasonable and precise but batch

  8. Performance, carcass and meat quality in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, Anke

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, influences of conventional and organic rearing systems, breed crosses and feeding regimens on performance, carcass and technological and sensory meat quality traits in pigs were investigated. In two studies, a seasonal outdoor rearing system was investigated. Maternal performance of once-bred gilts was studied and their carcass and meat quality was compared with maiden indoor reared gilts. In a third study, the outdoor-born progeny was raised indoors and outdoors; performance,...

  9. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  10. The response of stream periphyton to Pacific salmon: using a model to understand the role of environmental context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Fremier, Alexander K.; Mejia, Francine; Newsom, Michael

    2014-01-01

    1. In stream ecosystems, Pacific salmon deliver subsidies of marine-derived nutrients and disturb the stream bed during spawning. The net effect of this nutrient subsidy and physical disturbance on biological communities can be hard to predict and is likely to be mediated by environmental conditions. For periphyton, empirical studies have revealed that the magnitude and direction of the response to salmon varies from one location to the next. Salmon appear to increase periphyton biomass and/or production in some contexts (a positive response), but decrease them in others (a negative response). 2. To reconcile these seemingly conflicting results, we constructed a system dynamics model that links periphyton biomass and production to salmon spawning. We used this model to explore how environmental conditions influence the periphyton response to salmon. 3. Our simulations suggest that the periphyton response to salmon is strongly mediated by both background nutrient concentrations and the proportion of the stream bed suitable for spawning. Positive periphyton responses occurred when both background nutrient concentrations were low (nutrient limiting conditions) and when little of the stream bed was suitable for spawning (because the substratum is too coarse). In contrast, negative responses occurred when nutrient concentrations were higher or a larger proportion of the bed was suitable for spawning. 4. Although periphyton biomass generally remained above or below background conditions for several months following spawning, periphyton production returned quickly to background values shortly afterwards. As a result, based upon our simulations, salmon did not greatly increase or decrease overall annual periphyton production. This suggests that any increase in production by fish or invertebrates in response to returning salmon is more likely to occur via direct consumption of salmon carcasses and/or eggs, rather than the indirect effects of greater periphyton production. 5

  11. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  12. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  13. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used throughout the United States. This... (EIS) to examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass management options used... Doc No: 2013-31194] [[Page 79658

  14. Instructions for collection and shipment of avian and mammalian carcasses

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for collecting and shipping wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, and samples extracted from animals to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) to...

  15. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Carcass mass and fat content of the native chicken lines were less than in a ... Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein concentrations of minced carcass .... characteristics and consumer acceptability of meat from native chicken lines.

  16. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management

    2009-06-26

    camera identified salmon passage observations were identical to DIDSON target counts. However, optical cameras identified eight jack salmon (3 upstream, 5 downstream) less than 55 cm in length that DIDSON did not count as salmon because of the length criteria employed ({ge} 55 cm). Precision of the DIDSON technology was evaluated by comparing estimated net upstream salmon escapement and associated 95% confidence intervals between two DIDSON sonar units operated over a five day period. The DIDSON 1 salmon escapement was 145.7 fish ({+-} 2.3), and the DIDSON 2 escapement estimate was 150.5 fish ({+-} 5). The overlap in the 95% confidence intervals suggested that the two escapement estimates were not significantly different from each other. Known length salmon carcass trials were conducted in 2008 to examine the accuracy of manually measured lengths, obtained using DIDSON software, on high frequency files at a 5 m window length. Linear regression demonstrated a highly significant relationship between known lengths and manually measured salmon carcass lengths (p < 0.0001). A positive bias in manual length measurement of 6.8% to 8% existed among the two observers in the analysis. Total Secesh River salmon escapement (natural origin and hatchery) in 2008 was 912 fish. Natural origin salmon escapement in the entire Secesh River drainage was 847 fish. The estimated natural origin spawner abundance was 836 fish. Salmon spawner abundance in 2008 increased by three fold compared to 2007 abundance levels. The 10 year geometric mean natural origin spawner abundance was 538 salmon and was below the recommended viable population threshold level established by the ICTRT (2007). One additional Snake River basin salmon population was assessed for comparison of natural origin salmon spawner abundance. The Johnson Creek/EFSF Salmon River population had a 10 year geometric mean natural origin spawner abundance of 254 salmon. Salmon spawner abundance levels in both streams were below viable

  17. Evaluation of Simmental carcass EPD estimated using live and carcass data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Quaas, R L

    2004-03-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass EPD predicted using yearling live animal data and/or progeny carcass data, and to quantify the association between the carcass phenotype of progeny and the sire EPD. The live data model (L) included scan weight, ultrasound fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and percentage of intramuscular fat from yearling (369 d of age) Simmental bulls and heifers. The carcass data model (C) included hot carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score from Simmental-sired steers and cull heifers (453 d of age). The combined data model (F) included live animal and carcass data as separate but correlated traits. All data and pedigree information on 39,566 animals were obtained from the American Simmental Association, and all EPD were predicted using animal model procedures. The genetic model included fixed effects of contemporary group and a linear covariate for age at measurement, and a random animal genetic effect. The EPD from L had smaller variance and range than those from either C or F. Further, EPD from F had highest average accuracy. Correlations indicated that evaluations from C and F were most similar, and L would significantly (P EPD using a model including contemporary group, and linear regressions for age at slaughter and the appropriate sire EPD. The regression coefficient was generally improved for sire EPD from L when genetic regression was used to scale EPD to the appropriate carcass trait basis. The EPD from C and F had similar linear associations with progeny phenotype, although EPD from F may be considered optimal because of increased accuracy. These data suggest that carcass EPD based on a combination of live and carcass data predict differences in progeny phenotype at or near theoretical expectation.

  18. Telomerase-inhibitory effects of sugar-modified nucleotide analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinmei, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hazuki; Amano, Rie; Suzuki, Kaori; Saneyoshi, Mineo; Yamaguchi, Toyofumi

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase is an endogenous reverse transcriptase that uses its internal RNA moiety as a template for the synthesis of telomere repeats, thus maintaining telomere length. To study the susceptibility of telomerase to sugar-modified nucleotide analogs, inhibition by arabinofuranosylguanine 5'-triphosphate (araGTP), 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (AZdGTP), 2',3'-dideoxy-2'-fluoroarabino-furanosylguanine 5'-triphosphate (FaraGTP), and their thymine counterparts was investigated. Among these compounds, all dGTP analogs showed potent inhibitory activity against human telomerase. Conversely, dTTP analogs showed moderate or weak inhibition. Partially purified telomerase from cherry salmon testis utilized ddGTP and AZdGTP as substrates into the 3'-terminus of DNA.

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  20. growth and carcass traits of oxen from four different breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mara LOS

    South African grading standards, and thus their price per kg relative to the younger ages. ... returns. Keywords: Growth, carcass traits, maturity type, steers, age, natural pasture, carcass classification, incisors ..... Table 3 Average live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage (± s.e.) of Simmentaler crossbred,.

  1. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass... circumstances shall the carcasses of any animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter, or any part thereof... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section...

  2. Description of carcass classification goals and the current situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Abstract. Carcass classification is an essential part of efficient animal production, price fixing and meeting consumer demands. Carcass classification (or grading) is based on the description of carcasses by means of clearly defined characteristics that are of prime importance to the meat industry, retailers ...

  3. Genetic relationship between growth and carcass traits in Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between growth and carcass traits in South African Large White pigs were estimated. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits were generated using a maternal effects model in ASREML. Data analysed were on 13 703 pigs from 28 herds tested between 1990 and 2007, and 4 128 carcasses ...

  4. Copepod carcasses as microbial hot spots for pelagic denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie N.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Larsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are exposed to a high non-predatory mortality and their decomposing carcasses act as microniches with intensified microbial activity. Sinking carcasses could thereby represent anoxic microenvironment sustaining anaerobic microbial pathways in otherwise oxic water columns. Using non-invasive....... The importance of carcass associated denitrification could be highly significant in O2 depleted environments such as Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ...

  5. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  6. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  7. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-10-21

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces.

  8. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook...

  9. Prevalence of salmonella following immersion chilling for matched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella prevalence and the serogroups recovered following immersion chilling were determined for matched enriched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were chilled in ice/tap water 40 min with or without 20 ppm free c...

  10. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  11. Mortality estimation from carcass searches using the R-package carcass: a tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Behr, Oliver; Brinkmann, Robert; Etterson, Matthew A.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dalthorp, Daniel; Korner-Nievergelt, Pius; Roth, Tobias; Niermann, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a tutorial for the R-package carcass. It starts with a short overview of common methods used to estimate mortality based on carcass searches. Then, it guides step by step through a simple example. First, the proportion of animals that fall into the search area is estimated. Second, carcass persistence time is estimated based on experimental data. Third, searcher efficiency is estimated. Fourth, these three estimated parameters are combined to obtain the probability that an animal killed is found by an observer. Finally, this probability is used together with the observed number of carcasses found to obtain an estimate for the total number of killed animals together with a credible interval.

  12. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; van den Boom, Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2001-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is

  13. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; van den Boom, Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is

  14. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-01-01

    ... and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest...

  15. Growth Response, Haematology and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with one hundred and eighty (180) unsexed day old broiler chicks of Cobb strain to investigate the effects of feeding diets supplemented with Petevaria alliacaea root meal (PRM) on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. The broiler chicken were brooded together for 7 ...

  16. Performance, carcass characteristic and apparent nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth responses, carcass evaluation and nutrient utilization were estimated. Data obtained were subjected to 2x3 factorial arrangement within the completely randomized design (CRD). Feed: Gain was influenced by the level of the palm kernel by-products during 1-28days of study. The weight gained during the 56 days ...

  17. Performance, Economics of Production and Carcass Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain the performance, economics of production and carcass characteristics of broilers exposed to different levels of restricted feeding in a humid tropical environment. Four (4) dietary feed restriction treatments: T0- full or ad libitum fed - control, T75%, T50% and T25% of full or ad libitum ...

  18. Performance nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted using one hundred and eighty (180) day-old Hubbard broiler chicks to determine growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed replacement levels of rumen filtrate fermented shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa, Gaertn.) meal for groundnut meal. The chicks ...

  19. Growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with one hundred and twenty (120) day-old marshal chicks to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation of corn bran based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers in an eight weeks experiment. Four experimental ...

  20. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Haematology of Grower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of two hundred seventy growing Japanese male quail birds were fed with parboiled (PB) and varying boiling time of African Breadfruit, ABF (Treculia africana) seed to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters of the growing male quail fed the African Breadfruit seed. Six dietary ...

  1. Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of replacing maize with cocoa pod husk (CPH) in the diets of broilers on the performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of the birds. CPH was sun-dried, milled and incorporated in the diets at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% replacement levels for maize. There was a significant ...

  2. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare the bodyweight and body measurements, carcass composition, and characteristics of major visceral organs in male and female Pekin ducks. A total of 80 hybrid SM3 Heavy ducks were kept in a conventional building and fed complete commercial diets ad libitum. The male and female ...

  3. Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of tiger nuts (Cypers esculentus) rejects on the growth performance, carcass weight and hematological parameters of weaner rabbits. Three experimental diets were formulated with Diets A being a commercial growers' mash as control diet; Diet B: 5% ...

  4. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-03-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding.2,3 According to Iding,4 analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning theories, which claim that learners should be actively involved and new concepts should be based on learners' previous experiences. When analogies are used during the teaching-learning process, they may promote students' understanding of abstract science concepts.5 This paper suggests a capacitor analogy that aims to foster students' conceptual understanding of capacitors in a slightly different way than Greenslade's analogy.6

  5. Comparative Genomics Identifies Candidate Genes for Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jieying; Keith A. Boroevich; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) has been described as the hoof and mouth disease of salmon farming. ISA is caused by a lethal and highly communicable virus, which can have a major impact on salmon aquaculture, as demonstrated by an outbreak in Chile in 2007. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ISA resistance has been mapped to three microsatellite markers on linkage group (LG) 8 (Chr 15) on the Atlantic salmon genetic map. We identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and three f...

  6. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  7. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  8. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  9. Estimation of Relative Economic Weights of Hanwoo Carcass Traits Based on Carcass Market Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ho Choy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of Hanwoo carcass traits that can be used to build economic selection indexes for selection of seedstocks. Data from carcass measures for determining beef yield and quality grades were collected and provided by the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE. Out of 1,556,971 records, 476,430 records collected from 13 abattoirs from 2008 to 2010 after deletion of outlying observations were used to estimate relative economic weights of bid price per kg carcass weight on cold carcass weight (CW, eye muscle area (EMA, backfat thickness (BF and marbling score (MS and the phenotypic relationships among component traits. Price of carcass tended to increase linearly as yield grades or quality grades, in marginal or in combination, increased. Partial regression coefficients for MS, EMA, BF, and for CW in original scales were +948.5 won/score, +27.3 won/cm2, −95.2 won/mm and +7.3 won/kg when all three sex categories were taken into account. Among four grade determining traits, relative economic weight of MS was the greatest. Variations in partial regression coefficients by sex categories were great but the trends in relative weights for each carcass measures were similar. Relative economic weights of four traits in integer values when standardized measures were fit into covariance model were +4:+1:−1:+1 for MS:EMA:BF:CW. Further research is required to account for the cost of production per unit carcass weight or per unit production under different economic situations.

  10. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  11. Microbiological, Physicochemical, and Histological Analyses of Broiler Carcasses with Cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Nery

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Broiler carcasses presenting cachexia, as determined by the federal inspection agency, were submitted to microbiological, physicochemical, and histological analyses. Over a 2-month period, 278 carcasses from straight-run flocks of 43- to 48-d-old Cobb broilers from two different farms were condemned due to cachexia and subjected to gross examination in the final inspection sector. Out of the 278 carcasses, 131 did not present any gross signs of infection, and were submitted to microbiological analyses (n=83, physicochemical analyses (n=28, and viscera and muscle samples of 20 carcasses were evaluated by histology. The microbiological results of cachectic carcasses complied with the current legislation on the consumption of fresh poultry meat. Lower lipid and higher protein, moisture, and volatile matter contents, and higher pH (p<0.05 were determined in the cachectic than in the control carcasses from a same flock, but no ash content differences. All carcasses were negative for hydrogen sulfide. The histological analysis showed that65% of the cachectic carcasses did not have any muscle injury, 20% showed mild hyalinization and 15% moderate proliferation of fibrous connective tissue. The findings of this study indicate the importance of further technical and scientific studies on the utilization of cachectic broiler carcasses for the manufacture of edible products, rather than whole carcasses rendering, thereby preventing the resulting economic losses.

  12. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary H Olson

    Full Text Available Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana, and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp. carcasses (180 trials total were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8 and avian species (N = 7. Fourteen carcasses (9.8% were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%, and four carcasses (2.8% remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness. We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.

  13. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  14. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  15. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  16. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  17. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn

    2007-01-01

    to infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...

  18. CARCASS COMPOSITION OF THE GIRAFFE GIRAT.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of total mass iif the hodv com- ponents of adult girlffe are given in Table 3. Ctr aass co nlp o s i t i{' ) tl. 'fhe available data from dressed carcasses of adult giraff'e can. for cornparative purposes, only be cliscused in terms of fcrur ma1or coil]ponents; these are buttock foreleg. neck and a component referred.

  19. Pathogen analysis of NYSDOT road-killed deer carcass compost facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Composting of deer carcasses was effective in reducing pathogen levels, decomposing the : carcasses and producing a useable end product after 12 months. The composting process used in this project : involved enveloping the carcasses of road-killed de...

  20. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  1. [Ultrastructure of chloride cell of gill epithelium and body ionic composition of the fry of two species of Pacific salmon during migration to the sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovich, A A

    2010-01-01

    Pacific salmon fry were collected in 2001-2002 in the rivers of Southern Sakhalin on the way of their migration to the sea. The comparison of the data on ionic content of chum salmon fry carcass, received in 2002, with those obtained in 2001, has shown that the dispersion of ion concentration values in 2002 samples was significantly smaller than in 2001. Similar results were obtained when the mass of smolts was compared. The significant decrease of Na+ concentration in chum salmon fry during migration to the sea supports the idea on an imperative stimulus formation by means of change of Na+ concentration in migrating fish. The analysis of gill chloride cell (CC) structure in chum salmon and masu salmon fry in fresh and salty water has shown, that in fishes from fresh water CC were located mainly in primary lamellae, at the basis of secondary lamellae. As a rule, CC are large, have a large nucleus with an active chromatin and a light cytoplasm with numerous elongated mitochondria containing dense matrix. Secondary lamellae are short, 1-3 cells thick and practically contain no CC. In some fishes secondary lamellae were more numerous and longer. Some part of secondary lamellae contained large CC; in this place their width was approximately 2 times greater. As a whole, CC number in these fishes was increased. Analyzing all the material received during 2 years, with respect to CC cell structure and functions, a conclusion was drawn that freshwater fry of two salmon species, both chum salmon and masu salmon, caught at the same time and practically in the same reservoirs, could be divided into 3 groups. Masu salmon underyearlings are characterized, as a rule, by a thickened secondary lamellae epithelium, which, however contained few CC. In the chum salmon smolts, on the contrary, epithelium was thin, but contained numerous CC, which demonstrate active structure in the beginning of migration to the sea. But as they approached the sea (and migration duration increased), CC

  2. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  3. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  4. Analog Frame Store Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-15

    enhancement when coupled with the video acquisition performed by the Frame Store Memory in mode 2. 3 -11 It cr (A 3 coJ 0( kLL P.- FAIRCHILO IMAGING ...AD-AOSI 979 FAIRCHILD IMAGING SYSTEMS SYOSSET N Y F/0 17/2 ANALOG FRAME STORE MEMORY . CU) JAN 80 OAAK77-C-0165 UNCLASSIFIED ED-CX-141-5 M 1 .0 H " 1...DESCRIPTION 1-2 1.1.1 Analog Frame Store Memory 1-2 1.1.2 Analog Field Storage Device 1-4 1.1.3 Image Analyzer Digital Display (IADD) 1-4 1.2 PROGRAM’S

  5. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  6. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  7. Ecology. Can science rescue salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, C C; Plummer, M L

    2000-08-04

    At a press conference on 27 July, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) released a long-awaited plan to save the Columbia River's endangered salmon by restoring fish habitat, overhauling hatcheries, limiting harvest, and improving river flow. What the plan did not do, however, was call for immediate breaching of four dams on the Snake River, the Columbia's major tributary--an option that has been the subject of a nationwide environmental crusade. The NMFS will hold that option in abeyance while it sees whether the less drastic measures will do the trick. Responses from both sides were immediate and outraged.

  8. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  9. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  10. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  11. How Analogy Drives Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstadter, Doug (Indiana University)

    2004-05-05

    Many new ideas in theoretical physics come from analogies to older ideas in physics. For instance, the abstract notion of 'isospin' (or isotopic spin) originated in the prior concept of 'spin' (quantized angular momentum); likewise, the concept of 'phonon' (quantum of sound, or quantized collective excitation of a crystal) was based on the prior concept of 'photon' (quantum of light, or quantized element of the electromagnetic field). But these two examples, far from being exceptions, in fact represent the bread and butter of inventive thinking in physics. In a nutshell, intraphysics analogy-making -- borrowing by analogy with something already known in another area of physics -- is central to the progress of physics. The aim of this talk is to reveal the pervasiveness -- indeed, the indispensability -- of this kind of semi-irrational, wholly intuitive type of thinking (as opposed to more deductive mathematical inference) in the mental activity known as 'doing physics'. Speculations as to why wild analogical leaps are so crucial to the act of discovery in physics (as opposed to other disciplines) will be offered.

  12. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Burke

    Full Text Available Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  13. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  14. Effects of Prosopis laevigata pods on carcass characteristics, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary inclusion of PL decreased carcass shrinkage loss. Lambs fed PL500 had better muscle conformation and degree of fat. ... Mesquite diets of up to 500 g/kg dry matter (DM) for growing lambs improved carcass quality and nutritional parameters of the meat. Keywords: Mesquite, muscle conformation, rumen content ...

  15. Live and carcass measurements of Nigerian dwarf sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practical advantages of being able to assess carcass composition from live measurements have long been realised as such findings could be used in breeding programmes especially in selection of mutton lambs. This study examined an array of live and carcass measurements from forty Nigerian Dwarf Sheep (NDS) ...

  16. Factors determining the carcass value of culled dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Stokvisch, P.E.; Korver, S.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Data from 763 cows culled during the period September 1973–May 1982 on two experimental farms have been analysed. The carcass value of each individual cow was adjusted for seasonal fluctuations in price per kilogram carcass weight. The grade was assessed through in vivo scoring by experts of a

  17. Carcass and primal cuts yield evaluation of African antelope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight of chilled half carcass and primal cut as well as the proportions of primal cuts relative to chilled half carcass weight percentage cook yield, cooking loss, lean meat, bone as well as meat to bone ratio were determined. The results showed that leg cut had highest percentage weight of 40.11, followed by shoulder cut ...

  18. Econometric analysis of the determinants of broiler carcass weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate rationale behind the choice of feeding method in broiler management; identifying the variables that influence carcass weights of broilers as well as comparing the mean carcass weights of broilers raised under feed restriction and ad libitum in FUTO Farm, Owerri, Nigeria. Data were collected ...

  19. Growth, carcass and sensory traits of broiler chickens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 28-day feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered for carcass analysis and sensory traits (colour, appearance, flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability). The data on growth, carcass and sensory traits were collected and analyzed using ANOVA and means separated using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result on ...

  20. Retrospective study on bovine whole carcass and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited information exists in literature on the major reasons for whole carcass and organ condemnations in Ghana. A retrospective study spanning January 2002 to December 2013 was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir to determine the pattern of bovine whole carcass, liver condemnation, and to estimate the direct financial ...

  1. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of feeding systems on carcass characteristics and ... conducted to link animal breed and production system to carcass quality from Mubende goats. ..... characteristics of intact male Mubende goats fed elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) ad libitum in.

  2. Growth and carcass characteristics of crossbred progeny from lean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood, internal organs, intestines before and after removal of digesta, head, feet, pelt and carcasses were recorded. The left sides of the carcasses were cut into six pieces. ... The differences of eye muscle ( Longissimis dorsi ) area (cm2), and protein and bone percentages were not significant between both breeds and their ...

  3. Carcass Characteristics and Qualitative Attributes of Pork from Immunocastrated Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and meat quality aspects of immunocastrated male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass (53 to 55%. When the crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs (n = 45 were 70 days old, they were distributed in a totally randomized design in three treatments (castrated males, females and immunocastrated males with three replicates of five animals. The pigs were slaughtered when they were 140 days old. Carcass temperature and pH were recorded twice, at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The carcasses were evaluated for hot and cold carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, length and depth, back fat thickness, loin eye area and lean meat percentage. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was extracted for analysis of color (L*, a*, b*, exudate loss, cooking loss and centesimal and sensorial analysis of the meat. There were no significant differences for the evaluated parameters between castrated males, immunocastrated males and females, except for backfat thickness between the 7th and 8th thoracic vertebra and the point P2 (lower for immunocastrated males and carcass temperature at 45 min post slaughter (higher in immunocastrated males, however, this did not interfer with the rate of pH decrease post mortem and the meat quality. The results from this research did not indicate a benefit of immunocastration on carcass characteristics of pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, when compared to surgical castration.

  4. Carcass characteristics and qualitative attributes of pork from immunocastrated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Moi, Marta; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; de Lima Almeida Paz, Ibiara Correia; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Fernandes, Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes

    2013-11-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and meat quality aspects of immunocastrated male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass (53 to 55%). When the crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs (n = 45) were 70 days old, they were distributed in a totally randomized design in three treatments (castrated males, females and immunocastrated males) with three replicates of five animals. The pigs were slaughtered when they were 140 days old. Carcass temperature and pH were recorded twice, at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The carcasses were evaluated for hot and cold carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, length and depth, back fat thickness, loin eye area and lean meat percentage. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was extracted for analysis of color (L*, a*, b*), exudate loss, cooking loss and centesimal and sensorial analysis of the meat. There were no significant differences for the evaluated parameters between castrated males, immunocastrated males and females, except for backfat thickness between the 7th and 8th thoracic vertebra and the point P2 (lower for immunocastrated males) and carcass temperature at 45 min post slaughter (higher in immunocastrated males), however, this did not interfer with the rate of pH decrease post mortem and the meat quality. The results from this research did not indicate a benefit of immunocastration on carcass characteristics of pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, when compared to surgical castration.

  5. Carcass and muscle yields of ostriches as influenced by genotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass and muscle yields of ostriches as influenced by genotype. L C Hoffman, M M Brand, M Muller, S W Cloete. Abstract. Live, carcass, leg and muscle weight (kg) as well as dressing percentage were compared between South African Black (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) ostriches, purebred Zimbabwean Blue Neck ...

  6. Estimation of carcass composition and fat depots by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to establish prediction equations for subcutaneous adipocyte area and body and tail measurements to estimate carcass composition and fat depots of indigenous Akkaraman lambs. As a major carcass tissue, body fat depots play an important role in deciding the optimum slaughter weight and ...

  7. Fat quality of South African pigs with different carcass classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carcasses of South African pigs are classified into six groups (PORCUS) according to their calculated lean meat content and measured backfat thickness. Pigs with the highest lean meat content and lowest backfat thickness belong to the P group. Fat quality of backfat from 2107 pig carcasses, sampled within the ...

  8. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to establish non-genetic factors affecting growth and carcass traits in Large White and Landrace pigs. This study was based on 20 079 and 12 169 growth and 5 406 and 2 533 carcass data collected on performance tested pigs between 1990 and 2008 from Large White and Landrace breeds ...

  9. Classication Methods for CT-Scanned Carcass Midsections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    in the segmentation of the outer fat layer in the mid- section of CT-scanned pig carcasses. Prior information about the carcass composition can potentially be applied for a fully automated solution, in order to optimize the slaughter line. The methods comprise Markov Random Field and contextual Bayesian classication...

  10. 9 CFR 381.77 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 381.77 Section 381.77 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... examination by the inspector, shall be held for further examination. The identity of each such carcass...

  11. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 354.126 Section 354.126 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... examination by the inspector, shall be held for further examination. The identity of each such carcass...

  12. Influence of sex, age and body condition score on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four half carcasses of small East African goats (8 females 8 entire males and 8 castrated males) were jointed into seven joints namely: hind leg, chump, loin, rib, breast, neck and fore leg. These joints were further dissected into the separable components: muscle, bone and fat. The carcasses of these goats, were ...

  13. Carcass Characteristics of Boer x Malawi Crossbred Goats at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developmental patterns of carcass traits were studied in _ and 3/4 Boer x Malawi crossbred goats slaughtered at 30, 35 and 40 kg live weights. Empty body, hot and cold carclass weights, and head proportions differed among the three slaughter groups. There were no significant differences in carcass and total internal ...

  14. Feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality characteristics of bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Growth, carcass and meat characteristics of Karayaka growing rams fed sugar beet pulp, partially substituting for grass hay as forage. Meat Sci. 70, 7-14. Ozluturk,A., Tuzemen, N., Yanar, M., Esenbuga, N. & Dursun, E., 2004. Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, ...

  15. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agbeniga

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... In addition to the accelerated glycolysis caused by electrical stimulation to lower the. pH of carcasses after slaughter, stress before or at slaughter could also play a part in lowering the pH and stimulating proteolysis and gluconeogenesis by the secretion of corticosteroid hormones. Carcasses from ...

  16. Developmental differences in carcass, meat quality and muscle fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was an important factor in the variation of carcass, meat quality traits and characteristics of muscle fibres. The main differences between the breeds at the same age were LEA, BF, IMF and ash contents, and fast glycolytic MyHC-IIb in the mRNA level. Keywords: Breeds, Lantang, age, muscle fibres, carcass, meat quality ...

  17. The effect of the malignant hyperthermia gene on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .restriction endonuclease assay on carcass characteristics of commer- cial cfossbred pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci.12,973. SATHER, A.P., JONES, S.D.M. & ROBERTSON, W., 1989. The effect of genotype on predicted lean yield in heavy pig carcasses using the. Henessey Grading Probe, the Destron PG-100 and the Fat-O-Meter.

  18. The effect of the malignant hyperthermia gene on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scalding at 60"C (shower) and mechanical removal of hair) were adhered to and initial carcass measurements were ... then chilled for 24 h at 2"C whereafter cold carcass mass was determined. Factory specifications and ... may be of little or no benefit to the producer since no signifrcant differences were observed in either ...

  19. carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the dissimilar diets fed. Highly significant correlation coefficients u,ere obtained br:tween body water content and the content of es- sential amino acids in the carcass. Carcass arnino acid analysis couid the'refore, under set conditions, be calculated from the body water content by using predetermined regression equations.

  20. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade and immunity of pigs housed in sawdust fermentative pigstiesThis study determined the effect of space allowance on performance, carcass grade and physiological variables of pigs reared in sawdust fermentative pigsties. A total of 699 crossbred (Landrace ...

  1. A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming

    OpenAIRE

    Scheel, Ida; Aldrin, Magne; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Jansen, Peder A

    2007-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is one of the main infectious diseases in Atlantic salmon farming with major economical implications. Despite the strong regulatory interventions, the ISA epidemic is not under control, worldwide. We study the data covering salmon farming in Norway from 2002 to 2005 and propose a stochastic space-time model for the transmission of the virus. We model seaway transmission between farm sites, transmission through shared management and infrastructure, biomass effect...

  2. Genomic selection using beef commercial carcass phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D L; Roughsedge, T; Woolliams, J A

    2014-03-01

    In this study, an industry terminal breeding goal was used in a deterministic simulation, using selection index methodology, to predict genetic gain in a beef population modelled on the UK pedigree Limousin, when using genomic selection (GS) and incorporating phenotype information from novel commercial carcass traits. The effect of genotype-environment interaction was investigated by including the model variations of the genetic correlation between purebred and commercial cross-bred performance (ρX). Three genomic scenarios were considered: (1) genomic breeding values (GBV)+estimated breeding values (EBV) for existing selection traits; (2) GBV for three novel commercial carcass traits+EBV in existing traits; and (3) GBV for novel and existing traits plus EBV for existing traits. Each of the three scenarios was simulated for a range of training population (TP) sizes and with three values of ρX. Scenarios 2 and 3 predicted substantially higher percentage increases over current selection than Scenario 1. A TP of 2000 sires, each with 20 commercial progeny with carcass phenotypes, and assuming a ρX of 0.7, is predicted to increase gain by 40% over current selection in Scenario 3. The percentage increase in gain over current selection increased with decreasing ρX; however, the effect of varying ρX was reduced at high TP sizes for Scenarios 2 and 3. A further non-genomic scenario (4) was considered simulating a conventional population-wide progeny test using EBV only. With 20 commercial cross-bred progenies per sire, similar gain was predicted to Scenario 3 with TP=5000 and ρX=1.0. The range of increases in genetic gain predicted for terminal traits when using GS are of similar magnitude to those observed after the implementation of BLUP technology in the United Kingdom. It is concluded that implementation of GS in a terminal sire breeding goal, using purebred phenotypes alone, will be sub-optimal compared with the inclusion of novel commercial carcass phenotypes

  3. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    from five pigs are collected daily and analysed as a pooled sample to evaluate the Salmonella carcass prevalence. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with Salmonella carcass prevalence in Denmark. A total of 20,196 pooled carcass swabs collected in 23 Danish abattoirs were included...... by the probability that at least one pig contributing to the pool was seropositive, the log-transformed number of seropositive pigs delivered to the abattoir on the same day and weekday. No other factors were found to be significant (P>0.05). Large reductions in the number of seropositive pigs delivered to slaughter......The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs...

  4. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  5. FOOD SAFETY AND PROCESS HYGIENE CRITERIONS ON SHEEP CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazzette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic status and the presence of some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. at slaughterhouses was evaluated in different matrix of sheep and lambs (carcass surface, faeces, fleeces and mesenteric lymph nodes according to the Com. Reg. (EC No 2073/2005. The 48% of sheep and 68.9% of lamb sampled carcasses resulted allocated into the marginal category for Aerobic colony count, while the 28% and 42.2% respectively were allocated into unacceptable category for Enterobacteriaceae. S.aureus was isolated more frequently in fleeces (11.5%, carcasses (12.6% of lambs than sheep. L. monocytogenes was found in fleeces and carcass of two sheep and in faeces of four lambs, while Salmonella spp. was detected only in sheep carcasses of a single plant.

  6. The impact of high level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological impact of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10 fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated pre-chill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine treate...

  7. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  8. OZONE DECONTAMINATION OF CHILLED POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is a strong oxidant and disinfecting agent. The bactericidal effects of ozone have been documented on a wide range of organisms, including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the effect of treatment with gaseous ozone on microbial contamination (Total Aerobic Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Microrganism Count, Enterobacteriaceae, Total and Fecal Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and sensory characteristics of poultry carcasses were investigated. N.50 carcasses were divided into two parts. The first batch was used as control and stored in a coolroom at 0-1°C; the second one was kept in another cool room, with the same dimensions and at the same temperature, provided with an ozone generator, working for 60 minutes every 4 hours in order to reach an ozone concentration of 0.4 ppm. Significative differences were found between the control batch and the treated one for Total Aerobic Counts (at 32° and 20°C and Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella arizonae, Campylobacter fetus spp fetus and Listeria monocytogenes were sometimes found in both batches. Acceptable sensory qualities were observed until day 14 and 20 after slaughter for the control and the treated batch, respectively.

  9. Antarctic analogs for Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. E.; Andersen, D. T.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is a new world for Astrobiology. The Cassini discovery of the icy plume emanating from the South Polar region indicates an active world, where detection of water, organics, sodium, and nano-particle silica in the plume strongly suggests that the source is a subsurface salty ocean reservoir. Recent gravity data from Cassini confirms the presence of a regional sea extending north to 50°S. An ocean habitat under a thick ice cover is perhaps a recurring theme in the Outer Solar System, but what makes Enceladus unique is that the plume jetting out into space is carrying samples of this ocean. Therefore, through the study of Enceladus' plumes we can gain new insights not only of a possible habitable world in the Solar Systems, but also about the formation and evolution of other icy-satellites. Cassini has been able to fly through this plume - effectively sampling the ocean. It is time to plan for future missions that do more detailed analyses, possibly return samples back to Earth and search for evidence of life. To help prepare for such missions, the need for earth-based analog environments is essential for logistical, methodological (life detection) and theoretical development. We have undertaken studies of two terrestrial environments that are close analogs to Enceladus' ocean: Lake Vida and Lake Untersee - two ice-sealed Antarctic lakes that represent physical, chemical and possibly biological analogs for Enceladus. By studying the diverse biology and physical and chemical constraints to life in these two unique lakes we will begin to understand the potential habitability of Enceladus and other icy moons, including possible sources of nutrients and energy, which together with liquid water are the key ingredients for life. Analog research such as this will also enable us to develop and test new strategies to search for evidence of life on Enceladus.

  10. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  11. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  12. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake and...

  13. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  14. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon allozyme baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Allozymes from 46 loci were analyzed from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) collected at 61 locations in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Of the 42...

  15. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA (ISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Østergaard, Peter

    The first outbreak of ISA on the Faroe Islands was diagnosed in March 2000. Despite intensive surveillance, control and eradication of ISA, the disease has since spread to most of the Faroe Islands affecting about half of the 23 aquaculture farms. Sampling and laboratory diagnosis of ISA is perfo...... characterisation of the virus causing infectious salmon anemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): an orthomyxo-like virus in a teleost....

  16. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  17. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  18. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Comparative anatomy of the dorsal hump in mature Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Kenta; Ban, Masatoshi; Ichimura, Masaki; Kudo, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) demonstrate prominent morphological changes, such as the development of a dorsal hump. The degree of dorsal hump formation depends on the species in Pacific salmon. It is generally accepted that mature males of sockeye (O. nerka) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon develop most pronounced dorsal humps. The internal structure of the dorsal hump in pink salmon has been confirmed in detail. In this study, the dorsal hump morphologies were analyzed in four Pacific salmon species inhabiting Japan, masu (O. masou), sockeye, chum (O. keta), and pink salmon. The internal structure of the dorsal humps also depended on the species; sockeye and pink salmon showed conspicuous development of connective tissue and growth of bone tissues in the dorsal tissues. Masu and chum salmon exhibited less-pronounced increases in connective tissues and bone growth. Hyaluronic acid was clearly detected in dorsal hump connective tissue by histochemistry, except for in masu salmon. The lipid content in dorsal hump connective tissue was richer in masu and chum salmon than in sockeye and pink salmon. These results revealed that the patterns of dorsal hump formation differed among species, and especially sockeye and pink salmon develop pronounced dorsal humps through both increases in the amount of connective tissue and the growth of bone tissues. In contrast, masu and chum salmon develop their dorsal humps by the growth of bone tissues, rather than the development of connective tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Survival of Trichomonas gallinae in white-winged dove carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, K G; Kloss, C; Lyles, J; Felderhoff, J; Fedynich, A M; Henke, S E; Roberson, J A

    2000-07-01

    Survival of Trichomonas gallinae was examined in white-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica) carcasses to assess whether birds that have been dead up to 8 hr can be sampled reliably for this protozoan. Carcasses of 100 T. gallinae-positive white-winged doves were separated into four groups of 25 birds, representing 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr post mortem sampling intervals and placed into an environmental chamber maintained at 27 C and 75% relative humidity. Live T. gallinae were isolated in 96, 100, 100, and 92% of the carcasses at each of the respective post mortem intervals. The experiment was repeated with another 100 carcasses of T. gallinae-positive white-winged doves placed in the environmental chamber, this time maintained at 27 C and 40% relative humidity. Live T. gallinae occurred in 96, 100, 96, and 100% of the carcasses at each of the respective post mortem intervals. Across both trials, the overall ability to detect positive birds from sampling carcasses up to 8 hrs post mortem was 97%. An a posteriori experiment was conducted in which 23 and 18 carcasses from the second trial were maintained in the environmental chamber at 27 C and 40% relative humidity and resampled at 24 and 48 hr post mortem, respectively. Live trichomonads were isolated from 91 and 44% of the carcasses at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. Results suggest live T. gallinae can be obtained from dove carcasses reliably up to 8 hr and possibly up to 24 hr after host death. The ability for T. gallinae to survive within this time interval can aid wildlife personnel in monitoring this protozoan at hunter check stations or obtaining samples from recently killed birds.

  1. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  2. Effect of exposure on salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patursson, Esbern J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, Andre

    2017-01-01

    of the freshwater exchange rate, the tidal exchange rate and dispersion by tidal currents. Salmon farms were ranked according to the rate of increase in the average numbers of salmon lice per fish. In a multiple linear regression, physical exposure together with temperature were shown to have a significant effect...

  3. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  4. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingh, Hannah; Øyehaug, Leiv; Våge, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W

    2006-04-18

    Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  5. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  6. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annatto byproduct is the residue from the extraction of powder dye that covers the seed pericarp; after processing, between 94% and 98% of the original product is considered a byproduct. The aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of annatto byproduct on the components of sheep body weight. Thirty-two male sheep, not castrated, with initial weight of 23.17 ± 1.45 kg, without a defined breed, were used in randomized blocks in all four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct in the diet dry matter. The increase to 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct had a negative linear effect (P < 0.05 for hot carcass weight (kg and cold carcass weight (kg. Increasing levels of annatto byproduct resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.05 for palette weight (kg, leg weight (kg, carcass compactness index (kg cm?1, liver weight (kg and skin weight (kg. The inclusion of annatto byproduct up to 200 g kg?1 of dry matter in sheep diets did not affect the components of sheep body weight.

  7. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  8. Analog design centering and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Graeb, Helmut E

    2007-01-01

    Here is a compendium of fundamental problem formulations of analog design centering and sizing. It provides a differentiated knowledge about the many tasks of analog design centering and sizing. In particular, coverage formulates the worst-case problem. The book stands at the interface between process technology and design technology, detailing how the two are required to reach a solution. It presents a mathematically founded description based on numerical optimization and statistics. This volume will enable analog and mixed-signal designers to assess CAD solution methods that are presented to them as well as help developers of analog CAD tools to formulate and develop solution approaches for analog design centering and sizing.

  9. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  10. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine salmon case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bölscher, T; Slobbe, van, E.J.J; Vliet, van, M.T.H; Werners, S.E

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment...

  11. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  12. Carcass Search & Recovery Guidelines for Black Tailed Prairie Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of dead or intoxicated prairie dogs above ground will be monitored, recorded and these carcasses will be properly disposed of, in accordance with the procedures described on this page.

  13. Copepod carcasses in a tropical estuary during different hydrographical settings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Jagadeesan, L.; Lallu, K.R.

    Dead copepods (carcasses) are widespread in aquatic systems, but their scientific quantification is rare due to the difficulty in discriminating them from live ones. In this paper, we hypothesized that due to large spatial and temporal changes...

  14. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... hind-limb length and maximum hind limb width. Tissue ... yield high quantities of meat (Mahgoub et al., 2012). Traits such as ... supplementation improves both composition and carcass quality of goats. ... Panicum maximum.

  15. Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) and or black common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) meal diets. HF Defang, A Teguia, J Awah-Ndukum, A Kenfack, F Ngoula, F Metuge ...

  16. CARCASS MARKET VALUE OF FATTENER GILTS AND PRIMIPAROUS GILTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena BIEGNIEWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Study comprised 60 crossbred gilts F1 (PLW x PL, 30 fattener gilts (A and 30 littermate primiparous gilts (B. The fattening was conducted in standard condition from 30 to 108 kg body weight. The primiparous gilts were mated at second oestrus. During pregnancy and lactation period they were reared in standard condition adopted for pregnant and lactating sows. Fattener sows as well as primiparous sows were slaughtered after end of the experiment. Market carcass value was estimated on carcass jointing basis. It was assumed that market value is a function of percentage share of main parts in carcass and their unitary price (PLN/kg. Market carcass value of fattener sows and primiparous sows counted on 100 kg was comparable.

  17. Liver Contaminants in Bald eagles Carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty-one livers were extracted from bald eagle carcasses recovered in Maine between 2001 and 2007. Approximately 50% of the birds were collected during the spring...

  18. Avian Mortality Study : Carcass Searches : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains data sheets found in a three-ring binder at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge relating to the carcass searches performed on...

  19. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  20. Farmed Atlantic salmon: potential invader in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson; Pete Bisson

    2008-01-01

    Commercial farming of Atlantic salmon in marine net-pens has become a booming industry. At present, approximately 130 salmon farms exist along the Pacific coast of North America. Most of these farms are in cold marine bays within British Columbia, where farmed salmon have become the province’s most valuable agricultural export. Each year, thousands of farmed Atlantic...

  1. Adhesion mechanism of salmon to polymer-coated can walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommershuijzen, H.; Hviid, L.; Hartog, den H.; Vereijken, J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of the amount of salmon adhering to the can wall after emptying is one of the convenience requirements of consumers of canned salmon. In order to achieve this, the mechanism by which salmon adheres to cans needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to provide such knowledge for

  2. Accuracy of prediction of percentage lean meat and authorization of carcass measurement instruments: adverse effects of incorrect sampling of carcasses in pig classification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Walstra, P.; Olsen, E.; Daumas, G.

    2003-01-01

    Classification of pig carcasses in the European Community is based on the lean meat percentage of the carcass. The lean meat percentage is predicted from instrumental carcass measurements, such as fat and muscle depth measurements, obtained in the slaughter-line. The prediction formula employed is

  3. Prevalence and serogroup diversity of Salmonella for broiler neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass enrichment sampling methodologies following air or immersion chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup from the same broiler carcass following either air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler ...

  4. THE USE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY TO PREDICT CARCASS COMPOSITION IN KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cadavez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyse the use of ultrasounds to predict carcass composition in kids. Twenty kids from Serrana Portuguese local breed with a mean live weight of 12.6 ± 2.99 kg were scanned by ultrasonography to determine longissimus muscle depth (LD, subcutaneous fat thickness (SF between the 12th and 13th vertebrae (D12, 1st and 2nd (L1 and 3rd and 4th (L3 lumbar vertebra and breast bone tissue thickness at 1st (BT1, 2nd (BT2, 3rd (S3 and 4th (BT4 sternebrae. Lambs were slaughtered after 24-h fasting and carcasses were cooled at 4 ºC for 24 hours. Carcass left side was dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat and bone and remainder (major blood vessels, ligaments, tendons, and thick connective tissue sheets associated with some muscles. Tissues measurements plus hot carcass weight were fitted as independent variables to predict carcass composition by stepwise regression analysis. Models developed 96.7% of muscle, 64.6% of subcutaneous fat, 95.0% of intermuscular fat, and 85.0% of bone weight variation, respectively. Ultrasound measurements were admitted in the models, improving the determination coefficient (R2 and reducing the residual standard deviation. The HCW and tissues measurements taken by ultrasounds in live kids can be used to develop models to predict carcass composition at slaughter-house level.

  5. EQUATIONS FOR LEAN SHARE ESTIMATION IN SWINE CARCASSES IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kušec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed on 144 pig carcasses selected on the basis of backfat measures obtained by “ZP”- method. There was no stratification according to the carcass weight. One day after slaughter the carcasses were dissected by to EU reference method. The lean share was calculated by equation prescribed by European regulation (Commission Regulation No 3127/94 and estimated by six equations. The first one (MP1 is prescribed by current Croatian regulation (N.N. 119/1999 and the other five were developed on the basis of original data obtained by the experiment. The meat percentage estimated by equation MP1 differed statistically (p<0.01 from mean meat percentage obtained by EU referent method; the current formula significantly overestimates the meatiness of pig carcasses from Croatian population. Original measures of fat and muscle measured for “ZP”- method were used as independent variables in equation MP6. In order to improve the accuracy of estimation, transformed variables were used in equations MP2-MP5. Additional measure of warm carcass weight (T was included as an independent variable to equations MP4 and MP5 but this did not improve their accuracy. Equation MP2 to MP5 satisfy the statistical criterion requested by EU regulations. The equation MP2 and MP5 can be recommended for lean share estimation in pig carcasses of Croatian pig population.

  6. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  7. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  8. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  9. Salmon: Robust Proxy Distribution for Censorship Circumvention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many governments block their citizens’ access to much of the Internet. Simple workarounds are unreliable; censors quickly discover and patch them. Previously proposed robust approaches either have non-trivial obstacles to deployment, or rely on low-performance covert channels that cannot support typical Internet usage such as streaming video. We present Salmon, an incrementally deployable system designed to resist a censor with the resources of the “Great Firewall” of China. Salmon relies on a network of volunteers in uncensored countries to run proxy servers. Although any member of the public can become a user, Salmon protects the bulk of its servers from being discovered and blocked by the censor via an algorithm for quickly identifying malicious users. The algorithm entails identifying some users as especially trustworthy or suspicious, based on their actions. We impede Sybil attacks by requiring either an unobtrusive check of a social network account, or a referral from a trustworthy user.

  10. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  11. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. The quality of cold smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Ph. D. thesis was to study the liquid holding capacity/liquid loss of raw and smoked salmonids as affected by raw material and chill storage of the cold smoked product. The liquid holding capacity is an important quality parameter for cold smoked salmon. This study has shown...... of the smoked product affected the liquid holding capacity. Thus, the producers of cold smoked salmon should be aware of this and should have a careful control of the raw material especially regarding the lipid content....

  13. Copepod carcasses in a tropical estuary during different hydrographical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, R; Jagadeesan, L; Lallu, K R

    2015-10-01

    Dead copepods (carcasses) are widespread in aquatic systems, but their scientific quantification is rare due to the difficulty in discriminating them from live ones. In this paper, we hypothesized that due to large spatial and temporal changes in hydrography in the Cochin backwaters, the percentage of copepod carcasses in the system could also change significantly on a spatial and temporal scale. In order to understand this aspect, we quantified the live and dead copepods in the Cochin backwaters under different hydrographical settings based on live and mortal staining technique. The most prominent temporal hydrographical feature during the study period was the large decline in salinity across the system, which was more pronounced downstream (15-20 units) and was caused by the large freshwater influx associated with the southwest monsoon. During the entire sampling period, copepod carcasses were pervasive all over the study area with large spatial and temporal variations in their percentage contribution (2.5-35.8 %) to the total community abundance. During all sampling, carcasses concentrated more in the downstream region, with maximum turbidity (16.5-35.8 %), than in the upstream region (2.5-14.5 %). The percentage of carcasses was the highest during the onset of the southwest monsoon (av. 23.64 ± 8.09 %), followed by the pre-southwest monsoon (av. 13.59 ± 6.72 %) and southwest monsoon (av. 8.75 ± 4.14 %). During the onset of the southwest monsoon, copepod carcasses in the downstream were contributed by ∼80 % high saline and ∼15 % low saline species, indicating a salinity shock-induced mortality. On the other hand, the cumulative effect of the long residence time of the Cochin backwaters and high partial predation rate of carnivores contributed to the high abundance of carcasses during the pre-monsoon.

  14. Salmon vulnerability maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  15. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  16. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  17. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits. Genetic,...

  18. Differential rejection of salmon lice by pink and chum salmon: disease consequences and expression of proinflammatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon R M; Fast, Mark D; Johnson, Stewart C; Groman, David B

    2007-05-09

    The consequences of high (735 copepodids fish-1) and low (243 copepodids fish-1) level exposures of size-matched juvenile pink and chum salmon to Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodids were examined. At both levels of exposure the prevalence and abundance of L. salmonis was significantly higher on chum salmon. In addition, the weight of exposed chum salmon following the high exposure was significantly less than that of unexposed chum salmon. At both exposures, the haematocrit of exposed chum salmon was significantly less than that of unexposed chum. Neither weight nor haematocrit of pink salmon was affected by exposures at these levels. Despite the presence of microscopic inflammatory lesions associated with attachment of L. salmonis on the epithelium of gill and fin of both salmon species, there were no mortalities following either exposure. A transient cortisol response was observed in chum salmon 21 d after low exposure. An earlier and quantitatively higher expression of the proinflammatory genes interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor alpha-1 (TNFalpha-1) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in fin and head kidney of pink salmon suggested a mechanism of more rapid louse rejection in this species. Together, these observations indicate a relatively enhanced innate resistance to L. salmonis in the juvenile pink salmon compared with the juvenile chum salmon.

  19. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  20. Comparative genomics identifies candidate genes for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieying; Boroevich, Keith A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) has been described as the hoof and mouth disease of salmon farming. ISA is caused by a lethal and highly communicable virus, which can have a major impact on salmon aquaculture, as demonstrated by an outbreak in Chile in 2007. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ISA resistance has been mapped to three microsatellite markers on linkage group (LG) 8 (Chr 15) on the Atlantic salmon genetic map. We identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and three fingerprint contigs from the Atlantic salmon physical map that contains these markers. We made use of the extensive BAC end sequence database to extend these contigs by chromosome walking and identified additional two markers in this region. The BAC end sequences were used to search for conserved synteny between this segment of LG8 and the fish genomes that have been sequenced. An examination of the genes in the syntenic segments of the tetraodon and medaka genomes identified candidates for association with ISA resistance in Atlantic salmon based on differential expression profiles from ISA challenges or on the putative biological functions of the proteins they encode. One gene in particular, HIV-EP2/MBP-2, caught our attention as it may influence the expression of several genes that have been implicated in the response to infection by infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Therefore, we suggest that HIV-EP2/MBP-2 is a very strong candidate for the gene associated with the ISAV resistance QTL in Atlantic salmon and is worthy of further study.

  1. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work.

  2. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (psalmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carcass and meat traits, and non-carcass components of lambs fed ration containing increasing levels of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rozanski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits, and the non-carcass components of crossbred Dorper lambs fed diets with increasing levels of urea (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of dry matter – DM. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (urea inclusion levels and six replicates per treatment. Lambs were fed ad libitum for 56 days and slaughtered at 37.9 ± 5.1 kg of body weight (BW. The weight and yield of carcass before and after cooling were not influenced by urea levels, with average values of 16.9 kg and 44.6% for cold carcass weight and yield. Urea levels did not affect the morphometric measurements, the fat deposition on the carcass, the weight of carcass cuts and the weight of non-carcass components. There was a quadratic effect of urea levels on the loin yield, which may achieve maximum value of 11.31% with the inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the feed. The pH and the color coordinates L* (brightness, a* (red intensity and C* (saturation of the meat also showed quadratic response to the urea levels, where in the minimum value of 5.53 for pH, maximum value of 48.67 for L* and minimum values of 14.04 and 16.21 for a* and C* may be obtained by including 0.53 to 0.70% DM urea in the ration. The inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the ration is recommended to obtain maximum yield of loin and meat with attractive characteristics to the consumer, which is characterized by high red intensity and brightness. If consumers have preference for lamb meat with a more intense red color, the inclusion of 1.5% DM urea should be considered in the ration formulation.

  4. Use of bird carcass removals by urban scavengers to adjust bird-window collision estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kummer, Justine A; Nordell, Cameron J; Berry, Taylor M; Collins, Colina V; Tse, Casandra R.L; Bayne, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    .... Only two studies have examined carcass removal by scavengers in an urban environment, and previous estimates of bird-window collision mortality at houses have relied on carcass removal rates from wind turbine studies...

  5. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, 1992 : Annual Report FY 92-93.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen Wesley

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results for the second year (1992) of a three year study. The goals of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the source (s) of interdam losses of adult fall chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), as well as upstream of LGR; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, and to assist with redd habitat mapping and carcass recovery (for genetic stock profile analysis). Radio telemetry was used as the method of addressing project goals. Unmarked (not adipose clipped) adult fall chinook salmon were trapped and radio tagged at IHR and LGR dams as they ascended the Snake River during their spawning migration. They used aerial and ground mobile radio tracking to determine the movements of these fish. They examined movements of all radio tagged salmon upstream of LGR Dam. That provided us with a sample of 17 radio tagged fish tagged at IHR and 20 tagged at LGR. They estimate a combined fall back rate at LGR of 37.1% (13 fish). Another 10.8--13.5% were `lost` or prespawning mortalities. They identified two potential spawning locations that would not have been detected from the aerial spawning surveys. One site was upstream of Troy on the Grande Ronde River and the other was in the upper Snake River.

  6. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  7. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  8. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  9. Pacific Salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Gende; R.T. Edwards; M.F. Willson; M.S. Wipfli

    2002-01-01

    almon runs in the Pacific Northwest have been declining for decades, so much so that many runs are threatened or endangered; others have been completely extirpated (Nehlsen et al. 1991). This "salmon crisis" looms large in the public eye, because it has serious and wideranging economic, cultural, and ecological repercussions. Billions of dollars have gone...

  10. Salmon theology: Return to traditional reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Clair

    2007-01-01

    When beauty and utility are divorced in the loss of wonder, beauty begins to perish. Salmon go extinct. The fragility of beauty is the fragility of wilderness. It does not perish due to weakness but from the generosity and vulnerability that are bound up with its usefulness.

  11. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Carr-Harris

    Full Text Available Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years, Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the

  12. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D. [Nez Perce Tribe

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  13. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  15. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of cattle...

  16. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  17. Novel deboning method of chilled broiler carcasses (prior to evisceration) and its effect on meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During traditional poultry processing, the two main sources of contamination of the broiler carcasses are (1) microorganisms on the exterior of the carcasses, that results in skin surface contamination and (2) microorganisms from the gastrointestinal contents of the carcass and subsequent cross cont...

  18. Effects of pasture on carcass composition in Cinta Senese pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuliotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The trial was performed to investigate on the effects of different periods of grass pasture in fattening Cinta Senese pigs; growth performances, carcass characteristics and meat quality were studied. Control group was reared in paddock and fed concentrate, while experimental group grazed on grass pasture with an integration of 1.4 kg/pig/d of concentrate. Initial live weight was not different between the two groups and individual weights were periodically recorded. Animals were slaughtered from 36 to 160 days from the trial beginning. Carcass weight, body measures, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24 were recorded. After 24 hours of refrigeration, each carcass was dissected into lean, fat and bone cuts. Results didn’t show differences between the two groups, revealing that Cinta Senese pigs can profitably utilize pasture on grass even in fattening period.

  19. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  20. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  1. Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

    2013-03-01

    Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and

  2. Ostrich (Struthio camellus carcass yield and meat quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balog

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at compiling recent studies on the main factors that influence ostrich meat quality and carcass yield. Few articles investigated the effect of subspecies, which generally are not even mentioned. There are important dietary effects, particularly those caused by dietary protein to energy ratio. Rigor mortis follow-up studies showed that there are no losses in meat quality when carcasses are hot-deboned. Age at slaughter influences some meat quality traits, such as tenderness and lipid content. Few effects of gender have been observed, and at the same age at slaughter, both male and female present the same meat quality traits.

  3. End-Cycle Sow Carcass Condemnation in a French Slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Decaudin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance at an abattoir allows all animals or carcasses that present a potential public health risk to be withdrawn from the human food chain. Whole-carcass condemnation results in important economic losses, not only for the producer but also for other participants in the meat industry. Access to the personal electronic database of an abattoir in France enabled us to run logistic regression models to investigate the risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation of end-cycle sows in that abattoir. When end-cycle sows that were slaughtered and eviscerated between 22 June 2015 and 8 December 2015 (185 days were considered (n = 19,866, the results highlighted the importance of the total theoretical time off feed, which represents the fasting period from leaving the farm of origin to the time of slaughter (including transportation and waiting time at the abattoir. Each 10-h increase in the theoretical time off feed was associated with a 31% greater likelihood of whole-carcass condemnation [odd ratio (OR = 1.31, CI 95% (1.27; 1.34], and a 10 kg increase in carcass weight before refrigeration was associated with a 23% lower likelihood of carcass condemnation [OR = 0.77, CI 95% (0.75; 0.78]. The results also indicate the importance of the producer group that the farmer belonged to (P < 0.01. A relatively small number of variables was available in the actual database to study the relevant risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation associated with or without diseases at the farm of origin. This derives partly from the fact that traceability at the abattoir in France is done per batch rather than individually for pigs; further, limited information is available at the farm level. An investigation of the reasons for whole-carcass condemnation could have been informative; however, it was not feasible in a reasonable timeframe because these data were not saved in a database in a systematic way. Some of the difficulties encountered in

  4. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  5. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  6. Analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewyn, L. L. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    An analog to digital converter circuit arrangement is reported that is suitable for use in ultra fast pulse height analysis. The circuit uses series connected tunnel diodes to quantize a voltage signal into discrete levels.

  7. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  8. A stage-structured Bayesian hierarchical model for salmon lice populations at individual salmon farms – Estimated from multiple farm data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrin, Magne Tommy; Huseby, Ragnar Bang; Stien, Audun; Grøntvedt, Randi Nygaard; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jansen, Peder A

    2017-01-01

    Salmon farming has become a prosperous international industry over the last decades. Along with growth in the production farmed salmon, however, an increasing threat by pathogens has emerged. Of special concern is the propagation and spread of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To gain insight into this parasite’s population dynamics in large scale salmon farming system, we present a fully mechanistic stage-structured population model for the salmon louse, also allowing for complexiti...

  9. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Bottom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social-ecological interactions across multiple scales that create difficult mismatches with the many jurisdictions that manage fisheries and other natural resources. Of particular importance to ecosystem resilience are large-scale shifts in oceanic and climatic regimes or in global economic conditions that unpredictably alter social and ecological systems. Past management actions that did not account for such changes have undermined salmon population resilience and increased the risk of irreversible regime shifts in salmon ecosystems. Because salmon convey important provisioning, cultural, and supporting services to their local watersheds, widespread population decline has undermined both human well-being and ecosystem resilience. Strengthening resilience will require expanding habitat opportunities for salmon populations to express their maximum life-history variation. Such actions also may benefit the "response diversity" of local communities by expanding the opportunities for people to express diverse social and economic values. Reestablishing social-ecological connections in salmon ecosystems will provide important ecosystem services, including those that depend on clean water, ample stream flows, functional wetlands and floodplains, intact riparian systems, and abundant fish populations.

  10. Diphyllobothrium latum infection after eating domestic salmon flesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Suhk, Hyo-Chung; Shin, Ho-Jun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Han, Eun-Taek; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2001-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in human is not common in Korea and only thirty seven cases have been reported since 1921. We report two cases of fish tapeworm infection after Ingestion of raw cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) caught in the domestic river. Among four family members who ate together raw salmon flesh six months ago, just two, mother and daughter, were infected. It is our expectation that the salmon associated tapeworm infections would be enlisted as one of the major parasitic problems with the growing consumption of salmon in Korea. PMID:11775333

  11. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  12. Deep water, an effect on the temperature for the management of caligodosis in the Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme, Roberto; Laboratorio de Biología Celular Aplicada, Núcleo de investigación en Producción Alimentaria-NIPA, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco; Olivares-Ferretti, Pamela; Laboratorio de Biología Celular Aplicada, Núcleo de investigación en Producción Alimentaria-NIPA, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery; Laboratorio de Inmuno Parasitología Molecular, Centro de Excelencia en Medicina Traslacional, Departamento de Ciencias Preclínicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco; Parodi, Jorge; Laboratorio de Biología Celular Aplicada, Núcleo de investigación en Producción Alimentaria-NIPA, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Temuco

    2017-01-01

    Salmon farming is one of the pillars of the Chilean economy but due the emerging of many diseases, including the ecto-parasitism caused by Caligus rogercresseyi, the salmon industry has decreased their production indices. Based on that, alternative rearing systems are being evaluated for salmon cultivation, one of them fish farming in deep water, where the temperature is lower than the temperature of the surface, as C. rogercresseyi is a parasite whose life cycle is water temperature dependen...

  13. Artificial intelligence techniques point out differences in classification performance between light and standard bovine carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, J; Bahamonde, A; Alonso, J; López, S; Del Coz, J J; Quevedo, J R; Ranilla, J; Luaces, O; Alvarez, I; Royo, L J; Goyache, F

    2003-07-01

    The validity of the official SEUROP bovine carcass classification to grade light carcasses by means of three well reputed Artificial Intelligence algorithms has been tested to assess possible differences in the behavior of the classifiers in affecting the repeatability of grading. We used two training sets consisting of 65 and 162 examples respectively of light and standard carcass classifications, including up to 28 different attributes describing carcass conformation. We found that the behavior of the classifiers is different when they are dealing with a light or a standard carcass. Classifiers follow SEUROP rules more rigorously when they grade standard carcasses using attributes characterizing carcass profiles and muscular development. However, when they grade light carcasses, they include attributes characterizing body size or skeletal development. A reconsideration of the SEUROP classification system for light carcasses may be recommended to clarify and standardize this specific beef market in the European Union. In addition, since conformation of light and standard carcasses can be considered different traits, this could affect sire evaluation programs to improve carcass conformation scores from data from markets presenting a great variety of ages and weights of slaughtered animals.

  14. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  15. The effect of high-level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenfeld, L N; Fletcher, D L; Northcutt, J K; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological effect of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10-fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated prechill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine-treated carcasses were subjected to a 1-min drench in 500 mL of a 500 mg/kg chlorine solution (sodium hypochlorite). Water-drenched carcasses were treated the same way except water was used in place of chlorinated water drench. Control carcasses were not drenched. All carcasses were then subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 450 mL of buffered peptone water, from which 50 mL of the rinsate was removed for enumeration of total aerobic bacteria (APC), Escherichia coli, and total coliforms (TC). The entire carcass was then incubated 24 h at 37°C (whole carcass enrichment, WCE) for recovery of Salmonella. Levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were lower by 0.6 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.8 for E. coli, and 0.9 for TC when carcasses were drenched with water compared with undrenched control levels. Similarly, the levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were further lower by 1.0 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.5 for E. coli, and 0.5 for TC, when carcasses were drenched with 500 mg/kg of chlorine compared with water. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence of Salmonella among the treatments (29% positive for control, 26% positive for water, 38% positive for chlorinated). These results indicate that drenching eviscerated carcasses with water or chlorinated water at 500 mg/kg significantly, but minimally, reduces the numbers of APC, E. coli, and TC bacteria recovered compared with undrenched carcasses. However, neither drenching carcasses with water or high chlorine had an effect on the prevalence of Salmonella that remain with the carcass as determined by WCE. The results of this study confirms the importance of maintaining and replenishing free chlorine for

  16. Effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight in PIC pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jieping; Zhang, Mingming; Ye, Runqing; Ma, Yun; Lei, Chuzhao

    2017-12-01

    Variation of the vertebral number is associated with carcass traits in pigs. However, results from different populations do not match well with others, especially for carcass weight. Therefore, effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight were investigated by analyzing the relationship between two loci multi-vertebra causal loci (NR6A1 g.748 C > T and VRTN g.20311_20312ins291) and carcass weight in PIC pigs. Results from the association study between vertebral number and carcass weight showed that increased thoracic number had negative effects on carcass weight, but the results were not statistically significant. Further, VRTN Ins/Ins genotype increased more than one thoracic than that of Wt/Wt genotype on average in this PIC population. Meanwhile, there was a significant negative effect of VRTN Ins on carcass weight (P PIC pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. The production and microbiological status of skin-on sheep carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alan; Wilkin, Carol-Ann; Purnell, Graham

    2007-12-01

    There is a demand by certain ethnic consumer groups in the United Kingdom for skin-on, singed carcasses, primarily from older sheep, but their production is illegal under current EU legislation. The aim of this study was to devise a protocol to produce carcasses having the desired 'smoked' colour and odour and an acceptable microbiology. A successful result could form the basis of a case to revise the legislation. Three key steps in the selected procedure were carcass singeing using specially designed gas burner equipment, pressure washing to clean the carcass and then evisceration. It was shown that a second heat application, termed 'toasting', if applied after evisceration, significantly (Ptoasting was the final step, following carcass splitting and inspection. Carcasses produced in this way had significantly (P<0.001) lower Enterobacteriaceae and TVC counts before chilling than conventionally dressed sheep carcasses produced in the same abattoir.

  18. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  19. Seasonal and annual variations in body weight and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records kept by the Bauchi Meat Company, on 2,264 cattle slaughtered for meat, from 1982 to 1984, were analysed to study the influence of season and year on the weight of the body, carcass, bones, wholesale and retail cuts, and dressing percentage. Both season and year showed significant (P< 0.01) influence on traits ...

  20. Performance and Carcass Yield of Sexed Broiler Chickens Reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing types. The birds were brooded for 2 weeks, differentiated into male and female by feather sexing and balanced for weight. Thereafter, 150 ...

  1. Comparative carcass characteristics of indigenous turkey poults fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    products on the carcass characteristics of indigenous turkey poults. Sixty indigenous poults were brooded and fed broiler starter feed for the first 4 weeks of life. At the end of 4 weeks, forty-eight poults were randomly selected and distributed into four ...

  2. performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    density and L-carnitine supplementation on the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens. .... treatment were frozen immediately at ~4 °C. The meat was separated manually from the bone and then homogenized using a ..... activated protein kinase in muscle during exercise. Am. J. Physiol. 270 ...

  3. Growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers on acidified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of acidifer in a blood meal based diet on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. One hundred and eighty un-sexed 4-week old broiler chicks raised on a common starter diet were randomly distributed into four experimental diets of 3 replicates and ...

  4. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the 56 days feeding trial, three animals per treatment were slaughtered after being starved for 16 hours and evaluated for carcass characteristics and meat quality. Average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly (P<0.05) higher in YS/NF compared to other treatments.

  5. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin. Methodology and results: 260 indigenous chickens of which 52 ...

  6. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of feeding systems on carcass characteristics and composition of Mubende goats and their Boer goat crossbreds. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was used to randomly allocate 60 castrates, 30 purebred Mubende and 30 Mubende x Boer, aged 9 - 12 months, to three feeding ...

  7. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian goat breeds, the Afar, Central Highland (CHG) and Long-eared Somali (LES) were evaluated using three grainless diets varying in concentrate:roughage ratios (diet 1 was 50:50, diet 2, 65:35 and diet 3, 80:20) under feedlot conditions. The roughage was native grass ...

  8. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on carcass quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mdenli

    linoleic acid (CLA) on carcass characteristics, serum lipid variables and histopathological properties in ... cancer models such as chemically induced skin, stomach, colorectal cancer and mammary tumorigenesis. (Aro et al. ... The treated feed was left overnight at room temperature for the solvent to evaporate and was then.

  9. Microbial Biofilm and Bacterial Contamination on Pig Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to emphasize the presence of biofilm on meat surfaces using epifluorescences microscopy and establishing the microbial contamination level by classical microbiological methods. The research was performed in a pork slaughterhouse. The presence of microbial biofilm and the level of contamination were performed on surfaces from pig carcasses and cut pieces. Clusters of microorganisms included in a biofilm matrix were found on the surface of carcasses on sternal region, coast region, coccigian region and on surfaces of cut pieces: chop, front of thighs. Microbial biofilm was present on carcasses and cut pieces at least 3 days length, in regions with high humidity and microbial contamination level ranged of 102- 103 cfu/ cm2. The microbial load of the surfaces was assessed using the following microbiological indicators: total viable count (TVC, the number of enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genus. The level of carcasses contamination ranged on average from 1.3 x 10 cfu/ cm2 (neck to 2.6 x 103 cfu/cm2 (front of pulp. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae-positive samples was 60%, with a low level of contamination (less than 1 cfu/ cm2. Germs of the Pseudomonas genus were absent in all the analyzed samples.

  10. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lena Bosman

    #Non-conditioned – slaughtered within three months of purchase; Conditioned - slaughtered between six and 10 months of purchase or birth. ...... Effects of castration on growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality in Damascus goats. Anim. Prod. 24, 387-391. Mason, I.L., 1981. Breeds. In: Goat Production.

  11. Live mass, carcass and wool growth responses to supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Live mass, carcass and wool growth responses to supplementation of a roughage diet with sources of protein and energy in South African Mutton Merino lambs. ... Die invloed van katoensaadoliekoekmeel (KOK) teen peile van 0, 100 of 200 g/d in kombinasie met heel mielies teen 0, 100 of 200 g/d as byvoeding tot 'n dieet ...

  12. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They had a high lean and low fat content. Intact males were suited for high chevon yield because they were heavy, had a high lean and low fat content, and losses during dressing and chilling were reduced by improved nutrition. Goats between 2 - 6 teeth yielded heavy carcasses that were comparable to goats in the 8-teeth ...

  13. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... but with different energy levels. A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ...

  14. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing types. The birds were brooded for 2 weeks, differentiated into male and female by feather sexing and balanced for weight. Thereafter, 150 ...

  15. Glucuronidase activity of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Perin,Luana Martins; Yamazi,Anderson Keizo; Moraes,Paula Mendonça; Cossi,Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Pinto,Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Nero,Luís Augusto

    2010-01-01

    To identify Escherichia coli through the production of β-D-glucuronidase (GUD), 622 suspect cultures were isolated from chicken carcasses and plated in PetrifilmTM EC. Of these cultures, only 44 (7.1%) failed to produce GUD. This result indicates the usefulness of GUD production for estimating E. coli populations in chicken.

  16. Carcass yield and characteristics of Karadi lambs as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of two levels of rumen undegradable nitrogen (7 and 10 g UDN/kg DM) fed with two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS/ kg DM) supplementation to rations of karadi lambs on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Sixteen individual Karadi male ...

  17. Evaluation of corn meal on performance, carcass characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of corn meal (CM) on performance, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility of chickens in a completely randomized design experiment with 4 × 2 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates per treatment, 384 Ross male broiler chickens in a 49 days period were evaluated. Treatments were 0 (CM0), ...

  18. Carcass and organ characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of graded levels of heat-treated castor oil bean meal and supplementary L-lysine on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler birds was investigated. In experiment 1, 180 seven-day old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into 12 groups of 15 birds each. In experiment 2, 144 six weeks old broiler ...

  19. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cold carcass mass and rib barrel than those slaughtered I3, I4,, BM and SM. The goats slaughtered at I3 had the highest dressing percentage and goats slaughtered at BM had the lowest dressing percentage (DP). For external noncarcass components, the proportion of the head did not change but it was the feet proportion ...

  20. Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to analyze the effects of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on the performance, carcass yields and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. Three hundred and sixty oneday- old Abor Aerec broilers were randomly divided into two dietary treatments, adding genetically modified (GM) ...

  1. Performance and carcass values of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  2. Growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two natural proprietary vitamin-mineral premixes on growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails. Four hundred (10 day-old) quails were randomly allotted to dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 20 chicks per treatment and the birds were fed ad libitum for 28 ...

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  4. The effects of docking on performance and carcass characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of tail docking at birth on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fat-tailed male Karakas lambs were investigated. A total of 23 Karakas single-born male lambs was used in this study. Nine were docked at one day of age using rubber elastrator rings and the rest was left intact. After weaning, the lambs ...

  5. Post-slaughter carcass evaluation in whiteheaded mutton sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of the subjective EUROP classification with the results of evaluation based on measurements and complete dissection shows that when evaluating conformation, it was not possible to determine precisely the tissue composition of the carcass. In turn, fatness evaluation may be informative on tissue contents in ...

  6. Carcass yield and characteristics of Karadi lambs as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    affected by dietary supplement of rumen undegradable ... Live weight gain was not significantly affected by levels of UDN and NS supplementation. Slaughter body weight, hot and cold carcass weights and killing out proportion were not significantly affected by both ... together with dietary protein which escapes degradation.

  7. Effects of feed refreshing frequency on growth and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    were fed individually. At the onset of each refreshing period the lambs were offered fresh feed ad libitum. Daily feed intakes, weekly live weights and carcass characteristics ... Conventionally, feeding units using ad libitum systems use feed troughs that contain sufficient feed to meet ..... Effect of grass or concentrate feeding.

  8. Carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino acids by chickens. A.J. Saunders, J.P.H. Wessels, R.M. Gous. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ...

  9. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  10. Growth Response and Carcass Traits of Birds Fed Diets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth Response and Carcass Traits of Birds Fed Diets Containing Three Differently Processed Discarded Vegetable-Bovine Blood-Rumen Content Mixtures. ... Data were subjected to Completely Randomized Design in a 3 x 3 factorial experimental layout. At the starter phase, results showed that birds fed P1 and P3 had ...

  11. Major causes of organ and carcass condemnation and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Carcass; Condemnation; ELFORA; Fasciolosis; Hydatid cyst; Or- gan; Ethiopia. Introduction. The Ethiopian livestock sector was contributing considerable portion to the economy of the country, and still it is promising in the economic development of the country. There are about 52.13 million heads of cattle in the ...

  12. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers was investigated in a feeding experiment using 135 broilers of Abor acre strain in a completely randomised design that lasted for eight weeks at the Teaching and Research farm, Department of Agricultural education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Lagos ...

  13. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2486547

    Abstract. The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old.

  14. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...

  15. The Main Index of Carcasses Conformation at Young Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilişiu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose is to obtain information on the development of carcasses obtained from Tsigai race and its hybrids with Suffolk and German blackface breeds. The results showed that hybrids Suffolk x Tsigai and German blackface x Tsigai have made a better form of carcass compared with Tsigai race, being superior with 1.86% to the Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids and 1.48% German blackface x Tsigai hybrids. Regarding the index of carcass compacted, its value is around the value of 100% in all three groups. The best development of the leg of mutton is found at Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids. Value of leg of mutton development index was 203.58% for hybrids with race Suffolk, being superior with 14.91% compared with Tsigai race, while the index value at German blackface x Tsigai hybrids was higher only 4.56% compared to Tsigai breed. The best proportionality of leg of mutton meets to the Suffolk x Tsigai hybrids, the index value was 65.42%, with 11.05% higher, compared with Tsigai race. At German blackface x Tsigai hybrids, the index was higher with 6.45%, compared with that obtained at Tsigai breed. Carcasses obtained from hybrids are appropriate format, to those corresponding meat breeds.

  16. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... space allowance for maximizing the growth performance and stabilizing immune response of pigs in sawdust fermentative ... performed to investigate the optimal stocking density for maximizing growth performance, carcass grade and immunity of pigs. Materials and Methods ... barrows and gilts in a pen.

  17. Genetic variation of calsarcin-1 gene and association with carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... ficial selection, migration, and genetic drift and that the artificial selection had put little pressure on this gene locus. Hence, the artificial selection must be strength-. Yang et al. 2715 ened in the process of the improvement for Chinese cattle. Effect of the CS-1 genotypes on carcass traits. Allele frequencies of ...

  18. Short communication: Effect of breed on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effect of breed on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Mexican hair sheep, 48 lambs (average 38.9 ± 1.56 kg body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The breed types assessed were 16 Pelibuey (PB), 16 Pelibuey x Katahdin (PB-KT) crossbred and 16 ...

  19. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... Abstract. A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda ...

  20. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    Matebele goats were slaughtered at different state of permanent incisors eruption 1st pair (I1 )(237records), 2nd pair (I2 )(312 records), 3rd pair (I3 )(237records), 4th pair (I4)(232 ), Broken Mouth (BM)(214) and Smooth Mouth. (SM)(218) over a period of 15 years (1989- 2004) and analysed for carcass performance.

  1. A Bayesian approach to the Japanese Black cattle carcass genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4361148

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 77. A Bayesian approach to the Japanese Black cattle carcass genetic evaluation. A. Arakawa. 1#. , H. Iwaisaki. 1 and K. Anada. 2. 1 Graduate School of Agriculture, Division of Applied Biosciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan. 2 Wagyu ...

  2. Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bekezela

    This study showed the importance of adjusting for fixed effects when performing genetic evaluations in the two pig populations. Keywords: Carcass traits, growth traits, environmental effects, Large White, Landrace, swine. # Corresponding author: Bekezela.Dube@nwu.ac.za. Introduction. The value of a meat animal is ...

  3. Genetic estimation of hot carcass weight in indigenous Matebele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... observed when maternal genetic effects and permanent environmental maternal effects were accounted for in the model. A simple animal model with direct additive genetic effect as the only random effect other than the residuals was the best model for genetic evaluation of hot carcass weight in indigenous Matebele goat.

  4. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a previous study regarding the effects of Kosher and conventional slaughter techniques on carcass and meat quality of cattle, it was speculated that electrical stimulation may have affected some of the meat qualities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) and ...

  5. Effect Of Dietary Protein Levels On The Performance And Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein (CP) levels in diets of 2600kcal/kg metabolisable energy content on the performance and carcass characteristics of cockerel finishers. The experimental diets A, B, C, D and E contained CP levels of 140, 160, 180, : 200 and 220g/kg and they were ...

  6. Effects Of Varying Levels Of Dietary Protein On The Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits aged 9-10 weeks and weighing 0.72-0.99 kg were used to examine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on carcass characteristics of rabbits. They were divided into four groups and allotted to four dietary treatments A, B, C and D formulated with 10, 13, 16 and 20 % crude protein ...

  7. A comparative study of sampling techniques for monitoring carcass contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, J.M.A.; Janssen, M.H.W.; Gerats, G.E.; Corstiaensen, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Four bacteriological sampling techniques i.e. the excision, double swab, agar contract and modified agar contact techniques were compared by sampling pig carcasses before and after chilling. As well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques particular attention was paid to

  8. Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Body weight and carcass traits were under intensive selection for more .... All previous muscles and organs were also calculated as ..... Sel. Evol. J. 38: 85-97. Liu X, Li H, Wang S, Hu X, Gao Y, Wang Q, Li N, Wang Y, Zhang H.

  9. Aspects of the serum biochemistry, carcass quality and organoleptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding alkaline treated date pits (TDP) on serum biochemistry, carcass quality and organoleptic characteristics were investigated in 396 commercial broiler chicks of the Hybro strain. The values of glucose, albumin, protein, calcium, pH and GPT and GOT showed no significance difference when compared ...

  10. Effects of initial fattening age on carcass characteristics and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows-XP

    2017-02-16

    Feb 16, 2017 ... Livestock and beef production have gradually declined in Turkey as a result of several factors such as reducing the number of livestock, obtaining meat from slaughtered dairy cows, and lower carcass weights. Yet population growth has led to increased demand for meat products (Demirbas & Tosun, 2005;.

  11. Performance and carcass characteristics of finisher broilers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 96, four weeks old broiler birds of Anak strain were subjected to 42 days feeding trial at the poultry unit of Imo State Polytechnic Teaching and Research Farm, Umuagwo in Ohaji/Egbema LGA of Imo State, Nigeria to determine the effect of sun-dried cattle plasma (SDCP) on their performance and carcass ...

  12. Performance, Carcass Evaluation And Economics Of Production Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-weeks feeding trial involving 162,8-week old goldline cockerel birds was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and economics of production of cockerels fed whole cassava plant meal (WCPM). Diet 1 was maize based and served as the control, diet 2 ...

  13. The effects of whole cottonseed feeding on performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP Employee

    Feeding of whole cottonseed on performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal morphology of Zandi lambs. M. Absalan1, A. Afzalzade1, M. Mirzaee2, S.D. Sharifi1, M. Khorvash2. & M. Kazemi-Benchenari3#. 1 Department of Animal Science, Abureyhan College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. 2 Centre of ...

  14. Color classification of veal carcasses: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Megen, R. van

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, veal carcasses are classified on color, conformation and fatness. In the past 20 years, major efforts have been put into the development of a reliable color classification system. Initially, the color of the musculus rectus abdominis was visually matched to a 10-point scale.

  15. Effects of initial fattening age on carcass characteristics and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of initial fattening age on carcass and meat quality of Simmental bulls imported from Austria to Turkey. These animals were allocated to two initial ages of fattening groups, namely young (n = 74) and old group (n = 61) at 5.5 and 7.5 months old, respectively. After reaching ...

  16. Comparison of carcass yield and meat composition of three classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the carcass yield and meat composition of three classes of chicken. Twenty one (21) birds in total consisting of 7 birds each of broilers, cockerel and spent hens were purchased from a reputable farm in Aiyepe, Ogun State. Birds were acclimatized for two weeks under similar ...

  17. Bodyweight Change and CarcassYield Performance of Somali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bodyweight Change and CarcassYield Performance of Somali Goats Fed with Groundnut Pod Hulls and a Mixture of Wheat Branand Mustard Seed Cake. ... Better dressing percentage was obtained (P<0.01) in supplemented and UTGNPH group on empty and slaughter BW basis. The result of this experiment demonstrated ...

  18. Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Broiler Chicken Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Broiler Chicken Fed High Fibre Sunflower Seed Cake Diets. ... 05) differences were in liveweight, plucked and dressing percentages at the starter and finisher phases. Reduction in abdominal fat deposition was obtained at the starter and finisher phases while gizzard weights ...

  19. Performance response, carcass evaluation and economic benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance, carcass quality, haematological indices and economics of production of rabbits fed dietary sorghum offal substitute for maize grain. A total of forty (40) weaned rabbits with a mean weight range of 820-850 g were randomly distributed to five treatment ...

  20. Effects of calpastain (CAST) polymorphisms on carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastain (CAST) activity plays a major role in muscle growth and proteolytic changes post-mortem and the CAST gene has been considered as a candidate gene for carcass and pork quality characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of two polymorphisms namely CAST_HinfI (allele A and B) and ...

  1. Growth response, sexual development, carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intratesticularly administered zinc tannate (ZT) on growth performance, sexual development, slaughter, carcass and meat quality characteristics of young bull calves (-225 kg, 7 months old) were investigated. Comparisons were made across a three (treatments: ZT animals, intact bulls and burdizzo-castrated.

  2. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  3. Carcass characteristics of tropical beef cattle breeds (West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the Sanga (Ghana Sanga), a crossbreed between WASH and Zebu (Plate3).

  4. Carcass and Slaughter Traits of Weanling Pigs Fed Graded Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing pigs were used to assess the slaughter and carcass characteristics, organs and primal cut yields when fed diets supplemented with processed leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) referred to as Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM). A 63-day feeding trial was conducted with commercially available male ...

  5. Carcass, organ and pathological characteristics of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each diet was fed to a group of six pigs. Results indicated that carcass weight and backfat thickness decreased as level of CPM in the diets increased. Heart, Kidney, Liver and Spleen weights (expressed as percentage of body weight) were significantly higher at the 30 percent level of CPM inclusion. Likewise, Kidney of ...

  6. Effects of Single Leafy Spices on Growth and Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to evaluate the effects of dietary spice supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and organ weights of broilers. One hundred and sixty (160) two-week old broilers of Anak 2000 commercial strain were randomly assigned to four groups with four replicates per treatment.

  7. Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted over 90 days feeding and 7 days digestibility trials at Enda Selassie ATVET College to assess the effect of supplementation on feed utilization and carcass characteristics in tef (Eragrostis tef) straw based feeding of Tigray rams. The rams were arranged in a randomized complete block design ...

  8. End-Cycle Sow Carcass Condemnation in a French Slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaudin, Pierre-Yves; Raboisson, Didier; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance at an abattoir allows all animals or carcasses that present a potential public health risk to be withdrawn from the human food chain. Whole-carcass condemnation results in important economic losses, not only for the producer but also for other participants in the meat industry. Access to the personal electronic database of an abattoir in France enabled us to run logistic regression models to investigate the risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation of end-cycle sows in that abattoir. When end-cycle sows that were slaughtered and eviscerated between 22 June 2015 and 8 December 2015 (185 days) were considered (n = 19,866), the results highlighted the importance of the total theoretical time off feed, which represents the fasting period from leaving the farm of origin to the time of slaughter (including transportation and waiting time at the abattoir). Each 10-h increase in the theoretical time off feed was associated with a 31% greater likelihood of whole-carcass condemnation [odd ratio (OR) = 1.31, CI 95% (1.27; 1.34)], and a 10 kg increase in carcass weight before refrigeration was associated with a 23% lower likelihood of carcass condemnation [OR = 0.77, CI 95% (0.75; 0.78)]. The results also indicate the importance of the producer group that the farmer belonged to (P per batch rather than individually for pigs; further, limited information is available at the farm level. An investigation of the reasons for whole-carcass condemnation could have been informative; however, it was not feasible in a reasonable timeframe because these data were not saved in a database in a systematic way. Some of the difficulties encountered in this study should soon be alleviated by using the meat inspection information system software for collecting livestock meat inspection data. Implemented recently by the French ministry of agriculture, this new tool should allow for broader perspectives in swine surveillance.

  9. Import risk assessment for salmon meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, P T; Wilson, D W

    1993-12-01

    The authors discuss the risk assessment currently being conducted by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) on the importation of salmon products. AQIS conducted a public consultation on the proposal, in line with Australian Government policy on transparency and accountability in the quarantine decision-making process. The authors examine the factors which should be taken into account in the assessment of the risk associated with the importation of such products, and note the difficulties encountered with the epidemiology of fish diseases.

  10. Leaching of mercury from seal carcasses into Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Coufalík, Pavel; Brat, Kristián; Červenka, Rostislav; Kuta, Jan; Mikeš, Ondřej; Komárek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    More than 400 seal mummies and skeletons are now mapped in the northern part of James Ross Island, Antarctica. Decomposing carcasses represent a rare source of both organic matter and associated elements for the soil. Owing to their high trophic position, seals are known to carry a significant mercury body burden. This work focuses on the extent of the mercury input from seal carcasses and shows that such carcasses represent locally significant sources of mercury and methylmercury for the environment. Mercury contents in soil samples from the surrounding areas were determined using a single-purpose AAS mercury analyzer. For the determination of methylmercury, an ultra-sensitive isotopic dilution HPLC-ICP-MS technique was used. In the soils lying directly under seal carcasses, mercury contents were higher, with levels reaching almost 40 μg/kg dry weight of which methylmercury formed up to 2.8 % of the total. The spatial distribution implies rather slow vertical transport to the lower soil layers instead of a horizontal spread. For comparison, the background level of mercury in soils of the investigated area was found to be 8 μg/kg dry weight, with methylmercury accounting for less than 0.1 %. Apart from the direct mercury input, an enhanced level of nutrients in the vicinity of carcasses enables the growth of lichens and mosses with accumulative ability with respect to metals. The enhanced capacity of soil to retain mercury is also anticipated due to the high content of total organic carbon (from 1.6 to 7.5 %). According to the results, seal remains represent a clear source of mercury in the observed area.

  11. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  12. DANUBE SALMON (HUCHO HUCHO L.. THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating of the thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to ecological and zoogeographical, morphological and biological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the Danube salmon, as well as to its cultivation in Ukraine and abroad. Methodology. In the process of systematic search complete and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core have been formed by the literature from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed the thematic list of publications in a quantity of 100 sources, containing characteristics of Danube salmon as representative of salmonids. Literary sources was arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding, and researching of the salmon biological features.

  13. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... free of Exotic Newcastle disease (END): Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, Fiji... of Agriculture at the port of arrival, the carcasses or parts or products thereof have a thoroughly...

  14. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  15. Analogies in Science and Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon; Salter, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are often used in science, but students may not appreciate their significance, and so the analogies can be misunderstood or discounted. For this reason, educationalists often express concern about the use of analogies in teaching. Given the important place of analogies in the discourse of science, it is necessary that students are…

  16. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  17. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied or...

  20. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether low densities (marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  1. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ferguson, Jayde; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is reemerging because of global importation and increased popularity of eating raw fish. We detected Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense plerocercoids in the musculature of wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Alaska, USA. Therefore, salmon from the American and Asian Pacific coasts and elsewhere pose potential dangers for persons who eat these fish raw. PMID:28098540

  2. Future challanges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand is d...

  3. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  4. SALMON AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: TROUBLESOME QUESTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest and California, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. In response to requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the Canadian Species at Risk Act, and ...

  5. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  6. Carcass mass can influence rate of decomposition and release of ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen into gravesoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicka, Ashley; Johnson, Reyna; Bushing, Jennifer; Higley, Leon G; Carter, David O

    2011-06-15

    To investigate the use of ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen (NRN) in gravesoil to estimate early postmortem interval (PMI), we conducted an experiment to decompose swine (Sus scrofa) carcasses of contrasting mass (∼1 kg, ∼20 kg, ∼40 kg, ∼50 kg). Carcasses were placed on the soil surface during June 2007 to monitor mass loss and the concentration of gravesoil NRN over an interval of 15 days. Carcasses of a mass ≤ 20 kg decomposed more rapidly than larger carcasses. However, 1 kg carcasses were associated with a slower release of NRN into gravesoil but a greater concentration of NRN per kg carcass (NRN(C)). We conclude that carcass mass can affect the rate of decomposition and release of NRN into gravesoil, which reflects an interaction between carcass volume and blow fly colonization. Furthermore, we conclude that neonatal carcasses require a different equation than larger carcasses when using gravesoil chemistry to estimate PMI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of three sampling methods for the microbiological analysis of broiler carcasses after immersion chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombelli, Audecir; Cavani, Ricardo; Gloria, Maria Beatriz Abreu

    2013-08-01

    Countries have different official programs and implement different sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella on poultry carcasses. In Brazil, a 25-g sample of skin and muscle excision (SME) from the wings, neck, and pericloacal parts is used; in the European Union (EU), a 25-g sample of neck skin (NSE) is used; and, in the United States, the whole carcass is rinsed with 400 ml of diluent (WCR). In the present study, these methods were evaluated to compare Salmonella occurrence and counts of hygiene indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and total viable count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria) using different carcasses from the same flock and also using different analytical units taken from the same carcass. Eighty flocks, with four broiler carcasses from each, were included in this study; three broilers were sampled according to protocols from Brazil, the EU, and the United States, and the last one by all three methods. SME, NSE, and WCR provided equivalent results (P > 0.05) for Salmonella detection on broiler carcasses when using different carcasses from the same flock and when using the same carcass. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. For the enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms, WRC provided higher counts than SME or NSE (P < 0.05), when using both the same or different carcasses. Therefore, it is possible to directly compare Salmonella results in poultry carcasses when using the methods recommended by the legislative bodies of Brazil, the United States, and the EU. However, WCR provides the best results for hygiene indicator microorganisms.

  8. Effect of investigator disturbance in experimental forensic entomology: carcass biomass loss and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Grant D; Hoback, W Wyatt; Higley, Leon G

    2011-01-01

    Often carrion decomposition studies are conducted using a single carcass or a few carcasses sampled repeatedly through time to reveal trends in succession community composition. Measurements of biomass and other abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature) are often collected on the same carcasses but are rarely a focal point of the studies. This study investigated the effects that repeated sampling during experiments have on the decomposition of carrion, measured as both gross biomass (carcass plus fauna) and net biomass (carcass only), on carcasses disturbed on every visit (with weighing only or also with the collection of fauna) and on carcasses disturbed only once. Each trial lasted at least 21 days, with samples taken in triplicate. Rat carcasses used in this study were placed in the field on the same day and either weighed on every visit or ignored until a given day. Internal and ambient air temperatures were recorded on each carcass at the time of sampling and on undisturbed carcasses using temperature loggers. The presence of succession fauna did not result in significant biomass loss on most days; however, there were individual days early in decomposition (days 3 through 6) when the succession fauna comprised a large portion of the gross biomass. With the exception of biomass loss by the emigration of maggots on days 4 and 5, neither repeated weighing of the carcasses nor repeated weighing and faunal sampling of the carcasses statistically affected the rate of biomass loss. Internal temperatures of carcasses sampled repeatedly were frequently 2-5°C lower than those that had not been disturbed, and ambient temperatures differed significantly depending on the location of measurement device. Results indicate that methods used historically for biomass loss determination in experimental forensic entomology studies are adequate, but further refinements to experimental methodology are desirable. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Effect of external or internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on prechilled broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K; Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Buhr, R J; Ingram, K D

    2007-06-01

    During processing, fecal material may contact broiler carcasses externally or internally. A study was conducted to determine the effect of external vs. internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on broiler carcasses. In each of 3 trials, 12 carcasses just prior to evisceration were obtained from a commercial processing plant, placed on a shackle line, and eviscerated with commercial equipment in a pilot scale processing plant. Also, approximately 20 intestinal tracts were collected from the processing plant; then cecal contents were collected and pooled. One gram of cecal content was placed on the exterior breast skin (external), inside the carcass cavity (internal), or not applied (control). All carcasses were held 10 min, then placed on the shackle line and passed through a commercial inside-outside bird washer set at 552 kPa, 5 s dwell time, using approximately 189 L per min of tap water at ambient temperature. After a 1-min drip, whole carcass rinses were conducted on each carcass, and coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter counts were determined and reported as log cfu/mL of rinse. External carcass contamination resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) coliform, E. coli, and Campylobacter numbers than internal contamination (5.0 vs. 4.5, 4.9 vs. 4.2, and 3.6 vs. 2.6, respectively). Control carcass counts were significantly lower than external or internal carcass contamination counts for coliforms (3.7), E. coli (3.6), and Campylobacter (2.2). External contamination resulted in higher numbers of bacteria after carcass washing, but carcasses with internal contamination still have higher numbers of bacteria after washing than carcasses without applied contamination.

  10. Characteristics of carcass and of non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate corn or sorghum diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanches Venturini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets finished in the feedlot with high-concentrate corn or sorghum grain-based diets. Thirty-two animals were finished, comprising 16 lambs (milk teeth and 16 hoggets (two teeth, which were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two sheep categories × two grains. For the variables final live weight, live weight at slaughter, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, carcass compactness index, subjective color, loin-eye area, fasting losses, external organs, internal organs, and for the weights, in kilograms, of neck, shoulder, ribs, and leg, there was a significant difference between categories. In the variables studied for the high-concentrate diets, significant differences were found for the ribs, expressed in relative values. Lambs have much higher fasting losses, a greater proportion of internal organs, and lighter-colored meat compared with hoggets. Hot and cold carcass yields, meat subjective color, and percentage of ribs are higher in feedlot-finished lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate sorghum-based diets compared with those fed corn-based diets.

  11. Effect of complete feed starch banana weevil pea stone on the beans goats system in vivo against carcass weight and carcass part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aswandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the value of benefits in favor of complete feed production performance and carcass weight of any part of the carcass part-goat nuts. The design used in this study. Random Draft Complete. The material used in this study of 12 male goats Nuts averaging initial body weight (15.58 ± 2.601 kg with a CV: 16.69%, age 10-15 months. At the end of the study 12 goats to know the weight of nuts cut carcass and parts of the carcass. Results of analysis of variance showed that treatment of complete feed on a significantly different (P <0.05 on carcass weight produced goat nuts. Results of analysis of variance showed that treatment of complete feed on a significantly different (P <0.05 against the weight of all the parts ice nuts goat carcass neck, shoulder, breast, leg chump on, ribs, loin, fore shank and the weight of the flank. CF0 and CF3 treatment effects did not provide a very real difference to the weight of carcass parts, but the weight of the carcass are treated CF3 higher than the CF0. This is in line with the expressed [Keywords—  banana weevil stone, complete feed  goat bean

  12. Treatment of animal carcasses in poultry farms using sealed ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M; González, J L; Gutiérrez, M A Díez; Guimaraes, A Correa; Gracia, L M Navas

    2008-10-01

    Several hen carcass elimination experiments were conducted by isolating corpses in a sealed ditch and adding different doses of lime. The aim was to evaluate the viability of this method as an alternative to other elimination techniques, as required in the European regulation CE 1774/2002 [Reglamento CE 1774/2002, de 3 de octubre por el que se establecen las normas sanitarias aplicables a los subproductos animales no destinados a consumo humano]. The experiments were carried out at a natural scale, in a 200m3 ditch located in a livestock enterprise, using a proportion of 200g of lime/kg of carcass. We observed a high degradation of carcasses after six months, the method being also safe from a microbiological point of view. The material extracted from the ditch had a high calcium content (330.7gkg(-1)), which makes it an ideal product for soil lacking this element, or as an acidity corrector in acid soils due to its basic (pH 8.48) nature. It also contains a significant amount of mineral nutrients (17.0gkg(-1) N, 2.4gkg(-1) P and 4.9gkg(-1) K) and organic matter (101.5gkg(-1)). We also analysed the material extracted from the ditch prior to its renovation for the experiments and followed the processes taking place in the ditch during the first six months, when lime doses of 100, 200 and 300 gkg(-1) of treated carcass were applied. Simultaneously, we carried out laboratory experiments in cylindrical 25L deposits to evaluate the gas release of the three (100, 200 and 300g of lime/kg carcass) doses of lime used. After the tenth week, we observed CO2 concentrations ranging from 5% for the lower lime doses to very low levels for the 300g lime/kg carcass dose. As regards methane, in the three series of experiments, the release was highest during the first weeks, began to decrease in the eighth week and reached its lower value during the fourteenth week. Emissions of NO2 were not observed, and the levels of NH3 and SH2 were usually so high that they exceeded the detection

  13. Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on Veal Hides and Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Hinkley, Susanne; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared with E. coli O157:H7-positive samples collected from veal trimmings than from products produced from other cattle slaughter classes. Therefore samples were collected from hides and preevisceration carcasses at five veal processors to assess E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC contamination during bob veal and formula-fed veal dressing procedures. E. coli O157:H7 prevalence was measured by culture isolation and found to be on 20.3% of hides and 6.7% of carcasses. In contrast, a non-O157 EHEC molecular screening assay identified 90.3% of hides and 68.2% of carcasses as positive. Only carcass samples were taken forward to culture confirmation and 38.7% yielded one or more non-O157 EHEC isolates. The recovery of an EHEC varied by plant and sample collection date; values ranged from 2.1 to 87.8% among plants and from 4.2 to 64.2% within the same plant. Three plants were resampled after changes were made to sanitary dressing procedures. Between the two collection times at the three plants, hide-to-carcass transfer of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC was significantly reduced. All adulterant EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were isolated from veal carcasses as well as four other potentially pathogenic serogroups (O5, O84, O118, and O177). Bob veal was found to have a greater culture prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and greater positive molecular screens for non-O157 EHEC than formula-fed veal (P EHEC was not different (P > 0.05) between the two types of calves. EHEC-O26, -O111, and -O121 were found more often in bob veal (P EHEC-O103 was found more often in formula-fed veal (P < 0.05).

  14. Effect of body mass and clothing on decomposition of pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Konwerski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Szafałowicz, Michał

    2014-11-01

    Carcass mass and carcass clothing are factors of potential high forensic importance. In casework, corpses differ in mass and kind or extent of clothing; hence, a question arises whether methods for post-mortem interval estimation should take these differences into account. Unfortunately, effects of carcass mass and clothing on specific processes in decomposition and related entomological phenomena are unclear. In this article, simultaneous effects of these factors are analysed. The experiment followed a complete factorial block design with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed). Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into three blocks, which were separated in time. Generally, carcass mass revealed significant and frequently large effects in almost all analyses, whereas carcass clothing had only minor influence on some phenomena related to the advanced decay. Carcass mass differently affected particular gross processes in decomposition. Putrefaction was more efficient in larger carcasses, which manifested itself through earlier onset and longer duration of bloating. On the other hand, active decay was less efficient in these carcasses, with relatively low average rate, resulting in slower mass loss and later onset of advanced decay. The average rate of active decay showed a significant, logarithmic increase with an increase in carcass mass, but only in these carcasses on which active decay was driven solely by larval blowflies. If a blowfly-driven active decay was followed by active decay driven by larval Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae), which was regularly found in medium/large and large carcasses, the average rate showed only a slight and insignificant increase with an increase in carcass mass. These results indicate that lower efficiency of active decay in larger carcasses is a consequence

  15. Future of Pacific salmon in the face of environmental change: Lessons from one of the world's remaining productive salmon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Erik R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Trammell, Jamie; Rinella, Daniel J.; Floyd, Angelica L.; Grunblatt, Jess; McCarthy, Molly D.; Meyer, Benjamin E.; Morton, John M.; Powell, James E.; Prakash, Anupma; Reimer, Matthew N.; Stuefer, Svetlana L.; Toniolo, Horacio; Wells, Brett M.; Witmer, Frank D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. face serious challenges from climate and landscape change, particularly in the southern portion of their native range. Conversely, climate warming appears to be allowing salmon to expand northwards into the Arctic. Between these geographic extremes, in the Gulf of Alaska region, salmon are at historically high abundances but face an uncertain future due to rapid environmental change. We examined changes in climate, hydrology, land cover, salmon populations, and fisheries over the past 30–70 years in this region. We focused on the Kenai River, which supports world-famous fisheries but where Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha populations have declined, raising concerns about their future resilience. The region is warming and experiencing drier summers and wetter autumns. The landscape is also changing, with melting glaciers, wetland loss, wildfires, and human development. This environmental transformation will likely harm some salmon populations while benefiting others. Lowland salmon streams are especially vulnerable, but retreating glaciers may allow production gains in other streams. Some fishing communities harvest a diverse portfolio of fluctuating resources, whereas others have specialized over time, potentially limiting their resilience. Maintaining diverse habitats and salmon runs may allow ecosystems and fisheries to continue to thrive amidst these changes.

  16. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  17. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  18. Salmon Farming and Salmon People: Identity and Environment in the Leggatt Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2003-01-01

    In October of 2001, the Leggatt Inquiry into salmon farming traveled to four small communities (Port Hardy, Tofino, Alert Bay, and Campbell River) close to the centers of operation for the finfish aquaculture industry in British Columbia. In doing so, it gave local people, particularly First Nations people, an opportunity to speak about salmon…

  19. Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree +chunks, puree +pink row, puree +pink row +chunks, puree +red row, puree +red roe +chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristi...

  20. Components of Geometric Analogy Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Timothy M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Adults' geometric analogy solution was investigated as a function of systematic variations in the information structure of items. Latency data from verification of true and false items were recorded. A model incorporating assumptions about the form of item representation, working memory factors, and processing components and strategies was…

  1. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  2. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  3. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  4. Drawing Analogies to Deepen Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article offers examples of how drawing can facilitate thinking skills that promote analogical reasoning to enable deeper learning. The instructional design applies cognitive principles, briefly described here. The workshops were developed iteratively, through feedback from student and teacher participants. Elements of the UK National…

  5. Designing analog circuits in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram; van Langevelde, Ronald; Tuinhout, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The evolution in CMOS technology dictated by Moore's Law is clearly beneficial for designers of digital circuits, but it presents difficult challenges, such as lowered nominal supply voltages, for their peers in the analog world who want to keep pace with this rapid progression. This article

  6. Paper Analogies Enhance Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to use paper analogies as models to illustrate various concepts in biology, human anatomy, and physiology classes. Models include biochemical paper models, protein papergrams, a paper model of early brain development, and a 3-D paper model of a eukaryotic cell. (AIM)

  7. THE EFFECT OF TRANSITION FROM EUROP 5-POINT SCALE TO 15-POINT SCALE BEEF CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ON CARCASS DISTRIBUTION OF YOUNG SLAUGHTERED BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the EUROP 15-point scale of carcass conformation and fatness classification system was introduced in Slovenia and replaced existing 5-point scale. Data (carcass weight, carcass conformation and fatness from Slovenian commercial slaughterhouses were collected from January 2005 to December 2013. In total, data from 374,122 animals were used. The analysis was conducted for the category of young bulls from 12 to less than 24 months of age. In the first year after the transition, the classifiers preferentially used 0 classes in classification of carcass conformation and carcass fatness as well. In period 2008 - 2009 the classifiers adapted the new scale and started to use + and – subclasses more frequently. The distribution of conformation and fatness subclasses was brought near normal distribution.

  8. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  9. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of variability in pork carcass composition and quality between barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-10-01

    Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day. Adipose tissue iodine value (IV), 30-min loin pH, LM slice shear force, and fresh ham muscle characteristic measurements were recorded on 10% of carcasses each slaughter day. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS as a 1-way ANOVA in a randomized complete block design with 2 levels (barrows and gilts). Barn (block), marketing group, production focus, and season were random variables. A 2-variance model was fit using the REPEATED statement of the MIXED procedure, grouped by sex for analysis of least squares means. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Hot carcass weight of pigs (94.6 kg) in this study was similar to U.S. industry average HCW (93.1 kg). Therefore, these data are representative of typical U.S. pork carcasses. There was no difference ( ≥ 0.09) in variability of HCW or loin depth between barrow and gilt carcasses. Back fat depth and estimated carcass lean were more variable ( ≤ 0.0001) and IV was less variable ( = 0.05) in carcasses from barrows than in carcasses from gilts. Fresh belly weight and thickness were more variable ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies of barrows than bellies of gilts, but there was no difference in variability for belly length, width, or flop distance ( ≥ 0.06). Fresh loin subjective color was less variable ( gilts, but there were no differences ( ≥ 0.08) in variability for any

  11. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  12. Development of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and its effects on juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, E; Sweeten, T; Bennett, W; Jones, S R M

    2013-11-06

    Responses of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka during infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis were assessed in controlled laboratory trials. Juvenile salmon were exposed to 100 copepodids fish-1 (Trials 1 and 2) or 300 copepodids fish-1 (Trial 3) at mean weights of approximately 40, 80 and 135 g, respectively. Infections occurred on all salmon in all trials, and mean abundances (infection densities) ranged between 3.3 and 19.4 lice fish-1 (0.08 and 0.44 lice g-1 fish) in Trial 1, between 7.2 and 18.3 (0.09 and 0.22) in Trial 2 and between 19.5 and 60.7 (0.15 and 0.46) in Trial 3. A cumulative mortality of 24.4% occurred in Trial 3. At attachment sites on gills, we observed hyperplasia of basal epithelial cells and fusion of secondary lamellae occasionally associated with a cellular infiltrate. At attachment sites on fins, partial to complete skin erosion occurred, with limited evidence of hyperplasia or inflammation. Scale loss and abrasions coincided with pre-adult lice around 20 d post infection (dpi). Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated in exposed fish in Trials 1 (21 dpi), 2 (15 and 36 dpi) and 3 (20 dpi), whereas haematocrit was significantly depressed in exposed fish in Trials 1 (21 and 28 dpi) and 3 (20 dpi). Plasma cortisol was significantly elevated in exposed fish at 20 dpi (Trial 3). Physiological changes and mortality were related to the intensity of infection and became most prominent with pre-adult stages, suggesting patterns of infection and response in sockeye salmon similar to those reported for Atlantic and Chinook salmon.

  13. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Name Salmon Species Impassible Man-made Barrier (if present) 17110001 WA Fraser (Whatcom) Coho salmon n... Lower Columbia-Sandy River Chinook and coho salmon Impassable Man-made Barrier 17080002 WA Lewis River... salmon n/a 17020016 WA Upper Columbia - Priest Rapids Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17060101 OR/ID Hells...

  14. Effect of nucleotides on broiler performance and carcass yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Pelícia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nucleotides on the performance and carcass yield of broilers fed diets with no antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, anticoccidials, or animal feedstuffs. In the trial, 600 Ross 308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CD, CD + AGP, CD + 0.04%, CD + 0.05%, CD + 0.06%, and CD + 0.07% nucleotides. The experimental diets did not contain anticoccidials, and birds were vaccinated against coccidiosis at three days of age. No significant differences were detected among broilers submitted to the different treatments in none of the studied parameters. Under the conditions of this experiment, diets supplemented with nucleotides did not influence broiler performance or carcass yield at 42 days of age, and were not different from the feeds not containing any additive or with AGP.

  15. Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ekanem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic pig (Sus scrofa was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh, bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.O porco branco (Sus scrofa foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise, intumescido (putrefação, deteriorado e seco (diagênese. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condi

  16. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    Un-bonded flexible pipes are used in the offshore oil and gas industry worldwide transporting hydrocarbons from seafloor to floating production vessels topside. Flexible pipes are advantageous over rigid pipelines in dynamic applications and during installation as they are delivered in full length...... on reels. Flexible pipes are constructed in a layer structure in which each layer adds specific properties to the pipe such as; collapse strength, fluid integrity, bursting strength, tensile strength etc. The inner-most layer of a flexible pipe is the carcass; a flexible interlocking stainless steel...... structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...

  17. Optimum Skin Blending Method for Quantifying Poultry Carcass Bacteria 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avens, John S.; Miller, Byron F.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum blending fluids and blending times for use in quantifying bacteria on poultry carcass skin by the skin “blending” method were determined. Butterfield's buffered-phosphate diluent, physiological saline solution (0.85% NaCl), peptone water (0.1% peptone), and deionized water, each at four different skin blending times of 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, were compared. The comparison was based on relative numbers of bacteria per cm2 of skin, enumerated by each combination on turkey carcasses. Peptone water and physiological saline solution each yielded significantly (P diluent or deionized water. There were no significant differences among the four skin blending times and no significant interaction effect between the two factors tested. PMID:4917460

  18. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA......Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses...

  19. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Okura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.

  20. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocious Male Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); James, Brenda B. (Cascade Aquatics, Ellensburg, WA)

    2005-05-01

    interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al. 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Topics of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocious male salmon monitoring (abundance); (4) performance of growth modulation in reducing precocious males during spawning; (5) incidence of predation by residualized chinook salmon; and (6) benefits of salmon carcasses to juvenile salmonids. This report is organized into six chapters to represent these topics of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2004 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Previous results on the topics in this report were reported in James et al. (1999), and Pearsons et al. (2003; 2004). Hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  1. Performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler birds fed sweet potato meal. Three hundred and five (305) Anak broilers of one week old were randomly assigned to five treatment diets. Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% levels of ...

  2. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, ...

  3. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the work described here was to investigate the effect of two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS / kg DM) supplementation to rations of Karadi lambs fed three levels of rumen degradable nitrogen (1, 1.3 and 1.6 g RDN / MJ of ME) on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 3 factorial experiment. Twenty four ...

  4. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The objective of the work described here was to investigate the effect of two levels of Nigella sativa (0 and 7.5 g NS / kg DM) supplementation to rations of Karadi lambs fed three levels of rumen degradable nitrogen (1, 1.3 and 1.6 g RDN / MJ of ME) on carcass characteristics, using 2 x 3 factorial ...

  5. Carcass yield, meat quality and internal organs of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the dietary effect of different levels of black pepper (BP) on carcass yield, meat quality, meat pH and internal organs of broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were formulated such that diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 % BP respectively. The inclusion ...

  6. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing rabbits fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in diets. ... Similarly, the weight of liver (40.35-57.05g), lungs (10.22-11.24g), heart (2.95-4.10g), kidney (8.30-10.70g), kidney fat (11.10-12.65g), small intestine (81.25-99.80g), large intestine ...

  7. Chemical composition of carcass sawdust residue as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monsters was respektiewelik soos volg: vog: 56.4 en 55.0Vo (f = 0.137); vet: 2l .2 en 23.17o (y' = 0.923): proteien: ... (Reid et al., 1955; Hansard, 1961; Berg & Butterfield, 1976,. Kock & Preston, 1979; Fuller et a1.,1990). ... the f at and moisture content of the carcasses support the results, obtained on cattle and pigs, that the ...

  8. De novo lipogenesis in Atlantic salmon adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Marta; Todorčević, Marijana; Torgersen, Jacob; Škugor, Stanko; Navarro, Isabel; Ruyter, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous teleost fish utilize glucose poorly, and the reason for this is not known. It is possible that the capacity of adipocytes to synthesize lipids from carbohydrate precursors through a process known as "de novo lipogenesis" (DNL) is one of the factors that contributes to glucose intolerance in Atlantic salmon. Primary adipocytes from Atlantic salmon differentiated in vitro were incubated with radiolabelled glucose in order to explore the capacity of salmon adipocytes to synthesize and deposit lipids from glucose through DNL. The lipid-storage capacity of adipocytes incubated with glucose was compared with that of cells incubated with the fatty acid palmitic acid. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to assess changes of genes and proteins involved in glucose and lipid transport and metabolism. Less than 0.1% of the radiolabelled glucose was metabolized to the fatty acids 16:0 and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase products 16:1 and 18:1 by DNL, whereas approximately 40% was converted to glycerol to form the triacylglycerol backbone of lipids. Transcriptional analysis indicated that adipocytes ensure the availability of necessary cofactors and other substrates for lipid synthesis and storage from glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway and glyceroneogenesis. We have shown for the first time that the DNL pathway is active in fish adipocytes. The capacity of the pathway to convert glucose into cellular lipids for storage is relatively low. The limited capacity of adipocytes to utilize glucose as a substrate for lipid deposition may contribute to glucose intolerance in salmonids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride. II. Carcass composition and meat palatability of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Montgomery, J L; Krehbiel, C R; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M; Blanton, J R; Miller, M F

    2009-04-01

    Experiments were conducted at 3 US locations (California, Idaho, and Texas) to determine the effects of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride and duration of zilpaterol feeding on carcass composition and beef palatability. At each site, 160 steers and 160 heifers were stratified within sex by initial BW (study d -1) and assigned randomly within BW strata to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design (4 blocks/treatment for each sex). The 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (20- or 40-d duration of zilpaterol feeding) factorial. When included in the diet, zilpaterol was supplemented at 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). Each pen consisted of 10 animals. After slaughter 2 carcasses per pen (n=64 per trial site) were selected. The entire right side of the selected carcasses was collected for dissection and chemical analysis of the soft tissue. Additionally, the left strip loin was collected for Warner-Bratzler shear force determinations and aged to 28 d postmortem. Sensory analysis was conducted on the Idaho trial site samples only. All data were pooled for analyses. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride increased carcass muscle deposition (P0.11) by the zilpaterol treatment. In heifer carcasses, carcass moisture percentage was increased (P=0.04) and bone percentage was decreased (P=0.02), whereas in steer carcasses, carcass moisture and bone percentage were not affected (P>0.10). In heifer carcasses, carcass ash percentage was not affected (P=0.61) by zilpaterol, whereas in steer carcasses, carcass ash percentage tended (P=0.07) to be increased. The protein-to-bone ratio was increased (Pcomposition primarily through protein deposition. However, zilpaterol treatment can adversely affect tenderness and other palatability traits.

  10. The Establish of the Coliforms/cm2 on the Area of Cattle Carcass Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Tibulca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coliforms present in 1 cm2 of carcass surface shows the degree of contamination during slaughtering as well as the hygienic condition of the air, the slaughtering hall, the equipment getting in contact with the carcasses, of the utensils, operators’ work equipment, of the operators’ hygiene. The indicator is determined by inoculating microorganisms from the carcasses surface in nutritional and selective environments, followed by their placing under heat control and counting of the microorganisms.

  11. Noodle Waste As Substitute For Yellow Corn in Broiler Diet and Its Effect on Carcass Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Widodo; Osfar Sjofjan; Akhmad Zaenal Wijaya

    2012-01-01

    Experiment aimed to investigate the effect of noodle waste as corn substitute in broiler diet on carcass quality including carcass weight, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage, breast meat depositition and cholesterol concentration. The materials used for this experiment were 100 one-day-old Lohmann broiler chicks. Feedstuffs used consisted of concentrate, rice polishing and yellow corn formulated to meet nutrient requirements during starter and finisher periods and given ad libitum. ...

  12. Carcass composition of Venda indigenous scavenging chickens under village management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raphulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four Venda indigenous scavenging (VIS chickens (one young male and one young female of 10–16 weeks of age, a mature cockerel and a mature hen were randomly purchased from each of six adjacent rural villages during three different seasons (autumn, winter and spring to determine the meat yield and carcass chemical composition. A total of 72 chickens were slaughtered and feathers, head, neck, viscera, feet and lungs were removed. The live body weight, dressed carcass weight and also the mass of the breast without wings, thighs and drumsticks were recorded with bones and skin. The muscle tissues of the breast and both legs without tendons and fat were sampled for chemical analysis and were analysed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and ash. The carcass weight, dressing %, mass of the breast, mass of the thighs, mass of the drumsticks, breast yield, thighs yield and drumsticks yield of both grower and adult VIS chickens were not influenced by season. The crude protein of the grower chickens breast muscles and fat content of the adult chicken leg muscles differed with season. The meat from VIS chickens provided a constant nutrient (crude protein supply throughout the year to the rural communities.

  13. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  14. Microbiological quality of broiler carcasses during slaughter processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Svobodová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contamination of poultry carcasses can be influenced by many factors during transport and slaughtering. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of four processing steps (plucking, evisceration, washing and chilling on the total viable counts (TVC, counts of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. incidence on broiler carcasses. A total of 160 broiler carcasses originating from one farm were collected during one year period at a Czech slaughterhouse and examined. Both TVC and E. coli counts decreased during processing from 4.6 log cfu/cm2 and 3.5 log cfu/cm2 to 3.7 log cfu/cm2 and 1.8 log cfu/cm2, respectively, with a major impact of washing on TVC and washing and chilling on E. coli decrease (P Salmonella spp. (6 strains and Listeria spp. (12 strains, none of L. monocytogenes were found sporadically in all processing steps followed. However, a decreasing trend was observed in Salmonella counts and Listeria spp. incidence during the processing. Thus, this study brings new valuable information on the dynamics of microflora during modern poultry processing.

  15. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  16. Campylobacter in chicken carcasses and slaughterhouses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejab, Saira Banu Mohamed; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Fries, Reinhard; Patchanee, Prapas

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Campylobacter contamination rate of chicken carcasses and the processing lines of modern processing plants in Malaysia. Three hundred sixty samples were collected from 24 flocks of broiler chickens at 12 modern poultry processing plants in 6 states of Malaysia. Fresh fecal droppings were collected from crates in the arrival area. Neck skin samples were taken from processed chicken carcasses at 3 different processing stages: before inside-outside washing, after inside-outside washing and post chilling. Swab samples from the scalding tank, chilling tank and conveyer belt before chilling were also collected to determine contamination with Campylobacter in the slaughter house environment prior to slaughter. Isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006(E). The overall of contamination rate with Campylobacter at the 12 plants was 61.0% (220/360). Eighty point six percent of the samples from before the inside-outside wishing step were contaminated with Campylobacter, as were 62.5% of the samples after the inside washing and 38.9% after the post-chilling step. This study shows extensive contamination of chicken carcasses and slaughtering houses in Malaysia with Campylobacter.

  17. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L; Ogada, Darcy L; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-10-22

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer-scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species.

  18. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  19. Chemical data for 7 streams in Salmon River Basin - Importance of biotic and abiotic features of salmon habitat implications for juvenile Chinook and steelhead growth and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a large-scale, long-term comparative study that includes many streams (20+ streams in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho, including a few non-salmon streams for...

  20. Radio telemetry data - Characterizing migration and survival for juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin and Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project estimates survival and characterizes the migration of juvenile sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin in central Idaho and Lower Granite...

  1. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  2. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  3. Real-time ultrasound to predict rabbit carcass composition and volume of longissimus dorsi muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severiano José Cruz da Rocha e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time ultrasonography (RTU was used to measure the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM volume in vivo and to predict the carcass composition of rabbits. For this, 63 New Zealand White × Californian rabbits with 2093±63 g live weight were used. Animals were scanned between the 6th and 7th lumbar vertebrae using an RTU equipment with a 7.5 MHz probe. Measurements of LM volume were obtianed both in vivo and on carcass. Regression equations were used for the prediction of carcass composition and LM volume using the LM volume measured obtained with RTU (LMVU as independent variable. Carcass meat, bone and total dissectible fat weights represented 780, 164 and 56 g/kg of the reference carcass weight, respectively. Regression equations showed a strong relationship between LMVU and the correspondent volume in carcass. Furthermore, LMVU was also useful in predicting the amounts of carcass tissues. It is possible to predict LM volume in the carcass using the LM volume measured in vivo by RTU. The amount of carcass tissues can be predicted by the LM volume measured in vivo by RTU.

  4. The relationship between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirić, J.; Lukić, M.; Radulović, S.; Janjić, J.; Glamočlija, N.; Marković, R.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to study the relationships between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef, classified with regard to conformation and degree of fatness scores, and total lipid content, depending on gender. For this purpose, 90 animals (60 male and 30 female Simmental beef cattle) were analysed. The results of the study showed that gender affected carcass measurement scores and chemical composition of meat through its important effect on overall animal fatness. Referring to correlations, male carcass conformation score was negatively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. On the other hand, slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage and carcass conformation was positively related to fatness score, all of them being significant. However, female carcass conformation score was positively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. Hot and cold carcass weights of female Simmental beef cattle were positively correlated to slaughter weight, total lipid content and carcass conformation score. Carcass conformation score and fatness score were affected by gender of young Simmental beef cattle.

  5. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-05-22

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for the following variables: slaughter weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, carcass and leg lengths, thigh perimeter, LEA, retail cuts, and lightness (L*), where the ½ Nellore ½ Araguaia individuals showed higher means for all of these traits, except leg length and L*. Therefore, crossbreeding between Nellore and Araguaia did not affect the meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.

  6. Coleopterofauna found on fresh and frozen rabbit carcasses in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KM. Mise

    Full Text Available Many arthropod species are associated with carrion and some of them can be used as forensic indicators in murder investigations to estimate the time of death. Different physical conditions of cadavers may influence the fauna and the importance of freezing and thawing is unknown. The present paper sought to survey the Coleoptera species encountered in frozen and fresh rabbit carcasses, at a forest in Curitiba, Brazil. Four rabbit carcasses, two of them fresh and the other frozen were used. The coleopterofauna was sampled daily, and analyzed using non-parametric tests. A total of 666 beetles were sampled, belonging to 28 species in 10 families. Most of the beetles captured were larvae of Oxelytrum spp. (433 which are known to be necrophagous. The two frozen carcasses accounted for most of the beetles (338 and 180 in comparison with the two fresh carcasses (103 and 45. The tests were based on the most abundant species. Oxelytrum spp. median differed significantly between carcasses (H = 12.47844; p = 0.0059. The two fresh carcasses differed significantly (U = 190.0; p = 0.00019, but there was no significant difference between the frozen carcasses (U = 336.0; p = 0.29755. The data indicate that the freezing process prevents certain species to colonize carcasses, in this case with the dominance of species of Oxelytrum. These data also indicate that careful attention is necessary before using frozen carcasses in forensic entomology studies.

  7. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  8. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  9. Carcass and meat quality in light lambs from different fat classes in the EU carcass classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Sañudo, C.; Alfonso, M.J.; A. Sánchez(); Delfa, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety commercial lamb carcasses were analysed according to the four different fat classes in the light lamb European classiffication system. Shoulder fat increased 3%, muscle decreased 2% and bone decreased 1% for each class increase. No signifficant differences were found among fat classes regarding pH, WHC, cooking losses, juiciness, myoglobin content, meat colour measured immediately after cutting (L*, a*, b*), odour intensity or flavour quality. Some differences were found in colour e...

  10. A digital to analog converter

    OpenAIRE

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching algorithm. To improve the mismatch-noise shaping of these algorithms, excess conversion elements may be additionally selected.

  11. Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.

  12. Comparison of patterns of decomposition in a hanging carcass and a carcass in contact with soil in a xerophytic habitat on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, O A; deCarvalho, L M; Goff, M L

    2000-11-01

    Decomposition studies were conducted to determine differences in rates and patterns of decomposition of carcasses hanging and exposed on the surface of the soil. These studies were conducted between 17 October and 17 December 1997 inside of Diamond Head Crater on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The animal model was the domestic pig. Sus scrofa. The rate of biomass removal from the hanging carcass was significantly slower than that observed for the control carcass during the bloat and decay stages of decomposition. Internal temperatures for the control carcass were elevated above the ambient air temperatures during the earlier stages of decomposition (bloated and decay), while those recorded for the hanging carcass approximated the ambient air temperatures. There was a greater diversity of arthropod species recorded and numbers of individuals observed were higher for the control carcass. A significant site of arthropod activity was observed on the surface of the soil immediately under the hanging carcass and this became the primary site of arthropod activity as decomposition progressed.

  13. A virus disease of sockeye salmon: Interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S.W.; Guenther, R.W.; Rucker, R.R.

    1954-01-01

    Since 1951 a disease, usually occurring in late spring or early summer, has caused severe losses in 3- to 12-month-old fingerling sockeye salmon in hatcheries in the State of Washington. The disease is characterized by an explosive outbreak, mortality usually 80 percent or greater, and a residual spinal deformity in a small percentage of the surviving fish, and its specificity for the one species of salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. (The anadromous strain of this species is commonly known as sockeye, blueback, or red salmon, while the fresh-water strain is called kokanee or silver trout.) The etiological agent is believed to be a virus.

  14. Production of trout offspring from triploid salmon parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Shikina, Shinya; Kanno, Megumi; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2007-09-14

    Many salmonids have become at risk of extinction. For teleosts whose eggs cannot be cryopreserved, developing techniques other than egg cryopreservation to save genetic resources is imperative. In this study, spermatogonia from rainbow trout were intraperitoneally transplanted into newly hatched sterile triploid masu salmon. Transplanted trout spermatogonia underwent spermatogenesis and oogenesis in male and female recipients, respectively. At 2 years after transplantation, triploid salmon recipients only produced trout sperm and eggs. With use of these salmon as parents, we successfully produced only donor-derived trout offspring. Thus, by transplanting cryopreserved spermatogonia into sterile xenogeneic recipients, we can generate individuals of a threatened species.

  15. Third order digital-to-analog converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    System, consisting of sample and hold digital-to-analog converter, clock circuit, sample delay circuit, initial condition circuit and interpolator circuit, improves accuracy of reconstructed analog signal without increasing sample rates.

  16. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  17. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  18. The influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on growth and production of juvenile coho salmon rearing in beaver ponds on the Copper River Delta, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk W. Lang; Gordon H. Reeves; James D. Hall; Mark S. Wipfli

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchrcs kisutch) on the density, growth rate, body condition, and survival to outmigration of juvenile coho salmon on the Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA. During the fall of 1999 and 2000, fish rearing in beaver ponds that received spawning salmon were compared with fish from...

  19. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  20. In situ localisation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II and CD8 positive cells in infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV)-infected Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Skjødt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that the mobilisation of a strong cellular immune response is important for the survival of Atlantic salmon infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). In this study, the characterisation of immune cell populations in tissues of non-ISAV infected Atlantic salmon and during...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Adult Pink Salmon Predation in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska, 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project objectives were to assess potential salmon predation impact on juvenile salmon and herring by: (1) comparing diets of adult pink salmon during their...

  2. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  3. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can

  4. Design and Analysis of Reconfigurable Analog System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A highly...2008/12/12/31e83bac-500f-4182- acca -4d360295fd9c.pdf, Analog Devices, Analog Dialogue 39-06, June 2005. [15] D. A. Johns, K. Martin "Analog Integrated

  5. Analogies and the 5E Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Mary Kay; Thomas, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Science classes are full of abstract or challenging concepts that are easier to understand if an analogy is used to illustrate the points. Effective analogies motivate students, clarify students' thinking, help students overcome misconceptions, and give students ways to visualize abstract concepts. When they are used appropriately, analogies can…

  6. Insect succession on pig carcasses using different exposure time - A preliminary study in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zufeng; Tao, Luyang

    2017-11-01

    The exposure time of carcasses in insect succession studies are generally not consistent and more than 40% studies start in the morning. How such an arrangement affects the succession of insects is worth evaluating. In this study, six piglet carcasses (15-17 kg) were exposed at 6 time points during the day: 11:00, 15:00, 19:00, 23:00, 03:00 and 07:00 on July 20th-July 21st 2006 in Guangzhou, China to investigate the potential effects of the time of day of carcass exposure on body decomposition and insect succession, and also to provide fundamental data on insect succession in summer for this area. The results showed that there were negligible differences in the decay process among the carcasses. We found the carcasses synchronized their decay stage after entering the bloated stage on July 21st. All 6 carcasses entered the remains stage on August 3rd (approximately 14 d after carcass placement). The carcasses yielded 30 species of arthropods, representing 3 orders and 12 families, and no obvious differences were found in species composition between the carcasses. However, we found that there were significant differences in the arrival and colonization of Calliphoridae. We found two batches of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae with significant differences in body length and instar on the carcasses placed at the site at 11:00, 15:00 and 19:00. By contrast, there was only one batch of C. megacephala larvae having similar body length and instar on the carcasses placed at the site at 23:00, 03:00 and 07:00. These observations have potential use for estimating the postmortem interval in forensic entomology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Infectious salmon anaemia virus replication and induction of alpha interferon in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groman David B

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA virus (ISAV, which causes ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is an orthomyxovirus belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and it is generally accepted that the ISAV receptor destroying enzyme dissolves this haemagglutination except for Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Recent work indicates that ISAV isolates that are able to elute from Atlantic salmon erythrocytes cause low mortality in challenge experiments using Atlantic salmon. Previous work on ISAV-induced haemagglutination using the highly pathogenic ISAV strain NBISA01 and the low pathogenic ISAV strain RPC/NB-04-0851, showed endocytosis of NBISA01 but not RPC/NB-04-0851. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess the viral RNA levels in the ISAV-induced haemagglutination reaction samples, and we observed a slight increase in viral RNA transcripts by 36 hours in the haemagglutination reaction with NBISA01 virus when the experiment was terminated. However, a longer sampling interval was considered necessary to confirm ISAV replication in fish erythrocytes and to determine if the infected cells mounted any innate immune response. This study examined the possible ISAV replication and Type I interferon (IFN system gene induction in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes following ISAV haemagglutination. Results Haemagglutination assays were performed using Atlantic salmon erythrocytes and one haemagglutination unit of the two ISAV strains, NBISA01 and RPC/NB-04-0851, of differing genotypes and pathogenicities. Haemagglutination induced by the highly pathogenic NBISA01 but not the low pathogenic RPC/NB-04-0851 resulted in productive infection as evidenced by increased ISAV segment 8 transcripts and increase in the median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 by 5 days of incubation. Moreover, reverse transcription (RT quantitative PCR used to compare mRNA levels of key Type I IFN system

  8. An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Cumulative Effects of Tidal Freshwater and Estuarine Ecosystem Restoration on Endangered Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weitkamp, Laurie A. [Marine Sciences lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Buenau, Kate E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kropp, Roy K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    measurements, data analyses, modeling, meta-analysis, and reanalysis of previously collected data sets. We identified a set of 12 ancillary hypotheses regarding habitat and salmon response. Each ancillary hypothesis states that the response metric will trend toward conditions at relatively undisturbed reference sites. We synthesized the evidence for and against the two necessary conditions by using eleven causal criteria: strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, analogy, complete exposure pathway, and predictive performance. Our final evaluation included cumulative effects assessment because restoration is occurring at multiple sites and the collective effect is important to salmon recovery. We concluded that all five lines of evidence from the LCRE indicated positive habitat-based and fish-based responses to the restoration performed under the CEERP, although tide gate replacements on small sloughs were an exception. Our analyses suggested that hydrologic reconnections restore access for fish to move into a site to find prey produced there. Reconnections also restore the potential for the flux of prey from the site to the main stem river, where our data show that they are consumed by salmon. We infer that LCRE ecosystem restoration supports increased juvenile salmon growth and enhanced fitness (condition), thereby potentially improving survival rates during the early ocean stage.

  9. An approach to salmon farming in Norway : a future for land based salmon farming?

    OpenAIRE

    Tvete, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give an overview over the salmon farming industry in Norway. It presents some theory around production- and investment costs associated with land basedand sea based fish farming, as well as challenges around environmental issues, technology, fish feed etc. Several production concepts such as open cages in the sea, cages offshore, closed operations in the sea, both exposed and protected and land based production sites are available today, and the cha...

  10. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  11. AFSC/FMA/Salmon Genetics From Observer Speimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic data of salmon bycatch samples collected by fisheries observers are used for mixed-stock analyses to determine geographic region of origin. This work is done...

  12. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  13. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  14. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  15. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  16. Juvenile Salmon Scale Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  17. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  18. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  19. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  20. Benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway using foraminiferal metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the salmon industry necessitates the development of fast and accurate tools to assess its environmental impact. Macrobenthic monitoring is commonly used to measure the impact of organic enrichment associated with salmon farm activities. However, classical benthic monitoring can...... of macrofauna-based benthic monitoring. Here, we tested the application of foraminiferal metabarcoding to benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway. We analysed 140 samples of eDNA and environmental RNA (eRNA) extracted from surface sediment samples collected at 4 salmon farming sites in Norway. We sequenced...... appears to be a promising alternative to classical benthic monitoring, providing a solution to the morpho-taxonomic bottleneck of macrofaunal surveys....

  1. Surveys on Gyrodactylus parasites onwild Atlantic salmon in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    Gyrodactylus salaris is a monogenean ectoparasite parasitizing salmonids in freshwater. This parasite is highly pathogenic to both Norwegian and Scottish salmon and has decimated the salmon populations in 45 Norwegian rivers after anthropogenic transfer from Sweden. G. salaris has also been found...... on several occasions in Danish rainbow trout farms but has never been recorded as a pathogenic parasite on Danish wild salmon. In the present study the occurrence of G. salaris and other Gyrodactylus parasites on wild Danish salmon fry and parr were monitored. Electrofishing was conducted in three river...... were examined for Gyrodactylus parasites under a dissection microscope. The location of each parasite was registered and each parasite was isolated for later morphological and genetic typing. The opisthaptor was separated from the body, fixed and mounted using Malmbergs fixative (ammonium picrate...

  2. AFSC/ABL: 2007-2013 Chinook Salmon Bycatch Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analyses of samples from the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bycatch from the 2007-2013 Bering Sea-Aleutian Island and Gulf of Alaska trawl...

  3. Estimation of coho salmon escapement in the Ugashik lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 26 July to 24 September 2002, hourly counts were conducted from counting towers to estimate the escapement of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch into the Ugashik...

  4. Estimation of sockeye and coho salmon escapement in Mortensens creek

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fixed picket weir was operated on Mortensens Creek from 1 July to 26 October 2001. Coho salmon Onchorynchus kisutch was the most abundant species counted through...

  5. Financial analysis of commercial salmon fisheries: marine & inland fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    ... in commercial and recreational fisheries. To estimate the financial inputs required for the BCIOM analysis, Counterpoint designed and deployed a financial analysis model of the commercial salmon fishery in which the commercial fishery...

  6. Light Experiment data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  7. Social Behavior - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  8. The salmon bears: giants of the great bear rainforest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAllister, I; Read, N

    2010-01-01

    The Salmon Bears explores the delicate balance that exists between the grizzly, black and spirit bears of the Great Bear Rainforest and their natural environment on the central coast of British Columbia...

  9. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  10. Pacific salmon and the coalescent effective population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenik, Can; Wakeley, John

    2010-09-27

    Pacific salmon include several species that are both commercially important and endangered. Understanding the causes of loss in genetic variation is essential for designing better conservation strategies. Here we use a coalescent approach to analyze a model of the complex life history of salmon, and derive the coalescent effective population (CES). With the aid of Kronecker products and a convergence theorem for Markov chains with two time scales, we derive a simple formula for the CES and thereby establish its existence. Our results may be used to address important questions regarding salmon biology, in particular about the loss of genetic variation. To illustrate the utility of our approach, we consider the effects of fluctuations in population size over time. Our analysis enables the application of several tools of coalescent theory to the case of salmon.

  11. Pacific salmon and the coalescent effective population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Cenik

    Full Text Available Pacific salmon include several species that are both commercially important and endangered. Understanding the causes of loss in genetic variation is essential for designing better conservation strategies. Here we use a coalescent approach to analyze a model of the complex life history of salmon, and derive the coalescent effective population (CES. With the aid of Kronecker products and a convergence theorem for Markov chains with two time scales, we derive a simple formula for the CES and thereby establish its existence. Our results may be used to address important questions regarding salmon biology, in particular about the loss of genetic variation. To illustrate the utility of our approach, we consider the effects of fluctuations in population size over time. Our analysis enables the application of several tools of coalescent theory to the case of salmon.

  12. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  13. Air flotation treatment of salmon processing waste water

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses methods for the reduction of the pollution strength of salmon processing waste water. Past research has indicated the success of air pressure...

  14. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Scott, M.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Chatters, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant.

  15. Why are not there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, D. L. [Vermont Univ., School of Natural Resources, Vermont Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Burlington, VT (United States); Behnke, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Gephard, S. R. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmnetal Protection, Fisheries Div., Old Lyme, CT (United States); McCormick, S. D. [Anadromous Fish Research Center, USGS/Biological Resources Div., Turners Falls, MA (United States); Reeves, G. H. [USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The causes of decline and extirpation of salmon on a global scale are investigated. In some cases single factors such as dams, pollution and dewatering, increased density of humans near salmon rivers, overfishing, changes in ocean conditions or intensive aquaculture could be identified as likely causes. The available evidence is not sufficient to link cause and effect for most declines because they are the result of multiple factors, and data that would help to discriminate factors on scales of space or time are lacking. For this reason, it is not possible to allocate the proportional impact of multiple factors that contribute to the the demise of salmon populations. More rigorous methodologies, including more effective sampling techniques, testing of multiple effects integrated across space and time, and adaptive management are needed to account for the continuing decline of salmon.

  16. AFSC/ABL: Karluk sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To better understand how density-dependent growth of ocean-dwelling Pacific salmon varied with climate and population dynamics, we examined the marine growth of...

  17. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  18. AFSC/ABL: Movements of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, relatively pristine river basin. A total of...

  19. AFSC/ABL: Ugashik sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 b?? 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Ugashik River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  20. AFSC/ABL: Naknek sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Naknek River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game....

  1. Fish Health data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  2. Near coastal ocean attributes of salmon - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  3. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  4. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  5. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  6. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  7. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  8. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  9. GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Finn, Fia; Persson, Lo; Alanärä, Anders; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to ...

  10. Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Battin, James; Wiley, Matthew W.; Mary H. Ruckelshaus; Palmer, Richard N.; Korb, Elizabeth; Bartz, Krista K.; Imaki, Hiroo

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, efforts are under way to restore watersheds, but restoration planning rarely accounts for future climate change. Using a series of linked models of climate, land cover, hydrology, and salmon population dynamics, we investigated the impacts of climate change on the effectiveness of proposed habitat restoration efforts designed to recover depleted Chinook salmon populations in a Pacific Northwest river basin. Model results indicate a large negative impact of climate change...

  11. Pacific salmon extinctions: quantifying lost and remaining diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard G; Waples, Robin S; Myers, James M; Weitkamp, Laurie A; Bryant, Gregory J; Johnson, Orlay W; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2007-08-01

    Widespread population extirpations and the consequent loss of ecological, genetic, and life-history diversity can lead to extinction of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and species. We attempted to systematically enumerate extinct Pacific salmon populations and characterize lost ecological, life history, and genetic diversity types among six species of Pacific salmon (Chinook [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], sockeye [O. nerka], coho [O. kisutch], chum [O. keta], and pink salmon [O. gorbuscha] and steelhead trout [O. mykiss]) from the western contiguous United States. We estimated that, collectively, 29% of nearly 1400 historical populations of these six species have been lost from the Pacific Northwest and California since Euro-American contact. Across all species there was a highly significant difference in the proportion of population extinctions between coastal (0.14 extinct) and interior (0.55 extinct) regions. Sockeye salmon (which typically rely on lacustrine habitats for rearing) and stream-maturing Chinook salmon (which stay in freshwater for many months prior to spawning) had significantly higher proportional population losses than other species and maturation types. Aggregate losses of major ecological, life-history, and genetic biodiversity components across all species were estimated at 33%, 15%, and 27%, respectively. Collectively, we believe these population extirpations represent a loss of between 16% and 30% of all historical ESUs in the study area. On the other hand, over two-thirds of historical Pacific salmon populations in this area persist, and considerable diversity remains at all scales. Because over one-third of the remaining populations belong to threatened or endangered species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, it is apparent that a critical juncture has been reached in efforts to preserve what remains of Pacific salmon diversity. It is also evident that persistence of existing, and evolution of future, diversity will depend

  12. Pacific Salmon and the Coalescent Effective Population Size

    OpenAIRE

    Can Cenik; John Wakeley

    2010-01-01

    Pacific salmon include several species that are both commercially important and endangered. Understanding the causes of loss in genetic variation is essential for designing better conservation strategies. Here we use a coalescent approach to analyze a model of the complex life history of salmon, and derive the coalescent effective population (CES). With the aid of Kronecker products and a convergence theorem for Markov chains with two time scales, we derive a simple formula for the CES and th...

  13. Effect of finisher diets treated with organic acids on carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each treatment was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate, arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). Diets were both ... Result from the carcass evaluation showed that dressed carcass, breast, thigh, wing and drumstick of OA treated groups were not significantly (P>0.05) different from the control.

  14. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  15. 9 CFR 310.18 - Contamination of carcasses, organs, or other parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination of carcasses, organs, or... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.18 Contamination of carcasses... prevent contamination with fecal material, urine, bile, hair, dirt, or foreign matter; however, if...

  16. Development of a colour scale for colour evaluation of beef carcasses at 60 min post mortem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, I.; Merkus, G.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The pectoralis profundus muscles of 200 selected beef carcasses were measured to develop a standard colour scale for evaluating beef carcasses at the time of classification (approximately 60 min post mortem). Five lightness (L*) values were chosen ranging from 22 to 42 with intervals of five L*

  17. Soil and vegetation nutrient response to bison carcasses in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, C.; Selva, N.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Skarpe, C.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Andersen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Ungulate carcasses can have important effects on the surrounding soil and vegetation. The impact of six carcasses of European bison (Bison bonasus) was investigated for the first time in a natural temperate forest (Bialeowieza, Poland) by measuring soil and plant nutrient concentrations along a

  18. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  19. Control of Taenia saginata by post-mortem examination of carcasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Meat inspection insensitively revealed cysticerci in 12 carcasses in each group compared with 24 and 23 carcasses revealed by total dissection in natural and artificial infestations, respectively. Sites of oncosphere invasion showed great variations with the two groups of cattle. In the predilection sites, most cysticerci ...

  20. Salmonella Recovery Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following immersion chilling were determined for both neck skin and the matching whole carcass enriched samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were immersion chilled in ice and tap water for 40 min. Following immersio...

  1. Simulative Winding of Roll Formed Profile in Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Ormstrup, Casper Alexander; Hartz, Benjamin Arnold Krekeler

    2015-01-01

    In carcass production for flexible pipe systems roll formed profiles are wound around a mandrel forming an interlocking, flexible structure able to withstand collapse from outside water pressure or mechanical crushing. Carcass is often produced in lengths of several kilometres, which implies...

  2. ltnear carcass measurements as indicators of body fat content in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    t ). Determination of DM, nitrogen and ether extract. A "Wolfking" carcass grinder was used to grind the one side of a carcass 5 times in succession using 2 sieves, one with 12 mm holes and the other with 5 mm holes. The ground portions were ...

  3. 9 CFR 310.3 - Carcasses and parts in certain instances to be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts in certain instances to be retained. 310.3 Section 310.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... retained by the Program employee at the time of inspection. The identity of every such retained carcass...

  4. Sampling method and location affect recovery of coliforms and Escherichia coli from broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D P

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, the first to determine whether numbers of recovered bacteria differed due to sampling method used or due to location on carcass sampled (breast or leg quarters) and the second to determine if numbers of bacteria differed between the front (ventral) and back (dorsal) side of the carcass. In both experiments, eviscerated broiler carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant just before the final inside-outside bird washer. In experiment 1, carcasses (3 in each of 4 replicate trials) were separated into leg quarters and breast quarters (n = 48) and either rinsed or ground and stomached for microbiological sampling. In experiment 2, for 3 replicate trials of 4 carcasses each, necks, wings, and legs were manually removed; the remaining trunks were cut through the sides to produce front (ventral) and back (dorsal) halves (n = 24); and then rinsed. For both experiments, coliforms and Escherichia coli were enumerated. In experiment 1, significantly higher numbers (P coliforms and E. coli were recovered by rinsing than by grinding from both breast and leg quarters. Leg quarters were found to have higher bacterial numbers than breasts from grind samples, but no quarter differences were found for rinse samples. In experiment 2, higher (P coliforms and E. coli were recovered from the dorsal carcass half compared with the ventral half. Bacterial counts of broiler carcasses are affected by both the sampling method used and by carcass location sampled.

  5. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  6. The use of seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) to predict the carcass composition of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadavez, Vasco A. P.; Henningsen, Arne

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate models for predicting the carcass composition of lambs. Forty male lambs of two different breeds were included in our analysis. The lambs were slaughtered and their hot carcass weight was obtained. After cooling for 24 hours, the subcutaneous fat...

  7. Carcass and meat quality of Boer and indigenous goats of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the carcass and meat quality of Boer goats and unimproved indigenous goats of South Africa, under delayed chilling conditions. Ten goats per breed were used for the study. The goats were slaughtered according to standard abattoir procedures. The dressed carcasses were held at ...

  8. Quantitative trait loci associated with chemical composition of the chicken carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, K; Ledur, M C; Zanella, E L; Klein, C; Pinto, L F B; Moura, A S A M T; Ruy, D C; Baron, E E; Ambo, M; Campos, R L R; Boschiero, C; Burt, D W; Coutinho, L L

    2012-10-01

    Major objectives of the poultry industry are to increase meat production and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly abdominal fat. Information on growth performance and carcass composition are important for the selection of leaner meat chickens. To enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture underlying the chemical composition of chicken carcasses, an F(2) population developed from a broiler × layer cross was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting protein, fat, water and ash contents in chicken carcasses. Two genetic models were applied in the QTL analysis: the line-cross and the half-sib models, both using the regression interval mapping method. Six significant and five suggestive QTL were mapped in the line-cross analysis, and four significant and six suggestive QTL were mapped in the half-sib analysis. A total of eleven QTL were mapped for fat (ether extract), five for protein, four for ash and one for water contents in the carcass using both analyses. No study to date has reported QTL for carcass chemical composition in chickens. Some QTL mapped here for carcass fat content match, as expected, QTL regions previously associated with abdominal fat in the same or in different populations, and novel QTL for protein, ash and water contents in the carcass are presented here. The results described here also reinforce the need for fine mapping and to perform multi-trait analyses to better understand the genetic architecture of these traits. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance of...

  10. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Grower Pigs. ... (MCV) values with the groups on SBH diets. The heart girth circumference, heart weight, kidney weight, live body weight, and dressed carcass weight were all significantly (p<0.05) affected by the dietary levels of SBH.

  11. An evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella on Turkey carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, J M; Nde, C W; Sherwood, J S; Logue, C M

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of rinse, excision, and swab methods for the microbiological analysis of prechill turkey carcasses was investigated. Aerobic plate counts from a 50-cm2 area of the breast sampled by excision and by swabbing were compared. Escherichia coli and Salmonella recoveries were determined from turkeys sampled by a carcass rinse (CR), a modified rinse with the carcass supported in a swing (MCR), a two-site swab of 50 cm2 at the back and thigh (2S), a one-site swab of 50 cm2 beneath the wing (1S), a whole-carcass swab of the inner and outer carcass surface (WS), and excision of 25 g of neck skin tissue (NE). The effect of diluent volume (25, 50, and 100 ml) on E. coli counts from swab samples was also assessed. The aerobic plate count from breast tissue sampled by excision was greater than that by swabbing (P diluent (P diluent, E. coli recoveries by the MCR, 2S, 1S, and WS methods were similar. For swabs stomached in 50 ml of diluent, Salmonella recoveries by the WS and MCR methods were higher than those by the 2S and 1S methods. Excision was more effective than swabbing for obtaining total bacterial counts from reduced turkey carcass areas. Whole-carcass sampling by rinsing or swabbing is necessary for optimum Salmonella recovery. Sampling a reduced area of the carcass is sufficient for E. coli analysis.

  12. Burying beetles regulate the microbiome of carcasses and use it to transmit a core microbiota to their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shantanu P; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-07-27

    Necrophagous beetles utilize carrion, a highly nutritious resource that is susceptible to intense microbial competition, by treating it with antimicrobial anal and oral secretions. However, how this regulates the carcass microbiota remains unclear. Here, we show that carcasses prepared by the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides undergo significant changes in their microbial communities subsequent to their burial and "preparation." Prepared carcasses hosted a microbial community that was more similar to that of beetles' anal and oral secretions than to the native carcass community or the surrounding soil, indicating that the beetles regulated the carcass microbiota. A core microbial community (Xanthomonadaceae, Enterococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Yarrowia yeasts) was transmitted by the beetles to the larvae via the anal and oral secretions and the carcass surface. These core taxa proliferated on the carcass, indicating a growth conducive environment for these microbes when associated with beetles. However, total bacterial loads were higher on decomposing carcasses without beetles than on beetle-prepared carcasses, indicating that the beetles and/or their associated symbionts suppress the growth of competing microbes. Thus, apart from being a nutritional resource, the carcass provides a medium for vertical transmission of a tightly regulated symbiotic microbiota, whose activity on the carcass and in the larval gut may involve carcass preservation as well as digestion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Antimicrobial multiresistance in bacteria isolated from freshwater Chilean salmon farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirand, Claudio D; Zemelman, Raul

    2002-07-03

    The intensive use of antimicrobial agents, mainly oxytetracycline, to prevent and control bacterial pathologies in Chilean salmon culture is a frequent practice. A total of 103 gram-negative oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria recovered from various sources of 4 Chilean freshwater salmon farms were identified and investigated for their susceptibility patterns to various antibacterial agents, by using an agar disk diffusion method. Antibacterial resistance patterns of isolates were not correlated with bacterial species or strain source. A high number of bacteria resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin. erythromycin, and furazolidone, as well as an important frequency of bacterial resistance to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was found. On the contrary, the proportion of bacteria resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, flumequine and enrofloxacin was rather low. Resistant microflora showed a high taxonomic variability and mainly consisted of non-fermenting bacteria (77.7%). These strains mainly belonged to the species Pseudomonas fluorescens (29), Aeromonas hydrophila (10), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (6), isolated from salmon fingerlings, and Acinetobacter lwoffii (5) isolated from pelletized feed. The occurrence of simultaneous resistance to various antibacterials was frequent. We observe a high frequency of bacteria resistant to 6-10 antibacterials (74 strains), and antibiotic resistance index (ARI) values ranging from 0.38 to 0.48 for the four salmon farms studied. These results suggest that Chilean salmon farms might play a role as reservoirs of antibacterial multiresistant bacteria, thus prompting the necessity for a more restrictive attitude towards the intensive use of antibacterials in salmon farming.

  14. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  15. A highly redundant BAC library of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: an important tool for salmon projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As farming of Atlantic salmon is growing as an aquaculture enterprise, the need to identify the genomic mechanisms for specific traits is becoming more important in breeding and management of the animal. Traits of importance might be related to growth, disease resistance, food conversion efficiency, color or taste. To identify genomic regions responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries have previously proven to be of crucial importance. These large insert libraries can be screened using gene or genetic markers in order to identify and map regions of interest. Furthermore, large-scale mapping can utilize highly redundant libraries in genome projects, and hence provide valuable data on the genome structure. Results Here we report the construction and characterization of a highly redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library constructed from a Norwegian aquaculture strain male of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The library consists of a total number of 305 557 clones, in which approximately 299 000 are recombinants. The average insert size of the library is 188 kbp, representing 18-fold genome coverage. High-density filters each consisting of 18 432 clones spotted in duplicates have been produced for hybridization screening, and are publicly available 1. To characterize the library, 15 expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived overgos and 12 oligo sequences derived from microsatellite markers were used in hybridization screening of the complete BAC library. Secondary hybridizations with individual probes were performed for the clones detected. The BACs positive for the EST probes were fingerprinted and mapped into contigs, yielding an average of 3 contigs for each probe. Clones identified using genomic probes were PCR verified using microsatellite specific primers. Conclusion Identification of genes and genomic regions of interest is greatly aided by the availability of the CHORI-214 Atlantic salmon BAC

  16. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... approved Amendment 16 to the Salmon FMP. Amendment 16 established status determination criteria (SDC), and... a letter to the Council, dated December 11, 2011, NMFS detailed the disapproval of one SDC, the...

  17. Abundance and run timing of salmon in Blue Bill and Red Salmon Creeks, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A bi-directional fixed picket weir was installed and operated within Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on Red Salmon Creek (RS) from 26 June to 21 September and on...

  18. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Heber; Cornelia Petroman; Ioan Petroman; Ioana Bălan; Diana Marin; Gabriela Ivaşcu; Călin Popovici

    2010-01-01

    Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight) is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementar...

  19. Developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality and organs in the Jinhua pig and Landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z-G; Wang, L-J; Xu, Z-R; Huang, J-F; Wang, Y-R

    2009-03-01

    The present study was aimed to compare the developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality characteristics and organ weight in pigs of different breeds. Six pigs (sex balance) of each breed were slaughtered at 35, 80 and 125 days of age, respectively. The carcass was chilled and the left carcass side was dissected into bone, lean meat, fat and skin; additionally, organ weight and meat quality parameters were observed. Carcasses of the Jinhua pig were lighter (P IMF) percentage (P experiment. These results indicated that developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality parameters and organ weight displayed breed differences. Jinhua pigs were fatter than Landrace but the former had better quality characteristics in the meat.

  20. Pilot-Scale Bio-Augmented Aerobic Composting of Excavated Foot-And-Mouth Disease Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we tested the validity of using novel, bio-augmented, aerobic composting with carcass-degrading microorganisms for the ex situ stabilization of carcasses at pilot scale with previously poorly decomposed carcasses excavated from a 3-year old burial site. The significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand (COD, 160,000 mg/kg to 40,000 mg/kg and inorganic nitrogen species (total nitrogen, 5000 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg indicated effective bio-stabilization of carcasses by bio-augmented composting. The subsequent germination assays and the quantitative characterization of potentially pathogenic bacteria using NGS (next-generation sequencing showed that the burial–composting sequential system with the carcass-degrading microorganisms and mechanical agitation successfully reduced plant toxicity as well as microbial risk to human health, suggesting that the composting by-product is suitable for farming or/and landfill use(s.