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Sample records for salivary proteins induce

  1. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  2. Psychological stress as a determinant of protein levels and salivary-induced aggregation of Streptococcus gordonii in human whole saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.A.; Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, T.J.M.; Bermond, B.; Hoogstraten, J.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    Several pathologies of the oral cavity have been associated with stress, so we investigated salivary-induced aggregation during psychological stress. In addition, salivary total protein, alpha-amylase, and secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) were assessed. In this longitudinal study, 28 dental

  3. Cigarette smoke-induced reduction in binding of the salivary translocator protein is not mediated by free radicals.

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    Nagler, R; Savulescu, D; Gavish, M

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignancy of the head and neck and its main inducer is exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) in the presence of saliva. It is commonly accepted that CS contributes to the pathogenesis of oral cancer via reactive free radicals and volatile aldehydes. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is an intracellular receptor involved in proliferation and apoptosis, and has been linked to various types of cancer. The presence of TSPO in human saliva has been linked to oral cancer, and its binding affinity to its ligand is reduced following exposure to CS. In the present study we wished to further investigate the mechanism behind the CS-induced reduction of TSPO binding by exploring the possible mediatory role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and volatile aldehydes in this process. We first analyzed TSPO binding in control saliva and in saliva exposed to CS in the presence and absence of various antioxidants. These experiments found that TSPO binding ability was not reversed by any of the antioxidants added, suggesting that CS exerts its effect on TSPO via mechanisms that do not involve volatile aldehydes and free radicals tested. Next, we analyzed TSPO binding in saliva following addition of exogenous ROS in the form of H2O2. These experiments found that TSPO binding was enhanced due to the treatment, once again showing that the CS-induced TSPO binding reduction is not mediated by this common form of ROS. However, the previously reported CS-induced reduction in salivary TSPO binding together with the role of TSPO in cells and its link to cancer strongly suggest that TSPO has a critical role in the pathogenesis of CS-induced oral cancer. The importance of further elucidating the mechanisms behind it should be emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. The status of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein in the salivary glands in Sjögren's syndrome: predictive and prognostic potentials.

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    Qin, Xu; Liu, Jun Yao; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Shi, Xingming; Yu, Jack C; Mozaffari, Mahmood S; Baban, Babak

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-17, and the developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) likely contributes to inflammation and salivary gland abnormalities in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein is a pivotal player in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. However, its status and role in salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in SS are not established. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that SS is associated with reduced GILZ expression, thereby contributing to Del-1/Il-17 imbalance and inflammation in salivary glands. We utilized the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of SS-like disease as well as lower-lip biopsy samples of subjects without or with a diagnosis of SS in association with immunostaining studies. These studies were complemented with in vitro and flow-cytometry studies whereby interleukin (IL)-23-treated salivary gland cells were co-cultured with GILZ-expressing cells or control cells; IL-23 is known to increase generation of IL-17. Salivary glands of NOD mice displayed marked leukocyte infiltration and reduced GILZ expression in association with increased IL-17 but decreased Del-1 expression. A similar pattern was observed for lower-lip biopsy samples of SS than non-SS subjects. Further, IL-23-treated salivary gland cells displayed marked increase in IL-17 but reduced Del-1 positive cells which were reversed with co-culturing with GILZ-expressing cells but not control cells. Collectively, the results are suggestive of dysregulation of GILZ playing a role in inflammation and associated Del-1/Il-17 imbalance in SS. Complementing our demonstration of Del-1/IL-17 imbalance in salivary glands in SS, the present study has established the relevance and significance of GILZ as a novel predictive and prognostic molecular fingerprint for SS. Thus, assessment of minor salivary gland GILZ expression, in conjunction with Del-1/IL-17

  5. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

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    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  6. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

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    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  7. Interaction of plant polyphenols with salivary proteins.

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    Bennick, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Tannins are polyphenols that occur widespread in plant-based food. They are considered to be part of the plant defense system against environmental stressors. Tannins have a number of effects on animals, including growth-rate depression and inhibition of digestive enzymes. Tannins also have an effect on humans: They are, for example, the cause of byssinosis, a condition that is due to exposure to airborne tannin. Their biological effect is related to the great efficiency by which tannins precipitate proteins, an interaction that occurs by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonding. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are highly effective precipitators of tannin, and there is evidence that at least proline-rich proteins act as a first line of defense against tannins, perhaps by precipitating tannins in food and preventing their absorption from the alimentary canal. Proline plays an important role in the interaction of proline-rich proteins with tannins. In contrast, it is primarily basic residues that are responsible for the binding of histatins to tannin. The high concentration of tannin-binding proteins in human saliva may be related to the fruit and vegetable diet of human ancestors.

  8. 5-Fluorouracil induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the major salivary glands affecting salivary flow and saliva composition.

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    Bomfin, Luana E; Braga, Cíntia M; Oliveira, Thais A; Martins, Conceição S; Foschetti, Danielle A; Santos, Ana A Q A; Costa, Deiziane V S; Leitão, Renata F C; Brito, Gerly A C

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the histological aspects of the major salivary glands, salivary flow and saliva composition using an established oral mucositis model in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU in two consecutive days (60 and 40mg/kg), followed by cheek pouch mucosa scratch, on day 4. The Pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow was measured 4 and 10days after the first 5-FU injection. Salivary glands were harvested for histopathological analysis, measurement of inflammatory cells, quantification of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), investigation of cell death and cell proliferation. Oxidative stress and oxidative defense system were also investigated in the salivary gland tissues using MDA (malondialdehyde), nitrite, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase). In addition, the CAT and lysozyme activities and the IgA and SOD levels were evaluated in the saliva samples. 5-FU significantly reduced the pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow rate on the 4th experimental day, associated with an increase in the SOD levels in saliva. Recovery of the salivary flow and SOD were observed on day 10, when an increase in the saliva lysozyme levels was detected. In addition, 5-FU promoted vacuolization in parotid (P) and periductal edema in submandibular (SM) gland, combined with an increase in the inflammatory cells influx, mostly observed on the 4th day in SM gland and on 4th and 10th days in P. Oxidative stress was found mostly on day 10 in SM, SL and P glands, associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines, observed in SM and SL glands, but not in P. 5-FU induces an inflammatory response in the major salivary glands, most observed ten days after its first injection, which may contribute to the major salivary glands hypofunction, leading to alterations in the salivary flow rate and composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  9. The immune response to sand fly salivary proteins and its influence on Leishmania immunity

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    Regis eGomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During Leishmania transmission, sand fly saliva is co-inoculated with parasites into the skin of the mammalian host. Sand fly saliva consists of roughly thirty different salivary proteins, many with known roles linked to blood feeding facilitation. Apart from the anti-hemostatic capacity of saliva, several sand fly salivary proteins have been shown to be immunogenic upon multiple contacts with a mammalian host. Immunization with single immunogenic salivary proteins or exposure to uninfected bites can produce protective immune responses against leishmaniasis. These sand fly salivary proteins induce cellular immune responses and/or antibodies. Antibodies to saliva are not required for protection in a mouse model against leishmaniasis. A strong body of evidence points to the role for saliva-specific T cells producing IFN-γ in the form of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction at the bite site as the main protective response. Herein, we review immunity to sand fly salivary proteins in the context of its vector-parasite-host combinations and vaccine potential, as well as some recent advances to shed light on the mechanism of how an immune response to sand fly saliva protects against leishmaniasis.

  10. Oxidative Modification in the Salivary Glands of High Fat-Diet Induced Insulin Resistant Rats.

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    Kołodziej, Urszula; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Miąsko, Agnieszka; Matczuk, Jan; Knaś, Małgorzata; Żukowski, Piotr; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Borys, Jan; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Still little is known about the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of the salivary gland dysfunction in the course of insulin resistance (IR). To induce IR rats was fed with a high fat diet (HFD) during 8 weeks. Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rate, total protein, as well as oxidative damage markers: 4-HNE protein adduct, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-D-guanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), and protein carbonyls (PC) were determined in the plasma and submandibular and parotid glands of IR and control rats. We have shown a significant decrease (45%) of the stimulated salivary flow rate, and in the total protein concentration in the parotid (35%) and submandibular (10%) glands of HFD IR as compared to the control rats. The level of 4-HNE protein adduct (15%) and 8-isoP (20%) in the submandibular glands of IR rats as well as total level of 4-HNE protein adduct (39%), 8-isoP (27%), AOPP (25%), PC (32%), and 8-OHdG (18%) in the parotid glands of IR rats were significantly higher as compared to the control group. We showed no correlation between the assessed OS parameters in the plasma and salivary glands. However, the redox balance in both glands shifted toward the oxidative status, parotid glands of IR rats are exposed to greater intensity OS. Stimulated secretory ability and mechanisms involved in the synthesis/secretion of proteins in the salivary glands are depressed in the course of IR. Oxidative damage in the salivary glands arises independently from the general OS in the course of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet.

  11. Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA), ...

  12. Role of amylase, mucin, IgA and albumin on salivary protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-15

    Mar 15, 2013 ... It has been suggested that proteins serve as major salivary buffers below pH5. It remains unclear, however, which salivary proteins are responsible for these buffering properties. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the correlation between salivary concentration of total protein, amylase, mucin, ...

  13. Scintigraphic assessment of salivary function and excretion response in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Keus, R. B.; Takes, R. P.; van Tinteren, H.; Baris, G.; Hilgers, F. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Balm, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Both loss of the secretory function and impairment of the excretion may play a role in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Therefore, quantitative 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc) salivary scintigraphy to assess trapping, secretion, and

  14. Filamentous Structures Induced by a Phytoreovirus Mediate Viral Release from Salivary Glands in Its Insect Vector.

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    Mao, Qianzhuo; Liao, Zhenfeng; Li, Jiajia; Liu, Yuyan; Wu, Wei; Chen, Hongyan; Chen, Qian; Jia, Dongsheng; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-06-15

    Numerous viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. These viruses circulate in the vector body, enter the salivary gland, and then are released into the apical plasmalemma-lined cavities, where saliva is stored. The cavity plasmalemma of vector salivary glands thus represents the last membrane barrier for viral transmission. Here, we report a novel mechanism used by a persistent virus to overcome this essential barrier. We observed that the infection by rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), a species of the genus Phytoreovirus in the family Reoviridae, induced the formation of virus-associated filaments constructed by viral nonstructural protein Pns11 within the salivary glands of its leafhopper vector, Recilia dorsalis Such filaments attached to actin-based apical plasmalemma and induced an exocytosis-like process for viral release into vector salivary gland cavities, through a direct interaction of Pns11 of RGDV and actin of R. dorsalis Failure of virus-induced filaments assembly by RNA interference with synthesized double-stranded RNA targeting the Pns11 gene inhibited the dissemination of RGDV into salivary cavities, preventing viral transmission by R. dorsalis For the first time, we show that a virus can exploit virus-induced inclusion as a vehicle to pass through the apical plasmalemma into vector salivary gland cavities, thus overcoming the last membrane barrier for viral transmission by insect vectors.IMPORTANCE Understanding how persistent viruses overcome multiple tissue and membrane barriers within the insect vectors until final transmission is the key for viral disease control. The apical plasmalemma of the cavities where saliva is stored in the salivary glands is the last barrier for viral transmission by insect vectors; however, the mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we show that a virus has evolved to exploit virus-induced filaments to perform an exocytosis-like process that enables viral

  15. Salivary

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    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was higher in asthmatics than controls. High caries incidence in asthmatics related to salivary acidic pH, increase S. mutans, Lactobacilli count and medication. There is a need to create awareness among dental practitioners and pulmonologists regarding the increased caries risk in asthmatics.

  16. Estimation of long-term salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy.

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    Makkonen, T A; Nordman, E

    1987-01-01

    A classification is proposed for estimating salivary gland damage induced by radiotherapy to the head and neck. The volume of salivary glands irradiated was evaluated, and their relative proportions of whole saliva output were calculated. Stimulated salivary flow rate was measured in 61 patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. A highly significant negative correlation was found between the classification of salivary gland damage and stimulated salivary flow rate. The volume of the major salivary glands irradiated seems to be the most important factor affecting the postirradiation salivary flow after a curative dose of radiotherapy. If possible, partial sparing of the salivary glands may help to keep the patient's salivary secretion at an acceptable level and promote protection against dental caries. Most patients irradiated to the head and neck, however, need an effective prophylactic programme for the rest of their lives in order to preserve their teeth.

  17. New procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes by mass spectrometry. Effect of salivary protein profile, tannin concentration, and time stability.

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    Perez-Gregorio, Maria Rosa; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-10-15

    Several factors could influence the tannin-protein interaction such as the human salivary protein profile, the tannin tested, and the tannin/protein ratio. The goal of this study aims to study the effect of different salivas (A, B, and C) and different tannin concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the interaction process as well as the complex's stability over time. This study is focused on the identification of new procyanidin B3-human salivary protein complexes. Thus, 48 major B3-human salivary protein aggregates were identified regardless of the saliva and tannin concentration tested. A higher number of aggregates was found at lower tannin concentration. Moreover, the number of protein moieties involved in the aggregation process was higher when the tannin concentration was also higher. The selectivity of the different groups of proteins to bind tannin was also confirmed. It was also verified that the B3-human salivary protein complexes formed evolved over time.

  18. THE ROLE OF SECRETORY GRANULES IN RADIATION-INDUCED DYSFUNCTION OF RAT SALIVARY-GLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; VANWAARDE, MAWH; VISSINK, A; SGRAVENMADE, EJ; KONINGS, AWT

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini, At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy

  19. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands.

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    Knaś, M; Maciejczyk, M; Daniszewska, I; Klimiuk, A; Matczuk, J; Kołodziej, U; Waszkiel, D; Ładny, J R; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M; Zalewska, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions.

  20. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

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    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels.

  1. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

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    Xu L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liping Xu,* Xi Yang,* Jiayan Chen, Xiaolin Ge, Qin Qin, Hongcheng Zhu, Chi Zhang, Xinchen Sun Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design: Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR (Group I, SIM + sham IR (Group II, IR + solvent (Group III, and IR + SIM (Group IV. SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome, and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results: IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion: SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. Keywords: simvastatin, radiation protection, submandibular gland, transforming growth factor-β1, mice

  2. The Salivary Protein Repertoire of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae: A Quest for Effectors.

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    Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Zhurov, Vladimir; Wybouw, Nicky; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Villarroel, Carlos A; Greenhalgh, Robert; Grbić, Mike; Schuurink, Rob C; Tirry, Luc; Baggerman, Geert; Clark, Richard M; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Menschaert, Gerben; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extremely polyphagous crop pest. Alongside an unparalleled detoxification potential for plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown that spider mites can attenuate or even suppress plant defenses. Salivary constituents, notably effectors, have been proposed to play an important role in manipulating plant defenses and might determine the outcome of plant-mite interactions. Here, the proteomic composition of saliva from T. urticae lines adapted to various host plants-bean, maize, soy, and tomato-was analyzed using a custom-developed feeding assay coupled with nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry. About 90 putative T. urticae salivary proteins were identified. Many are of unknown function, and in numerous cases belonging to multimembered gene families. RNAseq expression analysis revealed that many genes coding for these salivary proteins were highly expressed in the proterosoma, the mite body region that includes the salivary glands. A subset of genes encoding putative salivary proteins was selected for whole-mount in situ hybridization, and were found to be expressed in the anterior and dorsal podocephalic glands. Strikingly, host plant dependent expression was evident for putative salivary proteins, and was further studied in detail by micro-array based genome-wide expression profiling. This meta-analysis revealed for the first time the salivary protein repertoire of a phytophagous chelicerate. The availability of this salivary proteome will assist in unraveling the molecular interface between phytophagous mites and their host plants, and may ultimately facilitate the development of mite-resistant crops. Furthermore, the technique used in this study is a time- and resource-efficient method to examine the salivary protein composition of other small arthropods for which saliva or salivary glands cannot be isolated easily. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries: a systematic review.

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    Lips, Andrea; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo; Pintor, Andrea Vaz Braga; Santos, Diana Amado Baptista Dos; Bachinski, Rober; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes

    2017-06-05

    Dental caries is an oral pathology associated with both lifestyle and genetic factors. The caries process can be influenced by salivary composition, which includes ions and proteins. Studies have described associations between salivary protein polymorphisms and dental caries experience, while others have shown no association with salivary proteins genetic variability. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of salivary protein polymorphisms on the risk of dental caries by means of a systematic review of the current literature. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Virtual Health Library. The following search terms were used: "dental caries susceptibility," "dental caries," "polymorphism, genetics," "saliva," "proteins," and "peptides." Related MeSH headings and free terms were included. The inclusion criteria comprised clinical investigations of subjects with and without caries. After application of these eligibility criteria, the selected articles were qualified by assessing their methodological quality. Initially, 338 articles were identified from the electronic databases after exclusion of duplicates. Exclusion criteria eliminated 322 articles, and 16 remained for evaluation. Eleven articles found a consistent association between salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries, for proteins related to antimicrobial activity (beta defensin 1 and lysozyme-like protein), pH control (carbonic anhydrase VI), and bacterial colonization/adhesion (lactotransferrin, mucin, and proline-rich protein Db). This systematic review demonstrated an association between genetic polymorphisms and risk of dental caries for most of the salivary proteins.

  4. Salivary gland of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae): ultrastructural morphology and electrophoretic protein profiles.

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    Jariyapan, Narissara; Choochote, Wej; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Bates, Paul A

    2004-07-01

    The salivary glands of male and female Toxorhynchites splendens have the same morphology, and they are paired organs lying on either side of the esophagus. Each gland is composed of two identical tubular lobes, joined together at the end of the proximal region. In the gland, a salivary duct extends through the length of each lobe. The general cellular architecture of the salivary gland of this mosquito is unique. No secretory cavity was found in any cell, and the salivary materials are secreted from long microvilli and collect in a periductal space surrounding the duct. In addition, a number of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a very large nucleus were observed, suggesting a high energy requirement for producing the salivary proteins involved in sugar feeding. The size of the gland is approximately 50 microm in diameter and 1.5 mm in length. These dimensions correlate with high protein content of these salivary glands (2.88+/-0.14 microg/gland pair). Sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic protein profiles of the male and female salivary glands were identical. No dominant major proteins were found. Compared with Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, the protein profile of T. splendens was similar to that observed in the males of these other species but different to that shown by the females, thus making T. splendens an excellent organism for studying the biochemistry of sugar feeding in mosquitoes.

  5. An insight into immunogenic salivary proteins of Anopheles gambiae in African children

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    Boulanger Denis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During blood feeding, the mosquito injects saliva into the vertebrate host. This saliva contains bioactive components which may play a role in pathogen transmission and in host-vector relationships by inducing an immune response in the vertebrate host. The evaluation of human immune responses to arthropod bites might also represent a research direction for assessing individual exposure to the bite of a malaria vector. Methods The present study examined the antibody (Ab IgG response during the season of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites in young children living in a malaria endemic area. Immunoblots were performed with An. gambiae saliva to detect anti-saliva Ab bands and the evolution of immunogenic bands at the peak of, and following, the transmission period. Results The results showed that anti-Anopheles Ab was directed against a limited number of salivary proteins (175, 115, 72 and 30 kDa bands. Specific IgG responses to mosquito salivary proteins were variable among exposed individuals; nevertheless, two major bands (175 and 72 kDa were observed in all immune-responder children. Analysis of the intensity of immunogenic bands revealed that IgG levels against the 175 kDa band were significantly higher during the peak period compared to the end period malaria transmission. Conclusion This preliminary work supports the potential of using anti-saliva immune responses as a measure of exposure to Anopheles bites. The use of immunoblots coupled with evaluation of band intensity could be an adequate tool for distinguishing immunogenic salivary proteins as candidate markers of bite exposure. Furthermore, this study may open the way to design new epidemiological tools for evaluating the risk of malaria exposure.

  6. An insight into immunogenic salivary proteins of Anopheles gambiae in African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelie, Sylvie; Remoue, Franck; Doucoure, Souleymane; Ndiaye, Tofene; Sauvage, Francois-Xavier; Boulanger, Denis; Simondon, Francois

    2007-06-05

    During blood feeding, the mosquito injects saliva into the vertebrate host. This saliva contains bioactive components which may play a role in pathogen transmission and in host-vector relationships by inducing an immune response in the vertebrate host. The evaluation of human immune responses to arthropod bites might also represent a research direction for assessing individual exposure to the bite of a malaria vector. The present study examined the antibody (Ab) IgG response during the season of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites in young children living in a malaria endemic area. Immunoblots were performed with An. gambiae saliva to detect anti-saliva Ab bands and the evolution of immunogenic bands at the peak of, and following, the transmission period. The results showed that anti-Anopheles Ab was directed against a limited number of salivary proteins (175, 115, 72 and 30 kDa bands). Specific IgG responses to mosquito salivary proteins were variable among exposed individuals; nevertheless, two major bands (175 and 72 kDa) were observed in all immune-responder children. Analysis of the intensity of immunogenic bands revealed that IgG levels against the 175 kDa band were significantly higher during the peak period compared to the end period malaria transmission. This preliminary work supports the potential of using anti-saliva immune responses as a measure of exposure to Anopheles bites. The use of immunoblots coupled with evaluation of band intensity could be an adequate tool for distinguishing immunogenic salivary proteins as candidate markers of bite exposure. Furthermore, this study may open the way to design new epidemiological tools for evaluating the risk of malaria exposure.

  7. Pilot study on binding of bovine salivary proteins to grit silicates and plant phytoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Marcus; M Kaiser, Thomas; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Mostly fed with grass in fresh or conserved form, cattle and other livestock have to cope with silicate defence bodies from plants (phytoliths) and environmental silicates (grit), which abrade tooth enamel and could additionally interact with various salivary proteins. To detect potential candidates for silicate-binding proteins, bovine whole saliva was incubated with grass-derived phytoliths and silicates. Interactions of salivary proteins with pulverized bovine dental enamel and dentine were additionally analysed. After intense washing, the powder fractions were loaded onto 1D-polyacrylamide gels, most prominent adhesive protein bands were cut out and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry within three independent replicates. All materials were mainly bound by bovine odorant-binding protein, bovine salivary protein 30×10(3) and carbonic anhydrase VI. The phytolith/silicate fraction showed additional stronger interaction with haemoglobin β and lactoperoxidase. Conceivably, the binding of these proteins to the surfaces may contribute to biological processes occurring on them.

  8. Radioprotective Effect of Thymol Against Salivary Glands Dysfunction Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Bijani, Ali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of thymol as a natural product against salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats. The rats were treated with thymol at dose of 50 mg/Kg before exposure to ionizing radiation at dose 15 Gy. Salivary gland function was evaluated with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Ionizing radiation caused significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3th and the 70th days with reduction in radioactivity uptake in salivary glands. Ratios of salivary gland to background radioactivities were 2.0 ± 0.05, 1.58 ± 0.62 and 1.99 ± 0.07 at 3th days for control, radiation, and thymol plus radiation groups, respectively. Thymol significantly protected acute and chronic salivary gland dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in the rats.This finding may have been a promising application of thymol for the protection of salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing irradiation in patients exposed to radiation in head and neck cancer therapy.

  9. Vitamin E protects salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Bijani, Ali; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E as a natural product. Vitamin E protects the salivary glands dysfunction that is induced by ionizing radiation. It was analysed with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Histopathological evaluation was performed. The rats were treated with vitamin E at dose of 400IU/kg 48, 24, and 1h before 15Gy gamma rays irradiation. The rats were evaluated for the salivary gland function through nuclear medicine protocol. Radiation causes significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3rd and the 70th days with a reduction in radioactivity uptake in the salivary glands. Ratios of salivary gland to background radioactivities were 1.99±0.11, 1.58±0.08 and 1.92±0.04 for control, radiation, and vitamin E plus radiation groups, respectively. Vitamin E significantly improved salivary gland dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in the rats. In conclusion, our results indicate protective effects of vitamin E against salivary gland dysfunction induced by gamma radiation. Thus, vitamin E is a promising radioprotective agent for patients who receive radiation in head and neck cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA vaccination with KMP11 and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary protein protects hamsters against visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robson A.A.; Tavares, Natália M.; Costa, Dirceu; Pitombo, Maiana; Barbosa, Larissa; Fukutani, Kyioshi; Miranda, Jose C.; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral, Aldina; Soto, Manuel; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    It was recently shown that immunization of hamsters with DNA plasmids coding LJM19, a sand fly salivary protein, partially protected against a challenge with Leishmania chagasi, whereas immunization with KMP11 DNA plasmid, a Leishmania antigen, induced protection against L. donovani infection. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effect of immunization with both LJM19 and KMP11 DNA plasmid together. Concerning the protection against an infection by L. chagasi, immunization with DNA plasmids coding LJM19 or KMP11, as well as with both plasmids combined, induced IFN-γ production in draining lymph nodes at 7, 14 and 21 days post-immunization. Immunized hamsters challenged with L. chagasi plus Salivary Gland Sonicate (SGS) from Lutzomyia longipalpis showed an enhancement of IFN-γ/IL-10 and IFN-γ/TGF-β in draining lymph nodes after 7 and 14 days of infection. Two and five months after challenge, immunized animals showed reduced parasite load in the liver and spleen, as well as increased IFN-γ/IL-10 and IFN-γ/TGF-β ratios in the spleen. Furthermore, immunized animals remained with a normal hematological profile even five months after the challenge, whereas L. chagasi in unimmunized hamsters lead to a significant anemia. The protection observed with LJM19 or KMP11 DNA plasmids used alone was very similar to the protection obtained by the combination of both plasmids. PMID:21875567

  11. Molecular Interaction Between Salivary Proteins and Food Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mafalda Santos; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Brandão, Elsa; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Soares, Susana

    2017-08-09

    Polyphenols interaction with salivary proteins (SP) has been related with organoleptic features such as astringency. The aim of this work was to study the interaction between some human SP and tannins through two spectroscopic techniques, fluorescence quenching, and saturation transfer difference-nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR). Generally, the results showed a significant interaction between SP and both condensed tannins and ellagitannins. Herein, STD-NMR proved to be a useful tool to map tannins' epitopes of binding, while fluorescence quenching allowed one to discriminate binding affinities. Ellagitannins showed the greatest binding constants values (KSV from 20.1 to 94.1 mM-1; KA from 0.7 to 8.3 mM-1) in comparison with procyanidins (KSV from 5.4 to 40.0 mM-1; KA from 1.1 to 2.7 mM-1). In fact, punicalagin was the tannin that demonstrated the highest affinity for all three SP. Regarding SP, P-B peptide was the one with higher affinity for ellagitannins. On the other hand, cystatins showed in general the lower KSV and KA values. In the case of condensed tannins, statherin was the SP with the highest affinity, contrasting with the other two SP. Altogether, these results are evidence that the distinct SP present in the oral cavity have different abilities to interact with food tannins class.

  12. Dengue viruses binding proteins from Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis salivary glands

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    Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue virus (DENV, the etiological agent of dengue fever, is transmitted to the human host during blood uptake by an infective mosquito. Infection of vector salivary glands and further injection of infectious saliva into the human host are key events of the DENV transmission cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms of DENV entry into the mosquito salivary glands have not been clearly identified. Otherwise, although it was demonstrated for other vector-transmitted pathogens that insect salivary components may interact with host immune agents and impact the establishment of infection, the role of mosquito saliva on DENV infection in human has been only poorly documented. To identify salivary gland molecules which might interact with DENV at these key steps of transmission cycle, we investigated the presence of proteins able to bind DENV in salivary gland extracts (SGE from two mosquito species. Using virus overlay protein binding assay, we detected several proteins able to bind DENV in SGE from Aedes aegypti (L. and Aedes polynesiensis (Marks. The present findings pave the way for the identification of proteins mediating DENV attachment or entry into mosquito salivary glands, and of saliva-secreted proteins those might be bound to the virus at the earliest step of human infection. The present findings might contribute to the identification of new targets for anti-dengue strategies.

  13. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

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    Hadži-Mihailović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  14. Anopheles gambiae Circumsporozoite Protein–Binding Protein Facilitates Plasmodium Infection of Mosquito Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiuling; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Yang O.; Li, Michelle W. M.; Zhang, Lili; Dragovic, Srdjan; Abraham, Nabil M.; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium species, causes substantial morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Plasmodium sporozoites mature in oocysts formed in the mosquito gut wall and then invade the salivary glands, where they remain until transmitted to the vertebrate host during a mosquito bite. The Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) binds to salivary glands and plays a role in the invasion of this organ by sporozoites. We identified an Anopheles salivary gland protein, named CSP-binding protein (CSPBP), that interacts with CSP. Downregulation of CSPBP in mosquito salivary glands inhibited invasion by Plasmodium organisms. In vivo bioassays showed that mosquitoes that were fed blood with CSPBP antibody displayed a 25% and 90% reduction in the parasite load in infected salivary glands 14 and 18 days after the blood meal, respectively. These results suggest that CSPBP is important for the infection of the mosquito salivary gland by Plasmodium organisms and that blocking CSPBP can interfere with the Plasmodium life cycle. PMID:23801601

  15. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodi, Guy M.; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B.; Crosara, Karla T. B.; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L.; Glogauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. Study design: We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Results: Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Conclusions: Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. Clinical relevance: We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active. PMID:26779447

  16. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodi, Guy M; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B; Crosara, Karla T B; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active.

  17. Differential proteomics of Aedes albopictus salivary gland, midgut and C6/36 cell induced by dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meichun; Zheng, Xiaoying; Wu, Yu; Gan, Ming; He, Ai; Li, Zhuoya; Zhang, Dongjing; Wu, Xiansheng; Zhan, Ximei

    2013-09-01

    The interaction between dengue virus (DENV) and vector mosquitoes are still poorly understood at present. In this study, 2-D DIGE combined with MS was used to analyze the differential proteomes of Aedes albopictus salivary gland, midgut and C6/36 cells induced by DENV-2. Our results indicated that the virus infection regulated several functional classes of proteins. Among them, 26 were successfully analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of 15 were the highest in salivary gland, 2 in midgut and none in C6/36 cells, however, 18 were the least in fat body compared to other organs. Interestingly, the changes of differential proteins mRNA were the most obvious in fat body post-infection. Chaperone, cytoskeleton and energy metabolism enzyme were the most down- or up- regulated proteins after DENV-2 infection. The abundant expression of these proteins in salivary gland may relate to its high susceptibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on lipids metabolism in the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Garbowska, Marta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases. Moreover, previous studies indicate that diabetes may cause changes in the salivary glands phenotype and in the composition of saliva itself. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the effects of streptozotocin induced diabetes on lipid profile of the rat salivary glands. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and STZ-induced diabetes. At the end of the experiment all animals were sacrificed and samples of the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were excised. Major lipid fractions concentrations were determined by means of chromatography (TLC and GC). We observed a significant increase (∼3.5 fold) in the level of triacylglycerol in both the parotid and submandibular salivary glands of diabetic rats. The abovementioned changes were accompanied by significant, although less dramatic (i.e. from -60% to -90%), decrements in the levels of other lipid classes (phospholipids, free fatty acids and diacylglycerol). In our study we have showed, presumably for the first time, that streptozotocin induced diabetes causes decrement in PH content with subsequent atrophy and malfunction in both parotid and submandibular salivary glands. Another novel finding of our research is that diabetic rats were characterized by an increased TG accumulation in both parotid and submandibular salivary glands. The later one could be a clinical manifestation of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants.

  1. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were...... not identified. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify the proteins responsible. Methods: Sour taste stimulated parotid saliva was collected from 20 subjects (23±1 years) comprising ten Scandinavians (Sc) and ten non-Scandinavians (NSc) including two Arabs, two Persians, four Pakistanis, one Indian...... min along with measurements of surface microhardness (SMH). Changes in SMH from before to after exposure were used to calculate the protective effect of each saliva sample. Quantification and identification of salivary proteins was performed by dual wavelength HPLC at various conditions and MALDI...

  2. Arginine metabolism in the salivary glands of protein-deficient rats and its potential association with the oral microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwonwu, C O; Ilupeju, F; Warren, R C

    1994-01-01

    Salivary glands and their secretions play key roles in the prevention of dental diseases. The antibacterial and physicochemical properties of saliva are compromised in chronic malnutrition. The present study has examined the possibility that some malnutrition-induced changes in salivary gland function are potentially capable of promoting growth and metabolic activities of pathogenic oral microorganisms. Compared to well-fed controls, rats fed a 3% protein diet for 18 days showed a significant reduction (p gland arginase (L-arginine amidinohydrolase, EC 3.5.3.1) activity. Associated with the latter finding was a marked increase (+85%) in the glandular level of free arginine, this basic amino acid accounting for 12.2% of the total essential amino acids as compared with a figure of only 4.6% for the controls. The total free amino acid pool in whole saliva was relatively unaffected by malnutrition, but the levels of the basic amino acids arginine and histidine were marginally increased. Many oral bacterial species, some of which are dominant plaque microorganisms, utilize the arginine deiminase (EC 3.5.3.6) pathway. Thus, increased availability of free arginine from salivary glands offers a plausible explanation for the frequently reported observation of differential overgrowth of several potentially pathogenic microorganisms including some mutants streptococci in protein-deficient laboratory animals and may well apply to similar findings in malnourished populations in Third World countries.

  3. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  4. Evaluation of salivary glucose, amylase, and total protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira, M; Chandrashekar, P; Kattappagari, Kiran Kumar; Chandra, Lalith Prakash K; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Bv, Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by a deficit in the production of insulin. The oral complications of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus are devastating. Saliva is an organic fluid that can be collected noninvasively and by individuals with limited training. These reasons create an interest in evaluating the possibility of using saliva as a diagnostic tool. The aim of this study was to determine, if saliva can be used as a noninvasive tool to monitor glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Comparative assessment of salivary (glucose, amylase, total protein levels) in patients with Type 2 diabetes and controls. A total of 40 individuals, 20 with Type 2 diabetes and 20 controls of age group 40-60 years were selected for the study. Diabetic status was assessed by estimating random blood glucose levels. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each participant and investigated for glucose, amylase, and total protein levels. Salivary glucose estimation was performed using glucose-oxidase method, amylase by the direct substrate kinetic enzymatic method, and total protein by pyrogallol red dye end point method. All the parameters were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 20.0. Significantly higher salivary glucose, lower amylase, and total proteins were observed in patients with Type 2 diabetes than controls. There was no significant correlation between salivary and blood glucose levels. These results suggest that diabetes influences the composition of saliva. Since a significant correlation was not observed between salivary and blood glucose levels, further research is needed to determine salivary glucose estimation as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus.

  5. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since...... met by 184 articles covering salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by conventional, 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients, cancer chemotherapy, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radioactive iodine...... treatment, and immunotherapy. Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are induced by radiotherapy in the head and neck region depending on the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue. Treatment focus should be on optimized/new approaches to further reduce the dose to the parotids, and particularly...

  6. Sorting Behavior of a Transgenic Erythropoietin–Growth Hormone Fusion Protein in Murine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Yuval; Cawley, Niamh X.; Zheng, Changyu; Cotrim, Ana P.; Loh, Y. Peng; Baum, Bruce J.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary glands are useful gene transfer target sites for the production of therapeutic proteins, and can secrete proteins into both saliva and the bloodstream. The mechanisms involved in this differential protein sorting are not well understood, although it is believed, at least in part, to be based on the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. We hypothesized that a transgenic protein, human erythropoietin (hEpo), normally sorted from murine salivary glands into the bloodstream, could be redirected into saliva by fusing it with human growth hormone (hGH). After transfection, the hEpo–hGH fusion protein was expressed and glycosylated in both HEK 293 and A5 cells. When packaged in an adenovirus serotype 5 vector and delivered to murine submandibular cells in vivo via retroductal cannulation, the hEpo–hGH fusion protein was also expressed, albeit at ~26% of the levels of hEpo expression. Importantly, in multiple experiments with different cohorts of mice, the hEpo–hGH fusion protein was sorted more frequently into saliva, versus the bloodstream, than was the hEpo protein (p salivary gland cells after gene transfer in vivo, a finding that may facilitate developing novel treatments for certain upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. PMID:18303958

  7. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Pvalue, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (P0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  8. Pollen feeding proteomics: Salivary proteins of the passion flower butterfly, Heliconius melpomene.

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    Harpel, Desiree; Cullen, Darron A; Ott, Swidbert R; Jiggins, Chris D; Walters, James R

    2015-08-01

    While most adult Lepidoptera use flower nectar as their primary food source, butterflies in the genus Heliconius have evolved the novel ability to acquire amino acids from consuming pollen. Heliconius butterflies collect pollen on their proboscis, moisten the pollen with saliva, and use a combination of mechanical disruption and chemical degradation to release free amino acids that are subsequently re-ingested in the saliva. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of this complex pollen feeding adaptation. Here we report an initial shotgun proteomic analysis of saliva from Heliconius melpomene. Results from liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry confidently identified 31 salivary proteins, most of which contained predicted signal peptides, consistent with extracellular secretion. Further bioinformatic annotation of these salivary proteins indicated the presence of four distinct functional classes: proteolysis (10 proteins), carbohydrate hydrolysis (5), immunity (6), and "housekeeping" (4). Additionally, six proteins could not be functionally annotated beyond containing a predicted signal sequence. The presence of several salivary proteases is consistent with previous demonstrations that Heliconius saliva has proteolytic capacity. It is likely that these proteins play a key role in generating free amino acids during pollen digestion. The identification of proteins functioning in carbohydrate hydrolysis is consistent with Heliconius butterflies consuming nectar, like other lepidopterans, as well as pollen. Immune-related proteins in saliva are also expected, given that ingestion of pathogens is a likely route to infection. The few "housekeeping" proteins are likely not true salivary proteins and reflect a modest level of contamination that occurred during saliva collection. Among the unannotated proteins were two sets of paralogs, each seemingly the result of a relatively recent tandem duplication. These results offer a first glimpse into the

  9. Members of the Salivary Gland Surface Protein (SGS) Family Are Major Immunogenic Components of Mosquito Saliva*

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    King, Jonas G.; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies. PMID:21965675

  10. High degree of conservancy among secreted salivary gland proteins from two geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandflies populations (Mali and Kenya

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    Sissoko Ibrahim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salivary proteins from sandflies are potential targets for exploitation as vaccines to control Leishmania infection; in this work we tested the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandfly populations are highly divergent due to the pressure exerted by the host immune response. Salivary gland cDNA libraries were prepared from wild-caught P. duboscqi from Mali and recently colonised flies of the same species from Kenya. Results Transcriptome and proteome analysis resulted in the identification of the most abundant salivary gland-secreted proteins. Orthologues of these salivary proteins were identified by phylogenetic tree analysis. Moreover, comparative analysis between the orthologues of these two different populations resulted in a high level of protein identity, including the predicted MHC class II T-cell epitopes from all these salivary proteins. Conclusion These data refute the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distinct populations of the same Phlebotomus sandfly species are highly divergent. They also suggest the potential for using the same species-specific components in a potential vector saliva-based vaccine.

  11. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 protein and amplification of HER2 gene in salivary duct carcinoma.

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    Kondo, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Tomoki; Esteban, Joaquim Carreras; Kumaki, Nobue; Ogura, Go; Inomoto, Chie; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Sakai, Akihiro; Sugimoto, Ryousuke; Otsuru, Mitsunobu; Okami, Kenji; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Nakamura, Naoya

    2014-09-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands, and accounts for 1-3% of all malignant salivary gland tumors, resembling morphologically invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. In contrast to IDC of the breast and gastric carcinoma (GC), the study of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in SDC has not progressed. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between HER2 protein expression and amplification of the HER2 gene, and compared them in terms of intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) in 13 cases of SDC using immunohistochemistry and dual color in situ hybridization. We found seven cases with protein overexpression (53.8%) and five cases with gene amplification (38.5%) in accordance with ASCO/CAP guidelines. ITH of HER2 protein expression was seen in seven cases (53.8%). Interestingly, the ratio of the HER2 gene showed homogenous distribution with or without the presence of ITH of HER2 protein expression. SDC tends to have more ITH of HER2 protein similarly to GC, in contrast to IDC of the breast. ITH of HER2 protein in SDC has no heterogeneity of the HER2 gene amplification. The mechanism of HER2 protein expression in SDC might proceed through a more complex pathway relative to that of IDC of the breast. © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

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    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. BPI-fold (BPIF) containing/plunc protein expression in human fetal major and minor salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniel Berretta Moreira; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin David; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Silva, Andréia Aparecida; Pereira, Débora Lima; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to determine expression, not previously described, of PLUNC (palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone) (BPI-fold containing) proteins in major and minor salivary glands from very early fetal tissue to the end of the second trimester and thus gain further insight into the function of these proteins. Early fetal heads, and major and minor salivary glands were collected retrospectively and glands were classified according to morphodifferentiation stage. Expression of BPI-fold containing proteins was localized through immunohistochemistry. BPIFA2, the major BPI-fold containing protein in adult salivary glands, was detected only in the laryngeal pharynx; the lack of staining in salivary glands suggested salivary expression is either very late in development or is only in adult tissues. Early expression of BPIFA1 was seen in the trachea and nasal cavity with salivary gland expression only seen in late morphodifferentiation stages. BPIFB1 was seen in early neural tissue and at later stages in submandibular and sublingual glands. BPIFA1 is significantly expressed in early fetal oral tissue but BPIFB1 has extremely limited expression and the major salivary BPIF protein (BPIFA2) is not produced in fetal development. Further studies, with more sensitive techniques, will confirm the expression pattern and enable a better understanding of embryonic BPIF protein function.

  14. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  15. Salivary proteins and microbiota as biomarkers for early childhood caries risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemadi, Abdullah S; Huang, Ruijie; Zhou, Yuan; Zou, Jing

    2017-11-10

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a term used to describe dental caries in children aged 6 years or younger. Oral streptococci, such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sorbrinus, are considered to be the main etiological agents of tooth decay in children. Other bacteria, such as Prevotella spp. and Lactobacillus spp., and fungus, that is, Candida albicans, are related to the development and progression of ECC. Biomolecules in saliva, mainly proteins, affect the survival of oral microorganisms by multiple innate defensive mechanisms, thus modulating the oral microflora. Therefore, the protein composition of saliva can be a sensitive indicator for dental health. Resistance or susceptibility to caries may be significantly correlated with alterations in salivary protein components. Some oral microorganisms and saliva proteins may serve as useful biomarkers in predicting the risk and prognosis of caries. Current research has generated abundant information that contributes to a better understanding of the roles of microorganisms and salivary proteins in ECC occurrence and prevention. This review summarizes the microorganisms that cause caries and tooth-protective salivary proteins with their potential as functional biomarkers for ECC risk assessment. The identification of biomarkers for children at high risk of ECC is not only critical for early diagnosis but also important for preventing and treating the disease.

  16. Annotated differentially expressed salivary proteins of susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi.

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    Sonam Vijay

    Full Text Available Vector control is one of the major global strategies for control of malaria. However, the major obstacle for vector control is the development of multiple resistances to organochlorine, organophosphorus insecticides and pyrethroids that are currently being used in public health for spraying and in bednets. Salivary glands of vectors are the first target organ for human-vector contact during biting and parasite-vector contact prior to parasite development in the mosquito midguts. The salivary glands secrete anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory biologically active molecules to facilitate blood feeding from the host and also inadvertently inject malaria parasites into the vertebrate host. The Anopheles stephensi mosquito, an urban vector of malaria to both human and rodent species has been identified as a reference laboratory model to study mosquito-parasite interactions. In this study, we adopted a conventional proteomic approach of 2D-electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to identify putative differentially expressed annotated functional salivary proteins between An. stephensi susceptible and multiresistant strains with same genetic background. Our results show 2D gel profile and MALDI-TOF comparisons that identified 31 differentially expressed putative modulated proteins in deltamethrin/DDT resistant strains of An. stephensi. Among these 15 proteins were found to be upregulated and 16 proteins were downregulated. Our studies interpret that An. stephensi (multiresistant caused an upregulated expression of proteins and enzymes like cytochrome 450, short chain dehyrdogenase reductase, phosphodiesterase etc that may have an impact in insecticide resistance and xenobiotic detoxification. Our study elucidates a proteomic response of salivary glands differentially regulated proteins in response to insecticide resistance development which include structural, redox and regulatory enzymes of several pathways. These

  17. Annotated differentially expressed salivary proteins of susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Sonam; Rawal, Ritu; Kadian, Kavita; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Vector control is one of the major global strategies for control of malaria. However, the major obstacle for vector control is the development of multiple resistances to organochlorine, organophosphorus insecticides and pyrethroids that are currently being used in public health for spraying and in bednets. Salivary glands of vectors are the first target organ for human-vector contact during biting and parasite-vector contact prior to parasite development in the mosquito midguts. The salivary glands secrete anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory biologically active molecules to facilitate blood feeding from the host and also inadvertently inject malaria parasites into the vertebrate host. The Anopheles stephensi mosquito, an urban vector of malaria to both human and rodent species has been identified as a reference laboratory model to study mosquito-parasite interactions. In this study, we adopted a conventional proteomic approach of 2D-electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to identify putative differentially expressed annotated functional salivary proteins between An. stephensi susceptible and multiresistant strains with same genetic background. Our results show 2D gel profile and MALDI-TOF comparisons that identified 31 differentially expressed putative modulated proteins in deltamethrin/DDT resistant strains of An. stephensi. Among these 15 proteins were found to be upregulated and 16 proteins were downregulated. Our studies interpret that An. stephensi (multiresistant) caused an upregulated expression of proteins and enzymes like cytochrome 450, short chain dehyrdogenase reductase, phosphodiesterase etc that may have an impact in insecticide resistance and xenobiotic detoxification. Our study elucidates a proteomic response of salivary glands differentially regulated proteins in response to insecticide resistance development which include structural, redox and regulatory enzymes of several pathways. These identified proteins

  18. Sialome of a generalist lepidopteran herbivore: identification of transcripts and proteins from Helicoverpa armigera labial salivary glands.

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    Maria de la Paz Celorio-Mancera

    Full Text Available Although the importance of insect saliva in insect-host plant interactions has been acknowledged, there is very limited information on the nature and complexity of the salivary proteome in lepidopteran herbivores. We inspected the labial salivary transcriptome and proteome of Helicoverpa armigera, an important polyphagous pest species. To identify the majority of the salivary proteins we have randomly sequenced 19,389 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a normalized cDNA library of salivary glands. In parallel, a non-cytosolic enriched protein fraction was obtained from labial salivary glands and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and de novo peptide sequencing. This procedure allowed comparison of peptides and EST sequences and enabled us to identify 65 protein spots from the secreted labial saliva 2DE proteome. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed ecdysone, glucose oxidase, fructosidase, carboxyl/cholinesterase and an uncharacterized protein previously detected in H. armigera midgut proteome. Consistently, their corresponding transcripts are among the most abundant in our cDNA library. We did find redundancy of sequence identification of saliva-secreted proteins suggesting multiple isoforms. As expected, we found several enzymes responsible for digestion and plant offense. In addition, we identified non-digestive proteins such as an arginine kinase and abundant proteins of unknown function. This identification of secreted salivary gland proteins allows a more comprehensive understanding of insect feeding and poses new challenges for the elucidation of protein function.

  19. Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva or Salivary Protein LJM19 Protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the Saliva of Its Vector, Lutzomyia intermedia

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    Tavares, Natalia M.; Silva, Robson A.; Costa, Dirceu J.; Pitombo, Maiana A.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Miranda, José C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral, Aldina; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmania transmission occurs in the presence of insect saliva. Immunity to Phlebotomus papatasi or Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary components confers protection against an infection by Leishmania in the presence of the homologous saliva. However, immunization with Lutzomyia intermedia saliva did not protect mice against Leishmania braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. In the present study, we have studied whether the immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or a DNA plasmid coding for LJM19 salivary protein would be protective against L. braziliensis infection in the presence of Lu. intermedia saliva, the natural vector for L. braziliensis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with LJM19 DNA plasmid induced a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response against Lu. longipalpis as well as against a Lu. intermedia saliva challenge. Immunized and unimmunized control hamsters were then intradermally infected in the ears with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia saliva. Animals immunized with Lu. longipalpis saliva exhibited smaller lesion sizes as well as reduced disease burdens both at lesion site and in the draining lymph nodes. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. Animals immunized with LJM19 DNA plasmid presented similar findings in protection and immune response and additionally increased IFN-γ expression. Conclusions/Significance Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with a DNA plasmid coding LJM19 salivary protein induced protection in hamsters challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. These findings point out an important role of immune response against saliva components, suggesting the possibility to develop a vaccine using a single component of Lu. longipalpis saliva to generate protection against different species of Leishmania, even those transmitted by a different

  20. Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary protein LJM19 protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the saliva of its vector, Lutzomyia intermedia.

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    Natalia M Tavares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania transmission occurs in the presence of insect saliva. Immunity to Phlebotomus papatasi or Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary components confers protection against an infection by Leishmania in the presence of the homologous saliva. However, immunization with Lutzomyia intermedia saliva did not protect mice against Leishmania braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. In the present study, we have studied whether the immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or a DNA plasmid coding for LJM19 salivary protein would be protective against L. braziliensis infection in the presence of Lu. intermedia saliva, the natural vector for L. braziliensis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with LJM19 DNA plasmid induced a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH response against Lu. longipalpis as well as against a Lu. intermedia saliva challenge. Immunized and unimmunized control hamsters were then intradermally infected in the ears with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia saliva. Animals immunized with Lu. longipalpis saliva exhibited smaller lesion sizes as well as reduced disease burdens both at lesion site and in the draining lymph nodes. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. Animals immunized with LJM19 DNA plasmid presented similar findings in protection and immune response and additionally increased IFN-γ expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with a DNA plasmid coding LJM19 salivary protein induced protection in hamsters challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. These findings point out an important role of immune response against saliva components, suggesting the possibility to develop a vaccine using a single component of Lu. longipalpis saliva to generate protection against different species of Leishmania, even those

  1. Tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 are high affinity nucleic acid binding proteins with residual nuclease activity.

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    Guy Caljon

    Full Text Available Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2 display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with K(D values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.

  2. Temporal reduction in size of salivary acinus in rats induced by theophylline.

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    Kajikawa, Satoru; Takeuchi, Ayano; Nii, Aisuke; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

    2005-01-01

    Repeated administration of theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, induces the enlargement of the salivary glands in rats. Time-course changes after a single administration of theophylline were examined in the salivary glands, including phosphodiesterase enzyme activity, and the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a water channel. We also examined the contribution of beta-adrenergic receptors to theophylline-induced salivary changes. Male F344 rats were given 50 mg/kg of theophylline intraperitoneally either alone or concurrently with a 10 mg/kg subcutaneous injection of propranolol. After treatment with theophylline alone, the weight and histology of the submaxillary and parotid glands were examined. Phosphodiesterase activity and AQP5 were detected by enzyme- and immuno-histochemistry, respectively. At 4 hours, 8 hours, or both, organ weights were decreased with depletion of secretory vesicles in the acinar cells. In the submaxillary glands, reduced activity of phosphodiesterase and increased expression of AQP5 in the intercalated ducts were observed at 4 hours. When co-administered, propranolol partially abolished theophylline-induced glandular reduction. These results suggest that the theophylline-induced transient reduction in size of the salivary glands is attributable not only to phosphodiesterase inhibition but also to beta-adrenergic receptor activation and that the intercalated ducts in submaxillary glands play a role in the production of saliva.

  3. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since the ...

  4. Use of salivary caffeine tests to assess the inducer effect of a drug on hepatic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, J; Sacristan, J A; Alsar, M J

    1996-01-01

    To validate the use of successive salivary caffeine tests in evaluating how long inducer drugs affect hepatic metabolism. The time course of the inducer effect of rifampin found in other studies using different methodologies was chosen as the time course of reference. Open-label, prospective, longitudinal study. A university hospital. Five healthy volunteers. Rifampin 600 mg/d was administered for 21 days. Anhydrous caffeine 300 mg was concurrently administered on each study day. Salivary caffeine tests were carried out on the following days: predose (baseline), and days 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17. Salivary tests were performed for up to 13 days after the last dose of rifampin (study days 21, 25, 29, and 33). The mean systemic caffeine clearance was increased for up to 17 days after the intake of rifampin, reaching the maximum inducer effect between days 5 and 9, and returning to previous values progressively during several days after rifampin was discontinued. Our results suggest that successive salivary caffeine measurements could be a safe, reliable, noninvasive, and suitable test for exploring the time course of the inducer effect of drugs on hepatic metabolism activity.

  5. Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland proteins in the presence of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

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    Cotté, Violaine; Sabatier, Laurence; Schnell, Gilles; Carmi-Leroy, Annick; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Malandrin, Laurence; Sertour, Natacha; Namane, Abdelkader; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valérie

    2014-01-16

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Their salivary glands play a critical role in the biological success of ticks. To better understand the cross-talk between Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary glands, we analyzed protein expression in the salivary glands of I. ricinus adult ticks that were infected by various strains of the B. burgdorferi sl complex. iTRAQ allowed the identification of more than 120 proteins, providing the first proteomic data pertaining to I. ricinus salivary glands. Among these proteins, only 12 were modulated in the presence of various Borrelia strains. Most of them are up-regulated and are involved in cell defense and protein synthesis and processing. Down-regulated proteins are mostly implicated in the cytoskeleton. The DIGE analysis allowed us to identify 35 proteins and showed the down-regulation of 4 proteins. All 15 proteins were not modulated by all strains. Overall, these observations showed that the presence of Borrelia in tick salivary glands is a factor of stress for the protein machinery, and also that some Borrelia strains produce a dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, a protein from Borrelia, OspA, was found in infected salivary glands. The consequence of its presence in salivary glands is discussed. Lyme borreliosis is still the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The geographical distribution of Lyme borreliosis is expanding, especially towards higher altitudes and latitudes. Human pathogenic spirochetes causing Lyme borreliosis belong to the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are extracellular pathogens transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. The bioactive molecules present in tick saliva not only promote tick feeding, but also create an advantageous microenvironment at the tick bite site for survival and replication of Borrelia bacteria. Investigation of the tick-host-pathogen interface would

  6. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeladhim, Maha; V Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano; Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Jochim, Ryan C; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-07-01

    Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies.

  7. Transient activation of Hedgehog pathway rescued irradiation-induced hyposalivation by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation

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    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Qingguo; Shangguan, Lei; Ti, Xinyu; Zhao, Yanqiu; Kim, Sangroh; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine effects and mechanisms of transient activation of Hedgehog pathway on rescuing radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation in head and neck cancer survivors. Experimental Design Mouse salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells were irradiated by single 15Gy dose. Hedgehog pathway was transiently activated in mouse salivary glands by shortly over-expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgene or administrating Smoothened Agonist and in human salivary epithelial cells by infecting with adenovirus encoding Gli1. Activity of Hedgehog signaling was examined by expression of Ptch1-lacZ reporter and endogenous Hedgehog target genes. Salivary flow rate was measured following pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs), parasympathetic innervation and expression of related genes were examined by flow cytometry, salisphere assay, IHC, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. Results Irradiation does not activate Hedgehog signaling in mouse salivary glands. Transient Shh over-expression activated Hedgehog pathway in ductal epithelia and that after irradiation rescued salivary function in male mice, which is related with preservation of functional SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation. The preservation of SSPCs was likely mediated by rescue of signaling activities of Bmi1 and Chrm1/HB-EGF pathways. The preservation of parasympathetic innervation was related with rescue of expression of neurotrophic factors such as Bdnf and Nrtn. The expression of genes related with maintenance of salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation in female salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells was similarly affected by irradiation and transient Hedgehog activation. Conclusions These findings suggest that transient activation of Hedgehog pathway has the potential to restore irradiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:24150232

  8. Involvement of heat shock proteins 60 in acetyl salicylic acid radioprotection of Albino rat submandibular salivary gland

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    D.G. Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested the association of heat shock protein 60 overexpression with reduction of histopathological damage in acetyl salicylic acid radioproprotected rat submandibular salivary gland.

  9. Associations of Salivary BPIFA1 Protein in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Yue Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To explore the differences in salivary BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1 concentration among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects with various severities of chronic periodontitis and to determine whether BPIFA1 in saliva can be used as a potential biomarker of T2DM. Methods. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 44 subjects with T2DM and 44 without T2DM (NDM. Additionally, demographic data and general health parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FBG and body mass index (BMI, were collected. We also detected full-mouth clinical periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL, bleeding index (BI, and plaque index (PLI. Salivary BPIFA1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations were also detected. Results. BPIFA1 in saliva was detected at relatively high levels. T2DM subjects had decreased salivary BPIFA1 concentrations (P=0.031. In T2DM subjects with nonperiodontitis or severe periodontitis, the level of BPIFA1 was significantly lower compared with that of NDM. Salivary TNF-α concentration displayed a similar trend to BPIFA1 in the NDM group. Conclusions. BPIFA1 protein is rich in saliva and might be used as a potential predictive biomarker of T2DM, especially in patients with severe periodontitis and nonperiodontitis. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010310.

  10. Associations of Salivary BPIFA1 Protein in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Aims To explore the differences in salivary BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1) concentration among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with various severities of chronic periodontitis and to determine whether BPIFA1 in saliva can be used as a potential biomarker of T2DM. Methods Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 44 subjects with T2DM and 44 without T2DM (NDM). Additionally, demographic data and general health parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body mass index (BMI), were collected. We also detected full-mouth clinical periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding index (BI), and plaque index (PLI). Salivary BPIFA1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also detected. Results BPIFA1 in saliva was detected at relatively high levels. T2DM subjects had decreased salivary BPIFA1 concentrations (P = 0.031). In T2DM subjects with nonperiodontitis or severe periodontitis, the level of BPIFA1 was significantly lower compared with that of NDM. Salivary TNF-α concentration displayed a similar trend to BPIFA1 in the NDM group. Conclusions BPIFA1 protein is rich in saliva and might be used as a potential predictive biomarker of T2DM, especially in patients with severe periodontitis and nonperiodontitis. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010310. PMID:29109737

  11. A Sand Fly Salivary Protein Vaccine Shows Efficacy Against Vector-Transmitted Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-03

    LE I SHMAN IAS I S A sand fly salivary protein vaccine shows efficacy against vector-transmitted cutaneous leishmaniasis in nonhuman primates Fabiano...Lawyer,2 John F. Andersen,8 Shaden Kamhawi,1† Jesus G. Valenzuela1† Currently, there are no commercially available human vaccines against leishmaniasis ...In rodents, cellular immunity to salivary proteins of sand fly vectors is associated to protection against leishmaniasis , making them worthy targets

  12. Profiling of Human Acquired Immunity Against the Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus papatasi Reveals Clusters of Differential Immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-10

    progressive immunoreactivity for all five of the major salivary proteins (Table 2), a possibility emerged that allergic reactions to sand fly saliva...and resuspended in standard RPMI-1640 media (Cellgro) sup- plemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 U/mL penicillin , 100 mg/mL streptomycin...papatasi salivary gland protein extract sonicates and human host antibody reactions . (A) Immunoblot examples of plasma donors from three regions in

  13. Salivary proline-rich protein may reduce tannin-iron chelation: a systematic narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Delimont, Nicole M.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Haub, Mark D.; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tannins are often cited for antinutritional effects, including chelation of non-heme iron. Despite this, studies exploring non-heme iron bioavailability inhibition with long-term consumption have reported mixed results. Salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) may mediate tannin-antinutritional effects on non-heme iron bioavailability. Aim To review evidence regarding biochemical binding mechanisms and affinity states between PRPs and tannins, as well as effects of PRPs on non-heme ir...

  14. Chemical alteration by tooth bleaching of human salivary proteins that infiltrated subsurface enamel lesions: experimental study with bovine lesion model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iizuka, J.; Mukai, Y.; Taniguchi, M.; ten Cate, J.M.; Mikuni-Takagaki, Y.; Teranaka, T.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary macromolecules infiltrate white and brown spot enamel lesions and adsorb onto hydroxyapatite. Calcium-binding salivary proteins such as statherin hinder remineralization of these lesions. We assessed whether bleaching agents can remove salivary components that have infiltrated and bound to

  15. Posttranslational Protein Modification in the Salivary Glands of Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients

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    Rafael Herrera-Esparza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated posttranslational reactions in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome. We analysed the biopsies of primary Sjögren’s patients using immunohistochemistry and a tag-purified anticyclic citrullinated protein (CCP antibody to detect citrullinated peptides, and the presence of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2 was assessed simultaneously. The present work demonstrated the weak presence of the PAD2 enzyme in some normal salivary glands, although PAD2 expression was increased considerably in Sjögren’s patients. The presence of citrullinated proteins was also detected in the salivary tissues of Sjögren’s patients, which strongly supports the in situ posttranslational modification of proteins in this setting. Furthermore, the mutual expression of CCP and PAD2 suggests that this posttranslational modification is enzyme dependent. In conclusion, patients with Sjögren’s syndrome expressed the catalytic machinery to produce posttranslational reactions that may result in autoantigen triggering.

  16. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: a systematic review of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A; Wolff, A; Narayana, N; Dawes, C; Aframian, D J; Lynge Pedersen, A M; Vissink, A; Aliko, A; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; McGowan, R; Jensen, S B; Kerr, A R; Ekström, J; Proctor, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform a systematic review of the pathogenesis of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD). Review of the identified papers was based on the standards regarding the methodology for systematic reviews set forth by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine IV and the PRISMA statement. Eligible papers were assessed for both the degree and strength of relevance to the pathogenesis of MISGD as well as on the appropriateness of the study design and sample size. A total of 99 papers were retained for the final analysis. MISGD in human studies was generally reported as xerostomia (the sensation of oral dryness) without measurements of salivary secretion rate. Medications may act on the central nervous system (CNS) and/or at the neuroglandular junction on muscarinic, α-and β-adrenergic receptors and certain peptidergic receptors. The types of medications that were most commonly implicated for inducing salivary gland dysfunction were those acting on the nervous, cardiovascular, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and alimentary systems. Although many medications may affect the salivary flow rate and composition, most of the studies considered only xerostomia. Thus, further human studies are necessary to improve our understanding of the association between MISGD and the underlying pathophysiology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Salivary Proteins Associated with Periodontitis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Tara B. Taiyeb-Ali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the salivary proteins that are associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Volunteers for the study were patients from the Diabetic Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, whose periodontal status was determined. The diabetic volunteers were divided into two groups, i.e., patients with periodontitis and those who were periodontally healthy. Saliva samples were collected and treated with 10% TCA/acetone/20 mM DTT to precipitate the proteins, which were then separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel images were scanned using the GS-800TM Calibrated Densitometer. The protein spots were analyzed and expressed in percentage volumes. The percentage volume of each protein spot was subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis using SPSS software and false discovery rate correction. When the expression of the salivary proteins was compared between the T2DM patients with periodontitis with those who were periodontally healthy, seven proteins, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, plastin-2, actin related protein 3, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrases 6, immunoglobulin J and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, were found to be differentially expressed (p < 0.01304. This implies that the proteins may have the potential to be used as biomarkers for the prediction of T2DM patients who may be prone to periodontitis.

  18. Transient activation of hedgehog pathway rescued irradiation-induced hyposalivation by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Bo; Qin, Lizheng; Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Qingguo; Shangguan, Lei; Ti, Xinyu; Zhao, Yanqiu; Kim, Sangroh; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects and mechanisms of transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway on rescuing radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation in survivors of head and neck cancer. Mouse salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells were irradiated by a single 15-Gy dose. The Hedgehog pathway was transiently activated in mouse salivary glands, by briefly overexpressing the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgene or administrating smoothened agonist, and in human salivary epithelial cells, by infecting with adenovirus encoding Gli1. The activity of Hedgehog signaling was examined by the expression of the Ptch1-lacZ reporter and endogenous Hedgehog target genes. The salivary flow rate was measured following pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPC), parasympathetic innervation, and expression of related genes were examined by flow cytometry, salisphere assay, immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. Irradiation does not activate Hedgehog signaling in mouse salivary glands. Transient Shh overexpression activated the Hedgehog pathway in ductal epithelia and, after irradiation, rescued salivary function in male mice, which is related with preservation of functional SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation. The preservation of SSPCs was likely mediated by the rescue of signaling activities of the Bmi1 and Chrm1-HB-EGF pathways. The preservation of parasympathetic innervation was associated with the rescue of the expression of neurotrophic factors such as Bdnf and Nrtn. The expression of genes related with maintenance of SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation in female salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells was similarly affected by irradiation and transient Hedgehog activation. These findings suggest that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway has the potential to restore salivary gland function after irradiation-induced dysfunction.

  19. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G. Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted. PMID:23633771

  20. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis

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    Mulki Shaila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student′s t-test, Fisher′s test (ANOVA and Tukey HSD (ANOVA tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: S ignificant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  1. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  2. Salivary proteins associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hang Haw; Rahim, Zubaidah H A; Jessie, Kala; Hashim, Onn H; Taiyeb-Ali, Tara B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the salivary proteins that are associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Volunteers for the study were patients from the Diabetic Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, whose periodontal status was determined. The diabetic volunteers were divided into two groups, i.e., patients with periodontitis and those who were periodontally healthy. Saliva samples were collected and treated with 10% TCA/acetone/20 mM DTT to precipitate the proteins, which were then separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel images were scanned using the GS-800(TM) Calibrated Densitometer. The protein spots were analyzed and expressed in percentage volumes. The percentage volume of each protein spot was subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis using SPSS software and false discovery rate correction. When the expression of the salivary proteins was compared between the T2DM patients with periodontitis with those who were periodontally healthy, seven proteins, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, plastin-2, actin related protein 3, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrases 6, immunoglobulin J and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, were found to be differentially expressed (p periodontitis.

  3. Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions

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    Fontaine Albin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The saliva of haematophagous arthropods contains an array of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the success of the blood meal. The saliva of haematophagous arthropods is also involved in the transmission and the establishment of pathogens in the host and in allergic responses. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological activity and immunogenic properties of the main salivary proteins characterised in various haematophagous arthropod species. The potential biological and epidemiological applications of these immunogenic salivary molecules will be discussed with an emphasis on their use as biomarkers of exposure to haematophagous arthropod bites or vaccine candidates that are liable to improve host protection against vector-borne diseases.

  4. Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The saliva of haematophagous arthropods contains an array of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the success of the blood meal. The saliva of haematophagous arthropods is also involved in the transmission and the establishment of pathogens in the host and in allergic responses. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological activity and immunogenic properties of the main salivary proteins characterised in various haematophagous arthropod species. The potential biological and epidemiological applications of these immunogenic salivary molecules will be discussed with an emphasis on their use as biomarkers of exposure to haematophagous arthropod bites or vaccine candidates that are liable to improve host protection against vector-borne diseases. PMID:21951834

  5. Connexin 43 Is Necessary for Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis and FGF10-induced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Aya; Futagi, Masaharu; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Kan; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Arakaki, Makiko; Hino, Ryoko; Sugawara, Yu; Ishikawa, Momoko; Naruse, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Kanako; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-08

    Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of connexin43 in salivary gland development, we analyzed its expression in developing submandibular glands (SMGs). Connexin43 (Cx43) was found to be expressed in salivary gland epithelium. In ex vivo organ cultures of SMGs, addition of the gap junctional inhibitors 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) and oleamide inhibited SMG branching morphogenesis, suggesting that gap junctional communication contributes to salivary gland development. In Cx43(-/-) salivary glands, submandibular and sublingual gland size was reduced as compared with those from heterozygotes. The expression of Pdgfa, Pdgfb, Fgf7, and Fgf10, which induced branching of SMGs in Cx43(-/-) samples, were not changed as compared with those from heterozygotes. Furthermore, the blocking peptide for the hemichannel and gap junction channel showed inhibition of terminal bud branching. FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis, while it did not rescue the Cx43(-/-) phenotype, thus Cx43 may regulate FGF10 signaling during salivary gland development. FGF10 is expressed in salivary gland mesenchyme and regulates epithelial proliferation, and was shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelial cells, while ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSY cells was dramatically inhibited by 18α-GA, a Cx43 peptide or siRNA. On the other hand, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB separately induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in primary cultured salivary mesenchymal cells regardless of the presence of 18α-GA. Together, our results suggest that Cx43 regulates FGF10-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelium but not in mesenchyme during the process of SMG branching morphogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Radiotherapy Reduced Salivary Flow Rate and Might Induced C. albicans Infection

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    Nadia Surjadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy has impact in oral health especially on the secretion capacity of the salivary glands. Another impact is the increase of Candida albicans colony. Objectives: To evaluate salivary flow in relation with Candida albicans colony in head and neck cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. Methods: Twenty-four head and neck cancer patients in Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jakarta who were undergoing radiotherapy or had undergone radiotherapy and 24 match healthy volunteers were included in the study. Clinical observation carried out by collecting unstimulated salivary flow rate and followed by culture of Candida in Saboraud agar medium. Data were analyzed statistically by Chi-square. Results: Nasopharynx cancer was the most frequent type of head and neck cancers (87.5% followed by tongue cancer (12.5% and and found in 41-50 years old patients and 51-60 years old patients respectively, with male predilection compare to female (17:7. Approxiamtely 87.5% of subjects showed decreased salivary flow rate (1.01-1.50mL/10min during and after radiotherapy. However, 91.7% of cancer patients had increased C.albicans colony during and after radiotherapy compared to control (p=0.00. Conclusion: This study showed that radiotherapy induced hyposalivation and might increase the C.albicans colony.  

  7. Human salivary proteins with affinity to lipoteichoic acid of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jung Eun; Choe, Hyuk-Il; Hong, Sun Woong; Kang, Seok-Seong; Ahn, Ki Bum; Cho, Kun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is associated with refractory apical periodontitis and its lipoteichoic acid (Ef.LTA) is considered as a major virulence factor. Although the binding proteins of Ef.LTA may play an important role for mediating infection and immunity in the oral cavity, little is known about Ef.LTA-binding proteins (Ef.LTA-BPs) in saliva. In this study, we identified salivary Ef.LTA-BPs with biotinylated Ef.LTA (Ef.LTA-biotin) through mass spectrometry. The biotinylation of Ef.LTA was confirmed by binding capacity with streptavidin-FITC on CHO/CD14/TLR2 cells. The biological activity of Ef.LTA-biotin was determined based on the induction of nitric oxide and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in a macrophage cell-line, RAW 264.7. To identify salivary Ef.LTA-BPs, the Ef.LTA-biotin was mixed with a pool of human saliva obtained from nine healthy subjects followed by precipitation with a streptavidin-coated bead. Ef.LTA-BPs were then separated with 12% SDS-PAGE and subjected to the mass spectrometry. Six human salivary Ef.LTA-BPs including short palate lung and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated protein 2, zymogen granule protein 16 homolog B, hemoglobin subunit α and β, apolipoprotein A-I, and lipocalin-1 were identified with statistical significance (Pfaecalis whereas lipocalin-1 did not show such effect. Collectively, the identified Ef.LTA-BPs could provide clues for our understanding of the pathogenesis of E. faecalis and host immunity in oral cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

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    Grace Hill

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1 normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.

  9. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein levels are associated with active and passive smoking in healthy youth: A pilot study

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    Azar Rima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined salivary C-reactive protein (CRP levels in the context of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in healthy youth. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Methods This work is a pilot study (N = 45 for a larger investigation in which we aim to validate salivary CRP against serum CRP, the gold standard measurement of low-grade inflammation. Participants were healthy youth with no self-reported periodontal disease, no objectively measured obesity/adiposity, and no clinical depression, based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. We assessed tobacco smoking and confirmed smoking status (non-smoking, passive smoking, and active smoking with salivary cotinine measurement. We measured salivary CRP by the ELISA method. We controlled for several potential confounders. Results We found evidence for the existence of a dose-response relationship between the TSE status and salivary CRP levels. Conclusions Our preliminary findings indicate that salivary CRP seems to have a similar relation to TSE as its widely used serum (systemic inflammatory biomarker counterpart.

  10. Transcript and protein expression profile of PF11_0394, a Plasmodium falciparum protein expressed in salivary gland sporozoites

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    Schlarman Maggie S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a significant problem around the world today, thus there is still a need for new control methods to be developed. Because the sporozoite displays dual infectivity for both the mosquito salivary glands and vertebrate host tissue, it is a good target for vaccine development. Methods The P. falciparum gene, PF11_0394, was chosen as a candidate for study due to its potential role in the invasion of host tissues. This gene, which was selected using a data mining approach from PlasmoDB, is expressed both at the transcriptional and protein levels in sporozoites and likely encodes a putative surface protein. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and green fluorescent protein (GFP-trafficking studies, a transcript and protein expression profile of PF11_0394 was determined. Results The PF11_0394 protein has orthologs in other Plasmodium species and Apicomplexans, but none outside of the group Apicomplexa. PF11_0394 transcript was found to be present during both the sporozoite and erythrocytic stages of the parasite life cycle, but no transcript was detected during axenic exoerythrocytic stages. Despite the presence of transcript throughout several life cycle stages, the PF11_0394 protein was only detected in salivary gland sporozoites. Conclusions PF11_0394 appears to be a protein uniquely detected in salivary gland sporozoites. Even though a specific function of PF11_0394 has not been determined in P. falciparum biology, it could be another candidate for a new vaccine.

  11. Immunity to a salivary protein of a sand fly vector protects against the fatal outcome of visceral leishmaniasis in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; Oliveira, Fabiano; Menezes, Maria José; Silva, Claire; de Oliveira, Camila I; Miranda, Jose C; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Brodskyn, Cláudia I

    2008-06-03

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease for humans, and no vaccine is currently available. Sand fly salivary proteins have been associated with protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis. To test whether vector salivary proteins can protect against VL, a hamster model was developed involving intradermal inoculation in the ears of 100,000 Leishmania infantum chagasi parasites together with Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva to mimic natural transmission by sand flies. Hamsters developed classical signs of VL rapidly, culminating in a fatal outcome 5-6 months postinfection. Saliva had no effect on the course of infection in this model. Immunization with 16 DNA plasmids coding for salivary proteins of Lu. longipalpis resulted in the identification of LJM19, a novel 11-kDa protein, that protected hamsters against the fatal outcome of VL. LJM19-immunized hamsters maintained a low parasite load that correlated with an overall high IFN-gamma/TGF-beta ratio and inducible NOS expression in the spleen and liver up to 5 months postinfection. Importantly, a delayed-type hypersensitivity response with high expression of IFN-gamma was also noted in the skin of LJM19-immunized hamsters 48 h after exposure to uninfected sand fly bites. Induction of IFN-gamma at the site of bite could partly explain the protection observed in the viscera of LJM19-immunized hamsters through direct parasite killing and/or priming of anti-Leishmania immunity. We have shown that immunity to a defined salivary protein (LJM19) confers powerful protection against the fatal outcome of a parasitic disease, which reinforces the concept of using components of arthropod saliva in vaccine strategies against vector-borne diseases.

  12. Human salivary agglutinin binds to lung surfactant protein-D and is identical with scavenger receptor protein gp-340

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ligtenberg, T J; Bikker, F J; Groenink, J

    2001-01-01

    by quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) tandem MS. The sequence showed 100% identity with part of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich ('SRCR') domain found in gp-340/DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumours-1). The mass spectrum revealed 11 peaks with an identical mass as a computer-simulated trypsin digest....../PAGE and the amino acid composition of agglutinin, was found to be nearly identical with that of gp-340. It was shown by Western blotting that monoclonal antibodies against gp-340 reacted with salivary agglutinin, and monoclonals against agglutinin reacted with gp-340. It was demonstrated that gp-340 and agglutinin...... bound in a similar way to Streptococcus mutans and surfactant protein-D. Histochemically, the distribution of gp-340 in the submandibular salivary glands was identical with the agglutinin distribution, as shown in a previous paper [Takano, Bogert, Malamud, Lally and Hand (1991) Anat. Rec. 230, 307...

  13. Evaluation of Salivary Cytokines for Diagnosis of both Trauma-Induced and Genetic Heterotopic Ossification

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    Benjamin Levi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available PurposeHeterotopic ossification (HO occurs in the setting of persistent systemic inflammation. The identification of reliable biomarkers can serve as an early diagnostic tool for HO, especially given the current lack of effective treatment strategies. Although serum biomarkers have great utility, they can be inappropriate or ineffective in traumatic acute injuries and in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP. Therefore, the goal of this study is to profile the cytokines associated with HO using a different non-invasive source of biomarkers.MethodsSerum and saliva were collected from a model of trauma-induced HO (tHO with hind limb Achilles’ tenotomy and dorsal burn injury at indicated time points (pre-injury, 48 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks post-injury and a genetic non-trauma HO model (Nfatc1-Cre/caAcvr1fl/wt. Samples were analyzed for 27 cytokines using the Bio-Plex assay. Histologic evaluation was performed in Nfatc1-Cre/caAcvr1fl/wt mice and at 48 h and 1 week post-injury in burn tenotomy mice. The mRNA expression levels of these cytokines at the tenotomy site were also quantified with quantitative real-time PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient was assessed between saliva and serum.ResultsLevels of TNF-α and IL-1β peaked at 48 h and 1 week post-injury in the burn/tenotomy cohort, and these values were significantly higher when compared with both uninjured (p < 0.01, p < 0.03 and burn-only mice (p < 0.01, p < 0.01. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed enhanced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 at the tenotomy site 48 h after injury. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and VEGF was detected in saliva showing elevated levels at 1 week post-injury in our tHO model when compared with both uninjured (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and burn-only mice (p < 0.005, p < 0.01. The Pearson correlation between serum MCP-1 and salivary MCP-1 was statistically significant (r = 0

  14. Blunting of exercise-induced salivary testosterone in elite-level triathletes with a 10-day training camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Robertson, Caroline; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the influence of 10 days of intensified training on salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to 30-min, high-intensity cycling (55/80) in a group of male elite triathletes. Seven elite male triathletes (age 19 ± 1 y, VO2max 67.6 ± 4.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1) completed the study. Swim distances increased by 45%. Running and cycling training hours increased by 25% and 229%, respectively. REST-Q questionnaires assessed mood status before, during, and after the training period. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before, after, and 30 min after a continuous, high-intensity exercise test. Salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. Compared with pretraining, blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone responses to the posttraining 55/80 were found (P = .004). The absolute response of salivary testosterone concentrations to the 55/80 decreased pretraining to posttraining from 114% to 85%. No changes were found in exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration responses to the 55/80. REST-Q scores indicated no changes in the participants' psychological stress-recovery levels over the training camp. The blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone is likely due to decreased testicular testosterone production and/or secretion, possibly attributable to hypothalamic dysfunction or reduced testicular blood flow. REST-Q scores suggest that the triathletes coped well with training-load elevations, which could account for the finding of no change in the exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration. Overall, these findings suggest that the 55/80 can detect altered exercise-induced salivary testosterone concentrations in an elite athletic population due to increased training stress. However, this alteration occurs independently of a perceived elevation of training stress.

  15. Systemic disease-induced salivary biomarker profiles in mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Saliva (oral fluids is an emerging biofluid poised for detection of clinical diseases. Although the rationale for oral diseases applications (e.g. oral cancer is intuitive, the rationale and relationship between systemic diseases and saliva biomarkers are unclear.In this study, we used mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer and compared the transcriptome biomarker profiles of tumor-bearing mice to those of control mice. Microarray analysis showed that salivary transcriptomes were significantly altered in tumor-bearing mice vs. controls. Significant overlapping among transcriptomes of mouse tumors, serum, salivary glands and saliva suggests that salivary biomarkers have multiple origins. Furthermore, we identified that the expression of two groups of significantly altered transcription factors (TFs Runx1, Mlxipl, Trim30 and Egr1, Tbx1, Nr1d1 in salivary gland tissue of melanoma-bearing mice can potentially be responsible for 82.6% of the up-regulated gene expression and 62.5% of the down-regulated gene expression, respectively, in the saliva of melanoma-bearing mice. We also showed that the ectopic production of nerve growth factor (NGF in the melanoma tumor tissue as a tumor-released mediator can induce expression of the TF Egr-1 in the salivary gland.Taken together, our data support the conclusion that upon systemic disease development, significant changes can occur in the salivary biomarker profile. Although the origins of the disease-induced salivary biomarkers may be both systemic and local, stimulation of salivary gland by mediators released from remote tumors plays an important role in regulating the salivary surrogate biomarker profiles.

  16. Estimation of salivary amylase and total proteins in leukemia patients and its correlation with clinical feature and radiographic finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukemia is a fatal disease. The oral manifestations of the leukemias occur early in the course of the disease and these oral features can at times act as a diagnostic indicator. Saliva has been used as a diagnostic aid in a number of systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: In our study, samples of unstimulated saliva of 30 leukemia patients who were not on chemotherapy were collected and analyzed for salivary amylase and total protein. The oral manifestations and radiographic changes (OPG were recorded. The correlation between the oral manifestations and the salivary components (salivary amylase and total protein was assessed for prognostic significance. Results: In the present study when the mean values of salivary amylase (1280±754 U/ml and total protein (647.2±320.7 mg% were compared with that in control subjects. There was a statistically significant difference for amylase levels (P<.05. On intraoral examination the study subjects showed pallor, gingivitis, gingival enlargement, petechiae, and ecchymosis. On the OPG, the radiographic features included generalized rarefaction of bone (20%, thinning of lamina dura (3.4%, generalized alveolar crest bone resorption (30%, thinning of walls of alveolar crypts (6.7%, besides others, e.g., periapical abscess (10%. Conclusions: The saliva of leukemic patients demonstrated obvious changes in composition. A rise in salivary amylase and total protein levels was evident, with the increase in amylase levels being statistically significant.

  17. Estimation of salivary amylase and total proteins in leukemia patients and its correlation with clinical feature and radiographic finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, L; Sujatha, G P; Hema, G

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia is a fatal disease. The oral manifestations of the leukemias occur early in the course of the disease and these oral features can at times act as a diagnostic indicator. Saliva has been used as a diagnostic aid in a number of systemic diseases. In our study, samples of unstimulated saliva of 30 leukemia patients who were not on chemotherapy were collected and analyzed for salivary amylase and total protein. The oral manifestations and radiographic changes (OPG) were recorded. The correlation between the oral manifestations and the salivary components (salivary amylase and total protein) was assessed for prognostic significance. In the present study when the mean values of salivary amylase (1280±754 U/ml) and total protein (647.2±320.7 mg%) were compared with that in control subjects. There was a statistically significant difference for amylase levels (P<.05). On intraoral examination the study subjects showed pallor, gingivitis, gingival enlargement, petechiae, and ecchymosis. On the OPG, the radiographic features included generalized rarefaction of bone (20%), thinning of lamina dura (3.4%), generalized alveolar crest bone resorption (30%), thinning of walls of alveolar crypts (6.7%), besides others, e.g., periapical abscess (10%). The saliva of leukemic patients demonstrated obvious changes in composition. A rise in salivary amylase and total protein levels was evident, with the increase in amylase levels being statistically significant.

  18. Salivary C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as diagnostic markers for neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Ahmed; Maaroof, Abdallah; Saleh, Mai H; Abdelwahab, Amina

    To assess the applicability of salivary C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Prospective case-control study of 70 full-term neonates, 35 with sepsis (20 with proven sepsis and 15 with clinical sepsis) and 35 healthy controls. Serum and salivary C-reactive protein concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while mean platelet volume, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet lymphocyte ratio were measured by automated blood cell counter. This study showed statistically significant difference of mean salivary C-reactive protein between septic neonates and controls (12.0±4.6ng/L vs. 2.8±1.2ng/L) respectively. At a cut-off point of 3.48ng/L, salivary C-reactive protein showed 94.3% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Salivary C-reactive protein also showed good predictive accuracy for predicting elevated serum C-reactive protein values in septic neonates. Mean platelet volume and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio showed significant difference between septic neonates and controls (10.2±1.2fL vs.8.0±0.5fL; 2.9±1.7 vs. 1.6±0.4, respectively). At a cut-off point of 10.2fL, mean platelet volume presented 80% sensitivity and specificity. At a cut-off point of 2.7, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio presented 80% sensitivity and 57.1% specificity. This study provides support for further studies on the usefulness of salivary C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as diagnostic markers for neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. A Gene Family Coding for Salivary Proteins (SHOT) of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Exhibits Fast Host-Dependent Transcriptional Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Khalighi, Mousaalreza; Pavlidi, Nena; Reubens, Wim; Baggerman, Geert; Tirry, Luc; Menschaert, Gerben; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2017-11-02

    The salivary protein repertoire released by the herbivorous pest Tetranychus urticae is assumed to hold keys to its success on diverse crops. We report on a spider mite-specific protein family that is expanded in T. urticae. The encoding genes have an expression pattern restricted to the anterior podocephalic glands, while peptide fragments were found in the T. urticae secretome, supporting the salivary nature of these proteins. As peptide fragments were identified in a host-dependent manner, we designated this family as the SHOT (secreted host-responsive protein of Tetranychidae) family. The proteins were divided in three groups based on sequence similarity. Unlike TuSHOT3 genes, TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 genes were highly expressed when feeding on a subset of family Fabaceae, while expression was depleted on other hosts. TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 expression was induced within 24 h after certain host transfers, pointing toward transcriptional plasticity rather than selection as the cause. Transfer from an 'inducer' to a 'noninducer' plant was associated with slow yet strong downregulation of TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2, occurring over generations rather than hours. This asymmetric on and off regulation points toward host-specific effects of SHOT proteins, which is further supported by the diversity of SHOT genes identified in Tetranychidae with a distinct host repertoire.

  20. Induction of salivary proteins modifies measures of both orosensory and postingestive feedback during exposure to a tannic acid diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie Torregrossa

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of proteins in saliva. Although it has long been hypothesized that these proteins modulate taste by interacting with taste receptors or taste stimuli, the functional impact of these proteins on feeding remains relatively unexplored. We have developed a new technique for saliva collection that does not interfere with daily behavioral testing and allows us to explore the relationship between feeding behavior and salivary protein expression. First, we monitored the alterations in salivary protein expression while simultaneously monitoring the animals' feeding behavior and meal patterns on a custom control diet or on the same diet mixed with 3% tannic acid. We demonstrated that six protein bands increased in density with dietary tannic acid exposure. Several of these bands were significantly correlated with behaviors thought to represent both orosensory and postingestive signaling. In a follow-up experiment, unconditioned licking to 0.01-3% tannic acid solutions was measured during a brief-access taste test before and after exposure to the tannic acid diet. In this experiment, rats with salivary proteins upregulated found the tannin solution less aversive (i.e., licked more than those in the control condition. These data suggest a role for salivary proteins in mediating changes in both orosensory and postingestive feedback.

  1. Salivary protein changes in response to acute stress in medical residents performing advanced clinical simulations: a pilot proteomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Rachel K; Saepoo, Muncharie B; Ye, Simiao; White, Donald B; Liu, Rong; Hensley, Kenneth; Rega, Paul; Kazan, Viviane; Giovannucci, David R; Isailovic, Dragan

    Quantitative changes of salivary proteins due to acute stress were detected. To explore protein markers of stress in saliva of eight medical residents who performed emergency medicine simulations. Saliva was collected before the simulations, after the simulations, and following morning upon waking. Proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), identified by mass spectrometry (MS), and relatively quantified by densitometry. Salivary alpha-amylase and S-type cystatins significantly increased, while the ∼26 kDa and low-molecular weight (MW) (<10 kDa) SDS-PAGE bands exhibited changes after stress. Alpha-amylase and cystatins are potential salivary markers of acute stress, but further validation should be performed using larger sample populations.

  2. Canine Salivary Glands: Analysis of Rab and SNARE Protein Expression and SNARE Complex Formation With Diverse Tissue Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Hiroshi; Osawa, Hiromi; Uno, Rie; Yasui, Tadashi; Hosaka, Masahiro; Torii, Seiji; Tsukise, Azuma

    2017-11-01

    The comparative structure and expression of salivary components and vesicular transport proteins in the canine major salivary glands were investigated. Histochemical analysis revealed that the morphology of the five major salivary glands-parotid, submandibular, polystomatic sublingual, monostomatic sublingual, and zygomatic glands-was greatly diverse. Immunoblot analysis revealed that expression levels of α-amylase and antimicrobial proteins, such as lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, and lactoferrin, differed among the different glands. Similarly, Rab proteins (Rab3d, Rab11a, Rab11b, Rab27a, and Rab27b) and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins VAMP4, VAMP8, syntaxin-2, syntaxin-3, syntaxin-4, and syntaxin-6 were expressed at various levels in individual glands. mmunohistochemistry of Rab3d, Rab11b, Rab27b, VAMP4, VAMP8, syntaxin-4, and syntaxin-6 revealed their predominant expression in serous acinar cells, demilunes, and ductal cells. The VAMP4/syntaxin-6 SNARE complex, which is thought to be involved in the maturation of secretory granules in the Golgi field, was found more predominantly in the monostomatic sublingual gland than in the parotid gland. These results suggest that protein expression profiles in canine salivary glands differ among individual glands and reflect the properties of their specialized functions.

  3. Prevention of radiation induced xerostomia and improved quality of life: Submandibular salivary gland transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, K

    2003-07-01

    Over 60,000 new cases of head and neck cancers, and approximately 15,000 deaths occur every year in the United States (1). Head and neck cancers affect more men then women by a factor of 2:1, although the incidence of women is increasing as a result of increased tobacco use (2). Over 90% of all head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas; most of the remaining cancers are adenocarcinomas. A combination of radiation therapy and surgery is used as the standard, primary treatment modality. Xerostomia occurs when the salivary glands are affected by irradiation. Patients experiencing xerostomia are at an increased risk for a wide variety of oral problems; all adversely affecting one's quality of life. Currently patients make lifestyle changes, dietary modifications, and use artificial salivas, sprays, gels, and lozenges to help mask their xerostomia. However, none of these products stimulate natural salivary production and act as a replacement therapy rather then a cure for xerostomia. A new protocol, RTOG 1083 has been approved by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, which involves a surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (where it can be easily shielded) as a method of prevention of radiation induced xerostomia. (author)

  4. Immunoglobulin G antibody profiles against Anopheles salivary proteins in domestic animals in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Denis; Doucoure, Souleymane; Grout, Lise; Ngom, Abdoulaye; Rogerie, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; Sokhna, Cheikh; Mouchet, François; Riveau, Gilles; Simondon, François; Remoue, Franck J

    2011-05-01

    Although domestic animals may not be permissive for Plasmodium, they could nevertheless play a role in the epidemiology of malaria by attracting Anopheles away from humans. To investigate interactions between domestic animals and mosquitoes, we assayed immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies directed against the salivary proteins of Anopheles gambiae in domestic animals living in Senegalese villages where malaria is endemic. By Western blotting, sera from bovines (n=6), ovines (n=36), and caprines (n=36) did not react with Anopheles whole saliva. In contrast, equine sera recognized proteins in both saliva and salivary gland extracts. Two of the major immunogens (32 and 72 kDa) were also reactive in extracts from other major mosquito genera (Aedes and Culex), but reactions toAnopheles-specific antigens were detected in 12 of 17 horses. These data suggest that horses strongly react to Anopheles bites, and further experiments on horses are warranted to investigate the impact of this domestic animal species on the transmission of human malaria.

  5. Evaluation of salivary glucose, amylase, and total protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Indira

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that diabetes influences the composition of saliva. Since a significant correlation was not observed between salivary and blood glucose levels, further research is needed to determine salivary glucose estimation as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus.

  6. Identification of salivary mucin MUC7 binding proteins from Streptococcus gordonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton David J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salivary mucin MUC7 (previously known as MG2 can adhere to various strains of streptococci that are primary colonizers and predominant microorganisms of the oral cavity. Although there is a growing interest in interaction between oral pathogens and salivary mucins, studies reporting the specific binding sites on the bacteria are rather limited. Identification and characterization of the specific interacting proteins on the bacterial cell surface, termed adhesins, are crucial to further understand host-pathogen interactions. Results We demonstrate here, using purified MUC7 to overlay blots of SDS-extracts of Streptococcus gordonii cell surface proteins, 4 MUC7-binding bands, with apparent molecular masses of 62, 78, 84 and 133 kDa from the Streptococcus gordonii strain, PK488. Putative adhesins were identified by in-gel digestion and subsequent nanoLC-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of resultant peptides. The 62 kDa and 84 kDa bands were identified as elongation factor (EF Tu and EF-G respectively. The 78 kDa band was a hppA gene product; the 74 kDa oligopeptide-binding lipoprotein. The 133 kDa band contained two proteins; alpha enolase and DNA-directed RNA polymerase, beta' subunit. Some of these proteins, for example alpha enolase are expected to be intracellular, however, flow cytometric analysis confirmed its location on the bacterial surface. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that S. gordonii expressed a number of putative MUC7 recognizing proteins and these contribute to MUC7 mucin binding of this streptococcal strain.

  7. Mosquito salivary gland protein preservation in the field for immunological and biochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeras L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosquito salivary proteins are involved in several biological processes that facilitate their blood feeding and have also been reported to elicit an IgG response in vertebrates. A growing number of studies have focused on this immunological response for its potential use as a biological marker of exposure to arthropod bites. As mosquito saliva collection is extremely laborious and inefficient, most research groups prefer to work on mosquito salivary glands (SGs. Thus, SG protein integrity is a critical factor in obtaining meaningful data from immunological and biochemical analysis. Current methodologies rely on an immediate freezing of SGs after their collection. However, the maintenance of samples in a frozen environment can be hard to achieve in field conditions. In this study, SG proteins from two mosquito species (Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae s.s. stored in different media for 5 days at either +4°C or room temperature (RT were evaluated at the quantitative (i.e., ELISA and qualitative (i.e., SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting levels. Our results indicated that PBS medium supplemented with an anti-protease cocktail seems to be the best buffer to preserve SG antigens for 5 days at +4°C for ELISA analysis. Conversely, cell-lysis buffer (Urea-Thiourea-CHAPS-Tris was best at preventing protein degradation both at +4°C and RT for further qualitative analysis. These convenient storage methods provide an alternative to freezing and are expected to be applicable to other biological samples collected in the field.

  8. Salivary gland expression level of IκBα regulatory protein in Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Margherita; Lisi, Sabrina; Lofrumento, Dario Domenico; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; De Lucro, Raffaella; D'Amore, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Diagnosis and therapeutic strategies in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) might greatly benefit of the present multidisciplinary approach to studying the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. A deregulated inflammatory response has been described in the SS. The research in the last years sheds light on the importance of the NF-κB pathway regulating the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment. These are important contributors to the inflammatory response during the development of SS. In this study we examine the expression of the NF-κB inhibitory protein termed IκBα in salivary glands epithelial cells (SGEC) comparing it with SGEC from healthy controls, to test the hypothesis that an altered expression of IκBα occurs in SGEC from SS biopsies. Real-Time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression level of IκBα was significantly lower in SS with respect to healthy controls leading to an increased NF-κB activity. Our results suggest that the analysis of IκBα expression at salivary gland epithelial cell level could be a potential new hallmark of SS progression and sustain a rationale to more deeply investigate the therapeutic potential of specific NF-κB inhibitors in SS.

  9. Risk Factors of 131I-Induced Salivary Gland Damage in Thyroid Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Brynn; Senter, Leigha; Zhang, Xiaoli; Brock, Guy N; Jarjour, Wael; Nagy, Rebecca; Brock, Pamela; Coombes, Kevin R; Kloos, Richard T; Ringel, Matthew D; Sipos, Jennifer; Lattimer, Ilene; Carrau, Ricardo; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2016-11-01

    Sialadenitis and xerostomia are major adverse effects of 131I therapy in thyroid cancer patients. The risk factors for these adverse effects, other than administered activity of 131I, have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for 131I-induced salivary gland damage among follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer patients. We enrolled 216 thyroid cancer patients who visited The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center between April 2013 and April 2014. Symptoms of xerostomia and sialadenitis were identified via questionnaire and medical record search. To validate the findings in a large cohort, we retrospectively searched for ICD-9/10 codes for sialadenitis, xerostomia, and autoimmune disease associated with Sjögren's syndrome (AID-SS) in our existing database (n = 1507). Demographic and clinical information was extracted from medical records. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors for salivary gland damage. 131I treatment associated with higher incidence of xerostomia and sialadenitis. Patients with xerostomia had 46 mCi higher mean cumulative 131I activity and 21 mCi higher mean first-administered 131I activity than patients without xerostomia. Increased age associated with higher incidence of xerostomia, and females had a higher incidence of sialadenitis. Patients who experienced sialadenitis before 131I therapy had higher sialadenitis incidence after 131I therapy. 131I-treated patients diagnosed with AID-SS, whether before or after 131I treatment, had a higher incidence of xerostomia and sialadenitis among 131I-treated patients. Risk factors for 131I-induced salivary gland damage include administered 131I activity, age, gender, history of sialadenitis before 131I treatment, and AID-SS diagnosis.

  10. A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    In feeding, aphids inject saliva into plant tissues, gaining access to phloem sap and eliciting (and sometimes overcoming) plant responses. We are examining the involvement, in this aphid-plant interaction, of individual aphid proteins and enzymes, as identified in a salivary gland cDNA library. Her...

  11. Immune recognition of salivary proteins from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus differs according to the genotype of the bovine host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Nelson, Kristina T; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Maia, Antonio Augusto Mendes; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Kooyman, Frans N J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331317788; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads

  12. Rheological behavior of food emulsions mixed with saliva : Effect of oil content, salivary protein content, and saliva type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, Erika; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Van Aken, George A.; Norde, Willem

    In this paper, we studied the effect of saliva on the rheological properties of beta-lactoglobulin- and lysozyme-stabilized emulsions, prepared at pH=6.7 in relation to variation of emulsions- and saliva-related parameters. The effect of oil-volume fraction (2.5% w/w to 10% w/w), salivary protein

  13. Rheological Behavior of Food Emulsions Mixed with Saliva: Effect of Oil Content, Salivary Protein Content, and Saliva Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Aken, van G.A.; Norde, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the effect of saliva on the rheological properties of ß-lactoglobulin- and lysozyme-stabilized emulsions, prepared at pH¿=¿6.7 in relation to variation of emulsions- and saliva-related parameters. The effect of oil¿volume fraction (2.5% w/w to 10% w/w), salivary protein

  14. The response of salivary protein levels and S-IgA to an academic examination are associated with daily stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.A.; Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Bermond, B.; Hoogstraten, J.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    Acute real-life stress is capable of altering several aspects of the oral defense system, such as the salivary levels of S-IgA, alpha-amylase, total protein, and the capacity of saliva to aggregate streptococcal bacteria. In this study, we further explored whether these acute changes are influenced

  15. Humoral response of captive zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum to salivary gland proteins of the leech Branchellion torpedinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marancik, David P; Leary, John H; Fast, Mark M; Flajnik, Martin F; Camus, Alvin C

    2012-10-01

    Parasitism by the marine leech Branchellion torpedinis is known to cause disease and mortality in captive elasmobranchs and is difficult to control when inadvertently introduced into public aquaria. Preliminary characterization of the salivary gland transcriptome of B. torpedinis has identified anticoagulants, proteases, and immunomodulators that may be secreted into host tissues to aid leech feeding. This retrospective study examined antigen-specific serum IgM responses in captive zebra sharks Stegostoma fasciatum to leech salivary gland extract. Antibody response was examined by ELISA and Western blot assays in 20 serum samples from six zebra sharks, with a 5 year history of leech infection, and 18 serum samples from 8 captive bred zebra sharks, with no history of leech exposure. ELISA demonstrated significantly higher serum IgM titers to salivary gland extract in exposed zebra sharks compared to the non-exposed population. No obvious trends in antibody titers were appreciated in exposed zebra sharks over a four-year period. One-dimensional and two-dimensional Western blot assays revealed IgM targeted specific salivary gland proteins within the 40, 55, 70 and 90 kD range. Antigenic proteins identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and de novo peptide sequencing include a secreted disintegrin, metalloproteinase and thrombospondin motif containing protein (ADAMTS), tubulin, aldehyde dehydrogenase and two unknown proteins. Humoral immune responses to leech salivary gland proteins warrants further investigation as there may be options to exploit immune mechanisms to reduce parasite burdens in aquaria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization and expression analysis of a gene encoding a secreted lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hessian fly is a destructive pest of wheat particularly in the soft-winter-wheat region of the United States. In a salivary gland transcriptomics study we identified a full-length cDNA encoding a lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of the larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructo...

  17. Chemical Affinity between Tannin Size and Salivary Protein Binding Abilities: Implications for Wine Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. Condensed tannins, which are also known as proanthocyanidins (PAs), belong to the flavonoid class of polyphenols and are incorporated by multiple flavan-3-ols units according to their degree of polymerization (DP). However, the influence of DP size of PAs on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. This controversy was mainly attributed to the lack of efficient strategies to isolate the PAs in non-galloylated forms and with individual degree size from grape/wine. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified by an approach of preparative hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed.

  18. Differential antibody response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 and cE5 salivary proteins in individuals naturally exposed to bites of malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Cinzia; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Ronca, Raffaele; Mangano, Valentina; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu; Nèbiè, Issa; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Modiano, David; Arcà, Bruno

    2014-11-28

    Mosquito saliva plays crucial roles in blood feeding but also evokes in hosts an anti-saliva antibody response. The IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6 was previously shown to be a reliable indicator of human exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors. We analyzed here the humoral response to the salivary anti-thrombin cE5 in a group of individuals from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso. ELISA was used to measure the anti-cE5 IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 antibody levels in plasma samples collected in the village of Barkoumbilen (Burkina Faso) among individuals of the Rimaibé ethnic group. Anti-gSG6 IgG levels were also determined for comparison. Anopheles vector density in the study area was evaluated by indoor pyrethrum spray catches. The cE5 protein was highly immunogenic and triggered in exposed individuals a relatively long-lasting antibody response, as shown by its unchanged persistence after a few months of absent or very low exposure (dry season). In addition cE5 did not induce immune tolerance, as previously suggested for the gSG6 antigen. Finally, IgG subclass analysis suggested that exposed individuals may mount a Th1-type immune response against the cE5 protein. The anti-cE5 IgG response is shown here to be a sensitive indicator of human exposure to anopheline vectors and to represent an additional tool for malaria epidemiological studies. It may be especially useful in conditions of low vector density, to monitor transiently exposed individuals (i.e. travellers/workers/soldiers spending a few months in tropical Africa) and to evaluate the impact of insecticide treated nets on vector control. Moreover, the gSG6 and cE5 salivary proteins were shown to trigger in exposed individuals a strikingly different immune response with (i) gSG6 evoking a short-lived IgG response, characterized by high IgG4 levels and most likely induction of immune tolerance, and (ii) cE5 eliciting a longer-living IgG response, dominated by anti-cE5 IgG1

  19. Structural and compositional changes in the salivary pellicle induced upon exposure to SDS and STP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Anthony; Mulholland, Francis; Burnett, Gary R; Wilde, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) act to remove stained pellicle from dentition and loosen deposits on tooth surfaces that may become cariogenic over time. This study investigated how SDS and STP impact the salivary pellicle adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite and silica sensors using a dual polarisation interferometer and a quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation. After the pellicle was exposed to SDS and STP the remaining pellicle, although weaker, due to the loss of material, became less dense but with a higher elastic component; suggesting that the viscous component of the pellicle was being removed. This would imply a structural transformation from a soft but dense structured pellicle, to a more diffuse pellicle. In addition, the majority of proteins displaced by both SDS and STP were identified as being acidic in nature; implying that the negatively charged groups of SDS and STP may be responsible for the displacement of the pellicle proteins observed.

  20. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Kennedy; Jacqui M. McRae

    2011-01-01

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of ...

  1. Detection of AA-type amyloid protein in labial salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacsaquispe, Sonia-Julia; Antúnez-de Mayolo, Eleazar-Antonio; Vicetti, Rodolfo; Delgado, Wilson-Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Among the diverse forms of amyloidosis, secondary type is the most frequent one. Diagnosis of amyloid deposition is based on the identification of the fibrillary protein amyloid by means of Congo Red (CR) or crystal violet (CV) stains, but these techniques do not differentiate between the different types of amyloid fibrils. The aim of this study was to identify by immunofluorescence (IF) AA amyloid a pathological fibrillar low-molecular-weight protein formed by cleavage of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein in labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsies from patients with secondary amyloidosis. 98 LSG were studied, 65 were from patients with secondary amyloidosis and 33 from subjects with chronic inflammatory diseases without evidence of this anomaly. All sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H &E), CV, CR and IF using anti-AA antibodies. Positive and negative controls were used for all techniques. CV and CR demonstrated that the amyloid substance was found mainly distributed periductally (93.8%), followed by periacinar and perivascular locations (p <0.001); however, the IF demonstrated that amyloid AA substance predominates in the periacinar area (73.8%), followed by periductal and perivascular locations (p <0.001). IF has a sensitivity of 83%, 100% of specificity, 100% of predictive positive value and 75% of predictive negative value. The results of this study confirm the efficacy of the LSG biopsy as a highly reliable method for diagnosis of secondary amyloidosis.

  2. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: management strategies and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for management strategies and economic impact of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies and to determine the quality of evidence-based management recommendations. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and E...

  3. Gene expression analysis reveals inhibition of radiation- induced TGFβ-signaling by hyperbaric oxygen therapy in mouse salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Spiegelberg (Linda); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); E. Oole (Edwin); E.B. Wolvius (Eppo); J. Essers (Jeroen); M.A.H. Braks (Marieta)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA side effect of radiation therapy in the head and neck region is injury to surrounding healthy tissues such as irreversible impaired function of the salivary glands. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is clinically used to treat radiation-induced damage but its mechanism of action is

  4. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies : management strategies and economic impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, S. B.; Pedersen, A. M. L.; Vissink, A.; Andersen, E.; Brown, C. G.; Davies, A. N.; Dutilh, J.; Fulton, J. S.; Jankovic, L.; Lopes, N. N. F.; Mello, A. L. S.; Muniz, L. V.; Murdoch-Kinch, C. A.; Nair, R. G.; Napenas, J. J.; Nogueira-Rodrigues, A.; Saunders, D.; Stirling, B.; von Bueltzingsloewen, I.; Weikel, D. S.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Brennan, M. T.; Elting, L.

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for management strategies and economic impact of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies and to determine the quality of evidence-based management recommendations. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and

  5. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: management strategies and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    , amifostine, muscarinic agonist stimulation, oral mucosal lubricants, acupuncture, and submandibular gland transfer. There is evidence that salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies can be prevented or symptoms be minimized to some degree, depending on the type of cancer treatment....... Management guideline recommendations are provided for IMRT, amifostine, muscarinic agonist stimulation, oral mucosal lubricants, acupuncture, and submandibular gland transfer. Fields of sparse literature identified included effects of gustatory and masticatory stimulation, specific oral mucosal lubricant...... formulas, submandibular gland transfer, acupuncture, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, management strategies in pediatric cancer populations, and the economic consequences of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia...

  6. Effect of host plant and immune challenge on the levels of chemosensory and odorant-binding proteins in caterpillar salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Janz, Niklas; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-06-01

    More than half of the proteome from mandibular glands in caterpillars is represented by chemosensory proteins. Based on sequence similarity, these proteins are putative transporters of ligands to gustatory receptors in sensory organs of insects. We sought to determine whether these proteins are inducible by comparing, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the salivary (mandibular and labial) proteomes from caterpillars (Vanessa cardui) reared on different plants and artificial diet containing either bacteria or bacterial cell-walls. We included a treatment where the caterpillars were switched from feeding on artificial diet to plant material at some point in their development. Additionally, we evaluated the degree of overlap between the proteomes in the hemolymph-filled coelom and salivary glands of caterpillars reared on plant material. We found that the quality and quantity of the identified proteins differed clearly between hemolymph-filled coelome, labial and mandibular glands. Our results indicated that even after molting and two-day feeding on a new diet, protein production is affected by the previous food source used by the caterpillar. Candidate proteins involved in chemosensory perception by insects were detected: three chemosensory (CSPs) and two odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). Using the relative amounts of these proteins across tissues and treatments as criteria for their classification, we detected hemolymph- and mandibular gland-specific CSPs and observed that their levels were affected by caterpillar diet. Moreover, we could compare the protein and transcript levels across tissues and treatment for at least one CSP and one OBP. Therefore, we have identified specific isoforms for testing the role of CSPs and OBPs in plant and pathogen recognition. We detected catalase, immune-related protein and serine proteases and their inhibitors in high relative levels in the mandibular glands in comparison to the labial glands. These findings suggest that the

  7. Morphological and protein analyses of adult female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawiboon, B; Jariyapan, N; Roytrakul, S; Paemanee, A; Sor-suwan, S; Intakhan, N; Chanmol, W; Siriyasatien, P; Saeung, A; Choochote, W

    2014-12-01

    Morphology and protein profiles of female salivary glands of Anopheles barbirostris species A1 were analyzed. Female glands consisted of a distinctive tri-lobed structure connected to a main salivary canal, a single medial and two lateral lobes with proximal and distal portions. Cellular architecture was similar among the lobes, with secretory material appearing as large masses. Cells of the proximal-lateral lobes contained secretory masses with a finely filamentous aspect. In the distal-lateral lobes, cells had a dense secretory product with mottled pattern. Cells of the medial lobe had secretory masses which were uniformly stained and highly electron dense. Following emergence, the glands accumulated secretory material rapidly and developed completely within three days. Degenerative changes including loss of stored secretion and increase of cytoplasmic vacuolation and concentric lamellar structures were observed from day 16 post emergence that correlated with total amount of the salivary gland proteins determined during development. SDS-PAGE, nanoLC-MS, and glycoprotein analysis revealed at least eleven major protein bands, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. Two glycoproteins, apyrase/5'-nucleotidase and D7, were identified. These results form a basis for further studies on details of cytopathological changes of malarial infected glands and roles of the proteins in disease transmission.

  8. Salivary gland proteome analysis reveals modulation of anopheline unique proteins in insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Cornelie

    Full Text Available Insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance due to a mutation in the acetylcholinesterase (ace encoding ace-1 gene confers cross-resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Anopheles gambiae populations from Central and West Africa. This mutation is associated with a strong genetic cost revealed through alterations of some life history traits but little is known about the physiological and behavioural changes in insects bearing the ace-1(R allele. Comparative analysis of the salivary gland contents between An. gambiae susceptible and ace-1(R resistant strains was carried out to charaterize factors that could be involved in modifications of blood meal process, trophic behaviour or pathogen interaction in the insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Differential analysis of the salivary gland protein profiles revealed differences in abundance for several proteins, two of them showing major differences between the two strains. These two proteins identified as saglin and TRIO are salivary gland-1 related proteins, a family unique to anopheline mosquitoes, one of them playing a crucial role in salivary gland invasion by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Differential expression of two other proteins previously identified in the Anopheles sialome was also observed. The differentially regulated proteins are involved in pathogen invasion, blood feeding process, and protection against oxidation, relevant steps in the outcome of malaria infection. Further functional studies and insect behaviour experiments would confirm the impact of the modification of the sialome composition on blood feeding and pathogen transmission abilities of the resistant mosquitoes. The data supports the hypothesis of alterations linked to insecticide resistance in the biology of the primary vector of human malaria in Africa.

  9. Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Salivary Glands Salivary Glands Patient Health Information News media interested ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Where Are Your Salivary Glands? The glands are found in and around your ...

  10. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for chocolate

  11. Periodontal conditions, oral Candida albicans and salivary proteins in type 2 diabetic subjects with emphasis on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamash Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between periodontal conditions, oral yeast colonisation and salivary proteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D is not yet documented. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between these variables in type 2 diabetic subjects with reference to gender. Methods Fifty-eight type 2 diabetic subjects (23 males and 35 females with random blood glucose level ≥ 11.1 mmol/L were investigated. Periodontal conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing pocket depth [PD] (4 to 6 mm and ≥ 6 mm, oral yeasts, salivary immunoglobulin (Ig A, IgG and total protein concentrations, and number of present teeth were determined. Results Periodontal conditions (PI [p p p p p Candida albicans (C. albicans colonisation compared to males in the same group. Type 2 diabetic females with C. albicans colonisation had more teeth compared to males in the same group (p Conclusion Clinical and salivary parameters of periodontal inflammation (BOP and IgG (μg/mg protein were higher in type 2 diabetic females with oral C. albicans colonisation compared to males in the same group. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the association of gender with these variables in subjects with T2D.

  12. Selective cloning, characterization, and production of the Culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland allergen repertoire associated with equine insect bite hypersensitivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffartzik Anna; Marti Eliane; Torsteinsdottir Sigurbjörg; Mellor Philip S; Crameri Reto; Rhyner Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland proteins of Culicoides spp. have been suggested to be among the main allergens inducing IgE mediated insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) an allergic dermatitis of the horse. The aim of our study was to identify produce and characterize IgE binding salivary gland proteins of Culicoides nubeculosus relevant for IBH by phage surface display technology. A cDNA library constructed with mRNA derived from C. nubeculosus salivary glands was displayed on the surface of filamentous phage ...

  13. Evaluation of circulatory and salivary levels of heat shock protein 60 in periodontal health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramya Nethravathy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Circulating HSP 60 levels may play a role in the systemic inflammatory state produced by periodontal disease. Salivary HSP 60 may not be used as a surrogate to determine systemic inflammation.

  14. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglan Tian

    Full Text Available Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2. Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  15. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Donglan; Peiffer, Michelle; Shoemaker, Erica; Tooker, John; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA) and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2). Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX) was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  16. Changes in the salivary protein profile of morbidly obese women either previously subjected to bariatric surgery or not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Elsa; Simões, Carla; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia; do Carmo, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is a non-invasive source of biomarkers useful in the study of physiological mechanisms. Moreover, this fluid has diverse functions, among which food perception and ingestion, making it particularly suitable for the study of obesity. The aims of this study were to assess changes in salivary proteome among morbidly obese women, with a view to provide information about mechanisms potentially related to the development of obesity, and to evaluate whether these changes persist after weight loss. Mixed saliva samples from morbidly obese women (N = 18) who had been either subjected (group O-BS) or not (group O) to bariatric surgery and women with normal weight (N = 14; group C) were compared for protein profiles, alpha-amylase abundance and enzymatic activity, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI abundance. Differences in salivary obese profiles were observed for 23 different spots. Zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-containing spots showed higher abundance in group O only, whereas cystatin S-containing spots presented higher abundance in the two groups of obese subjects. Most of the spots identified as salivary amylase were present at lower levels in group O-BS. With regard to the amylase enzymatic activity, increases were observed for group O and decreases for group O-BS. One interesting finding was the high correlation between levels of CA VI and body mass index in group O, which was not observed for groups O-BS or C. The differences between groups, mainly regarding salivary proteins involved in taste sensitivity and metabolism, point to the potential of using saliva in the study of obesity development.

  17. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea:A Systematic Review Sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen; Aframian, Doron; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Proctor, Gordon; Narayana, Nagamani; Villa, Alessandro; Sia, Ying Wai; Aliko, Ardita; McGowan, Richard; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan; Dawes, Colin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist.OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compile a list of medications affecting salivary gland function and inducing xerostomia or subjective sialorrhea.DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles publish...

  18. Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNFα/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H₄R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H₄R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H₄R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H₄R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-α with nuclear factor-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H₄R internalization was inhibited by MβCD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H₄R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H₄R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H₄R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H₄R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H₄R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular.

  19. Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Kennedy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  20. Wine and grape tannin interactions with salivary proteins and their impact on astringency: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kennedy, James A

    2011-03-11

    Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.

  1. Altered serum and salivary C-reactive protein levels in patients with oral premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, R; Bajaj, S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with cancer development. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein synthesized primarily in the liver, is a marker for inflammation and for the progression of many cancers. We compared serum and salivary CRP levels in 20 normal individuals, 20 patients with oral premalignant lesions and 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to assess its efficacy as a prognostic indicator for OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for CRP levels. Mean CRP levels were higher in patients with oral premalignant lesions compared to controls. CRP levels in OSCC patients were elevated and were associated with advanced tumor stages.

  2. Characterization and immunohistochemical localization of rat salivary cobalamin-binding protein and comparison with human salivary haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1985-01-01

    Rat saliva contains a cobalamin-binding protein that binds cobalamin as well as cobinamide. The protein binds cobalamin with an affinity constant of 8 X 10(10) l X mol-1, and it binds cobalamin over a more narrow pH range (pH 7.5-10) than does human haptocorrin. It has a Stokes radius of 2.45 nm...... as compared to the Stokes radius of 4.50 nm for human haptocorrin. Upon isoelectricfocusing it dissociates into four strong bands with pI between 7 and 8, while human haptocorrin dissociates into acid isoproteins. Since human haptocorrin binds to concanavalin A while rat haptocorrin does not, we suggest...... that rat haptocorrin lacks carbohydrate. The substance concentration of rat saliva haptocorrin is 0.04-12.9 nmol X l-1 (median 7.5 nmol X l-1, n = 9) for control animals. After stimulation with isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agent, the substance concentration is 46.4-96.6 nmol X l-1 (median 69.7 nmol X l...

  3. Towards a better understanding of salivary and meat juice acute phase proteins determination in pigs: an expression study.

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    Soler, L; Gutiérrez, A; Müllebner, A; Cerón, J J; Duvigneau, J C

    2013-11-15

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) determination in different fluids like serum, saliva and meat juice measured with ultrasensitive assays can be used to evaluate the disease status of porcine populations under field conditions. Liver is the main production site of serum APPs, but the origin of APPs that can be determined in body fluids different from blood remains unknown. The objective of this study was to clarify the origin of three APPs: C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) in saliva and meat juice. The mRNA expression of these proteins was measured in liver, salivary gland and diaphragmatic muscle by quantitative PCR and compared with the protein levels in serum, saliva and meat juice, respectively in healthy and naturally diseased animals. As expected, concentrations of all APP were significantly higher in all body fluids from diseased animals. Levels of all APPs mRNA were very low in diaphragmatic muscle tissue, and the expression was independent of the disease status. In contrast, we found higher expression levels of SAA and Hp mRNA in the salivary gland of diseased animals, while CRP mRNA was not detected. Our data indicate that the APP present in meat juice derived predominantly from serum. This assumption is also supported by the good correlation of the levels of both proteins in meat juice with those in serum. Further, the lower variability of the APP levels within the two groups of animals, suggests meat juice as an alternate sampling material. The APP levels that are determined in saliva, however, appear to result from an increased local production except for CRP, indicating that the salivary gland responds to disease. These findings are relevant for the establishment of saliva as the preferred diagnostic sample for health monitoring programmes, due to the technical and ethical advantages of the collection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Salivary proline-rich protein may reduce tannin-iron chelation: a systematic narrative review.

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    Delimont, Nicole M; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Haub, Mark D; Lindshield, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Tannins are often cited for antinutritional effects, including chelation of non-heme iron. Despite this, studies exploring non-heme iron bioavailability inhibition with long-term consumption have reported mixed results. Salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) may mediate tannin-antinutritional effects on non-heme iron bioavailability. To review evidence regarding biochemical binding mechanisms and affinity states between PRPs and tannins, as well as effects of PRPs on non-heme iron bioavailability with tannin consumption in vivo. Narrative systematic review and meta-analysis. Common themes in biochemical modeling and affinity studies were collated for summary and synthesis; data were extracted from in vivo experiments for meta-analysis. Thirty-two studies were included in analysis. Common themes that positively influenced tannin-PRP binding included specificity of tannin-PRP binding, PRP and tannin stereochemistry. Hydrolyzable tannins have different affinities than condensed tannins when binding to PRPs. In vivo, hepatic iron stores and non-heme iron absorption are not significantly affected by tannin consumption ( d  = -0.64-1.84; -2.7-0.13 respectively), and PRP expression may increase non-heme iron bioavailability with tannin consumption. In vitro modeling suggests that tannins favor PRP binding over iron chelation throughout digestion. Hydrolyzable tannins are not representative of tannin impact on non-heme iron bioavailability in food tannins because of their unique structural properties and PRP affinities. With tannin consumption, PRP production is increased, and may be an initial line of defense against tannin-non-heme iron chelation in vivo . More research is needed to compare competitive binding of tannin-PRP to tannin-non-heme iron complexes, and elucidate PRPs' role in adaption to non-heme iron bioavailability in vivo.

  5. Towards a Proteomic Catalogue and Differential Annotation of Salivary Gland Proteins in Blood Fed Malaria Vector Anopheles culicifacies by Mass Spectrometry.

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    Ritu Rawal

    Full Text Available In order to understand the importance of functional proteins in mosquito behavior, following blood meal, a baseline proteomic dataset is essential for providing insights into the physiology of blood feeding. Therefore, in this study as first step, in solution and 1-D electrophoresis digestion approach combined with tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS and computational bioinformatics for data mining was used to prepare a baseline proteomic catalogue of salivary gland proteins of sugar fed An. culicifacies mosquitoes. A total of 106 proteins were identified and analyzed by SEQUEST algorithm against mosquito protein database from Uniprot/NCBI. Importantly, D7r1, D7r2, D7r4, salivary apyrase, anti-platelet protein, calreticulin, antigen 5 family proteins were identified and grouped on the basis of biological and functional roles. Secondly, differential protein expression and annotations between salivary glands of sugar fed vs blood fed mosquitoes was analyzed using 2-Delectrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The alterations in the differential expression of total 38 proteins was observed out of which 29 proteins like beclin-1, phosphorylating proteins, heme oxygenase 1, ferritin, apoptotic proteins, coagulation and immunity like, serine proteases, serpins, c-type lectin and protein in regulation of blood feeding behavior were found to be up regulated while 9 proteins related to blood feeding, juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase ii, odorant binding proteins and energy metabolic enzymes were found to be down regulated. To our knowledge, this study provides a first time baseline proteomic dataset and functional annotations of An. culicifacies salivary gland proteins that may be involved during the blood feeding. Identification of differential salivary proteins between sugar fed and blood fed mosquitoes and their plausible role may provide insights into the physiological processes associated with feeding behavior and sporozoite

  6. Partial characterization of a novel anti-inflammatory protein from salivary gland extract of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae ticks

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    Mayukh Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit Theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. Ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts’ rejection and achieve engorgement. Successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. These chemicals in saliva could inhibit host inflammatory responses through modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present study was aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory peptides from salivary gland extract (SGE of H. a. anatolicum ticks with a view that this information could be utilized in raising vaccines, designing synthetic peptides or peptidomimetics which can further be developed as novel therapeutics. Materials and Methods: Salivary glands were dissected out from partially fed adult female H. a. anatolicum ticks and homogenized under the ice to prepare SGE. Gel filtration chromatography was performed using Sephadex G-50 column to fractionate the crude extract. Protein was estimated in each fraction and analyzed for identification of anti-inflammatory activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was run for further characterization of protein in desired fractions. Results: A novel 28 kDa protein was identified in H. a. anatolicum SGE with pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Purification and partial characterization of H. a. anatolicum SGE by size-exclusion chromatography and SDSPAGE depicted a 28 kDa protein with prominent anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus

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    Syed Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  8. Salivary protein histatin 3 regulates cell proliferation by enhancing p27{sup Kip1} and heat shock cognate protein 70 ubiquitination

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    Imamura, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yimamura@po.mdu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Wang, Pao-Li [Department of Bacteriology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Masuno, Kazuya [Department of Dental Education Innovation, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Sogawa, Norio [Department of Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Histatins are salivary proteins with antimicrobial activities. We previously reported that histatin 3 binds to heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), which is constitutively expressed, and induces DNA synthesis stimulation and promotes human gingival fibroblast (HGF) survival. However, the underlying mechanisms of histatin 3 remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the KRHH sequence of histatin 3 at the amino acid positions 5–8 was essential for enhancing p27{sup Kip1} (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) binding to HSC70 that occurred in a dose-dependent manner; histatin 3 enhanced the binding between p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 during the G{sub 1}/S transition of HGFs as opposed to histatin 3-M(5–8) (substitution of KRHH for EEDD in histatin 3). Histatin 3, but not histatin 3-M(5–8), stimulated DNA synthesis and promoted HGF survival. Histatin 3 dose-dependently enhanced both p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 ubiquitination, whereas histatin 3-M(5–8) did not. These findings provide further evidence that histatin 3 may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, particularly during G{sub 1}/S transition, via the ubiquitin–proteasome system of p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70. - Highlights: • KRHH amino acid sequence was required in histatin 3 to bind HSC70. • Histatin 3 enhanced HSC70 binding to p27{sup Kip1} during the G{sub 1}/S transition in HGFs. • KRHH sequence stimulated DNA synthesis and promoted cell survival. • Histatin 3 dose-dependently enhanced both p27{sup Kip1} and HSC70 ubiquitination. • Histatin 3 stimulates cell proliferation via the ubiquitin–proteasome system.

  9. Elevated salivary C-reactive protein predicted by low cardio-respiratory fitness and being overweight in African children.

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    Naidoo, T; Konkol, K; Biccard, B; Dudose, K; McKune, A J

    2012-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between salivary CRP, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in a paediatric population. This was a cross-sectional study of 170 black South African children (age 9.41 ± 1.55 years, 100 females, 70 males) in grades 3 to 7. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained for the analysis of CRP. Height, mass, skin-fold thickness, resting blood pressure, and waist and hip circumference measurements were obtained. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 20-m multi-stage shuttle run. Children were classified as overweight/obese according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) percentile ranking, and meeting percentage body fat recommendations, if percentage body fat was ≤ 25% in boys and ≤ 32% in girls. The cut-off point for low cardio-respiratory fitness was a predicted aerobic capacity value ≤ the 50th percentile for the group. Contributions of low cardio-respiratory fitness, overweight/obesity, and not meeting percentage body fat recommendations, to elevated salivary CRP (≥ 75th percentile) concentration and secretion rate were examined using binary logistic regression analysis with a backward stepwise selection technique based on likelihood ratios. Poor cardio-respiratory fitness was independently associated with elevated salivary CRP concentration (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.7-8.9, p = 0.001). Poor cardio-respiratory fitness (OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-6.1, p = 0.02) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.9, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of elevated salivary CRP secretion rate. The results suggest a strong association between poor cardio-respiratory fitness and/or overweight/obesity and inflammatory status in children, based on elevated salivary CRP levels.

  10. Low-power laser irradiation in salivary glands reduces glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats.

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    Fukuoka, Cíntia Yuki; Torres Schröter, Gabriella; Nicolau, José; Simões, Alyne

    2016-12-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been extensively employed to modulate inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Previous reports from our group indicated that LPLI might regulate glycemia in diabetic animals. Diabetes results in chronic hyperglycemia and therefore chronic inflammation by upregulation of inflammatory markers such as the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. Thus this study aimed to analyze the LPLI effects upon blood glucose levels, plasma insulin and HMGB1 concentrations in a diabetes experimental rat model. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were irradiated in the salivary glands area with a diode laser applied at 660 nm, 70 mW, 20 J/cm2 , 22.4 J, with a spot area of 0.028 cm2 and its effects were evaluated. LPLI significantly reduced diabetic rat hyperglycemia, without changing insulin or HMGB1 plasma levels, but possibly by ameliorating the insulin resistance in these animals. These findings suggest that LPLI might have a systemic effect, but more studies are necessary to better understand its mechanisms. Fasting blood glucose measured by peroxidase-glucose oxidase (PGO) method (A), showing a reduction of diabetic animals glycemia after LPLI. LPLI probably reduced the hyperglycemia in diabetes by improving the insulin resistance in these animals (B). C n = 10, CL n = 10, D n = 7 and DL n = 8. Data are expressed as mean ± SD; * P < 0.05 vs. respective control group; # P < 0.05 vs. D group. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Despite sequence homologies to gluten, salivary proline-rich proteins do not elicit immune responses central to the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

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    Tian, Na; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A; Schuppan, Detlef; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder triggered by ingested gluten, causing immune-mediated damage to the small-intestinal mucosa. Gluten proteins are strikingly similar in amino acid composition and sequence to proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in human saliva. On the basis of this feature and their shared destination in the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that salivary PRPs may modulate gluten-mediated immune responses in CD. Parotid salivary secretions were collected from CD patients, refractory CD patients, non-CD patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, and healthy controls. Structural similarities of PRPs with gluten were probed with anti-gliadin antibodies. Immune responses to PRPs were investigated toward CD patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in a humanized transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. Anti-gliadin antibodies weakly cross-reacted with the abundant salivary amylase but not with PRPs. Likewise, the R5 antibody, recognizing potential antigenic gluten epitopes, showed negligible reactivity to salivary proteins from all groups. Inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were provoked by gliadins whereas responses to PRPs were similar to control levels, and PRPs did not compete with gliadins in immune stimulation. In vivo, PRP peptides were well tolerated and nonimmunogenic in the transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model. Collectively, although structurally similar to dietary gluten, salivary PRPs were nonimmunogenic in CD patients and in a transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. It is possible that salivary PRPs play a role in tolerance induction to gluten early in life. Deciphering the structural basis for the lack of immunogenicity of salivary PRPs may further our understanding of the toxicity of gluten. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Biochemical changes of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells induced by SGI-1776

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    Hou, Xiuxiu, E-mail: show-1989@163.com [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Yu, Yunfang, E-mail: yyf_8247425@163.com [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Feng, Jianguo, E-mail: fengjg@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Wang, Jiafeng, E-mail: 15990081256@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Zheng, Chuanming, E-mail: mingdoc@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Ling, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lingzq@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Ge, Minghua, E-mail: gemh@zjcc.org.cn [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Zhu, Xin, E-mail: zhuxin@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1) has proved to be an oncogene and it is known that to depress Pim-1 activity may be a novel oncological treatment strategy. SGI-1776, a small molecule, is the first clinically tested inhibitor of the Pim kinase family. Here, we aimed to explore the effect of SGI-1776 on salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Expression of Pim-1 was confirmed in SACC and control tissues by qRT-PCR. After SGI-1776 treatment, the Pim-1 expressions and Pim-1 kinase activity in both SACC-83 and SACC-LM cell lines were measured. Cell proliferation, cell invasion, cell cycle, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed. Also, the expression of FOXO3a, p-FOXO3a, RUNX3, Bcl-2, BAD, p-BAD, Bim and p-Bim were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Pim-1 was significantly overexpressed in SACC tissues. SGI-1776 down-regulated the Pim-1 expression, inhibited Pim-1 kinase activity, reduced cell proliferation, decreased invasive ability, increased caspase-3 activity and induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial depolarization. Reduced expression was also seen in p-FOXO3a, RUNX3, Bcl-2, p-BAD and p-Bim, whereas no significant changes were observed from FOXO3a, BAD and Bim. These results confirm the pivotal role of Pim-1 in SACC and suggest that targeting Pim-1 kinase signal pathway by SGI-1776 might be a promising therapeutic modality for SACC.

  13. Salivary and pellicle proteome: A datamining analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigel, Hardy; Wicht, Michael; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to comprehensively compare two compartmented oral proteomes, the salivary and the dental pellicle proteome. Systematic review and datamining was used to obtain the physico-chemical, structural, functional and interactional properties of 1,515 salivary and 60 identified pellicle proteins. Salivary and pellicle proteins did not differ significantly in their aliphatic index, hydrophaty, instability index, or isoelectric point. Pellicle proteins were significantly more charged at low and high pH and were significantly smaller (10-20 kDa) than salivary proteins. Protein structure and solvent accessible molecular surface did not differ significantly. Proteins of the pellicle were more phosphorylated and glycosylated than salivary proteins. Ion binding and enzymatic activities also differed significantly. Protein-protein-ligand interaction networks relied on few key proteins. The identified differences between salivary and pellicle proteins could guide proteome compartmentalization and result in specialized functionality. Key proteins could be potential targets for diagnostic or therapeutic application.

  14. Does Leishmaniasis disease alter the parenchyma and protein expression in salivary glands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim Carvalho, Fernando A; de Oliveira Dantas, Weslany; Gomes, Luana CL; da Silva, Andrezza BS; de Sousa Cavalcante, Maria MA; de Oliveira, Ingrid M; de Deus Moura de Lima, Marina; Rizzo, Márcia dos Santos; de Carvalho Leite, Carla Maria; Moura, Selma Maria dos Santos; de Deus Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida; da Silva, Benedito B

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered a serious public health problem in several regions in Brazil and worldwide. This research aimed to perform a histopathological and proteomic study of parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi using histological, immunohistochemical and epifluorescence techniques. Twelve isogenic BALB/c male mice, around six- to eight-weeks old, were separated into two groups: the animals of the control group were injected with 0.15 ml of NaCl, while those in the experimental group were inoculated with 5 × 106 amastigote forms of Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi by the ip route. After 50 days, animals were euthanized and major salivary glands were collected to perform histological, immunohistochemical and epifluorescence techniques using anti-Caspase-2, anti-Ki-67 and anti-β-catenin antibodies, respectively. The histological and morphometric evaluation showed clusters of mononuclear inflammatory cells and a higher area and perimeter of the parotid gland. However, none of the salivary glands had morphophysiological impairment. There was no immunoreactivity to the anti-caspase-2 antibody and Ki67 expression in acinar and ductal cells in both groups. According to the immunofluorescence staining, the β-catenin antibodies did not show nuclear expression, suggesting no uncontrolled proliferation. The data obtained in this study showed population and morphological stability of major salivary glands after 50 days post-infection by Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi. PMID:26568331

  15. Suppression by Ghrelin of Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase S-Nitrosylation and Apoptosis in Salivary Gland Acinar Cells

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    Bronislaw L. Slomiany

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis, and its key virulence factor, LPS, are characterized by a massive rise in epithelial cell apoptosis and the disturbances in NO signaling pathways. Here, we report that the LPS-induced enhancement in rat sublingual salivary gland acinar cell apoptosis and NO generation was associated with the suppression in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS activity and a marked increase in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. We demonstrate that the detrimental effect of the LPS on cNOS was manifested by the enzyme protein S-nitrosylation, that was susceptible to inhibition by iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. Further, we show that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and cNOS activity. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the decrease in cNOS S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation. Our findings imply that P. gingivalis-induced disturbances in the acinar cell NO signaling pathways result from upregulation in iNOS-derived NO that causes cNOS S-nitrosylation that interferes with its activation through phosphorylation. We also show that ghrelin protection against P. gingivalis-induced disturbances involves cNOS activation associated with a decrease in its S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation.

  16. Chronic activation of the epithelial immune system of the fruit fly's salivary glands has a negative effect on organismal growth and induces a peculiar set of target genes

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    Abdelsadik Ahmed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial and especially mucosal immunity represents the first line of defence against the plethora of potential pathogens trying to invade via the gastrointestinal tract. The salivary glands of the fruit fly are an indispensable part of the gastrointestinal tract, but their contribution to the mucosal immunity has almost completely been neglected. Our major goal was to elucidate if the fly's salivary glands are able to mount an immune response and what the major characteristics of this immune response are. Results Ectopic activation of the IMD-pathway within the salivary gland cells is able to induce an immune response, indicating that the salivary glands are indeed immune competent. This reaction is characterized by the concurrent expression of numerous antimicrobial peptide genes. In addition, ectopic activation of the salivary gland's immune response induces morphological changes such as dwarfism throughout all developmental stages and a significantly decreased length of the salivary glands themselves. DNA-microarray analyses of the reaction revealed a complex pattern of up- and downregulated genes. Gene ontology analyses of regulated genes revealed a significant increase in genes associated with ribosomal and proteasomal function. On the other hand, genes coding for peptide receptors and some potassium channels are downregulated. In addition, the comparison of the transcriptional events induced following IMD-activation in the trachea and the salivary glands shows also only a small overlap, indicating that the general IMD-activated core transcriptome is rather small and that the tissue specific component of this response is dominating. Among the regulated genes, those that code for signaling associated protease activity are significantly modulated. Conclusions The salivary glands are immune-competent and they contribute to the overall intestinal immune system. Although they produce antimicrobial peptides, their overall

  17. Human/vector relationships during human African trypanosomiasis: initial screening of immunogenic salivary proteins of Glossina species.

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    Poinsignon, Anne; Cornelie, Sylvie; Remoue, Franck; Grébaut, Pascal; Courtin, David; Garcia, Andre; Simondon, Francois

    2007-02-01

    The morbidity and mortality of vector-borne diseases is closely linked to exposure of the human host to vectors. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of individual exposure to arthropod bites by investigation of the specific immune response to vector saliva would make it possible to monitor individuals at risk of vectorial transmission of pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibody (IgG) response to saliva from uninfected Glossina species, vectors, or non-vectors of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense by detecting immunogenic proteins in humans residing in an area endemic for human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our results suggest that the immunogenic profiles observed seemed specific to the Glossina species (vector or non-vector species) and to the infectious status of exposed individuals (infected or not infected). This preliminary work tends to support the feasibility of development of an epidemiologic tool based on this antibody response to salivary proteins.

  18. Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes.

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    Schmid, Katharina; Sassen, Andrea; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Kroemer, Susanne; Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Harréus, Ulrich; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2007-11-01

    Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl(2)) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl(2)concentrations from 1 to 50 microM. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl(2) in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl(2)concentrations of 5 microM in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 microM) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation.

  19. Optimization of agroinfiltration in Pisum sativum provides a new tool for studying the salivary protein functions in the pea aphid complex

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    Endrick Guy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are piercing-sucking insect pests and feed on phloem sap. During feeding, aphids inject a battery of salivary proteins into host plant. Some of these proteins function like effectors of microbial pathogens and influence the outcome of plant-aphid interactions. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is the model aphid and encompasses multiple biotypes each specialized to one or a few legume species, providing an opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the compatibility between plants and aphid biotypes. We aim to identify the aphid factors that determine the compatibility with host plants, hence involved in the host plant specialization process, and hypothesize that salivary proteins are one of those factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression is a powerful tool to perform functional analyses of effector (salivary proteins in plants. However, the tool was not established for the legume species that A. pisum feeds on. Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins. We screened a range of cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum and alfalfa (Medicago sativa. None of the M. sativa cultivars was suitable for agroinfiltration under the tested conditions; however, we established a protocol for efficient transient gene expression in two cultivars of P. sativum, ZP1109 and ZP1130, using A. tumefaciens AGL-1 strain and the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector. We confirmed that the genes are expressed from three to ten days post-infiltration and that aphid lines of the pea adapted biotype fed and reproduced on these two cultivars while lines of alfalfa and clover biotypes did not. Thus, the pea biotype recognizes these two cultivars as typical pea plants. By using a combination of ZP1109 and an A. pisum line, we defined an agroinfiltration procedure to examine the effect of in planta expression of selected salivary proteins on A. pisum fitness and demonstrated that

  20. IgG1 and IgG4 antibody responses to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6 in the sympatric ethnic groups Mossi and Fulani in a malaria hyperhendemic area of Burkina Faso.

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    Cinzia Rizzo

    Full Text Available Human antibody response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6 has recently emerged as a potentially useful tool for malaria epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. However, the current understanding of the host immune response to mosquito salivary proteins and of the possible crosstalk with early response to Plasmodium parasites is still very limited. We report here the analysis of IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses among anti-gSG6 IgG responders belonging to Mossi and Fulani from Burkina Faso, two ethnic groups which are known for their differential humoral response to parasite antigens and for their different susceptibility to malaria. The IgG1 antibody response against the gSG6 protein was comparable in the two groups. On the contrary, IgG4 titers were significantly higher in the Fulani where, in addition, anti-gSG6 IgG4 antibodies appeared in younger children and the ratio IgG4/IgG1 stayed relatively stable throughout adulthood. Both gSG6-specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies showed a tendency to decrease with age whereas, as expected, the IgG response to the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP exhibited an opposite trend in the same individuals. These observations are in line with the idea that the An. gambiae gSG6 salivary protein induces immune tolerance, especially after intense and prolonged exposure as is the case for the area under study, suggesting that gSG6 may trigger in exposed individuals a Th2-oriented immune response.

  1. Salivary agglutinin and lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 have broad anti-influenza activities and interactions with surfactant protein D that vary according to donor source and sialylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Ligtenberg, Antoon; White, Mitchell R.

    2006-01-01

    has co-operative interactions with SP-D in viral neutralization and aggregation assays. We now report that salivary gp-340 can, in some cases, strongly antagonize certain antiviral activities of SP-D. This effect was associated with greater binding of salivary gp-340 to the carbohydrate recognition......We previously found that scavenger receptor cysteine-rich gp-340 (glycoprotein-340), isolated from lung or saliva, directly inhibits human IAVs (influenza A viruses). We now show that salivary gp-340 has broad antiviral activity against human, equine and porcine IAV strains. Although lung...... and salivary gp-340 are identical in protein sequence, salivary gp-340 from one donor had significantly greater antiviral activity against avian-like IAV strains which preferentially bind sialic acids in alpha(2,3) linkage. A greater density of alpha(2,3)-linked sialic acids was present on the salivary gp-340...

  2. Salivary lipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  3. Management of radiotherapy-induced salivary hypofunction and consequent xerostomia in patients with oral or head and neck cancer: meta-analysis and literature review.

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    Lovelace, Tiffany L; Fox, Nyssa F; Sood, Amit J; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the efficacy of various treatment options for radiation-induced hyposalivation in patients with head and neck cancer. A literature review and meta-analysis was performed on all appropriate literature identified via MEDLINE/PubMed. Fourteen articles were identified that met inclusion criteria for review, and 8 articles qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The available literature addressed both objective and subjective responses of hyposalivation, xerostomia, or both to cholinergic agonists (such as pilocarpine and cevimeline), salivary substitutes, hyperbaric oxygen, and acupuncture. This analysis indicated that cholinergic agonists were more effective in treating radiation-induced hyposalivation compared with salivary substitutes, hyperbaric oxygen, and acupuncture. However, other treatment modalities, such as salivary substitutes and hyperbaric oxygen, were also found to subjectively improve patients' perception of xerostomia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

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    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  5. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury induces biochemical and morphological changes in the salivary glands of rats.

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    Aragão, W A B; da Costa, N M M; Fagundes, N C F; Silva, M C F; Alves-Junior, S M; Pinheiro, J J V; Amado, L L; Crespo-López, M E; Maia, C S F; Lima, R R

    2017-09-20

    Mercury exposure is considered to be a public health problem due to the generation of toxic effects on human health as a result of environmental and occupational conditions. The inorganic form of mercury (HgCl2) can cause several biological changes in cells and tissues through its cumulative toxic potential, but little has been experimentally proven about the effects of inorganic mercury on salivary glands, an important modulator organ of oral health. This study analyzes the effects of prolonged low dose exposure to HgCl2 on the salivary glands of rats. Adult animals received a dose of 0.375 mg kg-1 day-1 over a period of 45 days. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for analysis of the mercury levels and evaluation of oxidative stress, histological parameters and immunomodulation for metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II). In this investigation, biochemical and tissue changes in the salivary glands were verified due to the mercury levels, causing reduction in antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, with consequent cellular lipid peroxidation and an increase in nitrite levels, volumetric changes and cytoskeletal damage in the submandibular glands, with less severe damage to the parotid glands. The results also have shown the occurrence of a cytoprotection mechanism due to increased MT-I/II expression, but not enough to avoid the morphology and oxidative damage. This evidence highlights, for the first time, that inorganic mercury is able to alter the morphology and oxidative biochemistry in salivary glands when exposed for a long time in low doses.

  6. The efficacy of montelukast as a protective agent against 131I-induced salivary gland damage in rats: scintigraphic and histopathological findings.

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    Koca, Gökhan; Gültekin, Salih S; Han, Unsal; Kuru, Serdar; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of montelukast as a novel radioprotective agent against sodium [131I]iodide or potassium [131I]iodide (131I)-induced salivary gland damage in a rat model. The function and structure of salivary glands in 50 albino Wistar rats were evaluated with technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphies and histopathological examination. The animals were classified into five groups as follows: the control group (sham operated); group 1 (n=10; only 131I administration), group 2 (n=10; administration with 131I and montelukast); group 3 (n=10; 131I administration after total thyroidectomy); and group 4 (n=10; administration with 131I and montelukast after total thyroidectomy). All rats were killed at the end of the third month and three pairs of salivary glands were removed surgically. The scintigraphic evaluation revealed better results for groups administered montelukast than it did for other groups. Statistically significant differences (P0.05) between groups 1 and 2 (n=20) and groups 3 and 4 (n=20). Histopathological examinations showed that pathological changes were significantly high in the groups treated with 131I without montelukast when compared with the other groups. This is the first study on rats to assess the protective effect of montelukast on salivary glands after 131I therapy. According to our results, montelukast was found to be a potential protective agent against 131I-induced damage on salivary glands.

  7. Potato aphid salivary proteome: enhanced salivation using resorcinol and identification of aphid phosphoproteins.

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    Chaudhary, Ritu; Atamian, Hagop S; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2015-04-03

    Aphids deliver saliva into plants and acquire plant sap for their nourishment using a specialized mouthpart or stylets. Aphid saliva is of great importance because it contains effectors that are involved in modulating host defense and metabolism. Although profiling aphid salivary glands and identifying secreted proteins have been successfully used, success in direct profiling of aphid saliva have been limited due to scarcity of saliva collected in artificial diets. Here we present the use of a neurostimulant, resorcinol, for inducing aphid salivation. Saliva of potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), maintained on tomato, was collected in resorcinol diet. Salivary proteins were identified using mass spectrometry and compared with the existing M. euphorbiae salivary proteome collected in water. Comparative analysis was also performed with existing salivary proteomes from additional aphid species. Most of the proteins identified in the resorcinol diet were also present in the water diet and represented proteins with a plethora of functions in addition to a large number of unknowns. About half of the salivary proteins were not predicted for secretion or had canonical secretion signal peptides. We also analyzed the phosphorylation states of M. euphorbiae salivary proteins and identified three known aphid effectors, Me_WB01635/Mp1, Me10/Mp58, and Me23 that carry phosphorylation marks. In addition to insect proteins, tomato host proteins were also identified in aphid saliva. Our results indicate that aphid saliva is complex and provides a rich resource for functional characterization of effectors.

  8. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea : A Systematic Review Sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen; Aframian, Doron; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Proctor, Gordon; Narayana, Nagamani; Villa, Alessandro; Sia, Ying Wai; Aliko, Ardita; McGowan, Richard; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan; Dawes, Colin

    BACKGROUND: Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist. OBJECTIVE: Our objective

  9. Sphingolipids metabolism in the salivary glands of rats with obesity and streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, Marta; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Mikłosz, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Igor; Kurek, Krzysztof; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes is considered a major public health problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Remarkably, scientific reports regarding salivary glands sphingolipid metabolism in diabetes are virtually non-existent. This is odd given the well-established link between the both in other tissues (e.g., skeletal muscles, liver) and the key role of these glands in oral health preservation. The aim of this paper is to examine sphingolipids metabolism in the salivary glands in (pre)diabetes (evoked by high fat diet feeding or streptozotocin). Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control, HFD-, or STZ-diabetes. The content of major sphingolipid classes in the parotid (PSG) and submandibular (SMSG) glands was assessed via chromatography. Additionally, Western blot analyses were employed for the evaluation of key sphingolipid signaling pathway enzyme levels. No changes in ceramide content in the PSG were found, whereas an increase in ceramide concentration for SMSG of the STZ group was observed. This was accompanied by an elevation in SPT1 level. Probably also sphingomyelin hydrolysis was increased in the SMSG of the STZ-diabetic rats, since we observed a significant drop in the amount of SM. PSG and SMSG respond differently to (pre)diabetes, with clearer pattern presented by the later gland. An activation of sphingomyelin signaling pathway was observed in the course of STZ-diabetes, that is, metabolic condition with rapid onset/progression. Whereas, chronic HFD lead to an inhibition of sphingomyelin signaling pathway in the salivary glands (manifested in an inhibition of ceramide de novo synthesis and accumulation of S1P). © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    the alimentary, cardiovascular, genitourinary, nervous, and respiratory systems. Management strategies include substitution or discontinuation of medications whenever possible, oral or systemic therapy with sialogogues, administration of saliva substitutes, and use of electro-stimulating devices. LIMITATIONS......: While xerostomia was a commonly reported outcome, objectively measured salivary flow rate was rarely reported. Moreover, xerostomia was mostly assessed as an adverse effect rather than the primary outcome of medication use. This study may not include some medications that could cause xerostomia when...... practitioners in assessing patients who complain of dry mouth while taking medications. The list may also prove useful in helping practitioners anticipate adverse effects and consider alternative medications....

  11. A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

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    de-Almeida J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

  12. Characterization of salivary protein during ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle through MALDI-TOF/MS

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    S Alagendran

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Among the proteins, 48 kDa protein was more predominantly exhibited during ovulatory phase than pre and post-ovulatory phase. The present study indicates that the protein level and the specific protein band (48 kDa through MALDI-TOF MS analysis might serve as an indicator for ovulation.

  13. The salivary glands of two sand fly vectors of Leishmania: Lutzomyia migonei (França) and Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz)(Diptera: Psychodidae).

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    Nieves, Elsa; Buelvas, Neudo; Rondón, Maritza; González, Néstor

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the intradermal inoculation of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) promastigotes together with saliva during the bite of an infected sand fly. The salivary glands were compared from two vector species, Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz,1952) and Lutzomyia migonei (França,1920) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Protein profiles by SDS PAGE of salivary glands were compared among species as well as their development at several times post feeding. First, mice were immunized to salivary proteins by exposure to biting by L. ovallesi and of L. migonei. Antibodies in these mice against salivary gland-specific proteins were evaluated by immunoblotting. No apparent change was revealed in the kinetic expression of salivary proteins induced by the different physiological states post feeding. Qualitative and quantitative variations were detected in16-18 polypeptides with molecular weights ranging from 6 to 180 kDa. Species-specific proteins were demonstrated for L. migonei and L. ovallesi. In addition, antibodies against salivary gland specific proteins were found in mice immunized by the saliva of both species. Basic information was obtained concerning the nature of salivary gland proteins of L. migonei and L. ovallesi. This information helps to elucidate the role of salivary proteins and their potential as effective tools in screening risk factors in human and other vertebrate hosts.

  14. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation induced parotid stimulation on salivary flow

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    Sreenivasulu Pattipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the duration of stimulation over the parotid salivary flow following the use of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS in different age groups. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three different age groups. Under group A individuals from 21 to 35 years of age, group B 36-50 years and group C above 51 years were considered. In each group 30 subjects were taken of whom 15 were males and 15 were females. The placement of pads was approximated bilaterally over the parotid glands. The working parameters of TENS unit were fixed at 50 Hz and the unit was in normal mode. Results: Subjects belonging to group B were showing statistically significant increases in the duration of stimulated parotid salivary flow following the use of TENS. Conclusion: TENS can be considered as a non-pharmacological alternative to improve salivation for longer period in xerostomia patients.

  15. Recombinant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut (Ra86) and salivary gland cement (Trp64) proteins as candidate antigens for inclusion in tick vaccines: protective effetcs of Ra86 on infestation with adult R. appendiculatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saimo, M.; Odongo, D.O.; Mwaura, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Musoke, A.J.; Lubega, G.W.; Bishop, R.P.; Oers, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut protein Ra86 (variants Ra85A and Ra92A) and the salivary gland cement protein (Trp64) were expressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The recombinant gut proteins expressed as soluble proteins and the recombinant cement protein, as insoluble inclusion bodies,

  16. Imaging of Borrelia turicatae Producing the Green Fluorescent Protein Reveals Persistent Colonization of the Ornithodoros turicata Midgut and Salivary Glands from Nymphal Acquisition through Transmission.

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    Krishnavajhala, Aparna; Wilder, Hannah K; Boyle, William K; Damania, Ashish; Thornton, Justin A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Lopez, Job E

    2017-03-01

    Relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes colonize and are transmitted to mammals primarily by Ornithodoros ticks, and little is known regarding the pathogen's life cycle in the vector. To further understand vector colonization and transmission of RF spirochetes, Borrelia turicatae expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker ( B. turicatae-gfp ) was generated. The transformants were evaluated during the tick-mammal infectious cycle, from the third nymphal instar to adult stage. B. turicatae-gfp remained viable for at least 18 months in starved fourth-stage nymphal ticks, and the studies indicated that spirochete populations persistently colonized the tick midgut and salivary glands. Our generation of B. turicatae-gfp also revealed that within the salivary glands, spirochetes are localized in the ducts and lumen of acini, and after tick feeding, the tissues remained populated with spirochetes. The B. turicatae-gfp generated in this study is an important tool to further understand and define the mechanisms of vector colonization and transmission. IMPORTANCE In order to interrupt the infectious cycle of tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, it is important to enhance our understanding of vector colonization and transmission. Toward this, we generated a strain of Borrelia turicatae that constitutively produced the green fluorescent protein, and we evaluated fluorescing spirochetes during the entire infectious cycle. We determined that the midgut and salivary glands of Ornithodoros turicata ticks maintain the pathogens throughout the vector's life cycle and remain colonized with the spirochetes for at least 18 months. We also determined that the tick's salivary glands were not depleted after a transmission blood feeding. These findings set the framework to further understand the mechanisms of midgut and salivary gland colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. The M33 G Protein-Coupled Receptor Encoded by Murine Cytomegalovirus Is Dispensable for Hematogenous Dissemination but Is Required for Growth within the Salivary Gland

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    Bittencourt, Fabiola M.; Wu, Shu-En; Bridges, James P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a pathogen found worldwide and is a serious threat to immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses. Due to the species specificity of cytomegaloviruses, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has been used as a model for in vivo studies of HCMV pathogenesis. The MCMV genome, like the genomes of other beta- and gammaherpesviruses, encodes G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate host signaling pathways presumably to facilitate viral replication and dissemination. Among these viral receptors, the M33 GPCR carried by MCMV is an activator of CREB, NF-κB, and phospholipase C-β signaling pathways and has been implicated in aspects of pathogenesis in vivo, including persistence in the salivary glands of BALB/c mice. In this study, we used immunocompetent nonobese diabetic (NOD) and immunocompromised NOD-scid-gamma (NSG) mice to further investigate the salivary gland defect exhibited by M33 deficiency. Interestingly, we demonstrate that virus with an M33 deletion (ΔM33) can replicate in the salivary gland of immunocompromised animals, albeit with a 400-fold growth defect compared with the growth of wild-type virus. Moreover, we determined that M33 does not have a role in cell-associated hematogenous dissemination but is required for viral amplification once the virus reaches the salivary gland. We conclude that the reduced replicative capacity of the ΔM33 virus is due to a specific defect occurring within the localized environment of the salivary gland. Importantly, since the salivary gland represents a site essential for persistence and horizontal transmission, an understanding of the mechanisms of viral replication within this site could lead to the generation of novel therapeutics useful for the prevention of HCMV spread. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus infects the majority of the American people and can reside silently in infected individuals for the duration of their lives. Under a number of circumstances, the

  18. Differential reactivity of salivary igA and igG against streptococcus mutans proteins in humans with different caries experience.

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    Gómez, Soledad I; Jaramillo, Lorenza M; Moreno, Gloria C; Roa, Nelly S; Rodríguez, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease which still constitutes a public health concern. It begins at an early age and is caused mainly Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The aim of this study was to characterize the salivary humor immune response to S. mutans proteins in patients with caries, with history of caries and without caries, in order to determine which S. mutans proteins participate in the immunological response in subjects with different caries experience. Saliva was collected by spontaneous salivation for 5 minutes from 60 subjects aged 18 to 30 years, classified according to their caries experience as: without caries (Group I), with active caries (Group II) and with history of caries (Group III). The antigens derived from S. mutans by sonication were recognized by salivary IgA and IgG by Western Blot. The results showed that all the individuals studied recognized S. mutans proteins with molecular weights in the range of 8 to 191 kDa, with similar recognition profiles for salivary IgA and IgG. Subjects without caries recognized the 29 kDa protein, also known as S. mutans Antigen A, via salivary IgA, differing from patients with caries and history of caries, who recognized it via IgG. The protective response against S. mutans is mediated by IgA. To conclude, a differential response to the 29 kDa protein between study individuals may be indicative of resistance to dental caries and may have a protective role in the induction of IgA antibodies against dental caries, as found in the group without caries, in contrast to subjects with active caries and history of caries.

  19. [The quantitative evaluation of early radiation-induced changes in the salivary glands using MRI].

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    Zhou, S; Qian, J J; Xu, L; Tian, Y; Fan, Q H; Shen, J K; Fan, G H; Gong, J P; Qian, M H

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the early radiation injury of salivary glands in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Twenty patients with NPC between 2014 and 2015 from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were retrospectively analyzed.All patients underwent an MRI scan before and after IMRT.The volumes, T(1)WI, T(2)WI signal intensity(SIs) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCs) of the parotid and submandibular glands were measured.The relative signal intensity (RSIs) of each salivary gland was calculated with cerebrospinal fluid as control.The quantitative parameters of salivary glands were compared before and after radiotherapy. Results: The volumes (cm(3)) and T(1)WI RSIs of the parotid and submandibular glands (14.88±6.00, 5.21±1.76, 2.98±1.05, 1.88±0.42, respectively) were significantly lower than those before radiotherapy (22.26±8.26, 7.76±2.45, 3.58±1.02, 2.27±0.50, respectively) (t=9.921, 4.013, 10.126, 4.202, respectively, P=0.000 for all). The T(2)WI RSIs and ADCs (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) of the parotid and submandibular glands (0.50 ± 0.08, 0.41±0.04, 1.31±0.19, 1.50±0.13, respectively) were significantly higher than those before radiotherapy (0.45±0.07, 0.33±0.05, 1.02±0.21, 1.23±0.13, respectively) (t=-4.846, -9.276, -9.957, -10.679, respectively, P=0.000 for all). The volumes of parotid and submandibular glands were correlated with ADCs (r=-0.512, P=0.000; r=-0.358, P=0.001; respectively). The volumes and ADCs of submandibular glands were correlated with T(1)WI RSIs and T(2)WI RSIs(Psalivary glands after radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma as a noninvasive method, and has high clinical application potential.

  20. Interaction between Wine Phenolic Acids and Salivary Proteins by Saturation-Transfer Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (STD-NMR) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Brás, Natércia F; Vale, Nuno; Gomes, Paula; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2017-08-09

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is highly related to the astringency perception. Recently, it has been proven the existence of synergisms on the perceived astringency when phenolic acids were tested as mixtures in comparison to individual compounds, maintaining constant the total amount of the stimulus. The interactions between wine phenolic acids and the peptide fragment IB712 have been studied by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. This technique provided the dissociation constants and the percentage of interaction between both individual and mixtures of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and the model peptide. It is noteworthy that hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher affinity for the peptide than hydroxycinnamic acids. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of interaction, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Results obtained not only showed the ability of these compounds to interact with salivary proteins but also may justify the synergistic effect observed in previous sensory studies.

  1. Cytomegalovirus-induced embryopathology: mouse submandibular salivary gland epithelial-mesenchymal ontogeny as a model

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    Huang Jing

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human studies suggest, and mouse models clearly demonstrate, that cytomegalovirus (CMV is dysmorphic to early organ and tissue development. CMV has a particular tropism for embryonic salivary gland and other head mesenchyme. CMV has evolved to co-opt cell signaling networks so to optimize replication and survival, to the detriment of infected tissues. It has been postulated that mesenchymal infection is the critical step in disrupting organogenesis. If so, organogenesis dependent on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions would be particularly vulnerable. In this study, we chose to model the vulnerability by investigating the cell and molecular pathogenesis of CMV infected mouse embryonic submandibular salivary glands (SMGs. Results We infected E15 SMG explants with mouse CMV (mCMV. Active infection for up to 12 days in vitro results in a remarkable cell and molecular pathology characterized by atypical ductal epithelial hyperplasia, apparent epitheliomesenchymal transformation, oncocytic-like stromal metaplasia, β-catenin nuclear localization, and upregulation of Nfkb2, Relb, Il6, Stat3, and Cox2. Rescue with an antiviral nucleoside analogue indicates that mCMV replication is necessary to initiate and maintain SMG dysmorphogenesis. Conclusion mCMV infection of embryonic mouse explants results in dysplasia, metaplasia, and, possibly, anaplasia. The molecular pathogenesis appears to center around the activation of canonical and, perhaps more importantly, noncanonical NFκB. Further, COX-2 and IL-6 are important downstream effectors of embryopathology. At the cellular level, there appears to be a consequential interplay between the transformed SMG cells and the surrounding extracellular matrix, resulting in the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. From these studies, a tentative framework has emerged within which additional studies may be planned and performed.

  2. Salivary gland diseases in children

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    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  3. Immunogenic salivary proteins of Triatoma infestans: development of a recombinant antigen for the detection of low-level infestation of triatomines.

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    Alexandra Schwarz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. The most effective vector, Triatoma infestans, has been controlled successfully in much of Latin America using insecticide spraying. Though rarely undertaken, surveillance programs are necessary in order to identify new infestations and estimate the intensity of triatomine bug infestations in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Since hosts exposed to triatomines develop immune responses to salivary antigens, these responses can be evaluated for their usefulness as epidemiological markers to detect infestations of T. infestans.T. infestans salivary proteins were separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and tested for their immunogenicity by Western blotting using sera from chickens and guinea pigs experimentally exposed to T. infestans. From five highly immunogenic protein spots, eight salivary proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS and comparison to the protein sequences of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and expressed sequence tags of a unidirectionally cloned salivary gland cDNA library from T. infestans combined with the NCBI yeast protein sub-database. The 14.6 kDa salivary protein [gi|149689094] was produced as recombinant protein (rTiSP14.6 in a mammalian cell expression system and recognized by all animal sera. The specificity of rTiSP14.6 was confirmed by the lack of reactivity to anti-mosquito and anti-sand fly saliva antibodies. However, rTiSP14.6 was recognized by sera from chickens exposed to four other triatomine species, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. sordida, Rhodnius prolixus, and Panstrongylus megistus and by sera of chickens from an endemic area of T. infestans and Chagas disease in Bolivia.The recombinant rTiSP14.6 is a suitable and promising epidemiological marker for detecting the presence of small numbers of different

  4. Expression of ERBB3 binding protein 1 (EBP1 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and its clinicopathological relevance

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    Sun Jian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ERBB3 binding protein 1 (EBP1 gene transfer into human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells has been shown to significantly inhibit cell proliferation and reduce tumor metastasis in mouse models. In the current study, to evaluate if EBP1 is a novel biomarker capable of identifying patients at higher risk of disease progression and recurrence, we examined the EBP1 expression profile in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC patients and analyzed its clinicopathological relevance. To understand the underlying anti-metastatic mechanism, we investigated if EBP1 regulates invasion-related molecules. Methods We performed immunohistochemical analysis on 132 primary adenoid cystic carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissues using commercial EBP1, MMP9, E-cadherin and ICAM-1 antibodies. Results were correlated to clinicopathological parameters, long-term survival and invasion-related molecules by statistical analysis. Cell motility and invasiveness of vector or wild-type EBP1-transfected ACC-M cell lines were evaluated using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. MMP9, E-cadherin and ICAM-1 proteins in these cell lines were detected using western blot assay. Results The expression of EBP1 was significantly higher in non-cancerous adjacent tissues compared with corresponding cancer tissues. The intensity and percentage of cells that reacted with EBP1 antibodies were significantly higher in cases with tubular pattern than those with solid pattern (PPPPPP=0.0002. Conclusions EBP1 expression is reduced in adenoid cystic carcinoma, indicating unfavorable prognosis of ACC patients. Its regulation of MMP9 and E-cadherin protein levels suggests a critical therapeutic potential.

  5. Dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti salivary gland and chemosensory apparatus induces genes that modulate infection and blood-feeding behavior.

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    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes. DENV infection resulted in the regulation of 147 transcripts that represented a variety of functional classes, including several that are essential for virus transmission, such as immunity, blood-feeding, and host-seeking. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of three DENV infection-responsive genes--a cathepsin B, a putative cystatin, and a hypothetical ankyrin repeat-containing protein--significantly modulated DENV replication in the salivary gland. Furthermore, silencing of two DENV infection-responsive odorant-binding protein genes (OBPs resulted in an overall compromise in blood acquisition from a single host by increasing the time for initiation of probing and the probing time before a successful bloodmeal. We also show that DENV established an extensive infection in the mosquito's main olfactory organs, the antennae, which resulted in changes of the transcript abundance of key host-seeking genes. DENV infection, however, did not significantly impact probing initiation or probing times in our laboratory infection system. Here we show for the first time that the mosquito salivary gland mounts responses to suppress DENV which, in turn, modulates the expression of chemosensory-related genes that regulate feeding behavior. These reciprocal interactions may have the potential to affect DENV transmission between humans.

  6. Salivary secretions by aphids interacting with proteins of phloem wound responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W. Fred Tjallingii

    2006-01-01

    .... The most important hurdle is formed by the phloem wound responses, such as coagulating proteins in the phloem sieve elements of the plant and in the capillary food canal in the insect's mouth parts, i.e. the stylets...

  7. Effects of salivary protein flow and indigenous microorganisms on initial colonization of Candida albicans in an in vivo model

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    Kanaguchi Norihiko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that is part of the commensal microbial flora of the oral cavity. When the host immune defenses are impaired or when the normal microbial flora is disturbed, C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the oral mucosa and tongue. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice that show hyposalivation, decrease of salivary protein flow, lack IgA and IgG in saliva, and have decreased NK cells. Our objective was to characterize C. albicans infection and biofilm formation in mice. Methods NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice were used as an animal model for C. albicans infection. C. albicans yeast and hyphal forms solutions were introduced in the oral cavity after disinfection by Chlorhexidine. Results The numbers of C. albicans colonized and decreased in a time-dependent manner in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ after inoculation. However, the colonization levels were higher in NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ than NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice. In the mice fed 1% sucrose water before inoculation, C. albicans sample was highly contaminated by indigenous microorganisms in the oral cavity; and was not in the mice fed no sucrose water. The colonization of C. albicans was not influenced by the contamination of indigenous microorganisms. The hyphal form of C. albicans restricted the restoration of indigenous microorganisms. The decreased saliva in NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- did not increase the colonization of C. albicans in comparison to NOD/SCID.e2f1+/+ mice. We suggest that the receptor in saliva to C. albicans may not be sufficiently provided in the oral cavity of NOD/SCID.e2f1-/- mice. Conclusion The saliva protein flow may be very important for C. albicans initial colonization, where the indigenous microorganisms do not affect colonization in the oral cavity.

  8. Novel peptide marker corresponding to salivary protein gSG6 potentially identifies exposure to Anopheles bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsignon, Anne; Cornelie, Sylvie; Mestres-Simon, Montserrat; Lanfrancotti, Alessandra; Rossignol, Marie; Boulanger, Denis; Cisse, Badara; Sokhna, Cheikh; Arcà, Bruno; Simondon, François; Remoue, Franck

    2008-06-25

    In order to improve malaria control, and under the aegis of WHO recommendations, many efforts are being devoted to developing new tools for identifying geographic areas with high risk of parasite transmission. Evaluation of the human antibody response to arthropod salivary proteins could be an epidemiological indicator of exposure to vector bites, and therefore to risk of pathogen transmission. In the case of malaria, which is transmitted only by anopheline mosquitoes, maximal specificity could be achieved through identification of immunogenic proteins specific to the Anopheles genus. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 protein, from its recombinant form to derived synthetic peptides, could be an immunological marker of exposure specific to Anopheles gambiae bites. Specific IgG antibodies to recombinant gSG6 protein were observed in children living in a Senegalese area exposed to malaria. With the objective of optimizing Anopheles specificity and reproducibility, we designed five gSG6-based peptide sequences using a bioinformatic approach, taking into consideration i) their potential antigenic properties and ii) the absence of cross-reactivity with protein sequences of other arthropods/organisms. The specific anti-peptide IgG antibody response was evaluated in exposed children. The five gSG6 peptides showed differing antigenic properties, with gSG6-P1 and gSG6-P2 exhibiting the highest antigenicity. However, a significant increase in the specific IgG response during the rainy season and a positive association between the IgG level and the level of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites was significant only for gSG6-P1. This step-by-step approach suggests that gSG6-P1 could be an optimal candidate marker for evaluating exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites. This marker could be employed as a geographic indicator, like remote sensing techniques, for mapping the risk of malaria. It could also represent

  9. Novel peptide marker corresponding to salivary protein gSG6 potentially identifies exposure to Anopheles bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Poinsignon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve malaria control, and under the aegis of WHO recommendations, many efforts are being devoted to developing new tools for identifying geographic areas with high risk of parasite transmission. Evaluation of the human antibody response to arthropod salivary proteins could be an epidemiological indicator of exposure to vector bites, and therefore to risk of pathogen transmission. In the case of malaria, which is transmitted only by anopheline mosquitoes, maximal specificity could be achieved through identification of immunogenic proteins specific to the Anopheles genus. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 protein, from its recombinant form to derived synthetic peptides, could be an immunological marker of exposure specific to Anopheles gambiae bites.Specific IgG antibodies to recombinant gSG6 protein were observed in children living in a Senegalese area exposed to malaria. With the objective of optimizing Anopheles specificity and reproducibility, we designed five gSG6-based peptide sequences using a bioinformatic approach, taking into consideration i their potential antigenic properties and ii the absence of cross-reactivity with protein sequences of other arthropods/organisms. The specific anti-peptide IgG antibody response was evaluated in exposed children. The five gSG6 peptides showed differing antigenic properties, with gSG6-P1 and gSG6-P2 exhibiting the highest antigenicity. However, a significant increase in the specific IgG response during the rainy season and a positive association between the IgG level and the level of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites was significant only for gSG6-P1.This step-by-step approach suggests that gSG6-P1 could be an optimal candidate marker for evaluating exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites. This marker could be employed as a geographic indicator, like remote sensing techniques, for mapping the risk of malaria. It could

  10. Novel Peptide Marker Corresponding to Salivary Protein gSG6 Potentially Identifies Exposure to Anopheles Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsignon, Anne; Cornelie, Sylvie; Mestres-Simon, Montserrat; Lanfrancotti, Alessandra; Rossignol, Marie; Boulanger, Denis; Cisse, Badara; Sokhna, Cheikh; Arcà, Bruno; Simondon, François; Remoue, Franck

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to improve malaria control, and under the aegis of WHO recommendations, many efforts are being devoted to developing new tools for identifying geographic areas with high risk of parasite transmission. Evaluation of the human antibody response to arthropod salivary proteins could be an epidemiological indicator of exposure to vector bites, and therefore to risk of pathogen transmission. In the case of malaria, which is transmitted only by anopheline mosquitoes, maximal specificity could be achieved through identification of immunogenic proteins specific to the Anopheles genus. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 protein, from its recombinant form to derived synthetic peptides, could be an immunological marker of exposure specific to Anopheles gambiae bites. Methodology/Principal Findings Specific IgG antibodies to recombinant gSG6 protein were observed in children living in a Senegalese area exposed to malaria. With the objective of optimizing Anopheles specificity and reproducibility, we designed five gSG6-based peptide sequences using a bioinformatic approach, taking into consideration i) their potential antigenic properties and ii) the absence of cross-reactivity with protein sequences of other arthropods/organisms. The specific anti-peptide IgG antibody response was evaluated in exposed children. The five gSG6 peptides showed differing antigenic properties, with gSG6-P1 and gSG6-P2 exhibiting the highest antigenicity. However, a significant increase in the specific IgG response during the rainy season and a positive association between the IgG level and the level of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites was significant only for gSG6-P1. Conclusions/Significance This step-by-step approach suggests that gSG6-P1 could be an optimal candidate marker for evaluating exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites. This marker could be employed as a geographic indicator, like remote sensing

  11. Anopheles Gambiae PRS1 Modulates Plasmodium Development at Both Midgut and Salivary Gland Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Sylvie; Sautereau, Jean; Jacques, Jean-Claude; Thiery, Isabelle; Bourgouin, Catherine; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Background Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1), whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. Conclusions/Significance While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history. PMID:20634948

  12. Anopheles gambiae PRS1 modulates Plasmodium development at both midgut and salivary gland steps.

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    Thomas Chertemps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion of the mosquito salivary glands by Plasmodium is a critical step for malaria transmission. From a SAGE analysis, we previously identified several genes whose expression in salivary glands was regulated coincident with sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. To get insights into the consequences of these salivary gland responses, here we have studied one of the genes, PRS1 (Plasmodium responsive salivary 1, whose expression was upregulated in infected glands, using immunolocalization and functional inactivation approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRS1 belongs to a novel insect superfamily of genes encoding proteins with DM9 repeat motifs of uncharacterized function. We show that PRS1 is induced in response to Plasmodium, not only in the salivary glands but also in the midgut, the other epithelial barrier that Plasmodium has to cross to develop in the mosquito. Furthermore, this induction is observed using either the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei or the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In the midgut, PRS1 overexpression is associated with a relocalization of the protein at the periphery of invaded cells. We also find that sporozoite invasion of salivary gland cells occurs sequentially and induces intra-cellular modifications that include an increase in PRS1 expression and a relocalization of the corresponding protein into vesicle-like structures. Importantly, PRS1 knockdown during the onset of midgut and salivary gland invasion demonstrates that PRS1 acts as an agonist for the development of both parasite species in the two epithelia, highlighting shared vector/parasite interactions in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While providing insights into potential functions of DM9 proteins, our results reveal that PRS1 likely contributes to fundamental interactions between Plasmodium and mosquito epithelia, which do not depend on the specific Anopheles/P. falciparum coevolutionary history.

  13. Salivary secretions by aphids interacting with proteins of phloem wound responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjallingii, W.F.

    2006-01-01

    Successful phloem feeding requires overcoming a number of phloem-related plant properties and reactions. The most important hurdle is formed by the phloem wound responses, such as coagulating proteins in the phloem sieve elements of the plant and in the capillary food canal in the insect's mouth

  14. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarroel, C.A.; Jonckheere, W.; Alba Cano, J.M.; Glas, J.J.; Dermauw, W.; Haring, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R.C.; Kant, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato

  15. Napping reverses the salivary interleukin-6 and urinary norepinephrine changes induced by sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Nakib, Samir; Drogou, Catherine; Elbaz, Maxime; Sauvet, Fabien; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal; Léger, Damien

    2015-03-01

    Neuroendocrine and immune stresses imposed by chronic sleep restriction are known to be involved in the harmful cardiovascular effects associated with poor sleep. Despite a well-known beneficial effect of napping on alertness, its effects on neuroendocrine stress and immune responses after sleep restriction are largely unknown. This study was a strictly controlled (sleep-wake status, light environment, caloric intake), crossover, randomized design in continuously polysomnography-monitored subjects. The study was conducted in a laboratory-based study. The subjects were 11 healthy young men. We investigated the effects on neuroendocrine and immune biomarkers of a night of sleep restricted to 2 h followed by a day without naps or with 30 minute morning and afternoon naps, both conditions followed by an ad libitum recovery night starting at 20:00. Salivary interleukin-6 and urinary catecholamines were assessed throughout the daytime study periods. The increase in norepinephrine values seen at the end of the afternoon after the sleep-restricted night was not present when the subjects had the opportunity to take naps. Interleukin-6 changes observed after sleep deprivation were also normalized after napping. During the recovery day in the no-nap condition, there were increased levels of afternoon epinephrine and dopamine, which was not the case in the nap condition. A recovery night after napping was associated with a reduced amount of slow-wave sleep compared to after the no-nap condition. Our data suggest that napping has stress-releasing and immune effects. Napping could be easily applied in real settings as a countermeasure to the detrimental health consequences of sleep debt.

  16. Responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is associated with salivary levels of two specific basic proline-rich proteins in humans.

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    Tiziana Cabras

    Full Text Available Thiourea tasting can be predictive of individual differences in bitter taste responses, general food preferences and eating behavior, and could be correlated with saliva chemical composition. We investigated the possible relationship between PROP bitter taste responsiveness and the salivary proteome in subjects genotyped for TAS2R38 and gustin gene polymorphisms. Taste perception intensity evoked by PROP and NaCl solutions was measured in sixty-three volunteers (21 males, 42 females, age 25±3 y to establish their PROP taster status, and 24 PROP super-tasters and 21 nontasters were selected to participate in the study. TAS2R38 and gustin gene molecular analysis were performed using PCR techniques. Qualitative and quantitative determination of salivary proteins was performed by HPLC-ESI-MS before and after PROP taste stimulation. PROP super-tastings was strongly associated with the 'taster' variant (PAV haplotype of TAS2R38 and the A allele of rs2274333 polymorphism in the gustin gene and nontasting was associated with the minor alleles at both loci. ANOVA revealed that basal levels of II-2 and Ps-1 proteins, belonging to the basic proline-rich protein (bPRPs family, were significantly higher in PROP super-taster than in nontaster un-stimulated saliva, and that PROP stimulation elicited a rapid increase in the levels of these same proteins only in PROP super-taster saliva. These data show for the first time that responsiveness to PROP is associated with salivary levels of II-2 peptide and Ps-1 protein, which are products of the PRB1 gene. These findings suggest that PRB1, in addition to TAS2R38 and gustin, could contribute to individual differences in thiourea sensitivity, and the expression of the PROP phenotype as a complex genetic trait.

  17. Exercise does not increase salivary lymphocytes, monocytes, or granulocytes, but does increase salivary lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-07-01

    An increase in salivary leukocytes may contribute to the exercise-induced increase in salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). However, exercise-induced changes in salivary leukocytes have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to describe salivary leukocyte changes with exercise. Participants (n = 11, 20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 ml kg-1 min-1 peak oxygen uptake ((VO) ̇2peak), 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO2peak. Stimulated saliva (12 mL) was collected pre- and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30 µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45+), granulocytes (CD45+CD15+), monocytes (CD45+CD14+), T-cells (CD45+CD3+), and B-cells (CD45+CD20+) using flow cytometry. Saliva was analysed for Lysozyme (Lys) using ELISA. Exercise did not alter any leukocyte subset. The major constituent of leukocytes pre-exercise were granulocytes (57.9 ± 30.3% compared with monocytes: 5.1 ± 2.7%, T-cells: 17.1 ± 8.9%, B-cells: 12.1 ± 10.2%) (P exercise (pre: 5,170 ± 5,215 ng/min; post: 7,639 ± 4,140 ng/min) (P Exercise does not result in increased granulocytes, but does increase Lys. Further, these data suggest that an increase in salivary leukocytes is not needed to increase Lys.

  18. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  19. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  20. Vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (desmoteplase) inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced potentiation of excitotoxic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddrop, Courtney; Moldrich, Randal X; Beart, Philip M; Farso, Mark; Liberatore, Gabriel T; Howells, David W; Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Schleuning, Wolf-Dieter; Medcalf, Robert L

    2005-06-01

    In contrast to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) salivary plasminogen activator (desmoteplase [DSPA]) does not promote excitotoxic injury when injected directly into the brain. We have compared the excitotoxic effects of intravenously delivered tPA and DSPA and determined whether DSPA can antagonize the neurotoxic and calcium enhancing effects of tPA. The brain striatal region of wild-type c57 Black 6 mice was stereotaxically injected with N-methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA); 24 hour later, mice received an intravenous injection of tPA or DSPA (10 mg/kg) and lesion size was assessed after 24 hours. Cell death and calcium mobilization studies were performed using cultures of primary murine cortical neurons. NMDA-mediated injury was increased after intravenous administration of tPA, whereas no additional toxicity was seen after administration of DSPA. Unlike DSPA, tPA enhanced NMDA-induced cell death and the NMDA-mediated increase in intracellular calcium levels in vitro. Moreover, the enhancing effects of tPA were blocked by DSPA. Intravenous administration of tPA promotes excitotoxic injury, raising the possibility that leakage of tPA from the vasculature into the parenchyma contributes to brain damage. The lack of such toxicity by DSPA further encourages its use as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  1. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  2. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  3. Quantitative analysis of protein and gene expression in salivary glands of Sjogren's-like disease NOD mice treated by bone marrow soup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Misuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment. METHODS: Whole BM cells were lysed and soluble intracellular contents ("BM Soup" were injected I.V. into NOD mice. Tandem mass tagging with 2-D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify proteins in the submandibular glands (SMGs between untreated and BM Soup-treated mice. Quantitative PCR was used to identify genes with altered expression in the treated mice. RESULTS BM SOUP: restored salivary flow rates to normal levels and significantly reduced the focus scores of SMGs in NOD mice. More than 1800 proteins in SMG cells were quantified by the proteomic approach. Many SMG proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis were found to be down-regulated whereas those involved in salivary gland biology and development/regeneration were up-regulated in the BM Soup-treated mice. qPCR analysis also revealed expression changes of growth factors and cytokines in the SMGs of the treated NOD mice. CONCLUSION: BM Soup treatment is effective to restore the function of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Through gene/protein expression analysis, we have found that BM Soup treatment might effectuate via inhibiting apoptosis, focal adhesion and inflammation whereas promoting development, regeneration and differentiation of the SG cells in NOD mice. These findings provide important insights on the potential mechanisms underlying the BM Soup treatment for functional restoration of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Additional studies are needed to further confirm the identified target genes and their related signaling pathways that are responsible for the BM Soup treatment.

  4. Strains of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus Exhibit Structurally Variant Fimbrial Subunit Proteins and Bind to Different Peptide Motifs in Salivary Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hay, Donald I.; Strömberg, Nicklas

    1999-01-01

    Oral strains of Actinomyces spp. express type 1 fimbriae, which are composed of major FimP subunits, and bind preferentially to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs) or to statherin. We have mapped genetic differences in the fimP subunit genes and the peptide recognition motifs within the host proteins associated with these differential binding specificities. The fimP genes were amplified by PCR from Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, with preferential binding to statherin, and from Actinomyces naeslundii LY7, P-1-K, and B-1-K, with preferential binding to APRPs. The fimP gene from the statherin-binding strain 19246 is novel and has about 80% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to the highly conserved fimP genes of the APRP-binding strains (about 98 to 99% sequence identity). The novel FimP protein contains an amino-terminal signal peptide, randomly distributed single-amino-acid substitutions, and structurally different segments and ends with a cell wall-anchoring and a membrane-spanning region. When agarose beads with CNBr-linked host determinant-specific decapeptides were used, A. viscosus 19246 bound to the Thr42Phe43 terminus of statherin and A. naeslundii LY7 bound to the Pro149Gln150 termini of APRPs. Furthermore, while the APRP-binding A. naeslundii strains originate from the human mouth, A. viscosus strains isolated from the oral cavity of rat and hamster hosts showed preferential binding to statherin and contained the novel fimP gene. Thus, A. viscosus and A. naeslundii display structurally variant fimP genes whose protein products are likely to interact with different peptide motifs and to determine animal host tropism. PMID:10225854

  5. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described.

  6. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...... chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured......, and saliva samples were collected at days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 24. Salivary cytokines were detected with Luminex®-xMAP™. Salivary IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and VEGF levels decreased after 10 days' development of experimental gingivitis and reached baseline levels at the end of the 2-week resolution period. Salivary IL-8...

  7. PRB1, PRB2, and PRB4 coded polymorphisms among human salivary concanavalin-A binding, II-1, and Po proline-rich proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azen, E.A.; Amberger, E.; Niece, R.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Six closely linked PRP (proline-rich protein) genes code for many salivary PRPs that show frequent length and null variants. From determined protein sequences and DNA sequence analysis of variant alleles, we here report the coding and molecular basis for Con (concanavalin A-binding) and Po (parotid {open_quotes}o{close_quotes}) protein polymorphisms. The Con1 glycoprotein is encoded in exon 3 of a PRB2 allele (PRB2L CON1+) with a potential N-linked glycosylation site. Because of a probable gene conversion encompassing {ge}684 bp of DNA, the {open_quotes}PRB2-like{close_quotes} Con2 glycoprotein is encoded in exon 3 of a PRB1 allele (PRB1M CON2+) with a potential glycosylation site. The PmF protein is also encoded in the PRB1M CON2+ allele, thus explaining the previously reported association between Con2 and PmF proteins. A PRB2L CON1-allele contains a single nt missense change [TCT(Ser){yields}CCT(Pro)] that abolishes the potential N-linked glycosylation site (NKS{yields}NKP) in the Con1 protein, and this explains the Con-type. The Po protein and a glycoprotein (II-1) are encoded in the PRB4 gene, and both proteins are absent in the presence of a mutation in the PRB4M PO- allele that contains a single nt change (G{yields}C) at the +1 invariant position of the intron 3 5{prime} donor splice site. The genetically determined absence of the II-1 glycoprotein leads to altered in vitro binding of Streptococcus sanguis 10556 to salivary proteins, which suggests a biological consequence for null mutations of the PRB4 gene. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea: A Systematic Review Sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen; Aframian, Doron; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Proctor, Gordon; Narayana, Nagamani; Villa, Alessandro; Sia, Ying Wai; Aliko, Ardita; McGowan, Richard; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan; Dawes, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist. Our objective was to compile a list of medications affecting salivary gland function and inducing xerostomia or subjective sialorrhea. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published until June 2013. Of 3867 screened records, 269 had an acceptable degree of relevance, quality of methodology, and strength of evidence. We found 56 chemical substances with a higher level of evidence and 50 with a moderate level of evidence of causing the above-mentioned disorders. At the first level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, 9 of 14 anatomical groups were represented, mainly the alimentary, cardiovascular, genitourinary, nervous, and respiratory systems. Management strategies include substitution or discontinuation of medications whenever possible, oral or systemic therapy with sialogogues, administration of saliva substitutes, and use of electro-stimulating devices. While xerostomia was a commonly reported outcome, objectively measured salivary flow rate was rarely reported. Moreover, xerostomia was mostly assessed as an adverse effect rather than the primary outcome of medication use. This study may not include some medications that could cause xerostomia when administered in conjunction with others or for which xerostomia as an adverse reaction has not been reported in the literature or was not detected in our search. We compiled a comprehensive list of medications with documented effects on salivary gland function or symptoms that may assist practitioners in assessing patients who complain of dry mouth while taking medications. The list may also prove useful in helping practitioners anticipate adverse effects and consider alternative medications.

  9. Helicoverpa zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly induce defenses in tomato by triggering a salivary elicitor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Peiffer, Michelle; Hoover, Kelli; Rosa, Cristina; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2017-05-01

    Insect gut-associated microbes modulating plant defenses have been observed in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, but the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in regulating plant induced defenses has not been adequately examined. We identified bacteria from the regurgitant of field-collected Helicoverpa zea larvae using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A combination of biochemical, molecular, and confocal electron microscopy methods were used to determine the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in mediating defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Laboratory-reared H. zea inoculated with one of the bacteria identified in field-collected H. zea, Enterobacter ludwigii, induced expression of the tomato defense-related enzyme polyphenol oxidase and genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA), whereas the salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related gene was suppressed. Additionally, saliva and its main component glucose oxidase from inoculated caterpillars played an important role in elevating tomato anti-herbivore defenses. However, there were only low detectable amounts of regurgitant or bacteria on H. zea-damaged tomato leaves. Our results suggest that H. zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly mediate plant-insect interactions by triggering salivary elicitors. These findings provide a proof of concept that introducing gut bacteria to a herbivore may provide a novel approach to pest management through indirect induction of plant resistance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Taste of a pill: organic cation transporter-3 (OCT3) mediates metformin accumulation and secretion in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nora; Duan, Haichuan; Hebert, Mary F; Liang, C Jason; Rice, Kenneth M; Wang, Joanne

    2014-09-26

    Drug-induced taste disturbance is a common adverse drug reaction often triggered by drug secretion into saliva. Very little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying salivary gland transport of xenobiotics, and most drugs are assumed to enter saliva by passive diffusion. In this study, we demonstrate that salivary glands selectively and highly express OCT3 (organic cation transporter-3), a polyspecific drug transporter in the solute carrier 22 family. OCT3 protein is localized at both basolateral (blood-facing) and apical (saliva-facing) membranes of salivary gland acinar cells, suggesting a dual role of this transporter in mediating both epithelial uptake and efflux of organic cations in the secretory cells of salivary glands. Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug known to induce taste disturbance, is transported by OCT3/Oct3 in vitro. In vivo, metformin was actively transported with a high level of accumulation in the salivary glands of wild-type mice. In contrast, active uptake and accumulation of metformin in salivary glands were abolished in Oct3(-/-) mice. Oct3(-/-) mice also showed altered metformin pharmacokinetics and reduced drug exposure in the heart. These results demonstrate that OCT3 is responsible for metformin accumulation and secretion in salivary glands. Our study uncovered a novel carrier-mediated pathway for drug entry into saliva and sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced taste disorders. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. High expression of Polycomb group protein EZH2 predicts poor survival in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vékony, H.; Raaphorst, F.M.; Otte, A.P.; van Lohuizen, M.; Leemans, C.R.; van der Waal, I.; Bloemena, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a malignant salivary gland tumour, depends on clinicopathological parameters. To decipher the biological behaviour of ACC, and to identify patients at risk of developing metastases, additional markers are needed. Methods: Expression of the

  12. Salivary and serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of periodontitis in United States veterans with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, RS; Kerr, GS; Payne, JB; Mikuls, TR; Huang, J; Sayles, HR; Becker, KL; Nylén, ES

    2016-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) is elevated in response to bacterial infections, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a nonspecific inflammatory marker that is increased by excess adipose tissue. We examined the efficacy of ProCT and hsCRP as biomarkers of periodontitis in the saliva and serum of patients with arthritis, which is characterized by variable levels of systemic inflammation that potentially can confound the interpretation of inflammatory biomarkers. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 50 with osteoarthritis (OA). Periodontal status was assessed by full mouth examination and patients were categorized as having no/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis by standard parameters. Salivary and serum ProCT and hsCRP concentrations were compared. BMI, diabetes, anti-inflammatory medications and smoking status were ascertained from the patient records. Differences between OA and RA in proportionate numbers of patients were compared for race, gender, diabetes, adiposity and smoking status. Serum ProCT was significantly higher in arthritis patients with moderate to severe and severe periodontitis compared with no/mild periodontitis patients. There were no significant differences in salivary ProCT or salivary or serum hsCRP in RA patients related to periodontitis category. Most of the OA and RA patients were middle aged or older, 28.9% were diabetic, 78.3% were overweight or obese, and slightly more than half were either current or past smokers. The OA and RA groups differed by race, but not gender; blacks and males were predominant in both groups. The OA and RA groups did not differ in terms of controlled or uncontrolled diabetes, smoking status or BMI. The RA patients had been prescribed more anti-inflammatory medication than the OA patients. Our results demonstrate that circulating ProCT is a more discriminative biomarker for periodontitis than serum hsCRP in patients with

  13. Stem cells and the repair of radiation-induced salivary gland damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, R. P.; Stokman, M. A.

    Hyposalivation underlying xerostomia after radiotherapy is still a major problem in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Stem cell therapy may provide a means to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation and improve the quality of life of patients. This review discusses the current status in

  14. The role of pilocarpine in the reduction of radiation induced damage to the salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burlage, Fred Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Regarding late morbidity, hyposalivation is one of the most frequently reported radiation-induced side effects which has a negative impact on health-related quality of life [1;2]. Besides the subjective sensation of a dry mouth (xerostomia), saliva also plays a major role in speech, taste

  15. Glycoinositolphospholipids from Trypanosomatids Subvert Nitric Oxide Production in Rhodnius prolixus Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Silva-Cardoso, Lívia; Senna, Raquel; Silveira, Alan Barbosa; Jablonka, Willy; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Machado, Ednildo Alcantara; Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Nussenzveig, Roberto Henrique; Folly, Evelize; Romeiro, Alexandre; Vanbeselaere, Jorick; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Previato, José Osvaldo; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Atella, Georgia Correa; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-sucking bug vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. T. cruzi is transmitted by vector feces deposited close to the wound produced by insect mouthparts, whereas T. rangeli invades salivary glands and is inoculated into the host skin. Bug saliva contains a set of nitric oxide-binding proteins, called nitrophorins, which deliver NO to host vessels and ensure vasodilation and blood feeding. NO is generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) present in the epithelium of bug salivary glands. Thus, T. rangeli is in close contact with NO while in the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show by immunohistochemical, biochemical and molecular techniques that inositolphosphate-containing glycolipids from trypanosomatids downregulate NO synthesis in the salivary glands of R. prolixus. Injecting insects with T. rangeli-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tr GIPL) or T. cruzi-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tc GIPL) specifically decreased NO production. Salivary gland treatment with Tc GIPL blocks NO production without greatly affecting NOS mRNA levels. NOS protein is virtually absent from either Tr GIPL- or Tc GIPL-treated salivary glands. Evaluation of NO synthesis by using a fluorescent NO probe showed that T. rangeli-infected or Tc GIPL-treated glands do not show extensive labeling. The same effect is readily obtained by treatment of salivary glands with the classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (SO). This suggests that parasite GIPLs induce the inhibition of a salivary gland PTP. GIPLs specifically suppressed NO production and did not affect other anti-hemostatic properties of saliva, such as the anti-clotting and anti-platelet activities. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these data suggest that trypanosomatids have overcome NO generation using their surface GIPLs. Therefore, these molecules ensure parasite survival and may ultimately enhance parasite transmission

  16. Growth Arrest-Specific 6 Protein in Patients with Sjögren Syndrome: Determination of the Plasma Level and Expression in the Labial Salivary Gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 is a vitamin K-dependent protein expressed by endothelial cells and leukocytes that are involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation in response to inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of Gas6 in Sjögren syndrome (SS and its expression in the labial salivary gland.A total of 254 adults, including 159 with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS, 34 with secondary Sjögren syndrome (sSS, and 61 normal controls, were recruited. Plasma Gas6 concentrations were determined, and Gas6 expressions in labial salivary gland (LSG tissues from controls and pSS and sSS patients were also evaluated. Plasma Gas6 concentrations were significantly lower among patients with pSS than normal controls (13.5 ± 8.6 vs. 19.9 ± 13.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001. There were, however, no significant differences in plasma Gas6 levels between pSS and sSS patients (13.5 ± 8.6 vs. 16.9 ± 11.2 ng/ml, p = 0.068. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, platelet count, lymphocyte count, and C3 and C4 levels, lower plasma Gas6 concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of SS. Moreover, by using a semi-quantitative scale to evaluate Gas6 expression in LSG tissues, Gas6 expression was found to be markedly lower in LSG tissues from pSS patients than in tissues from normal controls.Decreased plasma Gas6 concentration and LSG expression were associated with pSS. As such, Gas6 may represent a novel independent risk factor for pSS, with a potential role in salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction.

  17. Salivary exoglycosidases in the detection of early onset of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Anna; Szulimowska, Julita; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Knaś, Małgorzata

    2013-12-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of making use of the specific activity of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes and β-glucuronidase--potential indicators of salivary gland damage--in the detection of early onset of salivary gland impairment in RA, which is also demonstrated by xerostomia. For this purpose RA xerostomic salivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) were compared with RA xerostomic hyposalivary patients (unstimulated salivary flow ≤0.1 mL/min), RA patients without xerostomia (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min) and generally healthy controls (unstimulated salivary flow >0.1 mL/min, without xerostomia). Salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzymes A and B, and β-glucuronidase specific activity were determined according to the Marciniak et al. method. The protein content in the unstimulated saliva was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method. In xerostomic rheumatoid arthritis patients, the specific activity of salivary β-glucuronidase and isoenzyme A was significantly higher than in the healthy controls but the specific activity of salivary N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, its isoenzyme B and β-glucuronidase was significantly lower than in xerostomic hyposalivary rheumatoid arthritis patients. We suggest a simple, safe and cheap method for the determination of exoglycosidases as a useful tool for the diagnosis of early stages of salivary gland involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Epithelial disruptions, but not immune cell invasion, induced secretory dysfunction following innate immune activation in a novel model of acute salivary gland injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Abeer; Carpenter, Guy; Proctor, Gordon

    2017-11-21

    Salivary gland (SG) injurious agents are all translated into loss of salivation (xerostomia). An association has been established between activation of innate immunity and salivary gland injury and dysfunction. However, it remains unclear how the secretory epithelia respond by halting saliva production. C57BL/6 submandibular glands (SMGs) were acutely challenged using a single dose of the innate immune stimulant: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)). Secretory capacity of the infected SMGs was substantiated by assessing the flow rate in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Depletion of the acute inflammatory cells was achieved by pre-treating mice with RB6-8C5 depletion antibody. Flow cytometry, histology and immunohistochemistry were conducted to verify the immune cell depletion. Epithelial expression of saliva-driving molecules: muscarinic 3 receptor (M3R), aquaporin 5 water channel (AQP5), Na-K- CL-Cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A), were characterized using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Tight junction (TJ) protein; zonula occludens (ZO-1) and basement membrane (BM) protein; laminin were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Innate immune challenge prompted dysfunction in the exocrine salivary glands (SGs). Dysregulated gene and protein expression of molecules that drive saliva secretion was substantiated. Aberrant expression of TJ and BM proteins followed innate immune activation. Hyposalivation in the current model was independent of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive, acute inflammatory cells. In the present study, we developed a novel injury model of the SGs, featuring acute secretory dysfunction and immediate structural disruptions. Our results ruled out the injurious role of aggressively infiltrating inflammatory cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary pellicles on titanium and their effect on metabolic activity in Streptococcus oralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Titanium implants in the oral cavity are covered with a saliva-derived pellicle to which early colonizing microorganisms such as Streptococcus oralis can bind. The protein profiles of salivary pellicles on titanium have not been well characterized and the proteins of importance for binding are thus unknown. Biofilm bacteria exhibit different phenotypes from their planktonic counterparts and contact with salivary proteins may be one factor contributing to the induction of changes in physiology. We have characterized salivary pellicles from titanium surfaces and investigated how contact with uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces affects metabolic activity in adherent cells of S. oralis. Methods Salivary pellicles on smooth titanium surfaces were desorbed and these, as well as purified human saliva, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. A parallel plate flow-cell model was used to study binding of a fresh isolate of S. oralis to uncoated and saliva-coated titanium surfaces. Metabolic activity was assessed using the BacLight CTC Vitality Kit and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results analyzed using Student’s t-test or ANOVA. Results Secretory IgA, α-amylase and cystatins were identified as dominant proteins in the salivary pellicles. Selective adsorption of proteins was demonstrated by the enrichment of prolactin-inducible protein and absence of zinc-α2-glycoprotein relative to saliva. Adherence of S. oralis to titanium led to an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the population after 2 hours. In the presence of a salivary pellicle, this effect was enhanced and sustained over the following 22 hour period. Conclusions We have shown that adherence to smooth titanium surfaces under flow causes an up-regulation of metabolic activity in the early oral colonizer S. oralis, most likely as part of an adaptation to the biofilm mode of life. The effect was

  20. Impaired mitochondria and intracellular calcium transients in the salivary glands of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Tanajak, Pongpan; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes not only obese-insulin resistance, but is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs. However, the effect of obese-insulin resistance on salivary glands has not been investigated. We hypothesized that obese-insulin resistance induced by HFD impaired salivary gland function by reducing salivation, increasing inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as impairing mitochondrial function and calcium transient signaling. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a ND or an HFD (n = 8/group) for 16 weeks. At the end of week 16, salivary flow rates, metabolic parameters, and plasma oxidative stress were determined. Rats were then sacrificed and submandibular glands were removed to determine inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and dynamics, and intracellular calcium transient signaling. Long-term consumption of an HFD caused obese-insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the salivary glands. In addition, impaired mitochondrial function, as indicated by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and mitochondrial swelling in salivary glands and impaired intracellular calcium regulation, as indicated by a reduced intracellular calcium transient rising rate, decay rates, and amplitude of salivary acinar cells, were observed in HFD-fed rats. However, salivary flow rate and level of aquaporin 5 protein were not different between both groups. Although HFD consumption did not affect salivation, it caused obese-insulin resistance, leading to pathophysiological alteration of salivary glands, including impaired intracellular calcium transients, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and salivary mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  2. Variation in the salivary proteomes of differentially virulent greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Scott J; Puterka, Gary J

    2014-06-13

    Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) biotypes are classified by their differential virulence to wheat, barley, and sorghum varieties possessing greenbug resistance genes. Virulent greenbug biotypes exert phytotoxic effects upon their hosts during feeding, directly inducing physiological and metabolic alterations and accompanying foliar damage. Comparative analyses of the salivary proteomes of four differentially virulent greenbug biotypes C, E, G, and H showed significant proteomic divergence between biotypes. Thirty-two proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS; the most prevalent of which were three glucose dehydrogenase paralogs (GDH), lipophorin, complementary sex determiner, three proteins of unknown function, carbonic anhydrase, fibroblast growth factor receptor, and abnormal oocyte (ABO). Seven nucleotide-binding proteins were identified, including ABO which is involved in mRNA splicing. Quantitative variation among greenbug biotypes was detected in six proteins; two GDH paralogs, carbonic anhydrase, ABO, and two proteins of unknown function. Our findings reveal that the greenbug salivary proteome differs according to biotype and diverges substantially from those reported for other aphids. The proteomic profiles of greenbug biotypes suggest that interactions between aphid salivary proteins and the plant host result in suppression of plant defenses and cellular transport, and may manipulate transcriptional regulation in the plant host, ultimately allowing the aphid to maintain phloem ingestion. Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani, GB) is a major phytotoxic aphid pest of wheat, sorghum, and barley. Unlike non-phytotoxic aphids, GB directly damages its host, causing uniformly characteristic symptoms leading to host death. As saliva is the primary interface between the aphid and its plant host, saliva is also the primary aphid biotypic determinant, and differences in biotypic virulence are the result of biotypic variations in salivary content. This study analyzed

  3. Isolation and characterization of human salivary gland cells for stem cell transplantation to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Jielin; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A.; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P.

    Background: Recently, we showed that transplantation of 100-300 c-Kit(+) stem cells isolated from cultured salispheres ameliorates radiation-damage in murine salivary glands. The aim of this study is to optimize and translate these findings from mice to man. Methods: Mouse and human non-malignant

  4. Griseofulvin-induced aggregation of microtubule protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobol, A; Gull, K; Pogson, C I

    1977-01-01

    Griseofulvin (7-chloro-2',4,6-trimethoxy-6'-methylspiro[benzofuran-2(3H),1'-[2]cyclohexene]-3,4'-dione) induces aggregation of microtubule protein at 0 degrees C. This aggregate contains approx. 90% of the microtubule-associated proteins originally present in the microtubule protein. The supernatant obtained after removal of the griseofulvin-induced aggregate does not form microtubules on warming at 37 degrees C. Addition of the griseofulvin-aggregated protein to this supernatant and warming to 37 degrees C gives rise to a limited amount of microtubule assembly. The possible involvement of griseofulvin-induced aggregation of microtubule protein at 0 degrees C in the inhibition by griseofulvin of microtubule assembly in vitro is discussed. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:588267

  5. Humoral response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6: a serological indicator of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rizzo

    Full Text Available Salivary proteins injected by blood feeding arthropods into their hosts evoke a saliva-specific humoral response which can be useful to evaluate exposure to bites of disease vectors. However, saliva of hematophagous arthropods is a complex cocktail of bioactive factors and its use in immunoassays can be misleading because of potential cross-reactivity to other antigens. Toward the development of a serological marker of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors we expressed the Anopheles gambiae gSG6, a small anopheline-specific salivary protein, and we measured the anti-gSG6 IgG response in individuals from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The gSG6 protein was immunogenic and anti-gSG6 IgG levels and/or prevalence increased in exposed individuals during the malaria transmission/rainy season. Moreover, this response dropped during the intervening low transmission/dry season, suggesting it is sensitive enough to detect variation in vector density. Members of the Fulani ethnic group showed higher anti-gSG6 IgG response as compared to Mossi, a result consistent with the stronger immune reactivity reported in this group. Remarkably, anti-gSG6 IgG levels among responders were high in children and gradually declined with age. This unusual pattern, opposite to the one observed with Plasmodium antigens, is compatible with a progressive desensitization to mosquito saliva and may be linked to the continued exposure to bites of anopheline mosquitoes. Overall, the humoral anti-gSG6 IgG response appears a reliable serological indicator of exposure to bites of the main African malaria vectors (An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and, possibly, Anopheles funestus and it may be exploited for malaria epidemiological studies, development of risk maps and evaluation of anti-vector measures. In addition, the gSG6 protein may represent a powerful model system to get a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  7. Vaccine-induced rabies in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes): isolation of vaccine virus in brain tissue and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostnik, Peter; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Rihtarič, Danijela; Toplak, Ivan; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-04-01

    Oral vaccination campaigns to eliminate fox rabies were initiated in Slovenia in 1995. In May 2012, a young fox (Vulpes vulpes) with typical rabies signs was captured. Its brain and salivary gland tissues were found to contain vaccine strain SAD B19. The Basic Logical Alignment Search Tool alignment of 589 nucleotides determined from the N gene of the virus isolated from the brain and salivary glands of the affected fox was 100% identical to the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain. Sequence analysis of the N and M genes (4,351 nucleotides) showed two nucleotide modifications at position 1335 (N gene) and 3114 (M gene) in the KC522613 isolate identified in the fox compared to SAD B19.

  8. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-Chou; Lin, Yen-Ju; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chang, Chia-Chi; Yang, Li-King

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD) patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear. We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49) or control (n=50) group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes. The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (-2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, Pstress score scales (r=0.231, P0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs 63.6%, Pmusic during HD is an effective complementary therapy to relieve the frequency and severity of adverse reactions, as well as to lower salivary cortisol levels. Differences in salivary cortisol after music therapy may predict cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance HD.

  9. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, S.T.G.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Terlouw, B.; Brouwer, M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Wouters, D.

    2015-01-01

    After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi,

  10. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, Sabrina T. G.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; Terlouw, Bas; Brouwer, Mieke; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Wouters, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses

  11. Relaxation – Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation via a Body Monochord and via Relaxation Music – Is Associated with a Decrease in Tonic Electrodermal Activity and an Increase of the Salivary Cortisol Level in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Hubertus; Fendel, Uta; Buße, Petra; Rose, Matthias; Bösel, Rainer; Klapp, Burghard F.

    2017-01-01

    Vibroacoustic stimulation by a Body Monochord can induce relaxation states of various emotional valence. The skin conductance level (SCL) of the tonic electrodermal activity is an indicator of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system and thus an indicator of the relaxation response. Salivary cortisol is considered to be a stress indicator of the HPA-axis. The effects of the treatment with a Body Monochord and listening to relaxation music (randomized chronological presentation) on SCL and salivary cortisol in relation to the emotional valence of the experience were examined in patients with psychosomatic disorders (N = 42). Salivary cortisol samples were collected immediately before and after the expositions. Subjective experience was measured via self-rating scales. Overall, both the exposure to the Body Monochord as well as the exposure to the relaxation music induced an improvement of patients’ mood and caused a highly significant reduction of SCL. A more emotionally positive experience of relaxation correlated with a slightly stronger reduction of the SCL. Both treatment conditions caused a slight increase in salivary cortisol, which was significant after exposure to the first treatment. The increase of salivary cortisol during a relaxation state is contrary to previous findings. It is possible that the relaxation state was experienced as an emotional challenge, due to inner images and uncommon sensations that might have occurred. PMID:28114399

  12. Relaxation - Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation via a Body Monochord and via Relaxation Music - Is Associated with a Decrease in Tonic Electrodermal Activity and an Increase of the Salivary Cortisol Level in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Hubertus; Fendel, Uta; Buße, Petra; Rose, Matthias; Bösel, Rainer; Klapp, Burghard F

    2017-01-01

    Vibroacoustic stimulation by a Body Monochord can induce relaxation states of various emotional valence. The skin conductance level (SCL) of the tonic electrodermal activity is an indicator of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system and thus an indicator of the relaxation response. Salivary cortisol is considered to be a stress indicator of the HPA-axis. The effects of the treatment with a Body Monochord and listening to relaxation music (randomized chronological presentation) on SCL and salivary cortisol in relation to the emotional valence of the experience were examined in patients with psychosomatic disorders (N = 42). Salivary cortisol samples were collected immediately before and after the expositions. Subjective experience was measured via self-rating scales. Overall, both the exposure to the Body Monochord as well as the exposure to the relaxation music induced an improvement of patients' mood and caused a highly significant reduction of SCL. A more emotionally positive experience of relaxation correlated with a slightly stronger reduction of the SCL. Both treatment conditions caused a slight increase in salivary cortisol, which was significant after exposure to the first treatment. The increase of salivary cortisol during a relaxation state is contrary to previous findings. It is possible that the relaxation state was experienced as an emotional challenge, due to inner images and uncommon sensations that might have occurred.

  13. Relaxation - Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation via a Body Monochord and via Relaxation Music - Is Associated with a Decrease in Tonic Electrodermal Activity and an Increase of the Salivary Cortisol Level in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Sandler

    Full Text Available Vibroacoustic stimulation by a Body Monochord can induce relaxation states of various emotional valence. The skin conductance level (SCL of the tonic electrodermal activity is an indicator of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system and thus an indicator of the relaxation response. Salivary cortisol is considered to be a stress indicator of the HPA-axis. The effects of the treatment with a Body Monochord and listening to relaxation music (randomized chronological presentation on SCL and salivary cortisol in relation to the emotional valence of the experience were examined in patients with psychosomatic disorders (N = 42. Salivary cortisol samples were collected immediately before and after the expositions. Subjective experience was measured via self-rating scales. Overall, both the exposure to the Body Monochord as well as the exposure to the relaxation music induced an improvement of patients' mood and caused a highly significant reduction of SCL. A more emotionally positive experience of relaxation correlated with a slightly stronger reduction of the SCL. Both treatment conditions caused a slight increase in salivary cortisol, which was significant after exposure to the first treatment. The increase of salivary cortisol during a relaxation state is contrary to previous findings. It is possible that the relaxation state was experienced as an emotional challenge, due to inner images and uncommon sensations that might have occurred.

  14. Functional analyses yield detailed insight into the mechanism of thrombin inhibition by the antihemostatic salivary protein cE5 from Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Luciano; Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Leone, Marilisa; Ronca, Raffaele; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Andersen, John F; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Arcà, Bruno; Pedone, Emilia

    2017-07-28

    Saliva of blood-feeding arthropods carries several antihemostatic compounds whose physiological role is to facilitate successful acquisition of blood. The identification of novel natural anticoagulants and the understanding of their mechanism of action may offer opportunities for designing new antithrombotics disrupting blood clotting. We report here an in-depth structural and functional analysis of the anophelin family member cE5, a salivary protein from the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae that specifically, tightly, and quickly binds and inhibits thrombin. Using calorimetry, functional assays, and complementary structural techniques, we show that the central region of the protein, encompassing amino acids Asp-31-Arg-62, is the region mainly responsible for α-thrombin binding and inhibition. As previously reported for the Anopheles albimanus orthologue anophelin, cE5 binds both thrombin exosite I with segment Glu-35-Asp-47 and the catalytic site with the region Pro-49-Arg-56, which includes the highly conserved DPGR tetrapeptide. Moreover, the N-terminal Ala-1-Ser-30 region of cE5 (which includes an RGD tripeptide) and the additional C-terminal serine-rich Asn-63-Glu-82 region (absent in orthologues from anophelines of the New World species A. albimanus and Anopheles darlingi) also played some functionally relevant role. Indeed, we observed decreased thrombin binding and inhibitory properties even when using the central cE5 fragment (Asp-31-Arg-62) alone. In summary, these results shed additional light on the mechanism of thrombin binding and inhibition by this family of salivary anticoagulants from anopheline mosquitoes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou YC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Chou Hou,1 Yen-Ju Lin,2 Kuo-Cheng Lu,1 Han-Sun Chiang,3 Chia-Chi Chang,4 Li-King Yang1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, 2Department of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, 3Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, 4School of Gerontology Health Management, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear.Methods: We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49 or control (n=50 group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes.Results: The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (−2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, P<0.05, as well as the frequency of the adverse reaction score (−3.35±5.76 vs −0.81±4.59, P<0.05, the severity of adverse reactions score (−1.93±2.73 vs 0.33±2.71, P<0.05, and hemodialysis stressor scale (HSS score (−6.00±4.68 vs −0.877±7.08, P<0.05. The difference in salivary cortisol correlated positively with HD stress score scales (r=0.231, P<0.05, systolic blood pressure (r=0.264, P<0.05, and respiratory rates (r=0.369, P<0.05 and negatively with finger temperature (r=−0.235, P<0.05 in the total study population. The 5-year cardiovascular survival in the experimental group was higher in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by <0.6 pg/mL than that in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by >0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs

  16. Cell-Specific Cre Strains For Genetic Manipulation in Salivary Glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri O Maruyama

    Full Text Available The secretory acinar cells of the salivary gland are essential for saliva secretion, but are also the cell type preferentially lost following radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. The source of replacement acinar cells is currently a matter of debate. There is evidence for the presence of adult stem cells located within specific ductal regions of the salivary glands, but our laboratory recently demonstrated that differentiated acinar cells are maintained without significant stem cell contribution. To enable further investigation of salivary gland cell lineages and their origins, we generated three cell-specific Cre driver mouse strains. For genetic manipulation in acinar cells, an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER was targeted to the prolactin-induced protein (Pip gene locus. Targeting of the Dcpp1 gene, encoding demilune cell and parotid protein, labels intercalated duct cells, a putative site of salivary gland stem cells, and serous demilune cells of the sublingual gland. Duct cell-specific Cre expression was attempted by targeting the inducible Cre to the Tcfcp2l1 gene locus. Using the R26Tomato Red reporter mouse, we demonstrate that these strains direct inducible, cell-specific expression. Genetic tracing of acinar cells using PipGCE supports the recent finding that differentiated acinar cells clonally expand. Moreover, tracing of intercalated duct cells expressing DcppGCE confirms evidence of duct cell proliferation, but further analysis is required to establish that renewal of secretory acinar cells is dependent on stem cells within these ducts.

  17. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  18. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001040.htm Salivary gland tumors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland ...

  19. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  20. Anti-Ro and anti-La autoantibodies induce TNF-α production by human salivary gland cells: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mitolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo: Lo scopo di questo studio è stato valutare la produzione di TNF-α, induttore della via estrinseca del processo apoptotico, in seguito al trattamento con gli autoanticorpi anti-Ro ed anti-La isolati da pazienti con sindrome di Sjögren primaria in un modello sperimentale rappresentato dalla linea cellulare di ghiandole salivari umane, A- 253. È stata, inoltre, valutata la presenza sulla superficie di tali cellule di recettori specifici per tale induttore, TNFR1 e TNFR2. Materiali e metodi: Gli autoanticorpi anti-La ed anti-Ro sono stati purificati su una colonna cromatografia ad alta affinità. Le metodiche utilizzate per la valutazione della produzione di TNF-α e lo studio dei recettori di superficie sono state immunofluorescenza, RT-PCR e saggi immunoenzimatici. Risultati: I nostri risultati hanno dimostrato che le cellule A-253 esprimono in superficie i recettori TNFR1 e TNFR2 e che gli autoanticorpi anti-Ro e anti-La sono in grado di indurre la produzione di TNF-α nelle stesse cellule. Conclusioni: Il trattamento con gli autoanticorpi anti-Ro ed anti-La induce la produzione di TNF-α in cellule di ghiandole salivari umane e questo potrebbe spiegare la attivazione della via estrinseca della apoptosi.

  1. Critical difference applied to exercise-induced salivary testosterone and cortisol using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): distinguishing biological from statistical change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Young, John D; Baker, Julien S; Grace, Fergal M

    2014-12-01

    Due to its noninvasive, convenient, and practical nature, salivary testosterone (sal-T) and cortisol (sal-C) are frequently used in a clinical and applied setting. However, few studies report biological and analytical error and even fewer report the 'critical difference' which is the change required before a true biological difference can be claimed. It was hypothesized that (a) exercise would result in a statistically significant change in sal-C and sal-T and (b) the exercise-induced change would be within the critical difference for both salivary hormones. In study 1, we calculated the critical difference of sal-T and sal-C of 18 healthy adult males aged 23.2 ± 3.0 years every 60 min in a seated position over a 12-h period (08:00-20:00 hours [study 1]). As proof-of-concept, sal-C and sal-T was also obtained pre and at 5 and 60 min post a maximal exercise protocols in a separate group of 17 healthy males (aged 20.1 ± 2.8 years [study 2]). The critical difference of sal-T calculated as 90 %. For sal-C, the critical difference was 148 % (study 1). Maximal exercise was associated with a statistically significant (p significant mean change can be claimed. Studies utilizing sal-T and sal-C should appreciate the critical difference of these measures and assess the biological significance of any statistical changes.

  2. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your salivary glands are in your mouth. You have three pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of small (minor) glands. They make ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause them to become irritated and swollen. ...

  3. Systemic transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of irradiation-induced salivary gland damage.

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    Jae-Yol Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cell-based therapy has been reported to repair or restore damaged salivary gland (SG tissue after irradiation. This study was aimed at determining whether systemic administration of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs can ameliorate radiation-induced SG damage. METHODS: hAdMSCs (1 × 10(6 were administered through a tail vein of C3H mice immediately after local irradiation, and then this infusion was repeated once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional evaluations were conducted by measuring salivary flow rates (SFRs and salivation lag times, and histopathologic and immunofluorescence histochemistry studies were performed to assay microstructural changes, apoptosis, and proliferation indices. The engraftment and in vivo differentiation of infused hAdMSCs were also investigated, and the transdifferentiation of hAdMSCs into amylase-producing SG epithelial cells (SGCs was observed in vitro using a co-culture system. RESULTS: The systemic administration of hAdMSCs exhibited improved SFRs at 12 weeks after irradiation. hAdMSC-transplanted SGs showed fewer damaged and atrophied acinar cells and higher mucin and amylase production levels than untreated irradiated SGs. Immunofluorescence TUNEL assays revealed fewer apoptotic cells in the hAdMSC group than in the untreated group. Infused hAdMSCs were detected in transplanted SGs at 4 weeks after irradiation and some cells were found to have differentiated into SGCs. In vitro, a low number of co-cultured hAdMSCs (13%-18% were observed to transdifferentiate into SGCs. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that hAdMSCs have the potential to protect against irradiation-induced cell loss and to transdifferentiate into SGCs, and suggest that hAdMSC administration should be viewed as a candidate therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced SG damage.

  4. Evaluation of salivary oxidate stress biomarkers, nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in patients with oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Aznar-Cayuela, Cristina; Rubio, Camila P; Ceron, José J; López-Jornet, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress factors and C-reactive protein in the saliva of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This consecutive, cross-sectional study included 20 patients with OLP, 19 with burning mouth syndrome (BMS), and 31 control subjects. The oral cavity of each patient was examined and patients responded to a quality of life questionnaire (OHIP-14) and the xerostomia inventory. The following parameters were measured in whole non-stimulated saliva: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); total antioxidant capacity (TAC); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC); ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); C-reactive protein (CRP); nitric oxide; nitrates; and nitrites. The OLP group presented statistically significant differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) (29 600 cps) in comparison with the control group (39 679 cps) (P < 0.05). In the BMS group, ROS was 29 707 cps with significant difference in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher salivary nitric oxide (145.7 μmol) and nitrite (141.0 μmol) levels were found in OLP patients in comparison with control group (P < 0.05). Increases in nitric oxide and C-reactive protein were found in the saliva of OLP patients in comparison with BMS and control patients. Further studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Larval salivary glue protein heterosis and dosage compensation among the interspecific F1 hybrids of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans

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    Raghavan Prithi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocal cross effects with respect to larval salivary secretory protein levels were studied in the interspecific fertile reciprocal hybrids by crossing Drosophila nasuta nasuta, and Drosophila nasuta albomicans. These proteins are produced copiously during the third larval instar stage and are believed to play a role in the attachment of pupa to the substratum prior to pupariation as well as in insect immunity. Quantitative variations were encountered among the reciprocal hybrids. Significant heterosis was observed between D. n. nasuta and the F1 hybrid female of a cross between D. n. albomicans female and D. n. nasuta male (21.39% while the F1 hybrids of a cross between D. n. nasuta female and D. n. albomicans male showed a marginal increase (4.24% from the mid parent level. The glue secretions were correlated to total cell number but independent of gland size. SDS PAGE revealed a considerable heterosis with respect to X-linked protein fractions. Here we report sex specific biochemical heterosis. However the X-linked fractions undergo dosage compensation in both parents and hybrids indicating strict regulatory control.

  6. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

  7. An evaluation of the effect of acupuncture on salivary pH and the Xerostomia Inventory score innasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with chemoradiation-induced xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihardja, H.; Susworo, R.; Srilestari, A.; Umri, H.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is a distressing side-effect of radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment, commonly occurring in almost 100% of patients who undergo this procedure. It has been proposed that acupuncture can be used to treat radiation-induced xerostomia. To the best of our knowledge, the current study constitutes the first acupuncture research that has been conducted in Indonesia on xerostomia following chemo-irradiation in NPC patients. Twenty-five patients with xerostomia due tochemo-irradiation for NPC were divided randomly into three groups of auriculopuncture (group A), body acupuncture (group B), and combination acupuncture (group C). The subjects were evaluated according to Xerostomia Inventory scores before and after six and 12 acupuncture treatments. Salivary pH was determined before and after the 12th acupuncture treatment using a saliva check buffer kit. The success rate of acupuncture therapy in group A was 71-100%, 68-89% ingroup B, and 89-100% in group C (p > 0.050). The mean salivary pH increased after therapy from 6.18±0.60 to 6.83±4.48 in group A, from 6.16±0.54 to 6.67±2.26 in group B, and from 6.00±0.40 to 6.60±2.23 in group C (p > 0.050). After the 12th acupuncture therapy session, the mean Xerostomia Inventory score decreased from 35.70±5.14 prior to acupuncture therapy to 22.89±16.15 after it in group A, with corresponding decreases of 34.70±7.77 to 20.89±10.06 in group B, and of 36.70±5.25 to 21.44±8.97 in group C (p > 0.050). Auriculopuncture, body acupuncture, and combination acupuncture had the same effect of increasing salivary pH and decreasing the Xerostomia Inventory score in patients with xerostomia following chemo irradiation for NPC.

  8. Human antibody response to Lethocerus salivary antigens as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interestingly in addition to a few immunogenic salivary proteins (85, 64, 37 and 33 kDa bands), a 28 kDa protein derived from salivary glands homogenate of aquatic insects was able to bind to Mycobacterium ulcerans and to be recognized by IgG antibodies of healthy subjects in endemic areas. The antibody responses to ...

  9. Effect of low-level laser therapy on chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis and salivary inflammatory mediators in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oton-Leite, Angélica F; Silva, Geisa Badauy L; Morais, Marília O; Silva, Tarcília A; Leles, Cláudio R; Valadares, Marize Campos; Pinezi, Juliana Castro D; Batista, Aline C; Mendonça, Elismauro F

    2015-04-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is considered a painful and debilitating side effect in patients receiving head and neck cancer treatment. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) proved to be effective to prevent and treat chemoradiotherapy-induced OM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LLLT in the severity of OM in patients with head and neck cancer and on the release of salivary inflammatory mediators. Clinical (score of OM severity) and biochemical parameters (concentration of inflammatory mediators, growth factors, and enzymes in saliva) were used. Thirty patients were randomized into two groups: control and laser. LLLT was performed three times a week in the laser group, while control group received sham irradiation. OM severity was assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) scales. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β), growth factors (EGF, FGF, VEGF), and metalloproteinases (MMP2/TIMP2, MMP9/TIMP2) concentrations were assessed using ELISA test. Saliva samples were collected on admission, and at the 7th, 21st, and 35th sessions of radiotherapy. The laser group showed a reduction in the severity of OM, which coursed with significantly diminished salivary concentration of EGF and VEGF in the 7th radiotherapy session and of IL-6 and FGF in the 35th. There was a trend for reduced levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, TGF-β, MMP2/TIMP2, MMP9/TIMP2 in the laser group compared to the control, however, no statistically significant differences were found. These findings demonstrated that LLLT was effective in reducing the severity of chemoradiotherapy-induced OM and was associated with the reduction of inflammation and repair. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non

  11. Merging in-silico and in vitro salivary protein complex partners using the STRING database: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosara, Karla Tonelli Bicalho; Moffa, Eduardo Buozi; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter Luiz

    2018-01-16

    Protein-protein interaction is a common physiological mechanism for protection and actions of proteins in an organism. The identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions in different organisms is necessary to better understand their physiology and to determine their efficacy. In a previous in vitro study using mass spectrometry, we identified 43 proteins that interact with histatin 1. Six previously documented interactors were confirmed and 37 novel partners were identified. In this tutorial, we aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of the STRING database for studying protein-protein interactions. We used an in-silico approach along with the STRING database (http://string-db.org/) and successfully performed a fast simulation of a novel constructed histatin 1 protein-protein network, including both the previously known and the predicted interactors, along with our newly identified interactors. Our study highlights the advantages and importance of applying bioinformatics tools to merge in-silico tactics with experimental in vitro findings for rapid advancement of our knowledge about protein-protein interactions. Our findings also indicate that bioinformatics tools such as the STRING protein network database can help predict potential interactions between proteins and thus serve as a guide for future steps in our exploration of the Human Interactome. Our study highlights the usefulness of the STRING protein database for studying protein-protein interactions. The STRING database can collect and integrate data about known and predicted protein-protein associations from many organisms, including both direct (physical) and indirect (functional) interactions, in an easy-to-use interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunoglobulins specific to mosquito salivary gland proteins in the sera of persons with common or hypersensitive reactions to mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, E Z; Taniguchi, Y; Shimizu, M; Ando, K; Chinzei, Y; Suto, C; Ohtaki, T; Ohtaki, N

    1995-06-01

    Using the immunoblot technique, we analyzed the quality and quantity of IgG, IgG4, and IgE specific to mosquito salivary gland (hereafter abbreviate as SG) components of Aedes albopictus in the sera of volunteers with common reactions and of 3 patients with severe reactions. In the volunteers with delayed reactions only or with both delayed and immediate reactions, IgG against SG components of A. albopictus formed several faint or moderately stained bands. Those with immediate reactions showed several intense bands and many other weak bands. In volunteers, who had been bitten by Aedes sp. frequently but had no skin reaction, and in severe cases, many intense IgG bands were observed. IgG4 bound to SG components were found in the sera of the common reaction group at the levels of 24 and 48 kD, but, in one severe case, no bands were observed, although the total IgG was very high. IgE levels specific to SG components were much higher in severe cases than in the volunteers. These results indicate that high titers of specific IgG and IgE and lack of IgG4 for particular components of SG may lead to severe allergic reactions in severe cases. Immunoblotting analysis of the antibodies also verified the possibility of developing in vitro tests to identify causative species of the mosquito for severe cases.

  13. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...... chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured...... levels decreased and remained low during development and resolution of experimental gingivitis. Initial inflammation in gingival tissues is associated with a decrease in inflammatory cytokines in saliva. Further studies are needed to evaluate if inflammatory cytokines bind to their functional receptors...

  14. Kadar leptin saliva dan kejadian karies gigi anak obesitas (Salivary leptin levels and caries incidence in obese children

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    Elfrida Atzmaryanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with obesity have a lower incidence of caries. Salivary leptin levels of obese children is higher than normal children. Leptin is protein hormone, contained in saliva. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Purpose: The article was aimed to study the correlation of salivary leptin levels with caries incidence in obese children. Review: Mouth is reflection of the health status and so many changes occur as a weight gain. Child with obesity has a low incidence of caries than normal. This condition is associated with changes in oral cavity, especially the increase in salivary leptin. Caries is a disease of hard tissues cause by the activty of microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Leptin is a protein saliva, produced predominantly in adipose tissue and conduct active transport to saliva. Salivary leptin works in two ways: as an antimicrobial which prevents the attachment of bacteria on tooth surface or by inducing cytokine that affect the immune system in oral cavity. Conclusion: Salivary leptin is higher in obese children than in normal children. The low incidence of caries on obesity is associated with salivary leptin. Alteration in salivary composition and flow rate also decreased caries in obesity.Latar belakang: Anak yang mengalami obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah. Kadar leptin saliva anak obesitas lebih tinggi dari anak normal. Leptin merupakan salah satu protein hormon yang terdapat di saliva. Protein saliva berfungsi untuk menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem di mulut. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan antara kadar leptin di dalam saliva dengan kejadian karies anak obesitas. Tinjauan pustaka: Rongga mulut merupakan cerminan dari status kesehatan dan banyak perubahan yang terjadi seiring peningkatan berat badan seseorang. Anak Obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah jika dibandingkan

  15. Membrane Shape Instability Induced by Protein Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiming; Atefi, Ehsan; Baumgart, Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Peripheral proteins can bend membranes through several different mechanisms, including scaffolding, wedging, oligomerization, and crowding. The crowding effect in particular has received considerable attention recently, in part because it is a colligative mechanism-implying that it could, in principle, be explored by any peripheral protein. Here we sought to clarify to what extent this mechanism is exploited by endocytic accessory proteins. We quantitatively investigate membrane curvature generation by means of a GUV shape stability assay. We found that the amount of crowding required to induce membrane curvature is correlated with membrane tension. Importantly, we also revealed that at the same membrane tension, the crowding mechanism requires far higher protein coverage to induce curvature changes compared to those observed for the endophilin BAR domain, serving here as an example of an endocytic accessory protein. Our results are important for the design of membrane-targeted biosensors as well as the understanding of mechanisms of biological membrane shaping. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ghrelin Protects against the Detrimental Consequences of Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Akt Inactivation through S-Nitrosylation on Salivary Mucin Synthesis

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    Bronislaw L. Slomiany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in nitric oxide synthase isozyme system and the impairment in salivary mucin synthesis are well-recognized features associated with oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis. In this study, using rat sublingual gland acinar cells, we report that P. gingivalis LPS-induced impairment in mucin synthesis and associated suppression in Akt kinase activity were accompanied by a decrease in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS activity and an induction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. The LPS effect on Akt inactivation was manifested in the kinase S-nitrosylation and a decrease in its phosphorylation at Ser473. Further, we demonstrate that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced impairment in mucin synthesis. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the suppression of iNOS and the increase in Akt activation, associated with the loss in S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation, as well as cNOS activation through phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that induction in iNOS expression by P. gingivalis-LPS leads to Akt kinase inactivation through S-nitrosylation that detrimentally impacts cNOS activation through phosphorylation as well as mucin synthesis. We also show that the countering effect of ghrelin on P. gingivalis-induced impairment in mucin synthesis is associated with Akt activation through phosphorylation.

  17. Comparison of GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT4 and SGLT1 mRNA Expression in the Salivary Glands and Six Other Organs of Control, Streptozotocin-Induced and Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats

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    Cedric Jurysta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The expression and localization of several distinct glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT4, and SGLT1 was recently characterized in the parotid gland of normal rats by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The major aims of the present study was to compare the mRNA expression of these glucose transporters in both the parotid gland and submaxillary gland of control rats, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and hereditarily diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed in the parotid and submaxillary salivary glands and, for purpose of comparison, also in the heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and pancreas from control animals and either streptozotocin-treated or Goto-Kakizaki rats. Results: The expression of GLUT4, but not GLUT1 or SGLT1, mRNA was decreased in the diabetic rats. The results also allow comparing both the mRNA expression level of the four glucose transporters in salivary glands and six other organs, and the diabetes-induced changes in such an expression in distinct locations. Conclusion: The mRNA expression of the insulin-dependent GLUT4 transporter was the sole to be significantly decreased in the salivary glands of diabetic animals. The possible consequence of such a decrease in terms of the control of salivary glucose concentration requires further investigation.

  18. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  20. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke S Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control.

  1. Application of Brown Planthopper Salivary Gland Extract to Rice Plants Induces Systemic Host mRNA Patterns Associated with Nutrient Remobilization.

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    Adelina Petrova

    Full Text Available Insect saliva plays an important role in modulation of plant-insect interactions. Although this area of research has generated much attention in recent years, mechanisms of how saliva affects plant responses remain poorly understood. To address this void, the present study investigated the impact of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, Stål; hereafter BPH salivary gland extract (SGE on rice (Oryza sativa systemic responses at the mRNA level. Differentially expressed rice mRNAs were generated through suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and classified into six functional groups. Those with the most representatives were from the primary metabolism (28%, signaling-defense (22% and transcription-translation-regulation group (16%. To validate SSH library results, six genes were further analyzed by One-Step Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR. Five of these genes exhibited up-regulation levels of more than 150% of those in the control group in at least one post-application time point. Results of this study allow assignment of at least two putative roles of BPH saliva: First, application of SGE induces immediate systemic responses at the mRNA level, suggesting that altering of the rice transcriptome at sites distant to hoppers feeding locations may play an important role in BPH-rice interactions. Second, 58% of SGE-responsive up-regulated genes have a secondary function associated with senescence, a process characterized by remobilization of nutrients. This suggests that BPH salivary secretions may reprogram the rice transcriptome for nutritional enhancement. When these findings are translated onto 'whole plant' scale, they indicate that BPH saliva may play the 'wise investment' role of 'minimum input today, maximum output tomorrow'.

  2. The Role Of Salivary Glands In Phosphate Homeostasis

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    Tomo Mukai

    2012-06-01

    In Npt2b+/- mice, the salivary Pi concentrations were significantly increased compared with those in Npt2b+/+ mice. Npt2b+/- mice with adenine-induced renal failure had low plasma and salivary Pi levels, and plasma creatinine and BUN levels compared with Npt2b+/+ mice treated with adenine. In conclusion, Npt2b is involved in Pi secretion by salivary glands.

  3. SPARC fusion protein induces cellular adhesive signaling.

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    Lamei Cheng

    Full Text Available Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC has been described as a counteradhesive matricellular protein with a diversity of biological functions associated with morphogenesis, remodeling, cellular migration, and proliferation. We have produced mouse SPARC with a FLAG-tag at the N-terminus of SPARC (Flag-SPARC, FSP in a Bac-to-Bac baculoviral expression system. After affinity purification, this procedure yields SPARC of high purity, with an electrophoretic mobility of ∼44 kDa under reducing conditions, and ∼38-39 kDa under non-reducing conditions. Unexpectedly, FSP adsorbed to plastic supported cell attachment and spreading, in a calcium-dependent manner. The adhesive activity of native FSP was inhibited by prior incubation with anti-SPARC IgG. Cell adhesion to FSP induced the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia but not focal adhesions that were prominent on cells that were attached to fibronectin. In addition, FSP induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin in attached epithelial cells. Erk1/2 and Rac were also activated in cells attached to FSP, but at a lower level in comparison to cells on fibronectin. This study provides new insight into the biological functions of SPARC, a matricellular protein with important roles in cell-extracellualr matrix interactions.

  4. Protection of radiation-induced damage to the hematopoietic system, small intestine and salivary glands in rats by JNJ7777120 compound, a histamine H4 ligand.

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    Diego J Martinel Lamas

    Full Text Available Based on previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on highly radiosensitive tissues, in the present work we aimed at investigating the radioprotective potential of the H4R ligand, JNJ7777120, on ionizing radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage in small intestine, salivary glands and hematopoietic tissue. For that purpose, rats were divided into 4 groups. JNJ7777120 and JNJ7777120-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous JNJ7777120 injection (10 mg/kg starting 24 h before irradiation. Irradiated groups received a single dose of 5 Gy on whole-body using Cesium-137 source and were sacrificed 3 or 30 days after irradiation. Tissues were removed, fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin or PAS staining and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferative and apoptotic markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Submandibular gland (SMG function was evaluated by methacholine-induced salivation. Results indicate that JNJ7777120 treatment diminished mucosal atrophy and preserved villi and the number of crypts after radiation exposure (240±8 vs. 165±10, P<0.01. This effect was associated to a reduced apoptosis and DNA damage in intestinal crypts. JNJ7777120 reduced radiation-induced aplasia, preserving medullar components and reducing formation of micronucleus and also it accelerated bone marrow repopulation. Furthermore, it reduced micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood (27±8 vs. 149±22, in 1,000 erythrocytes, P<0.01. JNJ7777120 completely reversed radiation-induced reduced salivation, conserving glandular mass with normal histological appearance and reducing apoptosis and atrophy of SMG. JNJ7777120 exhibits radioprotective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in small intestine, SMG and hematopoietic tissues and, thus, could be of clinical value for patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  5. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  6. Altered autophagy and sympathetic innervation in salivary glands from high-fat diet mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Polliane Morais; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Carpenter, Guy Howard

    2017-03-01

    to investigate the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) on salivary glands in vivo, in a mouse model. In particular, whether it will induce the appearance of fat cells in salivary glands, alterations related to autophagy, mTOR pathway and sympathetic innervation. 27 adult female ICR mice were separated in six groups. Three groups fed with (HFD) containing 55% fat, for one, two and three month and another three groups fed with normal diet (2.7% of fat), for the same time periods. The submandibular glands and liver were dissected and part homogenized for protein analyses and part fixed in formalin for histological analyses. After three months the HFD fed mice total body weight fold change increased compared to controls. The Oil Red O staining showed no fat cells deposit in salivary gland however a large increase was observed in liver after three months of HFD. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in the HFD group after three months. The group fed with HFD for three months showed increased conversion of the LC3 autophagy marker in salivary gland. mTOR showed no activation regarding the time point studied. Tyrosine hydroxylase significantly decreased after two and three month of HFD. HFD caused several changes after three months however the earliest change was noticed after two months regarding sympathetic innervation. This suggests neural alteration may drive other diet induced changes in salivary glands. These early changes may be the starting point for longer term alterations of salivary glands with alterations in diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Salivary characteristics of diabetic children

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    López María Elena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary components may suffer variations that can be detected by chemical determinations. The aim of this work was to determine physical and biochemical characteristics of the saliva of a group of diabetic children compared to those of a control group. Relation to oral health indices was also determined. Twenty diabetic children (3-15-years-old and 21 control children (5-12-years-old were included in this study. Total proteins, sugars and calcium were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose, urea, alpha-amylase and acid phosphatase by enzymatic methods. Our results demonstrated that acidic pH, diminished salivary flow rate and excess foam are usually present in saliva of diabetic children. Total sugars, glucose, urea and total proteins were greater in diabetic patients than controls, while calcium values were decreased. These differences were confirmed by the discrimination test. Diabetic children have higher DMFT-dmft-deft and DMFS-dmfs-defs values compared to those of the control children despite their lower sugar intake. Some salivary components in addition to the diminished flow rate could be involved in the characterization of the oral health state of diabetic children.

  8. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  9. ATP hydrolyzing salivary enzymes of caterpillars suppress plant defenses.

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    Shuang Wu

    Full Text Available The oral secretions of herbivores are important recognition cues that can be used by plants to mediate induced defenses. In this study, a degradation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP in tomato leaves was detected after treatment with Helicoverpa zea saliva. Correspondingly, a high level of ATPase activity in saliva was detected and three ATP hydrolyzing enzymes: apyrase, ATP synthase and ATPase 13A1 were identified in salivary glands. To determine the functions of these proteins in mediating defenses, they were cloned from H. zea and expressed in Escherichia coli. By applying the purified expressed apyrase, ATP synthase or ATPase 13A1 to wounded tomato leaves, it was determined that these ATP hydrolyzing enzymes suppressed the defensive genes regulated by the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways in tomato plant. Suppression of glandular trichome production was also observed after treatment. Blood-feeding arthropods employ 5'-nucleotidase family of apyrases to circumvent host responses and the H. zea apyrase, is also a member of this family. The comparatively high degree of sequence similarity of the H. zea salivary apyrase with mosquito apyrases suggests a broader evolutionary role for salivary apyrases than previously envisioned.

  10. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

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    Ľubomíra eTóthová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis.

  11. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  12. Predictors of Outcome in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Salivary Glands: A Clinicopathologic Study With Correlation Between MYB Fusion and Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Drill, Esther; Ho, Allen; Ho, Alan; Dunn, Lara; Prieto-Granada, Carlos Nicolas; Chan, Timothy; Ganly, Ian; Ghossein, Ronald; Katabi, Nora

    2017-10-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the second most common salivary gland malignancy and it has a high rate of recurrences and a poor long-term prognosis. Our aim was to assess the prognostic factors in ACC and study MYB-NFIB fusion and MYB protein expression in a large retrospective cohort of 135 patients with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. The 5- and 10-year local recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate of 94% and 78%, 5- and 10-year distant metastasis survival rate of 77% and 58%, and 5- and 10-year RFS of 66% and 44%. The following features were identified as adverse prognostic factors of RFS on univariate analysis: large tumor size, solid growth pattern, increased mitoses, positive margin, American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical staging, high-grade transformation, vascular invasion, nuclear atypia, open chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and tumor necrosis. However, on multivariate analysis, only increased mitoses (≥5/10 high-power fields), any solid growth pattern, and advanced American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging were independent adverse predictors for RFS. MYB immunoexpression and MYB-NFIB translocation were common findings in ACC, occurring in 72% and 59% of the tested ACCs, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MYB immunohistochemistry in detecting MYB-NFIB fusion was relatively low at 78% sensitivity and 50% specificity. The high prevalence of alterations leading to high expression of the MYB transcription factor family suggests that targeted approaches developed to suppress the expression of these oncogenic transcription factors and/or the transcriptional activity of these proteins would be a rational therapeutic approach to investigate in ACC.

  13. Functional spheroid organization of human salivary gland cells cultured on hydrogel-micropatterned nanofibrous microwells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Soo; Kook, Yun-Min; Hong, Hye Jin; Kim, Young-Mo; Koh, Won-Gun; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2016-11-01

    Development of a tissue-engineered, salivary bio-gland will benefit patients suffering from xerostomia due to loss of fluid-secreting acinar cells. This study was conducted to develop a bioengineering system to induce self-assembly of human parotid epithelial cells (hPECs) cultured on poly ethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel-micropatterned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous microwells. Microwells were fabricated by photopatterning of PEG hydrogel in the presence of an electrospun PCL nanofibrous scaffold. hPECs were plated on plastic dishes, Matrigel, PCL nanofibers, or PCL nanofibrous microwells. When the cells were plated onto plastic, they did not form spheres, but aggregated to form 3D acinar-like spheroids when cultured on Matrigel, PCL, and PCL microwells, with the greatest aggregating potency being observed on the PCL microwells. The 3D-assembled spheroids in the PCL microwells expressed higher levels of salivary epithelial markers (α-amylase and AQP5), tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin), adherence protein (E-cadherin), and cytoskeletal protein (F-actin) than those on the Matrigel and PCL. Furthermore, the 3D-assembled spheroids in the PCL microwells showed higher levels of α-amylase secretion and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) than those on the Matrigel and PCL nanofibers, suggesting more functional organization of hPECs. We established a bioengineering 3D culture system to promote robust and functional acinar-like organoids from hPECs. PCL nanofibrous microwells can be applied in the future for bioengineering of an artificial bio-salivary gland for restoration of salivary function. Three dimensional (3D) cultures of salivary glandular epithelial cells using nanofibrous bottom facilitate the formation of acinar-like organoids. In this study, we adapted a PEG hydrogel-micropatterned PCL nanofibrous microwell for the efficient bioengineering of human salivary gland organoids, in which we could easily produce uniform size of 3D organoids

  14. Aquaporins in salivary glands and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Salivary glands and pancreas are involved in saliva secretion, pancreatic fluid secretion and insulin secretion. These functions are essential for proper oral, pancreatic and glucose homeostasis. Aquaporins are water-permeable transmembrane protein involved in the physiology of these secretory gland functions. This review gives an overview of the morphology of salivary glands and pancreas, the expression and localization of aquaporins, the secretion roles and mechanisms, the physiological roles of aquaporins, and the role of aquaporins in pathophysiological conditions. Several aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and pancreas, and some play important physiological roles. Modulation of aquaporin expression and/or trafficking may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting salivary glands and pancreas glands such as xerostomic conditions, pancreatic insufficiencies and diabetes. Aquaporins are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes in salivary glands and pancreas. They could represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases affecting the salivary glands and pancreas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. © 2013.

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  16. The anionic basis of fluid secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Hunter, M; Novak, I

    1984-01-01

    , administration of SITS (4-acetamido-4'- isothio cyano-2,2'-disulphonic acid stilbene), an inhibitor of Cl-/HCO3- antiports , did not cause any change in salivary HCO3- concentration. Unexpectedly, it induced a significant increase in salivary secretory rate. The results show that salivary secretion depends...

  17. Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C J; Kilduff, L P; Crewther, B T

    2017-12-21

    This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14), and 21 (D21) across 3 menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14, and D21 across 2 menstrual cycles: (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-second cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17 ± 27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25 ± 43% on D21 (P 102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress, and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (P menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Studies of an Androgen-Binding Protein Knockout Corroborate a Role for Salivary ABP in Mouse Communication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chung, A. G.; Belone, P. M.; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Karn, R. C.; Laukaitis, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 4 (2017), s. 1517-1527 ISSN 0016-6731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13265S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : androgen-binding protein * knockout mouse * preference testing Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.556, year: 2016

  19. Studies of an Androgen-Binding Protein Knockout Corroborate a Role for Salivary ABP in Mouse Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amanda G; Belone, Phillip M; Bímová, Barbora Vošlajerová; Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2017-04-01

    The house mouse Androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene family is comprised of 64 paralogs, 30 Abpa and 34 Abpbg, encoding the alpha (ABPA) and beta-gamma (ABPBG) protein subunits that are disulfide-bridged to form dimers in secretions. Only 14 Abp genes are expressed in distinct patterns in the lacrimal (11) and submandibular glands (3). We created a knockout mouse line lacking two of the three genes expressed in submandibular glands, Abpa27 and Abpbg27, by replacing them with the neomycin resistance gene. The knockout genotype (-/-) showed no Abpa27 or Abpbg27 transcripts in submandibular gland complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries and there was a concomitant lack of protein expression of ABPA27 and ABPBG27 in the -/- genotype saliva, shown by elimination of these two proteins from the saliva proteome and the loss of cross-reactive material in the acinar cells of the submandibular glands. We also observed a decrease in BG26 protein in the -/- animals, suggesting monomer instability. Overall, we observed no major phenotypic changes in the -/- genotype, compared with their +/+ and +/- siblings raised in a laboratory setting, including normal growth curves, tissue histology, fecundity, and longevity. The only difference is that male and female C57BL/6 mice preferred saliva of the opposite sex containing ABP statistically significantly more than saliva of the opposite sex without ABP in a Y-maze test. These results show for the first time that mice can sense the presence of ABP between saliva targets with and without ABPs, and that they spend more time investigating the target containing ABP. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  1. IGF Binding Protein-5 Induces Cell Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Sanada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence is the complex process of deterioration that drives the aging of an organism, resulting in the progressive loss of organ function and eventually phenotypic aging. Senescent cells undergo irreversible growth arrest, usually by inducing telomere shortening. Alternatively, senescence may also occur prematurely in response to various stress stimuli, such as oxidative stress, DNA damage, or activated oncogenes. Recently, it has been shown that IGF binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5 with the induction of the tumor suppressor p53 is upregulated during cellular senescence. This mechanism mediates interleukin-6/gp130-induced premature senescence in human fibroblasts, irradiation-induced premature senescence in human endothelial cells (ECs, and replicative senescence in human ECs independent of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and IGF-II. Additionally, a link between IGFBP-5, hyper-coagulation, and inflammation, which occur with age, has been implicated. Thus, IGFBP-5 seems to play decisive roles in controlling cell senescence and cell inflammation. In this review, we describe the accumulating evidence for this role of IGFBP-5 including our new finding.

  2. Dopamine-induced amylase secretion from rat parotid salivary gland in vitro: an effect mediated via noradrenergic and cholinergic nerves.

    OpenAIRE

    Hata, F.; Ishida, H.; Kondo, E

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dopamine on amylase secretion by rat parotid tissue was examined in vitro. Dopamine induced marked amylase secretion from the tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Its EC50 value was about 4 microM and the maximal response was obtained at a concentration of 100 microM. The dopamine-induced secretion was inhibited by the dopamine-antagonists haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol and spiroperidol. Atropine reduced the dopamine-induced secretion significantly, and physostigmine enhanced the sec...

  3. Engagement with Cognitively-Based Compassion Training is associated with reduced salivary C-reactive protein from before to after training in foster care program adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Thaddeus W W; Negi, Lobsang Tenzin; Dodson-Lavelle, Brooke; Ozawa-de Silva, Brendan; Reddy, Sheethal D; Cole, Steven P; Danese, Andrea; Craighead, Linda W; Raison, Charles L

    2013-02-01

    Children exposed to early life adversity (ELA) have been shown to have elevated circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers that persist into adulthood. Increased inflammation in individuals with ELA is believed to drive the elevated risk for medical and psychiatric illness in the same individuals. This study sought to determine whether Cognitively Based Compassion Training (CBCT) reduced C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescents in foster care with high rates of ELA, and to evaluate the relationship between CBCT engagement and changes in CRP given prior evidence from our group for an effect of practice on inflammatory markers. It was hypothesized that increasing engagement would be associated with reduced CRP from baseline to the 6-week assessment. Seventy-one adolescents in the Georgia foster care system (31 females), aged 13-17, were randomized to either 6 weeks of CBCT or a wait-list condition. State records were used to obtain information about each participant's history of trauma and neglect, as well as reason for placement in foster care. Saliva was collected before and again after 6 weeks of CBCT or the wait-list condition. Participants in the CBCT group completed practice diaries as a means of assessing engagement with the CBCT. No difference between groups was observed in salivary CRP concentrations. Within the CBCT group, practice sessions during the study correlated with reduced CRP from baseline to the 6-week assessment. Engagement with CBCT may positively impact inflammatory measures relevant to health in adolescents at high risk for poor adult functioning as a result of significant ELA, including individuals placed in foster care. Longer term follow-up will be required to evaluate if these changes are maintained and translate into improved health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of nitric oxide of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO in the alterations of salivary flow, arterial pressure and heart rate induced by injection of pilocarpine into the MnPO and intraperitoneally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Saad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of L-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO inhibitor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO-donating agent, on pilocarpine-induced alterations in salivary flow, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR in rats. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were implanted with a stainless steel cannula directly into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO. Pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO induced an increase in salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg ip also increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO or ip (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO or ip prior to pilocarpine attenuated salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (40 µg injection into the MnPO increased MAP and decreased HR (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (4 mg/kg body weight ip produced a decrease in MAP and an increase in HR (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine potentiated the increase in MAP and reduced HR (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine attenuated (100% the effect of pilocarpine on MAP, with no effect on HR. Administration of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO potentiated the effect of pilocarpine injected ip. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO attenuated the effect of ip pilocarpine on MAP and HR. The present study suggests that in the rat MnPO 1 NO is important for the effects of pilocarpine on salivary flow, and 2 pilocarpine interferes with blood pressure and HR (side effects of pilocarpine, that is attenuated by NO.

  5. Characterization of two forms of mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP): implications for evolutionary relationships and ligand-binding function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2003-06-17

    Mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a member of the secretoglobin family produced in the submaxillary glands of house mice (Mus musculus). We report the cDNA sequences and amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunits of ABP from a mouse cDNA library, identifying the two subunits by their pIs and molecular weights. An anomalously high molecular weight of the alpha subunit is likely due to glycosylation at a single site. A phylogenetic comparison of the three subunits of ABP with the chains of other mammalian secretoglobins shows that ABP is most closely related to mouse lachrymal protein and to the major cat allergen Fel dI. An evaluation of the most conserved residues in ABP and the other secretoglobins, in light of structural data reported by others [Callebaut, I., Poupon, A., Bally, R., Demaret, J.-P., Housset, D., Delettre, J., Hossenlopp, P., and Mornon, J.-P. (2000) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 923, 90-112; Pattabiraman, N., Matthews, J., Ward, K., Mantile-Selvaggi, G., Miele, L., and Mukherjee, A. (2000) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 923, 113-127], allows us to draw conclusions about the critical residues important in ligand binding by the two different ABP dimers and to assess the importance of ligand binding in the function of the molecule. In addition to the cDNAs, which represent those of the musculus subspecies of Mus musculus, we also report the coding regions of the beta and gamma subunit cDNAs from two other mouse inbred strains which represent the other two subspecies: M. musculus domesticus and M. musculus castaneus. The high nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratios (K(a)/K(s)) for both the beta and gamma subunits suggest that these two proteins are evolving under strong directional selection, as has been reported for the alpha subunit [Hwang, J., Hofstetter, J., Bonhomme, F., and Karn, R. (1997) J. Hered. 88, 93-97; Karn, R., and Clements, M. (1999) Biochem. Genet. 37, 187-199].

  6. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Muraro, Antonella

    2009-08-01

    To review current knowledge and recent advances in food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). Rice is the most common solid food causing FPIES. Rice FPIES is associated with more severe reactions than other foods. Infants presenting acutely may be hypothermic (<36 degrees C) and have thrombocytosis. Finding of hypoalbuminemia and weight gain less than 10 g/day helps to differentiate chronic infantile cow's milk FPIES from infectious causes. Gastric juice leukocytes more than 10 cells per high-power field are found in infants with positive oral food challenge to cow's milk. FPIES is a non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity disorder. Food protein-activated intestinal lymphocytes elaborate inflammatory cytokines that result in increased intestinal permeability, malabsorption, dysmotility, emesis, diarrhea, pain, and failure to thrive. Decreased intestinal transforming growth factor beta and increased TNFalpha may be important in FPIES. Cow's milk and soy are the most common causes of FPIES, but cereal grains (rice, oat, and barley), fish, poultry, and vegetables may also cause FPIES. The majority of FPIES resolve by age of 3 years.

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  8. Non-human primate antibody response to mosquito salivary proteins: Implications for dengue virus transmission in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemme, Ryan R; Poole-Smith, B Katherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Felix, Gilberto E; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Lopez-Ortiz, Ricardo; Barrera, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    An important step to incriminate a mosquito as a vector of a disease pathogen is finding evidence of direct contact between the mosquito and humans. Typically, this is accomplished through landing/biting catches, or host blood meal analysis in engorged mosquitoes via immunologic assays. An alternate approach is to identify the presence of specific mosquito anti-saliva protein antibodies in the blood of exposed hosts. Following the discovery of dengue infected, free roaming non-human primates in Puerto Rico, we investigated which mosquito species had bitten these primates using a serologic assay. Serum samples from 20 patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used to evaluate mosquito bite exposure to Aedes aegypti, Aedes mediovittatus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Of 22 non-human primates examined 20 (90%), 17 (77%), 13 (59%), and 7 (31%) were positive for exposure to Ae. mediovittatus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Our findings indicated that free-roaming primates in Puerto Rico were exposed to the bites of one proven dengue vector, Ae. aegypti and one potential dengue vector, Ae. mediovittatus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Salivary mucin 19 glycoproteins: innate immune functions in Streptococcus mutans-induced caries in mice and evidence for expression in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, David J; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-30

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19(-/-) mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19(-/-) mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19(-/-) mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19(-/-) mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  11. Isolation of Mouse salivary gland stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Nanduri, Lalitha; van der Zwaag, Marianne; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Mature salivary glands of both human and mouse origin comprise a minimum of five cell types, each of which facilitates the production and excretion of saliva into the oral cavity. Serous and mucous acinar cells are the protein and mucous producing factories of the gland respectively, and represent

  12. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-05-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various e...

  14. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeland, C.G.; Hugo, F.N.; Hilgert, J.B.; Nascimento, G.G.; Junges, R.; Lim, H.-J.; Marucha, P.T.; Bosch, J.A.

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and

  15. FGF7 signals are relayed to autocrine EGF family growth factors to induce branching morphogenesis of mouse salivary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kera, Hayashi; Yuki, Satoshi; Nogawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    The Matrigel-embedded epithelium of the mouse submandibular gland undergoes branching morphogenesis when cultured in medium supplemented with fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), whereas it elongates a stalk with limited branching in medium with only FGF7. Because LPA is a well-known activator of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling, we hypothesized the involvement of autocrine EGF family growth factors in the branching morphogenesis. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies showed that three members, Tgfa, Hbegf,and Nrg1 of the EGF family were expressed in the epithelium cultured with FGF7 + LPA as well as in the epithelium freshly isolated from the rudiments. All the growth factors induced extensive branching morphogenesis in the Matrigel-embedded epithelium in the presence of LPA. Tyrphostin AG112, an inhibitor of EGF signaling, severely impaired branching morphogenesis induced by FGF7 + LPA without exogenous addition of EGF family growth factors to the culture medium. The shaking cultures, which were expected to decrease the concentration of autocrine growth factors near the epithelium by promoting their diffusion, significantly reduced branching morphogenesis induced by FGF7 + LPA. Autocrine EGF family growth factors are involved in epithelial branching morphogenesis induced by FGF7 + LPA. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Salivary hormones response to preparation and pre-competitive training of world-class level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël eGuilhem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A, chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while immunoglobulin A (+61% and creatine kinase activity (+43% increased, and chromogranin A decreased (-27% during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15% and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05. None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training.

  17. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Competitive Protein Adsorption - Multilayer Adsorption and Surface Induced Protein Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces...... is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions...... of high concentration with investigation of single protein adsorption and interdependent adsorption between two specific proteins enables us to map protein adsorption sequences during competitive protein adsorption. Our study shows that proteins can adsorb in a multilayer fashion onto the polymer surfaces...

  19. Different Type 1 Fimbrial Genes and Tropisms of Commensal and Potentially Pathogenic Actinomyces spp. with Different Salivary Acidic Proline-Rich Protein and Statherin Ligand Specificities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Khah, Massoud Kheir; Slavnic, Snjezana; Johansson, Ingegerd; Strömberg, Nicklas

    2001-01-01

    Actinomyces spp. exhibit type 1 fimbria-mediated adhesion to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and statherin ligands. Actinomyces spp. with different animal and tissue origins belong to three major adhesion types as relates to ligand specificity and type 1 fimbria genes. (i) In preferential acidic-PRP binding, strains of Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 from human and monkey mouths displayed at least three ligand specificities characterized by preferential acidic-PRP binding. Slot blot DNA hybridization showed seven highly conserved type 1 fimbria genes (orf1- to -6 and fimP) in genospecies 1 and 2 strains, except that orf5 and orf3 were divergent in genospecies 1. (ii) In preferential statherin binding, oral Actinomyces viscosus strains of rat and hamster origin (and strain 19246 from a human case of actinomycosis) bound statherin preferentially. DNA hybridization and characterization of the type 1 fimbria genes from strain 19246 revealed a homologous gene cluster of four open reading frames (orfA to -C and fimP). Bioinformatics suggested sortase (orfB, orf4, and part of orf5), prepilin peptidase (orfC and orf6), fimbria subunit (fimP), and usher- and autotransporter-like (orfA and orf1 to -3) functions. Those gene regions corresponding to orf3 and orf5 were divergent, those corresponding to orf2, orf1, and fimP were moderately conserved, and those corresponding to orf4 and orf6 were highly conserved. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses using a fimP probe separated human and monkey and rat and hamster strains into phylogenetically different groups. (iii) In statherin-specific binding, strains of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 from septic and other human infections displayed a low-avidity binding to statherin. Only the orf4 and orf6 gene regions were highly conserved. Finally, rat saliva devoid of statherin bound bacterial strains avidly irrespective of ligand specificity, and specific antisera detected either type 1, type 2, or both

  20. Enhanced degradation of proteins of the basal lamina and stroma by matrix metalloproteinases from the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients: correlation with reduced structural integrity of acini and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicovich, Eduardo; Molina, Claudio; Pérez, Paola; Aguilera, Sergio; Fernández, Juan; Olea, Nancy; Alliende, Cecilia; Leyton, Cecilia; Romo, Rafael; Leyton, Lisette; González, María-Julieta

    2003-09-01

    To determine the effect of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity from the labial salivary glands (LSGs) of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients on proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that form the basal lamina and stroma, and to compare this effect with the structural integrity of acini and ducts as well as the functionality of the LSGs. Gelatinase activity was determined by zymography. The digestion pattern of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules was detected by gel electrophoresis and quantified by densitometry. The structural integrity of acini and ducts was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Secretory function was evaluated by measuring unstimulated salivary flow and by scintigraphy. LSG extracts showed increased levels of proteolytic activity toward purified proteins of the basal lamina (laminin and type IV collagen) and stroma (types I and III collagen and fibronectin). Enhanced degradation was most evident for fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen. Analysis of the ultrastructure of the acinar and ductal basal lamina revealed abnormalities ranging from disorganization to disappearance of this ECM structure. These changes were paralleled by an important loss of microvilli on the apical surface, as well as decreased unstimulated salivary flow. Interestingly, the results were similar in LSGs from all SS patients, regardless of the proximity of infiltrating mononuclear cell foci. Our observation that the proteolytic action of MMPs toward ECM macromolecules is increased in SS patients provides a rationale for understanding the dramatic changes in the structural organization observed in the basal lamina and apical surface of acini in these patients. The results provide new evidence that acinar and ductal cells from the LSGs of SS patients display a molecular potential, with increased capacity to markedly disorganize their ECM environment and, thus, damage their architecture and functionality.

  1. Detection of proteins induced in the haemolymph of Biomphalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. Detection of proteins induced in the haemolymph of Biomphalaria pfeifferi infected with Schistosoma mansoni. 8211. Detection of proteins induced in the haemolymph of. Biomphalaria pfeifferi infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Okonjo Edward1, Yole Dorcas1, Eric Korir2, Nguu Edward2, ...

  2. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands.

  3. Salivary changes related to systemic diseases in the edentulous patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, E; Tâncu, AM; Iosif, L; Melescanu Imre, M; Murariu-Măgureanu, C; Preoteasa, CT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relatively frequent systemic comorbidities of geriatric patients can be linked to salivary changes, which may induce oral alteration and discomfort with the removable prosthesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary parameters in completely edentulous patients treated by removable prosthesis, in relation to their general health status. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was performed on 30 completely edentulous patients, 53% male and 47% female, aged between 53 and 84. The evaluation of the salivary parameters (oral hydration index, pH and salivary flow, viscosity and saliva buffer capacity) was performed with the Saliva Check Buffer kit (GC Corporation). Results: The salivary changes encountered were the following: low hydration level (63%), high saliva viscosity (57%), below-average pH (27%), reduced salivary flow (77%) and low saliva buffer capacity (80%). A reduced salivary flow and saliva buffer capacity was found in women. A lower buffer capacity of the saliva was found in patients with respiratory and gastro-intestinal disease. Conclusions: The alterations of the salivary flow are relatively frequent in geriatric patients, removable denture wearers, with compromised systemic status. These changes may be a risk factor for denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis, with a negative effect on the patient’s comfort and quality of life. PMID:25713626

  4. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  5. Visible light induced fast synthesis of protein-polymer conjugates: controllable polymerization and protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Gaojian; Haddleton, David M; Chen, Hong

    2014-06-21

    Herein visible light is used to induce RAFT polymerization from protein for preparing protein-polymer conjugates at ambient temperature. Polymerization is fast and can be conveniently controlled with irradiation time. By site-specific polymerization of NIPAm to protein, the protein activity is maintained and in certain cases it presents an efficient on-off-switchable property.

  6. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been

  7. Comparison of Heat-Induced Aggregation of Globular Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaije, R.J.B.M.; Wierenga, P.A.; Giuseppin, M.L.F.; Gruppen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Typically, heat-induced aggregation of proteins is studied using a single protein under various conditions (e.g., temperature). Because different studies use different conditions and methods, a mechanistic relationship between molecular properties and the aggregation behavior of proteins has not

  8. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rajul Rastogi; Sumeet Bhargava; Govindarajan Janardan Mallarajapatna; Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain ra...

  9. Smoking influences salivary histamine levels in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, K; Haririan, H; Laky, M; Matejka, M; Andrukhov, O; Rausch-Fan, X

    2012-05-01

    Histamine, a potent vasoactive amine, is increased in saliva of periodontitis patients. The present study aimed to further investigate the diagnostic potential of histamine for periodontal disease and assessed smoking, a major risk factor of periodontitis, as a possible influencing factor. Salivary and serum samples of 106 participants (60 periodontitis patients, 46 controls) were collected. Salivary histamine was determined by a commercially available ELISA kit, and serum C-reactive protein was measured by a routine laboratory test. Cigarettes per day and packyears were assessed as smoking exposure parameters. Statistically significantly increased levels of salivary histamine and serum C-reactive protein were detected between the patient and control group (P = 0.022 and P = 0.001). Salivary histamine levels were significantly higher in smoking compared with non-smoking patients (P smoking exposure parameters (P Smoking, an established and common risk factor of periodontitis, was assessed as a possible influencing factor for salivary histamine. Most interestingly, salivary histamine differed highly significantly between smoking and non-smoking periodontitis patients. Our results suggest a possible involvement of histamine in tobacco-exacerbated periodontal disease, but do not suggest salivary histamine as a reliable diagnostic marker for periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto

    2016-01-01

    of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands...

  11. Mutation-Induced Deamidation of Corneal Dystrophy-Related Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nadia Sukusu; Juhl, Dennis Wilkens; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp) cause phenotypically diverse corneal dystrophies, where protein aggregation in the cornea leads to severe visual impairment. Previous studies have shown a relationship between mutant-specific corneal dystrophy phenotypes...

  12. Salivary Lysozyme in Relation to Dental Caries among Thai Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsirivorakul, J; Petsongkram, B; Chaiyarit, P; Klaynongsruang, S; Pitiphat, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze salivary lysozyme levels and activities in Thai preschoolers with different dental caries status. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 64 preschoolers, divided into a caries free group (n = 32) and a severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) group (n = 32). Both groups were similar regarding gender, age, dental caries status, salivary flow rate, and salivary protein concentrations. No differences were also in the caregivers' characteristics, oral health behaviors, and feeding habits. Only professional fluoride application was less frequently found in the S-ECC group (p caries free group (pcaries.

  13. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  14. Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands of Urban Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE, ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes.

  15. Effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y F; Zheng, J; Zheng, L; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-01

    Salivary pellicle is a biofilm that is formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins. Almost all the functions of the salivary pellicle (lubricating properties, anti-caries properties, etc.) are closely associated with its adhesion strength to tooth surface. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of adsorption time on the adhesion strength between salivary pellicle and human tooth enamel, aiming to understand what act as the determinant of the interfacial adhesion. In this study, human tooth enamel samples were immersed in human whole saliva in vitro to obtain a salivary pellicle on the surface of enamel. Immersion treatments lasting up to 1, 3, 10 and 60 min were conducted, respectively. Nano-scratch tests were conducted on the surface of enamel after different adsorption times. The wettability of enamel surface was measured through water contact angle. Results showed that the shear energy between salivary pellicle and enamel surface increased exponentially with the adsorption time. The adhesion force between salivary pellicle and bare enamel surface was more than twice that between salivary pellicle and salivary pellicle. It was found that both the wettability and zeta potential of enamel increased obviously after 1 min saliva-adsorption treatment, and then they almost kept stable as the adsorption time further increased. In summary, the adhesion strength between initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface was much higher than that between initial salivary pellicle and outer salivary pellicle. It seemed that electrostatic interaction contributed to the adhesion between the initial salivary pellicle and enamel surface, but not to the adhesion between the initial and outer salivary pellicle. The results would be helpful to extend the understanding of the adhesion mechanism of salivary pellicle and then to develop new artificial saliva and dental restorative materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Syed; Katti, Girish; Ghali, Sreenivas Rao; Katti, Chandrika; Diwakar, Darshan D; Guduba, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an endocrine disease characterized by hyperglycemia, the pathogenic mechanisms by which hyperglycemia arises differ widely. Monitoring people with diabetes involve repeated estimations of plasma glucose either by finger pricks or by intravenous blood sampling. Hence, a noninvasive procedure for glucose measurements would be most precious under the circumstances. (1) To evaluate salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in type 1 DM (T1DM) patients and to compare with healthy nondiabetic control group. (2) To compare and correlate serum and salivary glucose levels in patients with T1DM. This study consisted of 30 T1DM patients and 30 controls. All subjects were subjected to the serum glucose, salivary glucose, and total protein and albumin estimations. Glucose estimations were done by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method, total protein estimations were done by Biuret method, end point and albumin estimations were done by bromocresol green dye method, end point. All the estimations were performed using an autoanalyzer. Mean and standard deviation, Student's t-test and Karl Pearson correlation co-efficient were calculated. All these statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS 11.5 software. The results showed elevated levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM group compared to healthy controls. Further the levels of serum and salivary glucose in T1DM patients were significantly correlated. There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  17. Stress proteins are induced by space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo

    The space environment contains two major biologically significant influences such as space radiations and microgravity. Almost all organisms possess essential recognition and response systems for environmental changes. The famous one of cellular stress responses is the gene induction of heat shock protein (HSP). HSP expression is increased under elevated temperatures, and also increased by other sources of cellular stress, including ionizing radiation, oxidative injury, osmotic stress and the unfolded protein response. HSPs assist in the folding and maintenance of newly translated proteins, the refolding of denatured proteins and the further unfolding of misfolded or destabilized proteins to protect the cell from crisis. Based on our space experiment, we report the results and discussion from the viewpoint of HSP expression after exposure to space environment.

  18. Hypochlorite-induced damage to proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Stimulated monocytes and neutrophils generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl damages proteins by reaction with amino acid side-chains or backbone cleavage. Little information is available about the mechanisms and intermediates involved...... in these reactions. EPR spin trapping has been employed to identify radicals on proteins, peptides and amino acids after treatment with HOCl. Reaction with HOCl gives both high- and low-molecular-mass nitrogen-centred, protein-derived radicals; the yield of the latter increases with both higher HOCl:protein ratios...... and enzymic digestion. These radicals, which arise from lysine side-chain amino groups, react with ascorbate, glutathione and Trolox. Reaction of HOCl-treated proteins with excess methionine eliminates radical formation, which is consistent with lysine-derived chloramines (via homolysis of N-Cl bonds) being...

  19. Primary Sjögren's syndrome: Salivary gland function and clinical oral findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.M.; Reibel, J.; Nordgarden, H.

    1999-01-01

    primary Sjögren's syndrome, saliva, sodium, potassium, statherin, proline-rich proteins, salivary gland biopsy, dental and periodontal status, oral mucosa......primary Sjögren's syndrome, saliva, sodium, potassium, statherin, proline-rich proteins, salivary gland biopsy, dental and periodontal status, oral mucosa...

  20. Mosquito salivary allergen Aed a 3: cloning, comprehensive molecular analysis, and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z; Xu, W W; Sham, Y; Lam, H; Sun, D; Cheng, L; Rasic, N F; Guan, Q; James, A A; Simons, F E R

    2016-05-01

    Allergic reactions to mosquito bites are an increasing clinical concern. Due to the lack of availability of mosquito salivary allergens, they are underdiagnosed. Here, we reported a newly cloned mosquito Aedes (Ae.) aegypti salivary allergen. A cDNA encoding a 30-kDa Ae. aegypti salivary protein, designated Aed a 3, was isolated from an expression library. The full-length cDNA was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector, and recombinant Aed a 3 (rAed a 3) was expressed, purified, and characterized. Skin prick tests with purified rAed a 3 and Ae. aegypti bite tests were performed in 43 volunteers. Serum rAed a 3-specific IgE levels were measured in 28 volunteers. The primary nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and IgE-binding sites of Aed a 3 were identified. rAed a 3-selected antibodies recognized a 30-kDa Ae. aegypti saliva protein. rAed a 3 bound IgE in mosquito-allergic volunteers and the binding could be inhibited by the addition of natural mosquito extract dose dependently. Immediate skin test reactions to rAed a 3 correlated significantly with mosquito bite-induced reactions. Of the bite test-positive volunteers, 32% had a positive rAed a 3 skin test and 46% had specific IgE. No bite test-negative volunteers reacted to rAed a 3 in either the skin tests or the IgE assays, confirming the specificity of the assay. Aed a 3 that corresponds to the Aegyptin protein is a major mosquito salivary allergen. Its recombinant form has biological activity and is suitable for use in skin tests and specific IgE assays in mosquito-allergic individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differential profiles of salivary proteins with affinity to Streptococcus mutans lipoteichoic acid in caries-free and caries-positive human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S W; Seo, D-G; Baik, J E; Cho, K; Yun, C-H; Han, S H

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a representative oral pathogen that causes dental caries and pulpal inflammation. Its lipoteichoic acid (Sm.LTA) is known to be an important cell-wall virulence factor involved in bacterial adhesion and induction of inflammation. Since Sm.LTA-binding proteins (Sm.LTA-BPs) might play an important role in pathogenesis and host immunity, we identified the Sm.LTA-BPs in the saliva of caries-free and caries-positive human subjects using Sm.LTA-conjugated beads and LTQ-Orbitrap hybrid Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Sm.LTA was conjugated to N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-Sepharose(®) 4 Fast Flow beads (Sm.LTA-beads). Sm.LTA retained its biological properties during conjugation, as determined by the expression of nitric oxide and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 in a murine macrophage cell line and activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in CHO/CD14/TLR2 cells. Sm.LTA-BPs were isolated from pooled saliva prepared from 10 caries-free or caries-positive human subjects each, electrophoresed to see their differential expression in each group, and further identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 8 and 12 Sm.LTA-BPs were identified with statistical significance in the pooled saliva from the caries-free and caries-positive human subjects, respectively. Unique Sm.LTA-BPs found in caries-free saliva included histone H4, profilin-1 and neutrophil defensin-1, and those in caries-positive saliva included cystatin-C, cystatin-SN, cystatin-S, cystatin-D, lysozyme C, calmodulin-like protein 3 and β-actin. The Sm.LTA-BPs found in both groups were hemoglobin subunits α and β, prolactin-inducible protein, protein S100-A9, and SPLUNC2. Collectively, we identified Sm.LTA-BPs in the saliva of caries-free and caries-positive subjects, which exhibit differential protein profiles. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...

  3. Perfil electroforético de proteínas presentes en la saliva de Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae Electrophoretic profile of salivary proteins of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Flórez

    2009-08-01

    that secrete saliva rich in proteins with anticoagulant, antihistamine, vasodilator and platelet inhibitor properties, these facilitate its alimentary process on the vertebrate host and facilitate transmission of the protozoa carried in the salivary glands of the triatomines. Such proteins are characteristic of each triatomine species and might help differentiate species, including those phenotypically similar. Objective: Describe electrophoretic profiles of salivary proteins of Triatoma dimidiata found inside, around and outside residences in an endemic area of Santander. Materials and methods: Salivary glands from adult insects of T. dimidiata from laboratory colonies and field from three municipalities of Santander were dissected. The protein profiles were viewed in a unidimensional electrophoresis of poliacrilamida gels taken with coomassie blue. Results: The electrophoretic profiles of proteins present in saliva of T. dimidiata showed up to 33 bands in the range of 23.7 to 228.8 kDa, with a high concentration in the region 41 to 99.7 kDa. The index of polymorphism to T. dimidiata was 0.9646. Conclusion: The electrophorectic profile of salivary protein of T. dimidiata showed a complex composition, where the most prominent bands have molecular weights lower than 45 KDa. No grouping could be established based on geographical regions and capture places, in spite of the great intraespecific variability observed. However, clear differences between T. dimidiata and the external group were established. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 121-127.

  4. Geometry-induced protein pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Halatek, Jacob; Frey, Erwin

    2016-01-19

    Protein patterns are known to adapt to cell shape and serve as spatial templates that choreograph downstream processes like cell polarity or cell division. However, how can pattern-forming proteins sense and respond to the geometry of a cell, and what mechanistic principles underlie pattern formation? Current models invoke mechanisms based on dynamic instabilities arising from nonlinear interactions between proteins but neglect the influence of the spatial geometry itself. Here, we show that patterns can emerge as a direct result of adaptation to cell geometry, in the absence of dynamical instability. We present a generic reaction module that allows protein densities robustly to adapt to the symmetry of the spatial geometry. The key component is an NTPase protein that cycles between nucleotide-dependent membrane-bound and cytosolic states. For elongated cells, we find that the protein dynamics generically leads to a bipolar pattern, which vanishes as the geometry becomes spherically symmetrical. We show that such a reaction module facilitates universal adaptation to cell geometry by sensing the local ratio of membrane area to cytosolic volume. This sensing mechanism is controlled by the membrane affinities of the different states. We apply the theory to explain AtMinD bipolar patterns in [Formula: see text] EcMinDE Escherichia coli. Due to its generic nature, the mechanism could also serve as a hitherto-unrecognized spatial template in many other bacterial systems. Moreover, the robustness of the mechanism enables self-organized optimization of protein patterns by evolutionary processes. Finally, the proposed module can be used to establish geometry-sensitive protein gradients in synthetic biological systems.

  5. Tumor-derived exosomes enhance invasion and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin; Wang, Fangyuan; Liu, Xiaohao; Song, Mengyang; Yin, Xuemin

    2018-02-01

    Tumor-derived exosomes (TDE) have been shown to participate in different steps of the dissemination of cancer cells. However, the role of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma-derived (SACC-derived) exosomes had not been documented in SACC. The study aims to explore the functions of SACC-derived TDE in SACC progression and investigate potential mechanisms. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line SACC-83 was used to generate TDE. Afterward, SACC-83 or HUVECs were cocultured with or without TDE. Tumor migration, tumor invasion, and endothelial permeability were examined by wound healing assay, tumor invasion assay, endothelial permeability assay, and tumor cell transendothelial migration assay, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of cell junction-related proteins were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma -83-derived exosomes were taken up by their host cells. Meanwhile, TDE increased migration and invasion capacity of SACC-83 cells and enhanced endothelial cell permeability. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of cell junction-related proteins (Claudins and ZO-1) was downregulated, which is presumably involved in the TDE-mediated promotion of migration, invasion, and metastasis. The results suggested that SACC cell-derived exosomes were loaded with individual components that could enhance invasiveness and induce microenvironment changes, thus promoting SACC aggression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

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    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  7. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

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    RJ Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 μl of the supernatant was added to 190 μl of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher

  8. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  9. Detection of proteins induced in the haemolymph of Biomphalaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Snail-schistosome interactions in relation to immunological, and biochemical changes induced in the host's tissues by the developing intramolluscan stages of the parasite form an integral part in understanding the biology of infection. This study focused on determining whether there are induced proteins in an ...

  10. Protein G, Protein A and Protein-A-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Agitation Induced Aggregation of IgG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling and preventing aggregation is critical to the development of safe and effective antibody drug products. The studies presented here test the hypothesis that Protein A and Protein G inhibit the agitation-induced aggregation of IgG. The hypothesis is motivated by the enhanced conformational stability of proteins upon ligand binding and the specific binding affinity of Protein A and Protein G to the Fc region of IgG. The aggregation of mixed human IgG from pooled human plasma was induced by agitation alone or in the presence of: (i) Protein A, (ii) Protein G or (iii) a library of 24 peptides derived from the IgG-binding domain of Protein A. Aggregation was assessed by UV spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Additional information on IgG-ligand interactions was obtained using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and competitive binding studies. The results demonstrate that Protein A provides near-complete inhibition of agitation-induced aggregation, while Protein G and two peptides from the peptide library show partial inhibition. The findings indicate that the IgG Protein A binding site is involved in the agitation-induced aggregation of IgG, and suggest a dominant role of colloidal interactions. PMID:22304418

  11. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

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    Guliz N. eGuncu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis.

  12. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... This study was designed to assess the effects of protein malnutrition (PM) associated with antibiotic on growth weight, cecal bacterial overgrowth and enterobacteria translocation. Eighteen Gnotobiotic young Wistar rats (135 ± 2.35 g) were treated orally with antibiotic and submitted to dietary restriction.

  14. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the effects of protein malnutrition (PM) associated with antibiotic on growth weight, cecal bacterial overgrowth and enterobacteria translocation. Eighteen Gnotobiotic young Wistar rats (135 ± 2.35 g) were treated orally with antibiotic and submitted to dietary restriction based on maize diet ...

  15. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M F Torres

    Full Text Available To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups.36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups. Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins.2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups.Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.

  16. Clock genes show circadian rhythms in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Seon, Y J; McHugh, J; Papagerakis, S; Papagerakis, P

    2012-08-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by "clock" transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow.

  17. An In Vitro Culture System for Long-Term Expansion of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Salivary Gland Cells: Role of TGF-β1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial and Mesenchymal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajohnkiart Janebodin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a pivotal role in salivary gland development, homeostasis, and disease, the role of salivary gland mesenchyme is not well understood. In this study, we used the Col1a1-GFP mouse model to characterize the salivary gland mesenchyme in vitro and in vivo. The Col1a1-GFP transgene was exclusively expressed in the salivary gland mesenchyme. Ex vivo culture of mixed salivary gland cells in DMEM plus serum medium allowed long-term expansion of salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland development and disease is complex. Therefore, we used this in vitro culture system to study the effects of TGF-β1 on salivary gland cell differentiation. TGF-β1 induced the expression of collagen, and inhibited the formation of acini-like structures in close proximity to mesenchymal cells, which adapted a fibroblastic phenotype. In contrast, TGF-βR1 inhibition increased acini genes and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf-7 and Fgf-10, decreased collagen and induced formation of larger, mature acini-like structures. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may be beneficial for salivary gland differentiation; however, due to differential effects of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial versus mesenchymal cells, selective inhibition is desirable. In conclusion, this mixed salivary gland cell culture system can be used to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the effects of differentiating inducers and inhibitors.

  18. Acute psychosocial stress differentially influences salivary endocrine and immune measures in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Jay; Bravo, Yesika; Cole, Jennifer; Gobeil, Kyle

    2012-10-10

    Undergraduate students routinely experience acute psychosocial stress when interviewing for post-collegiate employment. While numerous studies have demonstrated that acute stress can increase release of immune-relevant molecules in blood, fewer studies have examined if acute stress also increases immune-relevant molecules into saliva. Saliva, and the biomolecules found in saliva often serve important immune defense roles and can be used to non-invasively screen for many systemic diseases. Therefore, the current study examined saliva concentrations of endocrine and immune molecules following exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (mock job interview) in undergraduates. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA), and salivary C-reactive protein (S-CRP) were compared in healthy college undergraduates (n=15) before and after completion of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The TSST induced significant increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and salivary cortisol. Additional analyses revealed a non-significant (p=0.1) increase in the level of S-IgA following the TSST. A significant decrease in S-IgA was observed during the recovery period. No change in S-CRP was observed following the TSST. These results suggest that acute stress experienced by undergraduates when interviewing for a job activates the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and that cortisol levels increase in saliva. Stress-induced elevations in cortisol might be responsible for the decreased S-IgA observed following the recovery period. Collectively, these data provide further insight into the interaction between psychosocial stress, endocrine, and immune functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  20. [Salivary calculi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerena, J; Sancho, M A; Cáceres, F; Krauel, L; Parri, F; Morales, L

    2007-04-01

    The main salivary glands are the submaxillary, sublingual and parotid glands. Infectious and tumoral conditions are prominent in the parotid gland whilst calculi are in submaxillary and sublingual glands. METHODS. Medical record review of 18 cases with a diagnosis of salivary calculi over a 13 year period. Data collected consisted in, clinical presentation, ultrasound (US), sialography (SG) and computarized tomography (CT), and treatment. 13 male and 5 female. Mean age was 7.2 years. All of them presented with pain and tenderness. Parotid gland was affected in 10 cases. An infectious cause for calculi was found in 7 while 3 presented calculi with no underlying infectious cause. Submaxillary gland was affected in 6 and sublingual in 2. No infectious condition was associated to submaxillary and sublingual calculi. Surgical treatment consisted in duct canalization for calculi removal and was performed in all patients after initial treatment with antibiotics. Neither complications nor relapse was found after surgical removal. Diagnosis of salivary calculi is made by clinical symptoms and imaging exams. Treatment is surgical and has to be performed after medical treatment for infection and inflamation.

  1. Functional assembly of protein fragments induced by spatial confinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Yu

    Full Text Available Natural proteins are often confined within their local microenvironments, such as three-dimensional confinement in organelles or two-dimensional confinement in lipid rafts on cytoplasmic membrane. Spatial confinement restricts proteins' entropic freedom, forces their lateral interaction, and induces new properties that the same proteins lack at the soluble state. So far, the phenomenon of environment-induced protein functional alteration still lacks a full illustration. We demonstrate here that engineered protein fragments, although being non-functional in solution, can be re-assembled within the nanometer space to give the full activity of the whole protein. Specific interaction between hexahistidine-tag (His-tag and NiO surface immobilizes protein fragments on NiO nanoparticles to form a self-assembled protein "corona" on the particles inside the nanopores of mesoporous silica. Site-specific assembly forces a shoulder-by-shoulder orientation and promotes fragment-fragment interaction; this interaction together with spatial confinement of the mesopores results in functional re-assembly of the protein half fragments. To our surprise, a single half fragment of luciferase (non-catalytic in solution exhibited luciferase activity when immobilized on NiO in the mesopores, in the absence of the complimentary half. This shows for the first time that spatial confinement can induce the folding of a half fragment, reconstitute the enzyme active site, and re-gain the catalytic capability of the whole protein. Our work thereby highlights the under-documented notion that aside from the chemical composition such as primary sequence, physical environment of a protein also determines its function.

  2. Influences of AMY1 gene copy number and protein expression on salivary alpha-amylase activity before and after citric acid stimulation in splenic asthenia children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zemin; Lin, Jing; Chen, Longhui; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiaorong; Chen, Weiwen

    2015-06-01

    To compare the correlations between salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity and amylase, alpha 1 (salivary) gene (AMYl) copy number or its gene expression between splenic asthenia and healthy children, and investigate the reasons of attenuated sAA activity ratio before and after citric acid stimulation in splenic asthenia children. Saliva samples from 20 splenic asthenia children and 29 healthy children were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. AMYl copy number, sAA activity, and total sAA and glycosylated sAA contents were determined, and their correlations were analyzed. Although splenic asthenia and healthy children had no differences in AMY1 copy number, splenic asthenia children had positive correlations between AMY1 copy number and sAA activity before or after citric acid stimulation. Splenic asthenia children had a higher sAA glycosylated proportion ratio and glycosylated sAA content ratio, while their total sAA content ratio and sAA activity ratio were lower compared with healthy children. The glycosylated sAA content ratio was higher than the total sAA content ratio in both groups. Splenic asthenia and healthy children had positive correlations between total sAA or glycosylated sAA content and sAA activity. However, the role played by glycosylated sAA content in sAA activity in healthy children increased after citric acid stimulation, while it decreased in splenic asthenia children. Genetic factors like AMY1 copy number variations, and more importantly, sAA glycosylation abnormalities leading to attenuated sAA activity after citric acid stimulation, which were the main reasons of the attenuated sAA activity ratio in splenic asthenia children compared with healthy children.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  4. Salivary Gluten Degradation and Oral Microbial Profiles in Healthy Individuals and Celiac Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Faller, Lina; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Bosch, Jos A; Wei, Guoxian; Paster, Bruce J; Schuppan, Detlef; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2017-03-15

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after the colon. We hypothesized that enzymes produced by oral bacteria may be involved in gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects versus patients with classical and refractory CD. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from patients with CD in remission ( n = 21) and refractory CD (RCD; n = 8) and was compared to healthy controls (HC; n = 20) and subjects with functional GI complaints ( n = 12). Salivary gluten-degrading activities were monitored with the tripeptide substrate Z-Tyr-Pro-Gln-pNA and the α-gliadin-derived immunogenic 33-mer peptide. The oral microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA-based MiSeq analysis. Salivary glutenase activities were higher in CD patients compared to controls, both before and after normalization for protein concentration or bacterial load. The oral microbiomes of CD and RCD patients showed significant differences from that of healthy subjects, e.g., higher salivary levels of lactobacilli ( P gluten-degrading activities. While the pathophysiological link between the oral and gut microbiomes in CD needs further exploration, the presented data suggest that oral microbe-derived enzyme activities are elevated in subjects with CD, which may impact gluten processing and the presentation of immunogenic gluten epitopes to the immune system in the small intestine. IMPORTANCE Ingested gluten proteins are the triggers of intestinal inflammation in celiac disease (CD). Certain immunogenic gluten domains are resistant to intestinal proteases but can be hydrolyzed by oral microbial enzymes. Very little is known about the endogenous proteolytic processing of gluten proteins in the oral cavity

  5. Cholesterol-induced protein sorting: an analysis of energetic feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbaek, J A; Andersen, O S; Werge, T

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism(s) underlying the sorting of integral membrane proteins between the Golgi complex and the plasma membrane remain uncertain because no specific Golgi retention signal has been found. Moreover one can alter a protein's eventual localization simply by altering the length of its transme...... in the bilayer physical properties allow for effective and accurate sorting which will be important generally for protein partitioning between different membrane domains....... transmembrane domain (TMD). M. S. Bretscher and S. Munro (SCIENCE: 261:1280-1281, 1993) therefore proposed a physical sorting mechanism based on the hydrophobic match between the proteins' TMD and the bilayer thickness, in which cholesterol would regulate protein sorting by increasing the lipid bilayer...... of a cholesterol-dependent sorting process using the theory of elastic liquid crystal deformations. We show that the distribution of proteins between cholesterol-enriched and cholesterol-poor bilayer domains can be regulated by cholesterol-induced changes in the bilayer physical properties. Changes in bilayer...

  6. Recombinant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut (Ra86 and salivary gland cement (Trp64 proteins as candidate antigens for inclusion in tick vaccines: protective effects of Ra86 on infestation with adult R. appendiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saimo M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Saimo1,2,*, David O Odongo3,4,*, Stephen Mwaura3, Just M Vlak1, Anthony J Musoke5, George W Lubega2, Richard P Bishop3, Monique M van Oers11Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 3International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 4School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa *These two authors made an equal contribution to this workAbstract: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut protein Ra86 (variants Ra85A and Ra92A and the salivary gland cement protein (Trp64 were expressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The recombinant gut proteins expressed as soluble proteins and the recombinant cement protein, as insoluble inclusion bodies, were used to immunize rabbits, which were then challenged with larval, nymphal, and adult stages of R. appendiculatus ticks. High tick mortality (23.3% occurred on adult ticks that fed on rabbits vaccinated with the gut proteins, compared with 1.9% mortality in ticks that fed on unvaccinated naïve control rabbits. The mean weight of engorged female ticks was significantly reduced by 31.5% in rabbits vaccinated with the Ra86 recombinant protein compared with controls, as was egg production. Marked effects on these parameters were also observed in adult ticks as a result from vaccination using Trp64, but these were not statistically significant. For both antigens, there was no demonstrable effect on larval or nymphal ticks. This study demonstrates for the first time the protective efficacy of a homolog of Boophilus microplus Bm86 in reducing tick infestation by the adult stage of the three-host tick R. appendiculatus. The results demonstrate the potential of Ra86 for vaccine development against this tick and for the control of East Coast fever.Keywords: baculovirus, Ra85A, Ra92A, Boophilus

  7. Simplified, enhanced protein purification using an inducible, autoprocessing enzyme tag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Shen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new method for purifying recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria using a highly specific, inducible, self-cleaving protease tag. This tag is comprised of the Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin cysteine protease domain (CPD, an autoprocessing enzyme that cleaves exclusively after a leucine residue within the target protein-CPD junction. Importantly, V. cholerae CPD is specifically activated by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6, a eukaryotic-specific small molecule that is absent from the bacterial cytosol. As a result, when His(6-tagged CPD is fused to the C-terminus of target proteins and expressed in Escherichia coli, the full-length fusion protein can be purified from bacterial lysates using metal ion affinity chromatography. Subsequent addition of InsP(6 to the immobilized fusion protein induces CPD-mediated cleavage at the target protein-CPD junction, releasing untagged target protein into the supernatant. This method condenses affinity chromatography and fusion tag cleavage into a single step, obviating the need for exogenous protease addition to remove the fusion tag(s and increasing the efficiency of tag separation. Furthermore, in addition to being timesaving, versatile, and inexpensive, our results indicate that the CPD purification system can enhance the expression, integrity, and solubility of intractable proteins from diverse organisms.

  8. Prostacyclin-induced hyperthermia - Implication of a protein mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the prostacyclin-linked hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. Results show that intracerebroventricular administration of prostacyclin (PGI2) induces dose-related hyperthermia at room temperature (21 C), as well as at low (4 C) and high (30 C) ambient temperatures. It is found that this PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not mediated by its stable metabolite 6-keto prostaglandin F-1(alpha). Only one of the three anion transport systems, the liver transport system, appears to be important to the central inactivation of pyrogen, prostaglandin E2, and PGI2. Phenoxybenzamine and pimozide have no thermolytic effect on PGI2-induced hyperthermia, while PGI2 still induces hyperthermia after norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels are depleted by 6-hydroxydopamine. Indomethacin and SC-19220 (a PG antagonist) do not antagonize PGI2 induced hyperthermia, while theophylline does not accentuate the PGI2-induced hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to PGI2 is attenuated by central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. It is concluded that PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not induced by NE, dopamine, or cyclic AMP, but rather that a protein mediator is implicated in the induction of fever by PG12.

  9. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  10. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available The white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth, is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2 were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1 have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a

  11. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement

  12. Salivary changes in medically compromised patients: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshuva R Tummuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medically compromised patients require special attention when dental procedures are performed on them. These individuals may require modified or slightly altered techniques. Aims and Objectives: The present study was taken up with two main objectives. The first one being examining and recording various oral manifestations in medically compromised patients, and the second objective was to collect samples of saliva from such patients and to analyze and establish any salivary changes in such medically compromised patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. These patients were divided into four groups of 25 patients each: diabetes mellitus group, chronic renal failure group, liver cirrhosis group and control group. All the selected patients were subjected to a detailed general and intra oral examinations and the relevant data was recorded on a specially designed proforma; salivary analysis was done to know the flow rate, pH, total salivary proteins, sodium, potassium, and LDH levels. Results: From the findings, it can be inferred that salivary changes namely changes in salivary pH, salivary flow rates, salivary sodium, salivary potassium, salivary total proteins, and salivary lactate dehydrogenase are significant in medically compromised patients namely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of liver compared to the control group. Conclusion: pH of saliva was elevated in chronic renal failure patients. Salivary flow rates and sodium were decreased in diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis of liver patients. There was a significant elevation of salivary potassium in chronic renal failure patients. LDH elevation was significant in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

  13. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  14. Dynamics of Salivary Gland Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Harunaga, J.; Hsu, J. C.; Yamada, K M

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands form during embryonic development by a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The architecture of these glands is generated by branching morphogenesis, revealed by recent research to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, ...

  15. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F; Andersen, J; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A V

    2008-03-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva. Since abundant salivary proteins obscure the purification and identification of medium and low expressed salivary proteins, we used centrifugation to obtain saliva samples free from proteins that precipitate after tannin binding. Data from Peptide Mass Fingerprinting allowed us to identify ten different proteins, some of them showing more than one isoform. Tannin-enriched diets were observed to change the salivary protein profile. One isoform of alpha-amylase was overexpressed with both types of tannins. Aldehyde reductase was only identified in saliva of the quebracho group. Additionally, a hypertrophy of parotid salivary gland acini was observed by histology, along with a decrease in body mass in the first 4 days of the experimental period.

  16. Asprosin, a fasting-induced glucogenic protein hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is t...

  17. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic Recurrent Major or Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  18. Competitive protein adsorption--multilayer adsorption and surface induced protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-02-17

    In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions of high concentration with investigation of single protein adsorption and interdependent adsorption between two specific proteins enables us to map protein adsorption sequences during competitive protein adsorption. Our study shows that proteins can adsorb in a multilayer fashion onto the polymer surfaces and that the outcome of IgG adsorption is much more sensitive to surface characteristics than the outcome of albumin adsorption. Using high concentrations of protein solution and hydrophobic polymer surfaces during adsorption can induce IgG aggregation, which is observed as extremely high IgG adsorptions. Besides using a more hydrophilic substrate, surface-induced IgG aggregation can be inhibited by changing the adsorption sequence of albumin and IgG.

  19. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Salivary flow rate and biochemical composition analysis in stimulated whole saliva of children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Modesto, Karine Barros; de Godói Simões, Jéssica Bueno; de Souza, Amanda Ferreira; Damaceno, Neiva; Duarte, Danilo Antonio; Leite, Mariana Ferreira; de Almeida, Eliete Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    It is recognized that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients present a risk for oral diseases, since it affects exocrine glands, and the treatment consists of a carbohydrate-rich diet. Recognizing the protective function of saliva on maintaining oral health, the aim of the study was to evaluate salivary parameters in stimulated whole saliva from children with CF. A case-control study was conducted comparing stimulated whole saliva of healthy (n=28; control group) and CF children (n=21; experimental group). Salivary flow rate, initial pH, buffer capacity (total and in each range of pH), total protein and sialic acid (total, free, and conjugated) concentration, α-amylase and salivary peroxidase activities were evaluated. Data were compared by two-tailed Student t test (95% CI; p ≤ 0.05). CF patients presented a significant reduction in salivary parameters compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05): salivary flow rate (36%), buffer capacity (pH range from 6.9 to 6.0), sialic acid concentration (total 75%, free 61%, and conjugated 83%); α-amylase and salivary peroxidase activities (55%). Additionally, a significant increase in total protein concentration (180%) of stimulated whole saliva from CF patients was verified compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). Children with CF presented significant changes in salivary composition, including salivary flow rate, buffering capacity and protective proteins of the oral cavity, compared with children without CF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Salivary gland diseases : infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K; Spijkervet, FK; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary

  2. Breast cancer exosome-like microvesicles and salivary gland cells interplay alters salivary gland cell-derived exosome-like microvesicles in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang S Lau

    Full Text Available Saliva is a useful biofluid for the early detection of disease, but how distal tumors communicate with the oral cavity and create disease-specific salivary biomarkers remains unclear. Using an in vitro breast cancer model, we demonstrated that breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles are capable of interacting with salivary gland cells, altering the composition of their secreted exosome-like microvesicles. We found that the salivary gland cells secreted exosome-like microvesicles encapsulating both protein and mRNA. We also showed that the interaction with breast cancer-derived exosome-like microvesicles communicated and activated the transcriptional machinery of the salivary gland cells. Thus, the interaction altered the composition of the salivary gland cell-derived exosome-like microvesicles on both the transcriptomically and proteomically.

  3. Comparison of heat-induced aggregation of globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaije, Roy J B M; Wierenga, Peter A; Giuseppin, Marco L F; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-06-03

    Typically, heat-induced aggregation of proteins is studied using a single protein under various conditions (e.g., temperature). Because different studies use different conditions and methods, a mechanistic relationship between molecular properties and the aggregation behavior of proteins has not been identified. Therefore, this study investigates the kinetics of heat-induced aggregation and the size/density of formed aggregates for three different proteins (ovalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and patatin) under various conditions (pH, ionic strength, concentration, and temperature). The aggregation rate of β-lactoglobulin was slower (>10 times) than that of ovalbumin and patatin. Moreover, the conditions (pH, ionic strength, and concentration) affected the aggregation kinetics of β-lactoglobulin more strongly than for ovalbumin and patatin. In contrast to the kinetics, for all proteins the aggregate size/density increased with decreasing electrostatic repulsion. By comparing these proteins under these conditions, it became clear that the aggregation behavior cannot easily be correlated to the molecular properties (e.g., charge and exposed hydrophobicity).

  4. Choir versus Solo Singing: Effects on Mood, and Salivary Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moritz Schladt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of salivary oxytocin (OXT concentrations emerges as a helpful tool to assess peripheral OXT secretion at baseline and after various challenges in healthy and clinical populations. Both positive social interactions and stress are known to induce OXT secretion, but the relative influence of either of these triggers is not well delineated. Choir singing is an activity known to improve mood and to induce feelings of social closeness, and may therefore be used to investigate the effects of positive social experiences on OXT system activity. We quantified mood and salivary OXT and cortisol (CORT concentrations before, during, and after both choir and solo singing performed in a randomized order in the same participants (repeated measures. Happiness was increased, and worry and sadness as well as salivary CORT concentrations were reduced, after both choir and solo singing. Surprisingly, salivary OXT concentrations were significantly reduced after choir singing, but did not change in response to solo singing. Salivary OXT concentrations showed high intra-individual stability, whereas salivary CORT concentrations fluctuated between days within participants. The present data indicate that the social experience of choir singing does not induce peripheral OXT secretion, as indicated by unchanged salivary OXT levels. Rather, the reduction of stress/arousal experienced during choir singing may lead to an inhibition of peripheral OXT secretion. These data are important for the interpretation of future reports on salivary OXT concentrations, and emphasize the need to strictly control for stress/arousal when designing similar experiments.

  5. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  6. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  8. BLM protein mitigates formaldehyde-induced genomic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Owen, Nichole; Juarez, Eleonora; McCullough, Amanda K

    2015-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a reactive aldehyde that has been classified as a class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Cancer Research. There are growing concerns over the possible adverse health effects related to the occupational and environmental human exposures to formaldehyde. Although formaldehyde-induced DNA and protein adducts have been identified, the genomic instability mechanisms and the cellular tolerance pathways associated with formaldehyde exposure are not fully characterized. This study specifically examines the role of a genome stability protein, Bloom (BLM) in limiting formaldehyde-induced cellular and genetic abnormalities. Here, we show that in the absence of BLM protein, formaldehyde-treated cells exhibited increased cellular sensitivity, an immediate cell cycle arrest, and an accumulation of chromosome radial structures. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that formaldehyde-treated cells are dependent on BLM for timely segregation of daughter cells. Both wild-type and BLM-deficient formaldehyde-treated cells showed an accumulation of 53BP1 and γH2AX foci indicative of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, relative to wild-type cells, the BLM-deficient cells exhibited delayed repair of formaldehyde-induced DSBs. In response to formaldehyde exposure, we observed co-localization of 53BP1 and BLM foci at the DSB repair site, where ATM-dependent accumulation of formaldehyde-induced BLM foci occurred after the recruitment of 53BP1. Together, these findings highlight the significance of functional interactions among ATM, 53BP1, and BLM proteins as responders associated with the repair and tolerance mechanisms induced by formaldehyde. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of protein secondary structures by laser induced autofluorescence: A study of urea and GnHCl induced protein denaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaramaiah, Manjunath; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish; Roy, Suparna; Chandra, Subhash; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2017-03-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to interrogate the bulk secondary structures of some selected proteins (BSA, HSA, lysozyme, trypsin and ribonuclease A) under urea and GnHCl denaturation using laser induced autofluorescence. The proteins were treated with different concentrations of urea (3 M, 6 M, 9 M) and GnHCl (2 M, 4 M, 6 M) and the corresponding steady state autofluorescence spectra were recorded at 281 nm pulsed laser excitations. The recorded fluorescence spectra of proteins were then interpreted based on the existing PDB structures of the proteins and the Trp solvent accessibility (calculated using "Scratch protein predictor" at 30% threshold). Further, the influence of rigidity and conformation of the indole ring (caused by protein secondary structures) on the intrinsic fluorescence properties of proteins were also evaluated using fluorescence of ANS-HSA complexes, CD spectroscopy as well as with trypsin digestion experiments. The outcomes obtained clearly demonstrated GnHCl preferably disrupt helix as compared to the beta β-sheets whereas, urea found was more effective in disrupting β-sheets as compared to the helices. The other way round the proteins which have shown detectable change in the intrinsic fluorescence at lower concentrations of GnHCl were rich in helices whereas, the proteins which showed detectable change in the intrinsic fluorescence at lower concentrations of urea were rich in β-sheets. Since high salt concentrations like GnHCl and urea interfere in the secondary structure analysis by circular dichroism Spectrometry, the present method of analyzing secondary structures using laser induced autofluorescence will be highly advantageous over existing tools for the same.

  10. Light-induced protein nitration and degradation with HONO emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, Hannah; Elshorbany, Yasin; Kuhn, Uwe; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Kampf, Christopher J.; Li, Guo; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Lelieveld, Jos; Pöschl, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Su, Hang; Ammann, Markus; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-10-01

    Proteins can be nitrated by air pollutants (NO2), enhancing their allergenic potential. This work provides insight into protein nitration and subsequent decomposition in the presence of solar radiation. We also investigated light-induced formation of nitrous acid (HONO) from protein surfaces that were nitrated either online with instantaneous gas-phase exposure to NO2 or offline by an efficient nitration agent (tetranitromethane, TNM). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) were used as model substances for proteins. Nitration degrees of about 1 % were derived applying NO2 concentrations of 100 ppb under VIS/UV illuminated conditions, while simultaneous decomposition of (nitrated) proteins was also found during long-term (20 h) irradiation exposure. Measurements of gas exchange on TNM-nitrated proteins revealed that HONO can be formed and released even without contribution of instantaneous heterogeneous NO2 conversion. NO2 exposure was found to increase HONO emissions substantially. In particular, a strong dependence of HONO emissions on light intensity, relative humidity, NO2 concentrations and the applied coating thickness was found. The 20 h long-term studies revealed sustained HONO formation, even when concentrations of the intact (nitrated) proteins were too low to be detected after the gas exchange measurements. A reaction mechanism for the NO2 conversion based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics is proposed.

  11. [Contact urticaria induced by hydrolyzed wheat proteins in cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiwan, A; Pecquet, C; Mathelier-Fusade, P; Francès, C

    2010-04-01

    Hydrolyzed wheat protein, produced by hydrolysis of gluten, is used in certain cosmetics and foods as emulsifiers and stabilizers. It can induce contact urticaria to cosmetics and/or anaphylaxis to food via an immunologic mechanism. A 28-year-old female beautician presented recurrent contact urticaria, initially on the hands and then more diffused, immediately after applying cosmetics of the same brand containing hydrolyzed wheat protein. Skin tests were positive with the cosmetics and with the hydrolyzed wheat protein contained therein. A 34-year-old woman presented four episodes of generalized urticaria after eating industrially prepared foods. She had also experienced contact urticaria with cosmetics. Skin tests with hydrolyzed wheat protein were positive. For both patients, withdrawal of cosmetics and foods containing hydrolyzed wheat protein led to the regression of symptoms. They were both tolerant to traditional wheat products, such as bread and pastries. Although contact urticaria to hydrolyzed wheat protein is rarely described, it must be understood since treatment by eradication of this product is simple and because contact urticaria may precede food allergy. Patients are tolerant to products containing unmodified wheat protein. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective cloning, characterization, and production of the Culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland allergen repertoire associated with equine insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anna; Marti, Eliane; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjörg; Mellor, Philip S; Crameri, Reto; Rhyner, Claudio

    2011-02-15

    Salivary gland proteins of Culicoides spp. have been suggested to be among the main allergens inducing IgE-mediated insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), an allergic dermatitis of the horse. The aim of our study was to identify, produce and characterize IgE-binding salivary gland proteins of Culicoides nubeculosus relevant for IBH by phage surface display technology. A cDNA library constructed with mRNA derived from C. nubeculosus salivary glands was displayed on the surface of filamentous phage M13 and enriched for clones binding serum IgE of IBH-affected horses. Ten cDNA inserts encoding putative salivary gland allergens were isolated and termed Cul n 2 to Cul n 11. However, nine cDNA sequences coded for truncated proteins as determined by database searches. The cDNA sequences were amplified by PCR, subcloned into high level expression vectors and expressed as hexahistidine-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Preliminary ELISA results obtained with these fusions confirmed the specific binding to serum IgE of affected horses. Therefore, the putative complete open reading frames derived from BLAST analyses were isolated by RACE-PCR and subcloned into expression vectors. The full length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli showed molecular masses in the range of 15.5-68.7 kDa in SDS-PAGE in good agreement with the masses calculated from the predicted protein sequences. Western blot analyses of all recombinant allergens with a serum pool of IBH-affected horses showed their ability to specifically bind serum IgE of sensitized horses, and ELISA determinations yielded individual horse recognition patterns with a frequency of sensitization ranging from 13 to 57%, depending on the allergen tested. The in vivo relevance of eight of the recombinant allergens was demonstrated in intradermal skin testing. For the two characterized allergens Cul n 6 and Cul n 11, sensitized horses were not available for intradermal tests. Control horses without clinical signs of IBH

  13. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  14. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  15. Depletion-induced instability in protein-DNA mixtures: Influence of protein charge and size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.J.

    2006-01-01

    While there is abundant experimental and theoretical work on polymer-induced DNA condensation, it is still unclear whether globular proteins can condense linear DNA or not. We develop a simple analytical approximation for the depletion attraction between rodlike segments of semiflexible

  16. Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.

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    Shiuan-Pey Lin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg or an equal volume of water (W. Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W, immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W, and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W. Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA, lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity.

  17. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked

  18. Evaluation of biochemical changes in unstimulated salivary, calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TORNADO

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... Evaluation of biochemical changes in unstimulated salivary, calcium, phosphorous and total protein during pregnancy. Mahin Bakhshi1, Majid Sirati Sabet2, Elham Sadat Hashemi3, Sedigheh Bakhtiari1, Maryam. Tofangchiha4* Saranaz Azari Marhabi5 and Somayyeh Alirezaei5. 1Department of Oral ...

  19. 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

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    J.C. de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it does not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

  20. Membrane alterations induced by nonstructural proteins of human norovirus.

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    Sylvie Y Doerflinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (huNoV are the most frequent cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, particularly genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 variants. The viral nonstructural (NS proteins encoded by the ORF1 polyprotein induce vesical clusters harboring the viral replication sites. Little is known so far about the ultrastructure of these replication organelles or the contribution of individual NS proteins to their biogenesis. We compared the ultrastructural changes induced by expression of norovirus ORF1 polyproteins with those induced upon infection with murine norovirus (MNV. Characteristic membrane alterations induced by ORF1 expression resembled those found in MNV infected cells, consisting of vesicle accumulations likely built from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER which included single membrane vesicles (SMVs, double membrane vesicles (DMVs and multi membrane vesicles (MMVs. In-depth analysis using electron tomography suggested that MMVs originate through the enwrapping of SMVs with tubular structures similar to mechanisms reported for picornaviruses. Expression of GII.4 NS1-2, NS3 and NS4 fused to GFP revealed distinct membrane alterations when analyzed by correlative light and electron microscopy. Expression of NS1-2 induced proliferation of smooth ER membranes forming long tubular structures that were affected by mutations in the active center of the putative NS1-2 hydrolase domain. NS3 was associated with ER membranes around lipid droplets (LDs and induced the formation of convoluted membranes, which were even more pronounced in case of NS4. Interestingly, NS4 was the only GII.4 protein capable of inducing SMV and DMV formation when expressed individually. Our work provides the first ultrastructural analysis of norovirus GII.4 induced vesicle clusters and suggests that their morphology and biogenesis is most similar to picornaviruses. We further identified NS4 as a key factor in the formation of membrane alterations of huNoV and

  1. Comparative evaluation and correlation of salivary total antioxidant capacity and salivary pH in caries-free and severe early childhood caries children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchandi, Sneha; Walimbe, Hrishikesh; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Nankar, Meenakshi; Chaturvedi, Srishti; Karekar, Priyanka

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is a major problem in preschool children. The contribution of saliva in providing defense during caries process is of primary importance. pH buffer capacity through bicarbonate, phosphate and protein buffer systems have universal acceptance as a caries defense mechanism. Antioxidant capacity of saliva can constitute a first line of defense against chronic degenerative diseases including dental caries. Till date, no study is presented with salivary antioxidant capacity of younger children affected with severe early childhood caries with its salivary pH correlation. Hence, this study was carried out to compare, evaluate and correlate the salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and salivary pH of children with caries-free and severe early childhood caries. Fifty children from ages 3 to 5 years divided into two study groups had undergone screening. Group I (n = 25) with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and group II (n = 25) who were caries free. Unstimulated whole saliva of subjects were in the collection during the study by draining method. Salivary pH determination of saliva samples was done using pH indicator paper strips. The TAC was done using an antioxidant assay with the help of a spectrophotometer at wavelength 532 nm. The means of salivary pH and TAC were subjected to analysis using unpaired student 't' test and correlation was determined using Pearsons correlation coefficient analysis. Mean salivary pH was higher in group II (7.46 ± 0.37). Mean TAC was greater in group I (1.82 ± 0.19). A statistically significant negative correlation as seen between TAC and salivary pH in S-ECC patients. The study concludes that salivary TAC increases in patients with S-ECC are by that showing a high indirect relationship with salivary pH.

  2. Wide cross-reactivity between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus SG6 salivary proteins supports exploitation of gSG6 as a marker of human exposure to major malaria vectors in tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrarca Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anopheles gambiae gSG6 is an anopheline-specific salivary protein which helps female mosquitoes to efficiently feed on blood. Besides its role in haematophagy, gSG6 is immunogenic and elicits in exposed individuals an IgG response, which may be used as indicator of exposure to the main African malaria vector A. gambiae. However, malaria transmission in tropical Africa is sustained by three main vectors (A. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus and a general marker, reflecting exposure to at least these three species, would be especially valuable. The SG6 protein is highly conserved within the A. gambiae species complex whereas the A. funestus homologue, fSG6, is more divergent (80% identity with gSG6. The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-reactivity of human sera to gSG6 and fSG6. Methods The A. funestus SG6 protein was expressed/purified and the humoral response to gSG6, fSG6 and a combination of the two antigens was compared in a population from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso where both vectors were present, although with a large A. gambiae prevalence (>75%. Sera collected at the beginning and at the end of the high transmission/rainy season, as well as during the following low transmission/dry season, were analysed. Results According to previous observations, both anti-SG6 IgG level and prevalence decreased during the low transmission/dry season and showed a typical age-dependent pattern. No significant difference in the response to the two antigens was found, although their combined use yielded in most cases higher IgG level. Conclusions Comparative analysis of gSG6 and fSG6 immunogenicity to humans suggests the occurrence of a wide cross-reactivity, even though the two proteins carry species-specific epitopes. This study supports the use of gSG6 as reliable indicator of exposure to the three main African malaria vectors, a marker which may be useful to monitor malaria transmission

  3. Nicotine-induced protein expression profiling reveals mutually altered proteins across four human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A; Gygi, Steven P

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategies can profile the expression level of proteins in response to external stimuli. Nicotine affects diverse cellular pathways, however, the nicotine-induced alterations on the global proteome across human cell lines have not been fully elucidated. We measured perturbations in protein levels resulting from nicotine treatment in four cell lines-HEK, HeLa, PaSC, and SH-SY5Y-in a single experiment using tandem mass tags (TMT10-plex) and high-resolution mass spectrometry. We quantified 8590 proteins across all cell lines. Of these, nicotine increased the abundance of 31 proteins 1.5-fold or greater in all cell lines. Likewise, considering proteins with altered levels in at least three of the four cell lines, 64 were up-regulated, while one was down-regulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that ∼40% of these proteins were membrane bound, and functioned in transmembrane signaling and receptor activity. We highlighted proteins, including APP, APLP2, LAPTM4B, and NCOA4, which were dysregulated by nicotine in all cell lines investigated and may have implications in downstream signaling pathways, particularly autophagy. Using the outlined methodology, studies in additional (including primary) cell lines will provide further evidence that alterations in the levels of these proteins are indeed a general response to nicotine and thereby merit further investigation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Reciprocal relation between GADD153 and Del-1 in regulation of salivary gland inflammation in Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baban, Babak; Liu, Jun Yao; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2013-12-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a pivotal regulator of inflammation and cell death. An integral component of ER stress-induced apoptosis is expression of growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible protein 153 (GADD153). Further, ER stress response is implicated in leukocyte adhesion and recent studies have discovered endogenous inhibitors of leukocyte adhesion including the developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1). Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is associated with increased salivary gland expression of GADD153 and increased leukocyte infiltration in association with decreased Del-1 thereby contributing to inflammation and cell death. We utilized the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of SS-like disease, in association with immunostaining and flow cytometry-based studies. Salivary glands of 14-week-old NOD mice displayed a) increased GADD153 expression, b) marked reduction in Del-1, c) inflammatory cell infiltrates including CD3+ T and CD19+ B lymphocytes as well as M1 and M2 macrophages and d) increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-17 but reduced anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. These changes were accompanied with disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and significant increase in apoptosis and necrosis of salivary gland cells of NOD than control mice. Our collective observations suggested that GADD153 directly and/or indirectly through downregulation of Del-1 contributes importantly to salivary gland inflammation and cell death. To establish the relevance of GADD153 and Del-1 for the human condition, lower lip biopsy samples of non-SS subjects and those with a diagnosis of SS were subjected to immunohistochemistry. The results show intense GADD153 immunostaining but marked reduction in Del-1 expression in biopsy samples of SS compared to non-SS subjects. Collectively, the results indicate that GADD153 regulates inflammation and cell death in salivary gland in SS. Further, Del-1 expression likely

  5. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

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    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  6. Salivary conditioning with antennal gustatory unconditioned stimulus in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Sato, Chihiro; Kuramochi, Tomokazu; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Classical conditioning of olfactory conditioning stimulus (CS) with gustatory unconditioned stimulus (US) in insects has been used as a pertinent model for elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. However, a conditioning system in which stable intracellular recordings from brain neurons are feasibly obtained while monitoring the conditioning effect has remained to be established. Recently, we found classical conditioning of salivation in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, in which an odor was associated with sucrose solution applied to the mouth, and this conditioning could be monitored by activities of salivary neurons. Application of gustatory US to the mouth, however, leads to feeding movement accompanying a movement of the brain that prevents stable recordings from brain neurons. Here we investigated whether a gustatory stimulus presented to an antenna could serve as an effective US for producing salivary conditioning. Presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution to an antenna induced salivation and also increased activities of salivary neurons. A single pairing trial of an odor with antennal presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution produced conditioning of salivation or of activities of salivary neurons. Five pairing trials led to a conditioning effect that lasted for one day. Water or tactile stimulus presented to an antenna was not effective for producing conditioning. The results demonstrate that gustatory US presented to an antenna is as effective as that presented to the mouth for producing salivary conditioning. This conditioning system provides a useful model for studying the neural basis of learning at the level of singly identifiable neurons.

  7. Functional salivary gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Imamura, Aya; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Nakajima, Kei; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction, also known as xerostomia, occurs as a result of radiation therapy for head cancer, Sjögren’s syndrome or aging, and can cause a variety of critical oral health issues, including dental decay, bacterial infection, mastication dysfunction, swallowing dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Here we demonstrate the full functional regeneration of a salivary gland that reproduces the morphogenesis induced by reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions through the orthotopic transplantation of a bioengineered salivary gland germ as a regenerative organ replacement therapy. The bioengineered germ develops into a mature gland through acinar formations with a myoepithelium and innervation. The bioengineered submandibular gland produces saliva in response to the administration of pilocarpine and gustatory stimulation by citrate, protects against oral bacterial infection and restores normal swallowing in a salivary gland-defective mouse model. This study thus provides a proof-of-concept for bioengineered salivary gland regeneration as a potential treatment of xerostomia. PMID:24084982

  8. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-07-10

    Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3-4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12-22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  10. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk

    2008-06-15

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  11. Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw P Kozak

    Full Text Available The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS. The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins.

  12. Effects of enamel abrasion, salivary pellicle, and measurement angle on the optical assessment of dental erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, Adrian; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Beyeler, Barbara; Megert, Brigitte; Meier, Christoph; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed the effects of abrasion, salivary proteins, and measurement angle on the quantification of early dental erosion by the analysis of reflection intensities from enamel. Enamel from 184 caries-free human molars was used for in vitro erosion in citric acid (pH 3.6). Abrasion of the eroded enamel resulted in a 6% to 14% increase in the specular reflection intensity compared to only eroded enamel, and the reflection increase depended on the erosion degree. Nevertheless, monitoring of early erosion by reflection analysis was possible even in the abraded eroded teeth. The presence of the salivary pellicle induced up to 22% higher reflection intensities due to the smoothing of the eroded enamel by the adhered proteins. However, this measurement artifact could be significantly minimized (pmeasurement angles from 45 to 60 deg did not improve the sensitivity of the analysis at late erosion stages. The applicability of the method for monitoring the remineralization of eroded enamel remained unclear in a demineralization/remineralization cycling model of early dental erosion in vitro.

  13. Salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'heygere, Emmanuel; Meulemans, Jeroen; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2018-01-25

    The review puts new information on geno- and phenotype of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the perspective of the updated 2017 WHO classification. The proportion of SDC is increasing. This may be because of a true rise in incidence, but certainly to better diagnostic tests and changed WHO definitions. In this light, a substantial proportion of carcinoma expleomorphic adenoma is now attributed to the category of SDC. 'Low-grade SDC' and 'SDC in-situ' of the former WHO classification, are now named low-grade and high-grade intraductal carcinoma (IDC), respectively. Recent series quantify biologic aggressiveness: perineural growth, vascular invasion, and extracapsular extension in lymph node metastasis are each observed in two out of three patients with SDC. Most patients die within 3 years, but once 5-year disease-free survival is reached, further disease activity is exceptional. The typical molecular biological profile with high human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and androgen receptor expression is increasingly successfully exploited in clinical trials for advanced SDC. The aggressive SDC is increasingly diagnosed. Despite intensive combined surgery and radiation therapy, many patients recur, for whom new bullets, targeting the molecular biological mechanisms, are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.

  14. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: successes and barriers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B; Baum, Bruce J; Limesand, Kirsten H; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C; Elting, Linda S; Langendijk, Johannes A; Coppes, Robert P; Reyland, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head and neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This paper addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to: (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy. PMID:20970030

  15. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients: successes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B; Baum, Bruce J; Limesand, Kirsten H; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C; Elting, Linda S; Langendijk, Johannes A; Coppes, Robert P; Reyland, Mary E

    2010-11-15

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients: successes and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissink, A.; Mitchell, J.B.; Baum, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury......, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged...

  17. Lundep, a sand fly salivary endonuclease increases Leishmania parasite survival in neutrophils and inhibits XIIa contact activation in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza C Chagas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the host's first line of defense against infections, and their extracellular traps (NET were recently shown to kill Leishmania parasites. Here we report a NET-destroying molecule (Lundep from the salivary glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome of Lu. longipalpis showed the potential presence of an endonuclease. Indeed, not only was the cloned cDNA (Lundep shown to encode a highly active ss- and dsDNAse, but also the same activity was demonstrated to be secreted by salivary glands of female Lu. longipalpis. Lundep hydrolyzes both ss- and dsDNA with little sequence specificity with a calculated DNase activity of 300000 Kunitz units per mg of protein. Disruption of PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate- or parasite-induced NETs by treatment with recombinant Lundep or salivary gland homogenates increases parasite survival in neutrophils. Furthermore, co-injection of recombinant Lundep with metacyclic promastigotes significantly exacerbates Leishmania infection in mice when compared with PBS alone or inactive (mutagenized Lundep. We hypothesize that Lundep helps the parasite to establish an infection by allowing it to escape from the leishmanicidal activity of NETs early after inoculation. Lundep may also assist blood meal intake by lowering the local viscosity caused by the release of host DNA and as an anticoagulant by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

  18. CHITINASES IN SALIVARY GLANDS AND CIRCULATION IN SJÖGREN’S SYNDROME - MACROPHAGE HARBINGERS OF DISEASE SEVERITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Gliozzi, Maria; Kapsogeorgou, Efstathia; Rangel, Zoila; Munson, Peter J.; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M.; Wahl, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sjögren’s syndrome(SS) represents a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that targets salivary and lacrimal glands and may be accompanied by multi-organ systemic manifestations. To further an understanding of immunopathology associated with SS and uncover therapeutic targets, we compared gene expression profiles of salivary glands with severe inflammation to those with mild or no disease. Methods Using microarray profiling of salivary gland tissues from SS patients and controls, we identified target genes that were further characterized in tissues, serum and in cultured cell populations by real time PCR and protein analyses. Results Among the most highly expressed SS genes were genes associated with myeloid cells, including members of the mammalian chitinase family, not previously associated with exocrinopathies. Both chitinase-3-like-1(CHI3L1/YKL-40) and chitinase 1(CHIT1), highly conserved chitinase-like glycoproteins, one with and one lacking enzymatic activity, were evident at the transcriptome level, and detected within inflamed tissues. Chitinases are expressed during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, and augmented by cytokines, including IFNα. Conclusions Since elevated expression of these and other macrophage-derived molecules corresponded with more severe SS, these observations suggest potential immunopathologic macrophage involvement and furthermore, that the tissue macrophage transcriptional profile reflects multiple genes induced by IFNα. PMID:21618203

  19. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome, Allergic Proctocolitis, and Enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuille, Elizabeth; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-08-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis (FPIES), allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and enteropathy (FPE) are among a number of immune-mediated reactions to food that are thought to occur primarily via non-IgE-mediated pathways. All three are typically present in infancy and are triggered most commonly by cow's milk protein. The usual presenting features are vomiting with lethargy and dehydration in FPIES; bloody and mucous stools in FPIAP; and diarrhea with malabsorption and failure to thrive in FPE. Diagnosis is based on convincing history and resolution of symptoms with food avoidance; confirmatory diagnostic testing other than food challenge is lacking. The mainstay of management is avoidance of the suspected inciting food, with interval challenge to assess for resolution, which usually occurs in the first years of life. Studies published in the past few years clarify common presenting features, report additional culprit foods, address potential biomarkers, and suggest new management strategies.

  20. HERG Protein Plays a Role in Moxifloxacin-Induced Hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hai-Yan; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Yang, Fang-Yuan; Shi, Ting-Ting; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moxifloxacin on HERG channel protein and glucose metabolism. HERG expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry. The whole-cell patch clamp method was used to examine the effect of moxifloxacin on HERG channel currents. A glucose tolerance test was used to analyze the effects of moxifloxacin on blood glucose and insulin concentrations in mice. Results show that HERG protein was expressed in human pancreatic β-cells. Moxifloxacin inhibited HERG time-dependent and tail currents in HEK293 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 of moxifloxacin inhibition was 36.65 μmol/L. Moxifloxacin (200 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels and increased insulin secretion in wild-type mice at 60 min after the start of the glucose tolerance test. In contrast, moxifloxacin did not significantly alter blood glucose and insulin levels in HERG knockout mice. Serum glucose levels increased and insulin concentrations decreased in HERG knockout mice when compared to wild-type mice. The moxifloxacin-induced decrease in blood glucose and increase in insulin secretion occurred via the HERG protein; thus, HERG protein plays a role in insulin secretion.

  1. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  2. Characterization of necrosis-inducing NLP proteins in Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bao-Zhen; Zhu, Xiao-Ping; Fu, Li; Lv, Rong-Fei; Storey, Dylan; Tooley, Paul; Zhang, Xiu-Guo

    2014-05-08

    Effector proteins function not only as toxins to induce plant cell death, but also enable pathogens to suppress or evade plant defense responses. NLP-like proteins are considered to be effector proteins, and they have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete plant pathogens. There is increasing evidence that NLPs have the ability to induce cell death and ethylene accumulation in plants. We evaluated the expression patterns of 11 targeted PcNLP genes by qRT-PCR at different time points after infection by P. capsici. Several PcNLP genes were strongly expressed at the early stages in the infection process, but the expression of other PcNLP genes gradually increased to a maximum at late stages of infection. The genes PcNLP2, PcNLP6 and PcNLP14 showed the highest expression levels during infection by P. capsici. The necrosis-inducing activity of all targeted PcNLP genes was evaluated using heterologous expression by PVX agroinfection of Capsicum annuum and Nicotiana benthamiana and by Western blot analysis. The members of the PcNLP family can induce chlorosis or necrosis during infection of pepper and tobacco leaves, but the chlorotic or necrotic response caused by PcNLP genes was stronger in pepper leaves than in tobacco leaves. Moreover, PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 caused the largest chlorotic or necrotic areas in both host plants, indicating that these three genes contribute to strong virulence during infection by P. capsici. This was confirmed through functional evaluation of their silenced transformants. In addition, we further verified that four conserved residues are putatively active sites in PcNLP1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Each targeted PcNLP gene affects cells or tissues differently depending upon the stage of infection. Most PcNLP genes could trigger necrotic or chlorotic responses when expressed in the host C. annuum and the non-host N. benthamiana. Individual PcNLP genes have different phytotoxic effects, and PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 may

  3. Improving analytical methods for protein-protein interaction through implementation of chemically inducible dimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonni Grube; Nintemann, Sebastian; Marek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    When investigating interactions between two proteins with complementary reporter tags in yeast two-hybrid or split GFP assays, it remains troublesome to discriminate true-from false-negative results and challenging to compare the level of interaction across experiments. This leads to decreased...... into the widely used split ubiquitin-, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC)- and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based methods and investigated different protein-protein interactions in yeast and plants. We demonstrate the functionality of this concept by the analysis of weakly interacting...... sensitivity and renders analysis of weak or transient interactions difficult to perform. In this work, we describe the development of reporters that can be chemically induced to dimerize independently of the investigated interactions and thus alleviate these issues. We incorporated our reporters...

  4. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma Mimicking Salivary Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid g...

  5. Protein tyrosine kinase but not protein kinase C inhibition blocks receptor induced alveolar macrophage activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pollock

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The selective enzyme inhibitors genistein and Ro 31-8220 were used to assess the importance of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK and protein kinase C (PKC, respectively, in N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP induced generation of superoxide anion and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages (AM. Genistein (3–100 μM dose dependently inhibited FMLP (3 nM induced superoxide generation in non-primed AM and TXB2 release in non-primed or in lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 ng/ml primed AM to a level > 80% but had litle effect up to 100 μM on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA (10 nM induced superoxide release. Ro 31-8220 inhibited PMA induced superoxide generation (IC50 0.21 ± 0.10 μM but had no effect on or potentiated (at 3 and 10 μM FMLP responses in non-primed AM. In contrast, when present during LPS priming as well as during FMLP challenge Ro 31-8220 (10 μM inhibited primed TXB2 release by > 80%. The results indicate that PTK activation is required for the generation of these inflammatory mediators by FMLP in AM. PKC activation appears to be required for LPS priming but not for transducing the FMLP signal; rather, PKC activation may modulate the signal by a negative feedback mechanism.

  6. Salivary glucose and antioxidant defense markers in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussavira, Sayeeda; Dharmalingam, Mala; Omana Sukumaran, Bindhu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate salivary antioxidant defense markers, their correlation with salivary glucose, and glycemic status in type II diabetes mellitus (DM). The study included 53 diabetic patients and 40 healthy subjects. Salivary glucose, blood glucose, and uric acid (UA) were determined by specific enzymatic methods. Total antioxidant activity (AOA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total protein were determined spectrophotometrically. Salivary UA (3.12 vs. 1.89 mg/dL), GSH (47 vs. 11.92 jg/mL), and total protein (375.12 vs. 202.23 mg/dL) were significantly higher (P glucose and blood glucose (P glucose and GSH, and salivary glucose and UA. Salivary glucose showed a negative correlation with AOA and CAT (P = 0.008, r = -0.447) in the diabetic group. Findings of this study, showing a strong correlation between salivary glucose and blood glucose as well as changes in antioxidant components in the DM group, suggest that saliva can be used for the diagnosis and management of DM.

  7. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  8. Differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) induces gene and protein expression of the Dictyostelium nuclear calmodulin-binding protein nucleomorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H; Poloz, Yekaterina; Myre, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    The nucleomorphin gene numA1 from Dictyostelium codes for a multi-domain, calmodulin binding protein that regulates nuclear number. To gain insight into the regulation of numA, we assessed the effects of the stalk cell differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), an extracellular signalling molecule, on the expression of numA1 RNA and protein. For comparison, the extracellular signalling molecules cAMP (mediates chemotaxis, prestalk and prespore differentiation) and ammonia (NH(3)/NH(4)(+); antagonizes DIF) were also studied. Starvation, which is a signal for multicellular development, results in a greater than 80% decrease in numA1 mRNA expression within 4 h. Treatment with ammonium chloride led to a greater than 90% inhibition of numA1 RNA expression within 2 h. In contrast, the addition of DIF-1 completely blocked the decrease in numA1 gene expression caused by starvation. Treatment of vegetative cells with cAMP led to decreases in numA1 RNA expression that were equivalent to those seen with starvation. Western blotting after various morphogen treatments showed that the maintenance of vegetative levels of numA1 RNA by DIF-1 in starved cells was reflected in significantly increased numA1 protein levels. Treatment with cAMP and/or ammonia led to decreased protein expression and each of these morphogens suppressed the stimulatory effects of DIF-1. Protein expression levels of CBP4a, a calcium-dependent binding partner of numA1, were regulated in the same manner as numA1 suggesting this potential co-regulation may be related to their functional relationship. NumA1 is the first calmodulin binding protein shown to be regulated by developmental morphogens in Dictyostelium being upregulated by DIF-1 and down-regulated by cAMP and ammonia.

  9. Multilocular developmental salivary gland defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Developmental salivary gland defect is a bone depression on the lingual surface of the mandible containing salivary gland or fatty soft tissue. The most common location is within the submandibular gland fossa and often close to the inferior border of the mandible. This defect is asymptomatic and generally discovered only incidentally during radiographic examination of the area. This defect also appears as a well-defined, corticated, unilocular radiolucency below the mandibular canal. Although it is not uncommon for this defect to appear as a round or ovoid radiolucency, multilocular radiolucency of these defects is relatively rare. This report presents a case of a developmental salivary gland defect with multilocular radiolucency in a male patient.

  10. Identification of the bacteria-binding peptide domain on salivary agglutinin (gp-340/DMBT1), a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, Floris J; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Nazmi, Kamran

    2002-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin is encoded by DMBT1 and identical to gp-340, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1 is known for its Streptococcus mutans agglutinating properties. This 300-400 kDa glycoprotein is composed of conserved peptide motifs: 14...... SRCR domains that are separated by SRCR-interspersed domains (SIDs), 2 CUB (C1r/C1s Uegf Bmp1) domains, and a zona pellucida domain. We have searched for the peptide domains of agglutinin/DMBT1 responsible for bacteria binding. Digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C resulted in a protein fragment....... Strikingly, this peptide was also able to induce agglutination of S. mutans and a number of other bacteria. The repeated presence of this peptide in the native molecule endows agglutinin/DMBT1 with a general bacterial binding feature with a multivalent character. Moreover, our studies demonstrate...

  11. Salivary IgA enhancement strategy for development of a nasal-spray anti-caries mucosal vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin

    2013-05-01

    Dental caries remains one of the most common global chronic diseases caused by Streptococcus mutans, which is prevalent all over the world. The caries prevalence of children aged between 5-6 years old in China is still in very high rate. A potent and effective anti-caries vaccine has long been expected for caries prevention but no vaccines have been brought to market till now mainly due to the low ability to induce and maintain protective antibody in oral fluids. This review will give a brief historical retrospect on study of dental caries and pathogenesis, effective targets for anti-caries vaccines, oral immune system and immunization against dental caries. Then, salivary IgA antibodies and the protective responses are discussed in the context of the ontogeny of mucosal immunity to indigenous oral streptococcal. The methods and advancement for induction of specific anti-caries salivary sIgA antibodies and enhancement of specific anti-caries salivary sIgA antibodies by intranasal immunization with a safe effective mucosal adjuvant are described. The progress in the enhancement of salivary sIgA antibodies and anti-caries protection by intranasal immunization with flagellin-PAc fusion protein will be highlighted. Finally, some of the main strategies that have been used for successful mucosal vaccination of caries vaccine are reviewed, followed by discussion of the mucosal adjuvant choice for achieving protective immunity at oral mucosal membranes for development of a nasal-spray or nasal-drop anti-caries vaccine for human.

  12. High-carbohydrate/low-protein-induced hyperinsulinemia does not improve protein balance in children after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, Vincent G.; Li, Zhihao; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Bos, Albert P.; Jinfeng, Liu; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In pediatric cardiac surgery, fluid-restricted low-protein (LoProt) diets account for cumulative protein deficits with increased morbidity. In this setting, we aimed to inhibit proteolysis by a high-carbohydrate (HiCarb)-intake-induced hyperinsulinemia and improve protein balance.

  13. Obesity-inducing diet promotes acylation stimulating protein resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Alexandre; Lapointe, Marc; Cianflone, Katherine

    2013-08-02

    Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system that is involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation. ASP acts on and correlates positively with postprandial fat clearance in healthy subjects. However, in obesity, ASP levels are elevated and correlate inversely with fat clearance, indicative of a potential resistance to ASP. Using a mouse model, we hypothesized that, over time, diet-induced obesity (DIO) would result in development of ASP insensitivity, as compared to chow-fed animals as controls. Injection of recombinant ASP in DIO mice failed to accelerate fat clearance to the same extent as in chow-fed mice. DIO mice exhibited higher basal levels of plasma ASP and, after 30weeks of diet, showed lower ASP receptor (C5L2) expression in adipose tissue compared to chow-fed mice. Additionally, ex vivo ASP stimulation failed to induce normal Ser(473)AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue from DIO mice VS chow-fed controls. These results demonstrate for the first time a state of diet-induced ASP resistance. Changes in the ASP-C5L2 pathway dynamics in obesity could alter the development of obesity and co-morbidities such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco J; Sun, Jianxin; Wikel, Stephen K

    2007-01-01

    Amongst blood-feeding arthropods, ticks of the family Ixodidae (hard ticks) are vectors and reservoirs of a greater variety of infectious agents than any other ectoparasite. Salivary glands of ixodid ticks secrete a large number of pharmacologically active molecules that not only facilitate feeding but also promote establishment of infectious agents. Genomic, proteomic and immunologic characterization of bioactive salivary gland molecules are, therefore, important as they offer new insights into molecular events occurring at the tick-host interface and they have implications for development of novel control strategies. The present work uses complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence analysis to identify salivary gland transcripts expressed by the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, a vector of the human pathogens causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, tularemia, and Powassan encephalitis as well as the veterinary pathogen Anaplasma marginale. Dermacentor andersoni is also capable of inducing tick paralysis. Automated single-pass DNA sequencing was conducted on 1440 randomly selected cDNA clones from the salivary glands of adult female D. andersoni collected during the early stages of feeding (18-24h). Analysis of the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) resulted in 544 singletons and 218 clusters with more than one quality read and attempts were made to assign putative functions to tick genes based on amino acid identity to published protein databases. Approximately 25.6% (195) of the sequences showed limited or no homology to previously identified gene products. A number of novel sequences were identified which presented significant sequence similarity to mammalian genes normally associated with extracellular matrix (ECM), regulation of immune responses, tumor suppression, and wound healing. Several coding sequences possessed various degrees of homology to previously described proteins from other tick species. Preliminary nucleotide variation

  15. Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1 h later (p salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastricmucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation, which may play important roles in gastric protection against stress-induced injury via the nitrate-dependent NO pathway. PMID:23277147

  16. The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Mendes-Sousa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni2+ increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B complex to prevent C3 convertase formation (C3b-Bb formation is a novel mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement system.

  17. The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F.; do Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Silva, Naylene C. S.; Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson B.; Pereira, Marcos H.; Sant’Anna, Mauricio R. V.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Araujo, Ricardo N.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni2+ increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B complex to prevent C3 convertase formation (C3b-Bb formation) is a novel mechanism that differs from previously described strategies used by other organisms to inhibit the AP of the host complement system. PMID:28912782

  18. Inhibition of oxidant-induced biochemical changes of pork myofibrillar protein by hydrolyzed potato protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L L; Xiong, Y L

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the role of hydrolyzed potato protein (HPP) in protecting myofibril protein isolate (MPI) from oxidative modification. MPI prepared from pork muscle was suspended (30 mg protein/mL) in 15 mM piperazine-N, N-bis(2-ethane sulfonic acid) buffer (pH 6.0) with 0, 0.3, 0.75, and 1.5 mg/mL of antioxidative HPP (1-h Alcalase hydrolysate). Oxidation was induced by incubating the protein suspensions at 4 degrees C for 24 h with (1) an iron-catalyzed oxidizing system (IOS: 0.01 mM FeCl3, 0.1 mM ascorbic acid, and 1.0 mM H202) and (2) a metmyoglobin-oxidizing system (MOS: 0.1 mM metmyoglobin and 0.1 mM H2O2). Changes in oxidized MPI were measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonylcontent, Ca- and K-ATPase activities, and ultraviolet (UV) spectra. Oxidation increased the production of TBARS and protein carbonyls by 2.9- and 0.24-fold in IOS and 5.6- and 2.2-fold in MOS, respectively. The 2 oxidizing systems altered the Ca- and K-ATPase activities and exposed hydrophobic groups buried in MPI. The presence of HPP reduced the extent of MPI oxidation in all physicochemical categories tested. Therefore, HPP may be used as a potential functional ingredient in meat products to enhance their oxidative stability.

  19. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (DDIT3) induces osteoblastic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renata C; Delany, Anne M; Canalis, Ernesto

    2004-04-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP/DDIT3), a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, plays a role in cell survival and differentiation. CHOP/DDIT3 binds to C/EBPs to form heterodimers that do not bind to consensus Cebp sequences, acting as a dominant-negative inhibitor. CHOP/DDIT3 blocks adipogenesis, and we postulated it could induce osteoblastogenesis. We investigated the effects of constitutive CHOP/DDIT3 overexpression in murine ST-2 stromal cells transduced with retroviral vectors. ST-2 cells differentiated toward osteoblasts, and CHOP/DDIT3 accelerated and enhanced the appearance of mineralized nodules, and the expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase mRNAs, particularly in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-2. CHOP/DDIT3 overexpression opposed adipogenesis, and did not cause substantial changes in cell number. CHOP/DDIT3 overexpression did not modify C/EBPalpha or -beta mRNA levels but decreased C/EBPdelta after 24 d of culture. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays demonstrated that overexpression of CHOP/DDIT3 decreased the binding of C/EBPs to their consensus sequence by interacting with C/EBPalpha and -beta, confirming its dominant-negative role. In addition, CHOP/DDIT3 enhanced bone morphogenetic protein-2/Smad signaling. In conclusion, CHOP/DDIT3 enhances osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells, in part by interacting with C/EBPalpha and -beta and also by enhancing Smad signaling.

  20. Effects and Mechanisms of Tastants on the Gustatory-Salivary Reflex in Human Minor Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5′-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation. Blood flow (BF in the nearby labial mucosa also increased following stimulation by each taste except bitter. The BF change and LMSG secretion in each participant showed a significant positive correlation with all tastes, including bitter. Administration of cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate to the labial mucosa evoked a significant increase in both LMSG secretion and BF, while adrenaline, atropine, and pirenzepine decreased LMSG secretion and BF. The change in LMSG secretion and BF induced by each autonomic agent was significantly correlated in each participant. These results indicate that basic tastes can induce the gustatory-salivary reflex in human LMSGs and that parasympathetic regulation is involved in this mechanism.

  1. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F

    2008-01-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The ...

  2. Functional analysis of chloroplast early light inducible proteins (ELIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Carolyn M

    2005-02-22

    The objectives of this project were to characterize gene expression patterns of early light inducible protein (ELIP) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Lycopersicon esculentum, to identify knock mutants of the 2 ELIP genes in Arabidopsis, and to characterize the effects of the knockouts. Expression in Arabidopsis was studied in response to thylakoid electron transport chain (PETC) capacity, where it was found that there is a signal for expression associated with reduction of the PETC. Expression in response to salt was also studied, with different responses of the two gene copies. Knockout lines for ELIP1 and ELIP2 have been identified and are being characterized. In tomato, it was found that the single-copy ELIP gene is highly expressed in ripening fruit during the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition. Studies of expression in tomato ripening mutants are ongoing.

  3. Blood Contamination in Saliva: Impact on the Measurement of Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Kamodyová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary oxidative stress markers represent a promising tool for monitoring of oral diseases. Saliva can often be contaminated by blood, especially in patients with periodontitis. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of blood contamination on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and were artificially contaminated with blood (final concentration 0.001–10%. Next, saliva was collected from 12 gingivitis and 10 control patients before and after dental hygiene treatment. Markers of oxidative stress were measured in all collected saliva samples. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, and antioxidant status were changed in 1% blood-contaminated saliva. Salivary AOPP were increased in control and patients after dental treatment (by 45.7% and 34.1%, p<0.01. Salivary AGEs were decreased in patients after microinjury (by 69.3%, p<0.001. Salivary antioxidant status markers were decreased in both control and patients after dental treatment (p<0.05 and p<0.01. One % blood contamination biased concentrations of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples with 1% blood contamination are visibly discolored and can be excluded from analyses without any specific biochemic detection of blood constituents. Salivary markers of oxidative stress were significantly altered in blood-contaminated saliva in control and patients with gingivitis after dental hygiene treatment.

  4. Mitochondrial mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail K Mithani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. METHODOLOGY: The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77% carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6% carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9% with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH complex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication.

  5. Mitochondrial mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Suhail K; Shao, Chunbo; Tan, Marietta; Smith, Ian M; Califano, Joseph A; El-Naggar, Adel K; Ha, Patrick K

    2009-12-30

    The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77%) carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6%) carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9%) with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex. Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication.

  6. The telomere binding protein TRF2 induces chromatin compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Asmaa M; Fu, Qiang; Hayward, William; Victoria, Samuel; Pedroso, Ilene M; Lindsay, Stuart M; Fletcher, Terace M

    2011-04-19

    Mammalian telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that require the telomere binding protein, TRF2, for maintaining chromosome stability. In addition to its ability to modulate DNA repair activities, TRF2 also has direct effects on DNA structure and topology. Given that mammalian telomeric chromatin includes nucleosomes, we investigated the effect of this protein on chromatin structure. TRF2 bound to reconstituted telomeric nucleosomal fibers through both its basic N-terminus and its C-terminal DNA binding domain. Analytical agarose gel electrophoresis (AAGE) studies showed that TRF2 promoted the folding of nucleosomal arrays into more compact structures by neutralizing negative surface charge. A construct containing the N-terminal and TRFH domains together altered the charge and radius of nucleosomal arrays similarly to full-length TRF2 suggesting that TRF2-driven changes in global chromatin structure were largely due to these regions. However, the most compact chromatin structures were induced by the isolated basic N-terminal region, as judged by both AAGE and atomic force microscopy. Although the N-terminal region condensed nucleosomal array fibers, the TRFH domain, known to alter DNA topology, was required for stimulation of a strand invasion-like reaction with nucleosomal arrays. Optimal strand invasion also required the C-terminal DNA binding domain. Furthermore, the reaction was not stimulated on linear histone-free DNA. Our data suggest that nucleosomal chromatin has the ability to facilitate this activity of TRF2 which is thought to be involved in stabilizing looped telomere structures.

  7. Modulation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in the Salivary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Perle, Krista M.D.; Kim, Dong Chul; Hall, Nathan C.; Bobbey, Adam; Shen, Daniel H.; Nagy, Rebecca S.; Wakely, Paul E.; Lehman, Amy; Jarjoura, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine–induced damage following 131I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland. Methods NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative 123I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after 123I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients. Results NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of 123I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of 123I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake. Conclusions NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated

  8. Current ideas to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; van Luijk, P; Langendijk, J A; Coppes, R P

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced hyposalivation is still a major problem after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Current and promising new thoughts to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary gland tissue are explored. The main cause underlying radiation-induced hyposalivation is a lack of functional saliva-producing acinar cells resulting from radiation-induced stem cell sterilization. Current methods to prevent that damage are radiation techniques to reduce radiation-injury to salivary gland tissue, surgical techniques to relocate salivary glands to a region receiving a lower cumulative radiation dose, and techniques to make salivary gland cells more resistant to radiation injury. These preventive techniques cannot be applied in all cases, also reduce tumor sensitivity, or do not result in a sufficient amelioration of the dryness-related complaints. Therefore, alternative methods on techniques to salvage salivary glands that are damaged by radiation are explored with promising results, such as stem cell therapies and gene transfer techniques to allow the radiation-injured salivary gland tissue to secrete water. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Interferon-γ-induced protein 10 in Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, P; Elia, G; Bonatti, A

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type, that affects about 300,000 people a year in the USA and 65,000 people a year in Europe. Borrelia infection, and Lyme disease, following occupational exposure has been frequently reported in USA, Europe and Asia. The manifestations of Lyme disease include erythema migrans (EM), arthritis, neuroborrelliosis (NB), and others. Cytokines and chemokines primarily orchestrate leukocyte recruitment to the areas of Borrelia infection, and they are critical mediators of immune and inflammatory responses, in particular of the induction of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN-γ dependent chemokines. In EM high levels of T helper (Th) 1 cells chemoattranctants [monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP- 10), and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)] have been shown. Synovial tissues and fluids of patients with Lyme Arthritis (LA) (overall with antibiotic-refractory LA) contained exceptionally high levels of Th1 chemoattractants and cytokines, particularly MIG and IFN-γ. In NB concentrations of IP-10 and I-TAC in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly higher, suggesting that IP-10 and I-TAC create a chemokine gradient between the CSF and serum and recruite C-X-C chemokine receptor 3-expressing memory CD4+ T-cells into the CSF of these patients. A positive association between the disseminating capacity of B. burgdorferi and early type I IFN induction has also been shown. These results suggest that IFN-γ dependent chemokines are important biomarkers to monitor the progression and diffusion of the disease in patients with Borrelia infection; further larger studies are needed.

  10. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in protein energy malnutrition induced liver and kidney damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2013-01-01

    ...) on hepatic injury and kidney injury associated with protein energy malnutrition (PEM). In this study, PEM was induced in weaning male Wistar albino rats by feeding them with low protein diet for 2 weeks...

  11. Effects of prolonged intensive training on the resting levels of salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol in adolescent volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T L; Lin, H C; Ko, M H; Chang, C K; Fang, S H

    2012-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of prolonged intensive training on adolescent athletes. This study investigated the differences in mucosal immune functions and stress responses between intensively trained male adolescent volleyball players and age-matched sedentary controls. Twelve male volleyball players (16.5 [0.7] years of age) and sixteen healthy sedentary male volunteers (17.1 [0.6] years of age) participated in this study. Volleyball players were engaged in regular and year-round training. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from volleyball players during the high-intensity training period and from the counterparts at the same timepoints after at least 18 hours of rest. Concentrations of salivary total protein, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. Results of this study revealed that the SIgA concentrations and the ratio of SIgA/total protein in volleyball players were significantly lower compared with those in sedentary controls. However, the salivary cortisol concentrations and the ratio of cortisol/total protein in volleyball players were markedly higher compared with those in sedentary controls. No significant difference was observed in lactoferrin levels between volleyball players and sedentary controls. The findings of this study suggest that the prolonged intensive training may elicit a sustained stress and induce a suppressive effect on mucosal immunity in regularly and intensively trained adolescent athletes.

  12. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  13. Salivary secretions from the honeybee mite, Varroa destructor: effects on insect haemocytes and preliminary biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E H; Jones, Benjamin; Bowman, Alan

    2011-04-01

    The ectoparasitic honey bee mite Varroa destructor feeds on the haemolymph of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, through a single puncture wound that does not heal but remains open for several days. It was hypothesized that factors in the varroa saliva are responsible for this aberrant wound healing. An in vitro procedure was developed for collecting salivary gland secretions from V. destructor. Mites were incubated on balls of cotton wool soaked in a tissue culture medium (TC-100), and then induced to spit by topical application of an ethanolic pilocarpine solution. Elution of secretions from balls of cotton wool, followed by electrophoretic analysis by SDS-PAGE and electroblotting indicated the presence of at least 15 distinct protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 130 kDa to feed repeatedly off their bee hosts by suppressing haemocyte-mediated wound healing and plugging responses in the host.

  14. Elderly nutritional status effection salivary anticandidal capacity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Puspitawati, Ria; Soedarsono, Nurtami; Putri, Elisabeth A; Putri, Anissha D; Bachtiar, Boy M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Elderly often suffer malnutrition and oral candidiasis. Candida albicans (C. albicans) which is the most prominent cause of oral candidiasis, is one of commensal oral micro-flora. Nutritional status affect the characteristic of saliva. Saliva is the regulator in the development of C. albicans from comensal into pathogen. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determining the correlation between elderly nutritional status with salivary total protein and its activity in inhibitin...

  15. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Khorsand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF, saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA.Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91, while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001.Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis.

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induces multidrug resistance protein in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yingqian Lv, Shan Zhao, Jinzhu Han, Likang Zheng, Zixin Yang, Li Zhao Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Multidrug resistance is the major cause of chemotherapy failure in many solid tumors, including colon cancer. Hypoxic environment is a feature for all solid tumors and is important for the development of tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α is the key transcription factor that mediates cellular response to hypoxia. HIF-1α has been shown to play an important role in tumor resistance; however, the mechanism is still not fully understood. Here, we found that HIF-1α and the drug resistance-associated gene multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1 were induced by treatment of colon cancer cells with the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride. Inhibition of HIF-1α by RNA interference and dominant-negative protein can significantly reduce the induction of MRP1 by hypoxia. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a hypoxia response element is located at -378 to -373 bp upstream of the transcription start site of MRP1 gene. Luciferase reporter assay combined with mutation analysis confirmed that this element is essential for hypoxia-mediated activation of MRP gene. Furthermore, RNA interference revealed that HIF-1α is necessary for this hypoxia-driven activation of MRP1 promoter. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that HIF-1α could directly bind to this HRE site in vivo. Together, these data suggest that MRP1 is a downstream target gene of HIF-1α, which provides a potential novel mechanism for HIF-1α-mediated drug resistance in colon cancer and maybe other solid tumors as well. Keywords: hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, multidrug resistance associated protein, transcriptional regulation, chemotherapy tolerance

  17. Expressão da proteína p53 em 106 adenomas pleomórficos de glândula salivar maior p53 protein expression in 106 pleomorphic adenomas of major salivary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerlucia Cavalcanti das Neves

    2009-08-01

    salivary gland tumor. The parotid gland is the most frequent anatomic site. Its clinical and microscopic features are widely known. However, its pathogenesis is still uncertain as well as the expression of oncogenes and other factors that influence malignant transformation. The objective of this study was to analyze the histopathological features of malignant transformation in pleomorphic adenoma (PA of major salivary gland and correlate them with p53 protein expression in these tumors. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We evaluated 106 cases of PA by researching clinical records retrospectively, reviewing histological preparations in HE and applying immunohistochemical technique through streptavidin biotin method using primary anti-p53 antibody. RESULTS: Histopathological changes related to malignant transformation were unusual: extensive hyalinization (5; 4.7% and necrosis (1; 0.9%. There was positivity for p53 protein in 25 out of 106 cases (23.58%. The histological cell arrangement of p53 - positive tumors was mainly the ductal type (92%; 23 and cordonal (88%, 22. There was no statistically significant association between positivity for p53 and histopathological variables in comparison with negative cases: quantity and type of extracellular matrix, tissue changes suggestive of malignant transformation and metaplasia. CONCLUSIONS: A few cases that showed p53 expression had some kind of morphological change suggestive of malignancy and the correlation between p53 immunoexpression and the presence of changes suggestive of malignant transformation was not statistically significant, which suggests that the protein expression in these tumors do not depend on these characteristics.

  18. Temperature-induced transitions in disordered proteins probed by NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Poulsen, Flemming Martin; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are abundant in nature and perform many important physiological functions. Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy has been crucial for the understanding of the conformational properties of disordered proteins and is increasingly used to probe their conformational...... ensembles. Compared to folded proteins, disordered proteins are more malleable and more easily perturbed by environmental factors. Accordingly, the experimental conditions and especially the temperature modify the structural and functional properties of disordered proteins. NMR spectroscopy allows analysis...... of temperature-induced structural changes at residue resolution using secondary chemical shift analysis, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, and residual dipolar couplings. This chapter discusses practical aspects of NMR studies of temperature-induced structural changes in disordered proteins....

  19. The telomere binding protein TRF2 induces chromatin compaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa M Baker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that require the telomere binding protein, TRF2, for maintaining chromosome stability. In addition to its ability to modulate DNA repair activities, TRF2 also has direct effects on DNA structure and topology. Given that mammalian telomeric chromatin includes nucleosomes, we investigated the effect of this protein on chromatin structure. TRF2 bound to reconstituted telomeric nucleosomal fibers through both its basic N-terminus and its C-terminal DNA binding domain. Analytical agarose gel electrophoresis (AAGE studies showed that TRF2 promoted the folding of nucleosomal arrays into more compact structures by neutralizing negative surface charge. A construct containing the N-terminal and TRFH domains together altered the charge and radius of nucleosomal arrays similarly to full-length TRF2 suggesting that TRF2-driven changes in global chromatin structure were largely due to these regions. However, the most compact chromatin structures were induced by the isolated basic N-terminal region, as judged by both AAGE and atomic force microscopy. Although the N-terminal region condensed nucleosomal array fibers, the TRFH domain, known to alter DNA topology, was required for stimulation of a strand invasion-like reaction with nucleosomal arrays. Optimal strand invasion also required the C-terminal DNA binding domain. Furthermore, the reaction was not stimulated on linear histone-free DNA. Our data suggest that nucleosomal chromatin has the ability to facilitate this activity of TRF2 which is thought to be involved in stabilizing looped telomere structures.

  20. Individual differences in AMY1 gene copy number, salivary α-amylase levels, and the perception of oral starch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L Mandel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary α-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in salivary amylase levels with the oral perception of starch has proven difficult. Furthermore, the relationship between copy number variations (CNVs in the AMY1 gene, which influence salivary amylase levels, and starch viscosity perception has not been explored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that saliva containing high levels of amylase has sufficient activity to rapidly hydrolyze a viscous starch solution in vitro. Furthermore, we show with time-intensity ratings, which track the digestion of starch during oral manipulation, that individuals with high amylase levels report faster and more significant decreases in perceived starch viscosity than people with low salivary amylase levels. Finally, we demonstrate that AMY1 CNVs predict an individual's amount and activity of salivary amylase and thereby, ultimately determine their perceived rate of oral starch viscosity thinning. CONCLUSIONS: By linking genetic variation and its consequent salivary enzymatic differences to the perceptual sequellae of these variations, we show that AMY1 copy number relates to salivary amylase concentration and enzymatic activity level, which, in turn, account for individual variation in the oral perception of starch viscosity. The profound individual differences in salivary amylase levels and salivary activity may contribute significantly to individual differences in dietary starch intake and, consequently, to overall nutritional status.

  1. Induction of a peptide with activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens in the Aedes aegypti salivary gland, following Infection with Dengue Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthanej Luplertlop

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate stage of the transmission of Dengue Virus (DENV to man is strongly dependent on crosstalk between the virus and the immune system of its vector Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Infection of the mosquito's salivary glands by DENV is the final step prior to viral transmission. Therefore, in the present study, we have determined the modulatory effects of DENV infection on the immune response in this organ by carrying out a functional genomic analysis of uninfected salivary glands and salivary glands of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV. We have shown that DENV infection of salivary glands strongly up-regulates the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in the vector's innate immune response, including the immune deficiency (IMD and Toll signalling pathways, and that it induces the expression of the gene encoding a putative anti-bacterial, cecropin-like, peptide (AAEL000598. Both the chemically synthesized non-cleaved, signal peptide-containing gene product of AAEL000598, and the cleaved, mature form, were found to exert, in addition to antibacterial activity, anti-DENV and anti-Chikungunya viral activity. However, in contrast to the mature form, the immature cecropin peptide was far more effective against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and, furthermore, had strong anti-parasite activity as shown by its ability to kill Leishmania spp. Results from circular dichroism analysis showed that the immature form more readily adopts a helical conformation which would help it to cause membrane permeabilization, thus permitting its transfer across hydrophobic cell surfaces, which may explain the difference in the anti-pathogenic activity between the two forms. The present study underscores not only the importance of DENV-induced cecropin in the innate immune response of Ae. aegypti, but also emphasizes the broad-spectrum anti-pathogenic activity of the immature, signal peptide-containing form of this peptide.

  2. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  3. Prognostic significance of p53 immunohistochemical expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglin; Huang, Ping; Zheng, Chuanming; Wang, Jiafeng; Ge, Minghua

    2017-04-25

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands is a rare adenocarcinoma and has been placed in "high-risk" category as poor long-term prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate p53 protein expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Literatures were searched from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science, which investigated the relationships between p53 expression and pathological type, clinical stage, local recurrence, metastasis, nerve infiltration and overall survival. A total of 1,608 patients from 36 studies were included in the analysis. The results showed that p53-postive expression rate was 49% in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands (OR=10.34, 95%CI: 4.93-21.71, P salivary glands. It can be considered as the auxiliary detection index in treatment and prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

  4. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Backes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U • ml-1 and high intensity (284 ± 30 U • ml-1 as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U • ml-1 and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug • dL -1 as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug • dL -1 and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 . This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption.

  5. Salivary function after pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bågesund, Mats

    2000-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the oral long-term complications that most affect the quality of life among long-term survivors after treatment for malignant diseases. The aims of the studies in this thesis were to examine the effect of pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) conditioning regimens on salivary function, caries-associated microflora, and development of dental caries; define risk factors of salivary dysfunction; evaluate subjective xerostomia; and ...

  6. Symbiont-induced odorant binding proteins mediate insect host hematopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B; Vigneron, Aurélien; Broderick, Nichole A; Wu, Yineng; Sun, Jennifer S; Carlson, John R; Aksoy, Serap; Weiss, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria assist in maintaining homeostasis of the animal immune system. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie symbiont-mediated host immunity are largely unknown. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house maternally transmitted symbionts that regulate the development and function of their host’s immune system. Herein we demonstrate that the obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia, up-regulates expression of odorant binding protein six in the gut of intrauterine tsetse larvae. This process is necessary and sufficient to induce systemic expression of the hematopoietic RUNX transcription factor lozenge and the subsequent production of crystal cells, which actuate the melanotic immune response in adult tsetse. Larval Drosophila’s indigenous microbiota, which is acquired from the environment, regulates an orthologous hematopoietic pathway in their host. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie enteric symbiont-stimulated systemic immune system development, and indicate that these processes are evolutionarily conserved despite the divergent nature of host-symbiont interactions in these model systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19535.001 PMID:28079523

  7. Wolbachia surface protein induces innate immune responses in mosquito cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sofia B; Mariconti, Mara; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Bandi, Claudio; Sinkins, Steven P

    2012-01-18

    Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria are capable of inducing chronic upregulation of insect immune genes in some situations and this phenotype may influence the transmission of important insect-borne pathogens. However the molecules involved in these interactions have not been characterized. Here we show that recombinant Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP) stimulates increased transcription of immune genes in mosquito cells derived from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which is naturally uninfected with Wolbachia; at least two of the upregulated genes, TEP1 and APL1, are known to be important in Plasmodium killing in this species. When cells from Aedes albopictus, which is naturally Wolbachia-infected, were challenged with WSP lower levels of upregulation were observed than for the An. gambiae cells. We have found that WSP is a strong immune elicitor in a naturally Wolbachia-uninfected mosquito species (Anopheles gambiae) while a milder elicitor in a naturally-infected species (Aedes albopictus). Since the WSP of a mosquito non-native (nematode) Wolbachia strain was used, these data suggest that there is a generalized tolerance to WSP in Ae. albopictus.

  8. Wolbachia surface protein induces innate immune responses in mosquito cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Sofia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria are capable of inducing chronic upregulation of insect immune genes in some situations and this phenotype may influence the transmission of important insect-borne pathogens. However the molecules involved in these interactions have not been characterized. Results Here we show that recombinant Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP stimulates increased transcription of immune genes in mosquito cells derived from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which is naturally uninfected with Wolbachia; at least two of the upregulated genes, TEP1 and APL1, are known to be important in Plasmodium killing in this species. When cells from Aedes albopictus, which is naturally Wolbachia-infected, were challenged with WSP lower levels of upregulation were observed than for the An. gambiae cells. Conclusions We have found that WSP is a strong immune elicitor in a naturally Wolbachia-uninfected mosquito species (Anopheles gambiae while a milder elicitor in a naturally-infected species (Aedes albopictus. Since the WSP of a mosquito non-native (nematode Wolbachia strain was used, these data suggest that there is a generalized tolerance to WSP in Ae. albopictus.

  9. Structure and rheological properties of acid-induced egg white protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.; Velde, F. van de; Stijnman, A.; Pijpekamp, A. van de; Visschers, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the rheological properties of acid-induced gels prepared of industrial spray-dried egg white proteins (EWP) with the acid-induced gels prepared of ovalbumin (OA) and whey protein isolate (WPI). Also we aimed to form transparent gels of EWP by means of the cold-gelation process.

  10. Effect of saliva collection methods and oral hygiene on salivary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Allisson Benatti; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Jaramillo, Olga Lucia Bocanegra; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of unstimulated and stimulated saliva collection methods, as well as tooth brushing, on the secretion rate of salivary total protein, nitrite, total antioxidant capacity and alpha-amylase. Saliva of 14 healthy individuals were collected with stimulation using Salivette®, Parafilm® and chewing gum and without stimulation from spit with and without fluid accumulation, before and after oral hygiene. Total protein, nitrite, total antioxidant capacity and alpha-amylase concentration (sAA) were evaluated. The collection of saliva stimulated with Parafilm® and chewing gum increased the salivary flow (1.5 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.7 mL/min, respectively) and the secretion rate of salivary total protein (1.0 ± 0.2 and 2.3 ± 0.5 mg/min, respectively). Also, chewing gum increases the salivary nitrite secretion (213 ± 58 nmol/min) and total antioxidant capacity (410 ± 47 nmol trolox eq/min). Interestingly, the unstimulated method without saliva accumulation prior to collection resulted in low sAA levels (23,531 ± 7979 pixel density). Furthermore, oral hygiene decreased salivary flow (1.3 ± 0.5 to 1.0 ± 0.4 mL/min), reduced the secretion rate of total protein (1.0 ± 0.5 to 0.6 ± 0.2 mg/min, p saliva. Therefore, the evaluation of saliva collection methods and oral hygiene on salivary biomarkers is important for understanding and standardizing variations in salivary composition to strengthen the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

  11. Diet-induced weight loss: the effect of dietary protein on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghua; O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    High-protein (>30% of energy from protein or >1.2 g/kg/day) and moderately high-protein (22% to 29% of energy from protein or 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day) diets are popular for weight loss, but the effect of dietary protein on bone during weight loss is not well understood. Protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss by stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent bone anabolism stimulator, and increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Protein-induced acidity is considered to have minimal effect on bone resorption in adults with normal kidney function. Both the quantity and predominant source of protein influence changes in bone with diet-induced weight loss. Higher-protein, high-dairy diets may help attenuate bone loss during weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. N-Terminal-Based Targeted, Inducible Protein Degradation in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Sekar

    Full Text Available Dynamically altering protein concentration is a central activity in synthetic biology. While many tools are available to modulate protein concentration by altering protein synthesis rate, methods for decreasing protein concentration by inactivation or degradation rate are just being realized. Altering protein synthesis rates can quickly increase the concentration of a protein but not decrease, as residual protein will remain for a while. Inducible, targeted protein degradation is an attractive option and some tools have been introduced for higher organisms and bacteria. Current bacterial tools rely on C-terminal fusions, so we have developed an N-terminal fusion (Ntag strategy to increase the possible proteins that can be targeted. We demonstrate Ntag dependent degradation of mCherry and beta-galactosidase and reconfigure the Ntag system to perform dynamic, exogenously inducible degradation of a targeted protein and complement protein depletion by traditional synthesis repression. Model driven analysis that focused on rates, rather than concentrations, was critical to understanding and engineering the system. We expect this tool and our model to enable inducible protein degradation use particularly in metabolic engineering, biological study of essential proteins, and protein circuits.

  13. Training-induced changes in membrane transport proteins of human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C.

    2006-01-01

    that the same type of training affects many transport proteins, suggesting that all transport proteins increase with training, and that both sprint and endurance training in humans increase the density of most membrane transport proteins. There seems to be an upper limit for these changes: intense training......Training improves human physical performance by inducing structural and cardiovascular changes, metabolic changes, and changes in the density of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the training-induced changes in proteins involved in sarcolemmal membrane transport. It is concluded...... for 6-8 weeks substantially increases the density of membrane proteins, whereas years of training (as performed by athletes) have no further effect. Studies suggest that training-induced changes at the protein level are important functionally. The underlying factors responsible for these changes...

  14. Enzyme-induced aggregation of whey proteins with Bacillus licheniformis protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins are commonly used as ingredient in food. In relation with the gelation properties of whey proteins, this thesis deals with understanding the mechanism of peptide-induced aggregation of whey protein hydrolysates made with Bacillus licheniformis protease (BLP). The results show that BLP

  15. Heat-induced whey protein isolate fibrils: Conversion, hydrolysis, and disulphide bond formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.; Vasbinder, A.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2007-01-01

    Fibril formation of individual pure whey proteins and whey protein isolate (WPI) was studied. The heat-induced conversion of WPI monomers into fibrils at pH 2 and low ionic strength increased with heating time and protein concentration. Previous studies, using a precipitation method, size-exclusion

  16. Dietary Protein Deficiency Induces Osteoporosis in Aged Male Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourrin, S; Toromanoff, A; Ammann, P; Bonjour, J. P; Rizzoli, R

    2000-01-01

    ...). To evaluate the selective influence of a low‐protein diet in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in males and to uncover early and late adaptation of bone cells to protein deficiency, 8‐month...

  17. Current ideas to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A; van Luijk, P; Langendijk, J A; Coppes, R P

    Radiation-induced hyposalivation is still a major problem after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Current and promising new thoughts to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary gland tissue are explored. The main cause underlying radiation-induced hyposalivation is a lack of functional

  18. Protein phosphorylation associated with epipodophyllotoxin-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells: role of a serine/threonine protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X; Mody, N S; Hingley, S T; Coffman, F D; Cohen, S; Fresa, K L

    1998-11-01

    We have previously shown that apoptosis induced in thymocytes by dexamethasone or teniposide (VM-26) could be inhibited by 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7) and sangivamycin, both relatively specific inhibitors for protein kinase C, but not by N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA1004), a more specific inhibitor for cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Apoptosis in this model system was not blocked by EGTA and no increase in cytosolic Ca2+ was observed during apoptosis induced by either dexamethasone or VM-26, suggesting that this kinase was Ca2+-independent. In the present study, we demonstrate that addition of 10 microM sangivamycin to thymocyte cultures up to 2 h after addition of either inducer resulted in virtually complete inhibition of apoptosis. Addition of 10 microM sangivamycin at 3 or 4 h after addition of inducer resulted in partial inhibition of apoptosis. Computerized image analysis of two-dimensional PAGE analyses of whole-cell lysates demonstrated that treatment of mouse thymocytes with VM-26 resulted in a limited number of de novo phosphorylation events within 1 h of treatment. The most prominent phosphorylation events associated with VM-26-induced apoptosis were that two intracellular protein species (Protein 1: m.w. = 22.9 kDa, pI, 5.11; and Protein 2: m.w. = 22.9 kDa, pI, 4.98). Similar phosphorylation events were seen in cells treated with dexamethasone. Finally, Western blot analysis suggests that de novo protein phosphorylation induced by VM-26 is on serine/threonine residues. These results provide further evidence that the mechanism of VM-26-induced apoptosis of murine thymocytes involves the action of one or more serine/threonine kinases. Copyright 1998 Acad